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Snack Foods From Fruits and Vegetables

Snack Foods From Fruits and Vegetables

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SNACKS FROM SQUASH Eating between meals is a common habit among us. Squash is a good snack rich in Vitamin A and contains calcium, phosphorus and iron. This becomes attractive snacks for the young when served in different ways. A. SQUASH CUCHINTA Materials: 1 cup mashed boiled squash 3/4 cup brown sugar 3/4 cup all purpose flour, shifted 1 cup water 1 teaspoon lye Procedure: 1. Dissolve the sugar in water and boil, allow to cool. 2. Add the flour little by little. 3. Add the squash, keep on stirring until it becomes fine in texture. 4. Shift. 5. Add the lye, stir. 6. Put the mixture in molds, with allowance of a little space from the rim. 7. Cook in double boiler for 20 minutes. A. SQUASH MAJA Materials: 1 cup cornstarch 3 cups coconut milk (second extraction) 1 cup coconut milk (first extraction) 1 1/2 cups squash, boiled and mashed 1/4 teaspoon vanilla Procedure: 1. Mix cornstarch and 1 cup coconut milk (second extraction) 2. Mix the 2 cups more. 3. Add coconut milk (first extraction), squash, sugar, and vanilla. Mix thoroughly and pass through a sieve. 4. Cook over low fire, continually mixing until it becomes thick. 5. Put in molds, let cool. 6. Put "budbud" on top when served. To prepare budbud: 1/3 cup sugar for every 1 cup coconut meal. Roast in carajay until golden brown. A. SQUASH JELLY Materials: 1 cup mashed boiled squash 1 cup mashed boiled gabi 1/2 cup white sugar

1/3 cup condensed milk 1/4 tsp. vanilla 1 tbsp. butter 1 tbsp. butter for lining molds Procedure: 1. Sieve the squash and gabi until a fine paste is attained. 2. Mix them together with sugar. 3. Cook in low fire, continually stirring to prevent scorching. 4. When thick, add condensed milk and vanilla, keep on stirring until the desired consistency is attained. 5. Add the butter, keep on stirring until the surface is smooth and glossy. 6. Line the inside walls of the molds with butter, then … 7. Put the mixture in the molds. D. SQUASH MACAROONS Materials: 1/2 cup butter 4 eggs 1/3 cup white sugar 1/2 pack dessicated coconut 2 tsp. vanilla 3/4 cup grated squash Procedure: 1. Cream the butter until light and fluffy. 2. Add the sugar gradually while stirring. 3. Add eggs one by one constantly stirring after adding each egg. 4. Add the condensed milk. 5. Add the dessicated coconut, squash, vanilla and mix well. 6. Put in muffin molds lined with paper or aluminum foil. 7. Cook in oven at 350°C for half an hour. E. KALCOSUMAN (Squash Suman) Materials: 1/2 cup malagkit rice 2 cups grated squash 1 1/2 cups ordinary rice 1/3 cup latik 3/4 cup coconut milk (second extraction) 1 1/2 cups sugar banana leaves string Procedure: 1. Soak overnight: rice and malagkit and grind on the following day. 2. Soak the ground rice and malagkit in coconut milk until soft. 3. Add the sugar and squash. 4. Cook over low fire, constantly stirring until thick. Cool. 5. Prepare the leaves for wrapping by heating over low fire. Brush the leaves with butter. 6. Put two tablespoonful of the mixture in every wrap, put latik on top of each before closing. 7. Tie with string and cook for half an hour in a double boiler container. Source: FNRI-DOST KALABASA PAN DE SAL Materials: 12% flour from squash 88% ordinary flour, yeast, salt (pinch), oil and sugar as in ordinary bread Procedure: 1. Melt the yeast in warm water and leave it for 8-10 minutes

2. Mix together: squash flour, ordinary flour and oil. Beat with a Hobart mixer (speed 2) for 6 minutes while adding sugar and salt. Leave it for one-half hour. 3. Knead the dough and roll to form pieces of pandesal. 4. Put in oven and cook like ordinary bread. Source: NSDB Completed Researches

Materials: Squash, Corn flour, Oil, Sugar or Salt, Flavoring Procedure: 1. Peel the squash, cut into fine pieces. 2. Steam and grind. 3. Mix squash and corn flour in the following proportions: 7 parts squash (70%) 3 parts corn (30%) 4. Add flavoring and sugar or salt. 5. Steam for 15 minutes. 6. Pass through a noodle machine at 1.2 cm. chips. 7. Dry the resulting chips on a forced draft at 65°C-70°C for 2 1/2 hours. This will last for six weeks if packed in plastic bags and ten weeks if packed in laminated packs. Source: FNRI, DOST NUTRITIOUS CRUNCHIES Growing children are naturally restless and move a lot because they are full of energy. The parts of their body are developing, they need more energy giving foods to meet their needs for development and to replace the energy they spend. Supplementing corn with munggo gives much of the energy they need. This is enriched with Vitamins A and B. Materials: 5 1/4 cups corn flour (800 gms) 1 3/4 cups munggo flour (200 gms.) 5 cups water (about 900ml. or less than 1 liter) 2 cups cooking oil and flavoring (cheese or barbecue) and vitamins Procedure: 1. Grind corn and munggo separately. 2. Mix them together. 3. Add the vitamins and water, knead until smooth. 4. Put the dough into aluminum molds at 1.3 cm thick. 5. Steam for 20 minutes. 6. Let the dough pass through a slicer at 2 cm thick and desired shapes. 7. Dry in the oven at 60°C -65°C for 2 hours or under the sun. 8. Deep fry in oil until golden brown. 9. Put in pan and sprinkle with flavoring. 10. Seal in plastic bags, serve when desired. IRON-ENRICHED CRUNCHIES In order to meet the iron need of growing children, pregnant women, and nursing mothers, this "nutri-crunch" is enriched with blood of animals (chicken, hog or cow). Materials: 800 gms. rice flour 150 gms. skimmed milk 50 gms. powdered animal blood 20 gms. sugar 15 gms. salt 60 gms. barbecure flavor 700 ml. water and cooking oil Procedure: To prepare powdered blood:

1. Collect clean blood in a container. Keep it free from flies and dust. 2. Spread the blood evenly over the aluminum pan at 3 1/2 cm thick. 3. Steam for 10-20 minutes (until the blood coagulates). 4. Grind or powder fine. 5. Put the ground blood in a dryer, cover with muslin or sinamay. 6. Dry in the oven 60°C or under the sun until it is crispy; turn every one hour. 7. Powder or grind the blood. Procedure for crispy crunchies: 1. Powder the rice, mix it with the powdered blood and flavoring. 2. Add water and knead it until it becomes dough. 3. Spread on aluminum pan about 1 1/2 cm thick. 4. Steam for 20 minutes. 5. Cut into desired sizes and shapes. 6. Dry in the oven or under the sun until crispy. 7. Deep fry in oil until the crunchies bloat. 8. Add artificial flavor to the crunchies, shake until the flavor is evenly distributed. 9. Seal in plastic bags. Source: FNRI, DOST RICE BRAN IN PLACE OF FLOUR DOST researchers have tried mixing rice bran with flour instead of using flour alone for bread and snacks, in efforts to increase the vitamin intake of children. Procedure: 1. Shift the rice bran (very fine). 2. Mix 10%, 20%, or 30% rice bran with flour to make spritz cookies, lemon snap cookies, polvoron cookies or oatmeal cookies. The taste and color of the snacks may be somewhat revealing, but it is acceptable in general. CASSAVA FLOUR There are two ways of making cassava flour: A. 1. Cut into thin pieces the peeled root crop. 2. Place in a basin of water. 3. Spread the thin pieces on a tray to dry under the sun or in a solar dryer. 4. Grind the dried cassava and sieve fine. 5. Seal in a container with a tight cover. B. 1. Clean the root crop, peel off the outer skin. 2. Grate and squeeze out the juice. 3. Spread the grated (squeezed) cassava on a tray to dry under the sun or in a solar dryer. 4. Grind fine dried cassava and sieve. 5. Keep in a container with tight cover.

Materials: 1/2 kilo grated cassava 3 grams vetsin 1/2 gram barbecue spice 1/2 gram black pepper 5 1/2 grams salt Procedure: 1. Clean the peeled cassava, then grate. 2. Mix together the cassava and all ingredients. Mix well until it becomes a thick paste. 3. Spread thinly and evenly over a banana leaf or aluminum tray. 4. Steam for about 5 minutes. 5. Remove from steamer, place on chopping board and cut into sizes, about 4 x 1 1/2 cm. 6. Remove the sliced pieces and arrange in a perforated tray. 7. Dry under the sun or drier until crispy. 8. Fry (or seal in a plastic bag if not ready to serve).


1 kilo cassava 1 tsp. vetsin 2 1/2 tsp. barbecue spice (for flavoring) tbsp. and 1 pinch salt 9 1/2 cups water Procedure: 1. Wash cassava well, peel and slice very thinly. 2. Soak in 2% salt water with flavoring. 3. Spread on a tray and steam for 5 minutes. 4. Dry in a solar drier at 60°C for 5 hours. 5. Seal in plastic bags until ready for frying before serving. CASSAVA SHRIMP STICK Materials: 1/2 cup all purpose flour 1/2 cup grated cassava 2 tbsp. sugar 1 tsp. baking powder 1/4 tsp. salt 5 tsp. powdered dried shrimp 2 tsp. oil 1 pinch sodium bicarbonate 2 cups water Procedure: 1. Wash cassava, peel and grate. 2. Remove excess juice. 3. Mix together in a bowl all the dry ingredients. 4. Add cassava and 2 tbsp. oil. Mix well. 5. With the aid of 2 knives, cut the dough fine into sizes like mongo seeds. 6. Add water and knead well. 7. Spread the flour on the board and flatten the dough with aid of a rolling pin. If necessary, add more flour to facilitate dough flattening. 8. Cut up the flattened dough into thin sizes shape into rolls similar to cigarette sticks. 9. Arrange them in a baking pan and cook in oven. 10. Remove the baking pan and cool. 11. Remove the "sticks" from the pan with the aid of a knife. 12. Seal in a plastic bag and label or serve. CASSAVA BUTTER CAKE Materials: 1 3/4 cups cassava flour 2 tsp. baking powder 1/4 cup powdered munggo 1/2 tsp. vanilla 1 cup sugar 1 cup diluted milk 1/2 cup magarine 1. eggs Procedure: 1. Sieve the cassava flour and baking powder together. 2. Cream margarine in a big bowl until fine. 3. Gradually add sugar with constant stirring. 4. Add alternately and little by little, ----beaten egg yolk ----cassava flour ----munggo flour ----baking powder and milk 5. Mix well, stirring in one direction only. 6. Beat the eggwhites until fluffy and stiff, and;

7. Add little by little to the mixture. 8. Put mixture in pan and cook in oven at 307°C for 25-30 minutes. 9. Remove from oven and cool. Serve. Source: FNRI, DOST CASSAVA COCONUT COOKIES Materials: 2 1/2 cups wheat flour 2 cups dessicated coconut 2 1/2 cups cassava flour 2 eggs 1/2 cup sugar 5 tbsps. baking powder 1 cup butter or margarine Procedure: 1. Sieve together flour and baking powder. 2. Add dessicated coconut. 3. Cream butter in a separate bowl. 4. Add sugar and egg gradually to the creamed butter. 5. Add flour and baking powder and knead well until a soft dough is formed. 6. Shape the dough into balls. 7. Grease the tray with oil or margarine (about 5 gms.). 8. Flatten the balls with the aid of a fork and arrange on the tray. 9. Bake in pre-heated oven until golden brown. 10. Remove tray from oven. Detach cookies while hot to keep them from sticking to the pan. 11. Cool, serve or seal in a plastic bag. Source: Development Forum, June 1988, v.4, no.2 PAN DE SAL WITH CAMOTE In a study conducted at UP Los Baños, it was seen that pan de sal made from powdered camote, soybean and sorghum is more palatable, cheaper and more healthful than pan de sal made from flour alone. Two proportions were tried: A. 10% camote flour 10% soybean 80% all-purpose flour This contains 12.25 gms. protein with 600 cal./100 gms. B. 10% sorghum flour 10% soybean flour 80% all-purpose flour This contains 14.26 gms. protein with 57.04 cal./100 gms. To make powdered camote, see procedure for cassava powder. Source: Farming Today, Feb. 1981 HOW TO PREPARE TAMALES Tamales is one of traditional specialties served during parties. This was introduced into the Philippines by the Spaniards and became a special delicacy. Materials: For 6-8 pieces tamales 3 1/2 cups powdered rice 3 tbsps. Atsuete seeds 6 cups coconut milk 12 pcs. banana leaves or aluminum foil, 10" x 12" 1 cup brown sugar, salt, pepper for flavoring 2 pcs. children breast, boiled and cut into 1/2" pieces 1 cup ground roasted peanuts 2 cups boiled peanuts 1/2 kilo pork loin, cut into 1/2" pieces

2 boiled eggs, sliced 1/2 kilo cooked, shelled shrimps 1/2 kilo cooked ham, cut into 1/2" pieces Procedure: 1. Soak the atsuete seeds in 1/2 cup water. Macerate (with fingers) and let stand for 1/2 hour; strain and set aside the juice. 2. Mix together coconut milk, rice, sugar, salt and pepper. 3. Cook mixture in low fire for 25 minutes with constant stirring so as not to allow sticking on the pan. 4. Add the ground roasted peanuts and cook further for about 8 minutes, and stirring constantly. 5. Set aside one-half of mixture in a container. This is the regular mixture. 6. Add the atsuete juice to the remaining half, cook for 5 minutes while stirring constantly. This is the (colored) red mixture. 7. On a banana leaf (or tin foil) put 3 tbsp. of the regular mixture forming a 3inch square shape. 8. Put on top the square pieces of chicken, pork, ham, egg and peanut. 9. Cover with 3 tbsp., red mixture, wrap in banana leaves or tin foil. About 68 pieces can be made from the mixture. 10. Arrange in a kettle and steam for 20 minutes. Source: Natural History, July 1, 1990 HOW TO COOK SIOPAO To make the dough: Materials: 4 1/2 cups flour 3 tbsp. oil 1 1/4 cups warm water 1 tbsp. baking powder 3/4 cup sugar 2 tsp. yeast 1/4 tsp. salt Utensils: Mixing bowl Wide board for making dough Square pieces of paper for each siopao Procedure: 1. Dissolve the yeast and sugar in the warm water; set aside for 10-15 minutes. 2. 2. Mix together sugar, salt, oil in the mixing bowl. 3. Add the dissolved yeast and half of the flour. Mix well. 3. 4. Add more the remaining flour and mix well. 4. 5. Knead the dough on the kneading board until smooth and fine. 5. 6. Make a big ball from the dough and put in the bowl lined with oil. Apply oil also on the top of the dough. 6. 7. Cover and let the dough rise within 30-40 minutes. 7. 8. Flatten the dough, cut and make small balls. Let rise. 8. 9. Flatten the balls, put 1 tbsp. filling in each and close. Put the ball on the square sheet of paper to keep it from sticking to the bottom of the pan. 9. 10. Steam the balls for 10-15 minutes, depending on the size of the balls. Filling: 1. Saute the garlic, onion, sliced pork or chicken. 2. Put in the beans, soy and a little water. 3. Before removing from the fire, pour in the dissolved flour for thickening. Stir well. MONGO KROPECK To provide increased nutrients in the snacks of children, the addition of mongo flour has been tried and found acceptable. Materials:

5 cups rice flour 2 1/2 cups mungo flour 2 cups oil or lard 1 1/2 tbsp. flavoring (cheese or barbecue) 2/3 cup water Procedure: 1. Separately, grind rice and mongo to make flour. 2. Mix them together and add water and salt. Mix well until it becomes a soft dough. 3. Spread the dough in an aluminum container about 1 cm. thick. 4. Cook in a double boiler for about 15 minutes. 5. Slice according to desired sizes or about 2 cm. each. 6. Dry in the sun until brittle. 7. Deep fry in boiling oil until crispy. 8. Sprinkle flavoring and shake well. 9. Serve or store in plastic bags. Seal. From: FNRI (DOST) SOYBEAN KROPECK Procedure: (The procedure is similar to other kinds of kropeck) 1. Add rice powder, water and salt to the sapal of the milk from soybean. 2. 2. Mix well until a fine paste is attained. 3. 3. Spread over aluminum trays and steam for 15 minutes. Cool. 4. 4. Cut into desired sizes. 5. 5. Dry in the sun or heat in a cabinet dryer at 70°C for 3 hours or until dried. 6. 6. Deep fry in oil. 7. 7. Brush artificial flavoring on the kropeck. 8. 8. Serve or seal in plastic bags. Source: ITDI, DOST TAHO FROM SOYBEAN Materials: 3 cups mature and newly harvested soybeans 2 bars white gulaman 3 cups brown sugar strainer (muslin or nylon cloth) Procedure: 1. Soak soybeans overnight in water 3 times its volume. 9. 2. Remove outer covering, grind; add water little by little (at least 6 cups) while grinding. 3. Dissolve 2 bars gulaman in boiling water (7 cups). 4. Pour the ground soybean in boiling gulaman for 7 minutes or until the odor grains is removed. 5. Set aside until it coagulates. 6. Serve with syrup. Syrup is prepared as follows: 3 cups sugar is dissolved in 3 cups water. The sugar may be caramelized to improve color and flavor. Source: The Philippine Recommends for Soybean, PCARRD 1991 TAHO FROM COCONUT MILK Instead of soybeans, coconut milk may be used with gulaman in making taho. Procedure: 1. Mix pure coconut milk with equal volume of water and heat. 2. In a container, dissolve 1/4 gulaman bar in water, boil. 3. Strain the dissolved gulaman and coconut milk. 4. Heat and stir continuously for at least 20 minutes. 5. Pour into molds and allow to cool and harden. To make syrup: Dissolve 2 cups brown sugar in one cup water. Heat until thick.

Source: ITDI, DOST SOYBEAN MILK Materials: 1 cup soybeans 3 cups water for cooking Procedure: 1. Soak soybeans overnight. Rinse, drain. 2. Boil in water for 1/2 hour. 3. Drain, grind fine. 4. Add 3 cups water. 5. Strain to extract juice. 6. Boil for at least 15 minutes. SOYBEAN COFFEE Soybean "coffee" is a recommended substitute for real coffee for consumers with heart ailments. Procedure: 1. Clean the grains, remove foreign particles. 2. Roast in a frying pan for 30 minutes in low fire or until half brown in color. 3. Grind or pound finely. 4. Cook as ordinary coffee. CHEESE FROM POWDERED MILK AND COCONUT MILK (Contains 12% - 14% protein) Materials: 1 2/3 cups skim milk powder 6 1/2 cups water 1 1/2 cups coconut milk (first and second extraction) 4 tbsp. salt 1 1/3 tsp. coagulant (DTRI-IFS-6 milk coagulant) This can be made by soaking in hot water a piece of the cow's abomasum (available at slaughterhouses) or crude rennet extract -- 20 cc. in 1 tbsp. vinegar. Utensils: Casserole or container (with 2-liter capacity), thermometer, stirrer, dipper, knife, perforated tray, muslin cloth, banana leaves or cut-wrap paper. Procedure: 1. Put the powdered milk in casserole and put water little by little until dissolved. 2. Add coconut milk and salt, stir well. 3. Heat to 75°C, stir slowly. 4. Cool container with milk in a vessel with water to cool until it is 38°C-40°C. 5. Put coagulant and stir for a minute. 6. Cover container and set aside for 40-50 minutes or until it has hardened and can be sliced. 7. Cut into 1" x 1" pcs., set aside for 10 minutes. 8. Drain the yellowish green filtrate but take care not to disturb the coagulated cheese. 9. Stir a little more the coagulated cheese to draw out more water (until 1 1/2 liter in all). 10. Put the coagulated milk in the perforated tray or mold with muslin linings. Make the thickness even, cover with muslin cloth and let it drain some more for 1 to 2 hours. If a harder cheese is desired, put in the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator overnight to draw out more water. Source: Greenfields, October 1983, v.13 SWEETS AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES MANGO JAM/CANDY

In preparing mango jam, don't use metal utensils like knife, casserole or other similar metal containers of the jam produced. Procedure: 1. Wash ripe mangoes, slice and scrape the flesh. 2. Blend in a blender and pass through a course strainer. 3. For every 2 cups mango, add 1 cup sugar. 4. Cook in a heavy aluminum casserole or frying pan and keep on stirring until thick. Cool. 5. Keep in jars that had been sterilized. For Candy: Add more sugar (1 1/2-2 cups for every 2 cups mango) and stir until thick. Cool. Form into desired size and shape, then roll on confectioner's sugar. Wrap in cellophane. DRIED SWEET MANGO "Pico" mango has been found to be the best source for mango candy. Ingredients: Materials: Mangoes (rare-ripe) Weighing scale Sugar Stainless steel knife Confectioner's sugar Stainless steel spoon Sodium metabisulfite Cheesecloth Procedure: 1. Wash rare ripe mangoes. 2. Peel and slice lengthwise, evenly thin. 3. Boil syrup and stir for 10 to 15 minutes. (1 cup sugar to 1 cup water and add 0.2% sodium metabisulfite as preservative) 4. Add fruit slices. 5. Set aside, cover it, soak it overnight. 6. Drain fruit slices from syrup. 7. Boil syrup again and add 1/2 cup sugar and stir it for 10-15 minutes and soak again the fruit slices overnight. 8. Drain and wash fruit slices with clean water. 9. Dry in a cabinet dryer with a temperature of 60°C for 8-10 hours. 2. Sweat in ordinary plastic bags for 18-24 hours. 10. Roll in confectioner's sugar. 3. 11. Pack in polypropylene plastic with .003 thickness. Weigh. MANGO CHUTNEY Materials: 4 cups sliced semi-ripe mangoes 1/2 pc. Ginger 1 small box raisins 1. pc. Garlic 2 cups vinegar 8 pcs. native onions 3 cups brown sugar 2 pcs. peppers 4 tbsp. table salt Utensils: Stainless knife stove Enamel bowl dipper Measuring cup jars Casserole chopping board Procedure: 1. Choose same sizes of mangoes, wash well. 2. Peel and divide into two, remove seeds. 3. Slice the mangoes lengthwise, about 1/4 inch thick. 4. Place in jars, sprinkle with table salt, set aside overnight. 5. Drain the mango. 6. Boil the vinegar and sugar. 7. Add the flavoring spices and heat more for 5 minutes. 8. Add the sliced mango, cook until the combined mixtures of sugar, vinegar and other remaining ingredients become thick in consistency.

9. Transfer into sterilized jars and cover. 10. Cool with cover upside down. Source: ITDI, DOST PRESERVED GREEN MANGO/CAMIAS Procedure: 1. 1. Slice green mangoes, wash well. 2. Sprinkle with salt (not more than 10%, not less than 5% in equal 2. amount of water. 3. Let stand overnight. 3. 4. On the next day, add an equal amount of water and set aside for 2 weeks. DRIED SWEET PAPAYA There are places in this country where fruits abound, but there is no way of transporting them to market, thus they become rotten and are wasted away, or are given to hogs. In places where there is an oversupply of papaya for instance, the fruits can be preserved for as long as 10 months. Materials: Half-ripe papaya, 1 kilo Kalamansi juice, 1 tbsp. for every cup of syrup Sodium metabisulfite powder, for every 1/4 tsp.=+ 1 tsp. lime in 4 cups water 1 part sugar for 2 parts water 1 kilo sugar for every kilo of papaya Procedure: 1. Peel the half-ripe papaya and remove seeds, wash. 2. Slice into pieces, about 12 x 4 cm. 3. Arrange in nylon or sinamay and steam for 5-6 minutes. 4. Soak overnight in lime-metabisulfite solution. 5. Drain. 6. Soak the papaya overnight in hot syrup with calamansi. 7. Next day, drain the syrup and add 1 1/2 cups more sugar. 8. Soak again overnight the papaya in hot syrup. 9. Repeat nos. 7, 8 & 9 for three more days. 10. Drain and rinse. 11. Arrange in trays and put in oven at 65°C-70°C for 16-18 hours, or dry in the sun until it becomes tough. 12. Keep in plastic bags, seal. Source: FNRI, DOST PRUNES FROM BALIMBING Materials: 2 kilos balimbing 1 kilo brown sugar salt, toyo 1 tbsp. lime in 1 gal. water Procedure: 1. Choose balimbing fruits that are firm; wash. 2. Slice lengthwise into four parts. 3. Soak in water with lime overnight. 4. Wash next day in running water. 5. Boil in water for 5 minutes. 6. Add the brown sugar, boil for an hour. 7. Add the salt and toyo. 8. Drain. 9. Dry under the sun. 10. Cool, pack in plastic bags, seal. Source: PCARRD, Monitor, September 1989 TOMATO CANDY In summer time, tomatoes abound. Thus, it is good to preserve them for future use especially when they are not in season. One of the ways of preserving them is by making candy.

Materials: Ripe, red tomatoes with thick flesh White sugar Jars Procedure: 1. Wash, blanch in hot water and peel. 2. Slice crosswise in the middle, remove seeds. 3. Add sugar in the same volume as tomatoes and leave overnight. 4. Boil in low fire until the tomatoes become clear. 5. Drain the syrup. 6. Spread the candy on a tray and dry under the sun or in an oven (cabinet dryer) until almost dry. 7. Roll over white sugar and dry again until crispy. 8. Wrap each in cellophane or place in plastic bags or jars. Seal. Source: Food Technology Research and Development Program, ITDI, DOST. PINEAPPLE CANDY Materials: 1 pineapple (moderate size) 4 cups sugar Utensils: Casserole/karajay Solar drier Chopping board Spoon Measuring cup Sieve Knife Candle Stove Tray Cellophane/Plastic bags Procedure: 1. Peel the pineapple, remove eyes, core and wash. 2. Slice into cubes. 3. Prepare the syrup, 2 parts sugar to 1 part water. 4. Boil the pineapple in the syrup for 20 minutes. 5. Soak in syrup overnight. 6. Strain and wash well in water. 7. Dry in solar drier for 16-20 hours. Cool. 8. Roll over sugar and wrap in cellophane. 9. Put in plastic bags; seal open end of bag with the flame of a candle. Source: NSTA Appropriate Technology Program PINEAPPLE JUICE Choose good ripe pineapples, not bruised or over ripe. Procedure: 1. Slice into small pieces, extract the juice. 2. For every liter of juice, to avoid molds, add 1/2 per cent sodium benzoate 3 grams citric acid Sugar may be added if desired. 3. Heat at 80°C for 5 minutes, constantly stirring. 4. Put in jars or containers while still hot. 1. Heat in double boiler for 15 minutes. Cool. This can also be done with sugarcane juice. Source: ITDI, DOST NATA DE PIÑA Procedure: 1. Choose ripe pineapples, wash well, peel, slice into small pieces. 2. Grind or chop; extract juice by slightly squeezing using the hands. 3. Add an equal amount of water to the chopped pineapple.

4. For every 5 cups of pineapple and water, add 1/2 cup mother liquor. 5. Pour into wide-mouthed jars, fill up to 1/3 full. 6. Cover jars with paper, set aside for 3 weeks to let the nata grow, then harvest when it is ready. 7. Wash the nata well, slice into cubes. 8. Soak in water for 2 days, change water several times. 9. Boil in water about 3 times to remove mold and taste of vinegar. 10. Drain and add sugar equal in amount as the weight of nata and stir well. Soak overnight. 11. Drain for 10 minutes, add flavoring. 12. Put in preserving jars and sterilize in boiling water for 25 minutes. 13. After removing nata from the jar, add one cup water to the jar. Cover and let the nata grow again. This will provide 4 or 5 harvests. Source: PCARRD-DA Farmnews. March-April 1991 SWEET POMELO RIND Procedure: To remove bitter/pungent taste. 1. Boil in water for 15 minutes, change water 3 times. 2. Soak the rind in 2% salt water overnight. 3. Soak the rind in syrup; add sugar to the syrup every 3 hours. 4. Boil in the last thick syrup for 3 minutes. 5. Rinse in boiling water. Drain. The resulting candy is green. Source: Selected R & D Completed Projects, NSTA 1982 SWEET CALAMANSI RIND Procedure: 1. Boil the calamansi rind for 10 minutes. 2. Separate the pulp from the peelings. 3. Soak in 3% salt water for 24 hours. 4. Boil for 10 minutes, change water 2 times. 5. Soak in syrup while adding sugar little by little (35°-65° Briz). Add sugar up to 10°Bx every 3 hours. 6. To make the rind glossy, boil in the last thickness of syrup for 10 minutes. 7. Rinse in boiling water, drain. 8. Dry the rind in an oven for 2 hours at 54.4°C or until the moisture reaches 16%. The color of this candy is green or olive-green. It is soft and has the taste of calamansimenthol. Source: Selected R & D Completed Projects, NSTA 1982 CHAYOTE CANDY Materials: 1 kilo chayote 1/2 tsp. lime 1/2 cup sugar Procedure: 1. Wash, peel the chayote, remove core and slice lengthwise. 2. Dissolve 1/2 tsp. lime in 4 1/2 cups water and soak the chayote in it for 3 hours. 3. Drain, put in boiling water for 5 minutes, drain again. 4. Put 1/2 cup sugar (for every kilo of chayote). Soak overnight, then drain next day. 5. Put again 1/2 cup sugar, boil and soak the chayote in it. 6. Drain, put the chayote in hot water. 7. Add again 1/4 cup sugar to the syrup and boil until thick. 8. Soak the chayote in the syrup for a few days. 9. Drain, add hot water.

10. Let dry. Cool, pack in plastic bag, seal. Source: NSTA Projects, 1982 GUAVA JELLY Materials: Utensils: Mature guava Aluminum casserole Calamansi Wooden spoon Sugar Sinamay for straining Denatured alcohol Muslin cloth Measuring cup, jars Procedure: 1. Wash the guavas, remove ends. 2. Slice into small pieces, put in a container with the fruits slightly immersed in water. 3. Boil in low fire until soft for about 12-15 minutes. 4. Wrap in wet muslin cloth, twist the cloth to draw out the juice a little, but not the pulp. 5. Test the pectin content. Put one tablespoon juice in 2 tbsp. denatured alcohol. If it becomes turbid, the pectin content is weak. If it is rich in pectin, it will form solids. 6. To test the acidity, put 1 tbsp. calamansi juice in 8 tbsp. water. If this is too sour, add papaya or melon juice. If not, add some more calamansi juice. 7. Add 1 cup sugar for every cup juice. Stir well to dissolve the sugar. 8. Boil and filter again to remove foreign particles or undissolved sugar. 9. Boil well without stirring until the thickness of jelly is attained. It is jelly if: a. the temperature on top is 104°C-105°C . b. dip a teaspoon into the mixture. If when it is drawn out, the syrup is like fiber. It is already jelly. c. drop 1 1/2 tsp. of the mixture into a glass of water. If the drop falls to the bottom and does not spread, it is jelly. 1. Let the bubbles disappear or filter them out with the help of the sinamay strainer before pouring into jars. 2. Cool a little. Poor dissolved candle on top of the hardened jelly. If the jar is new, the candle is not necessary, as new jars have a rubber lining that seals the jar tightly. 3. Close the jar and store in a cool dark place. Note: Other fruits rich in pectin are: anonas, guayabano, granada, papaya, rimas, banana, santol, chico, sineguelas, and tomato among others. Source: FNRI 1989. DUHAT JUICE Procedure: ( Note: Use only ripe duhat fruits.) 1. Wash the duhat well, measure in cup or glass, put in an equal amount of water. 2. Boil for 15 minutes. 3. Squeeze out the juice by means of a clean cloth bag. 4. Repeat addition of water to the pulp, boil, squeeze. 5. Add first and second extraction together, strain in 3-fold sinamay strainer. 6. Add desired sugar and kalamansi (or ascorbic acid). 7. Boil again, pour into containers while hot. 8. Cover and cool. DUHAT JELLY Procedure: (Note: Use only ripe duhat fruits.) 1. Wash fruits, remove stems. 2. Boil in a little water for about 3 minutes. 3. Remove from fire and mash with a wooden spoon. 4. Put the cooked pulp in a cloth bag, strain. 5. Add a tbsp. calamansi juice and 1 cup sugar for every cup of duhat juice.

6. Stir well to dissolve sugar, strain again. 7. Cook again until all small bubbles disappear and the big bubbles seem to jump out. 8. Remove particles on top and pour into containers. Source: Health & Home, vol. 13(4) ORANGE MARMALADE Materials: Sevilla oranges Sugar 1. Lemon Procedure: 1. Wash the fruits, remove ends, seeds, dirt. 2. Chop the fruits (with peels). 3. Put the chopped pieces (with peels) in a big container, cover with water. The amount of water will not matter because this will be reduced to the desired amount and sweetness. It must reach 105°C. 4. Boil without cover for 20-30 minutes or until the amount has been reduced to 1/3. 5. Heat again. For every more or less one liter, add 1 cup sugar little by little and keep on stirring until the sugar is dissolved. 6. Boil until thick or until 105°C --- when a drop becomes syrupy when placed on a saucer at room temperature. 7. Remove from fire for 5-10 minutes. 8. Stir, pour into jars. See to it that no part of the peel extends out. 9. Pour a little alcohol like brandy or vodka around 1 tsp. on top of the syrup if desired. This will present the growth of the molds that may form between the cover and the marmalade. 10. A screwed cap may also be used when the marmalade has somewhat cooled. Source: A Connoisseurs Guide & Cookbook Simon & Schuster 1991 JUICE FROM THE NATIVE ORANGE Procedure: 1. Select fully ripe and healthy naranghita. 2. Wash, cut crosswise into halves. 3. Extract the juice, strain. 4. Sugar may or may not be added. 5. Heat the juice at 85°C for about 5 minutes, continuously stir. 6. While still hot, pour into bottles that had been sterilized. Leave about 1/2 cm. space from the rim. 7. Cook in a double boiler in low fire for about 10 minutes. 8. Tighten the cap, cool, set aside. Water and sugar are added according to taste. Source: FNRI, DOST GUAYABANO JUICE The manner of making fruit juices is almost similar in all fruits. The only difference is the inclusion of certain additives, or in the manner of preservation. Materials: Utensils: Ripe guayabano Measuring cup and spoon Sugar Jars or can for preserving Calamansi Muslin cloth bag, knife, casserole Procedure: 1. Wash the fruit, peel, remove seeds and core. 2. Slice in 5 cm cubes. 3. Add 1 cup of water for every cup of guayabano juice. 4. Heat at 80°C for 3 minutes. If a thermometer is not available, heat until the fruit is soft and the juice can be extracted easily. 5. Extract the juice by means of the muslin cloth while still hot.

6. Make a second extraction by adding an equal amount of water and mix with the first extraction. 7. Put 1/4 tsp. calamansi juice for every cup of guayabano juice: add sugar to taste. 8. Put in bottles for sterilizing. Heat in a double boiler at 82°C for 15 minutes from the time the water gets hot. 9. Close well and put it in the boiling water for about 10 minutes. 10. Close the bottles well. Label. Source: FNRI 1989 SANTOL CANDY Materials: Santol fruit Utensils: Sugar Aluminum tray, wooden spoon for stirring Lye (commercial flakes bamboo or wire tray casserole (stainless or of sodium hydroxide) porcelain) thermometer, knife Procedure: 1. Wash the santol in running water. 2. Blanch in boiling water for about 3-5 minutes. 3. Dip in 5% lye for 5 minutes in almost boiling temperature (94°C), more or less one cup sodium hydroxide in 3 liters water. 4. Put immediately in running water, scrape off the peels. 5. Slice into pieces, remove seeds. 6. Prepare the syrup --- 1/2 cup sugar for every cup water, and add the santol --- enough to be covered in the container. 7. Boil the santol in this syrup for about 3-5 minutes, soak in the syrup overnight. 8. Remove the syrup. Add 1/2 cup sugar for every 3 cups syrup and boil until thick. 9. Put the santol in this syrup, leave overnight. 10. Repeat this process three times. 11. Remove the santol from this last soaking in syrup and rinse in running water. 12. Spread on a tray and dry in the sun or in a solar drier. 13. Pack in plastic bags before storing. Source: Preserve Foods at Home, FNRI 1989 VITAMIN ENRICHED COCO JAM To enrich the usual coco jam with vitamins, the following proportion is used: 1. parts coconut extract 1 part sugar (brown) 1% Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) 2% - 7% powdered soybean, green peas, chick peas, rice This mixture when cooked, does not last as long as when it is cooked in the traditional way of cooking coco jam, so it should not be stored. Source: Completed R & D Projects, STII, DOST CHEAP SOURCE OF VINEGAR A student from the Panabo Provincial High School (Dean Cabote), as early as 1977, had proven that the stalk of the coconut leaves could yield vinegar. Just as the coconut blossoms can yield tuba because of the elements present in them, so also would the stalk, as the same nutrients are present in the same tree. Procedure: 1. Cut fresh stalks, slice into sizes 10 cm. wide and 1/2 cm thick, about 10 pieces. 2. Boil these in 1 liter water for 10 minutes, cool until lukewarm. 3. Add 10 grams white sugar (about 2 tbsp) and 3 grams yeast (about 1 tsp) 4. Transfer them in a jar and cover with muslin cloth until fermented. 5. After 2 weeks, strain and cook in a double boiler for about 10 minutes.

6. The 800 grams that will remain will be as sour and as aromatic as a 6-weekold vinegar from tuba. Source: Agricultural and Industrial Life VINEGAR FROM RICE WASHINGS Materials: White sugar Yeast Procedure: 1. Strain the second rice washing in a clean cloth. 2. For every cup of rice water, put 3/4 cup white sugar. Stir well to dissolve the sugar. 3. Cook this in a double boiler for 20 minutes. Cool. 4. Transfer in a gallon or jar. 5. Add 1/4 teaspoon yeast for every 4 cups rice water. 6. Allow to ferment in 4-7 days or until bubbles disappear. 7. Filter the alcoholic rice water to separate the yeast. 8. Add vinegar starter (or very strong vinegar): 1 cup for every 4 cups rice water. 9. Age the vinegar in a jar or demijohn. Set it aside for a month or until the desired acidity is attained. 10. Filter and boil in a double boiler before bottling. 1. 11. If a clear vinegar is desired, put 2 beaten eggwhites for every 40 cups vinegar and filter. 2. Source: Selected R & D Projects, NSTA VINEGAR FROM PINEAPPLE JUICE Vinegar can be made from ripe, over ripe or bruised pineapples or even from the peelings. Procedure: 1. Mash the ripe pineapple or parts, add 3 parts water to every one part pineapple. 2. Filter in double muslin cloth. 3. Add 1 1/2 kilo sugar for every 9 liters filtered juice. 4. Boil in low fire (65°C for 20 minutes). Cool. 5. Poor into demijohns or ceramic or enamel containers, add 2 tsp. Fleischmann's yeast. 6. Cover with clean muslin cloth or put loose stopper covered with cotton. 7. Set aside for 4-7 days until bubbles disappear. 8. Filter in clean muslin to remove residues. 9. Boil again at 65°C for 20 minutes. Cool. 10. Add 2 liters vinegar starter (or very strong vinegar). 11. Fill the containers, leave it for a month or until the desired acidity is attained. 12. Filter the vinegar and cook in double boiler (65°C) so as to avoid growth of microorganisms. Transfer to suitable containers. If a clear vinegar is desired, add 2 beaten eggwhites for every 10 liters vinegar solution. Heat until the whites coagulate. Filter. Source: ITDI, DOST VINEGAR FROM BANANA PEELINGS Materials: For every kilo of banana peels (cavendish or saba), add: 3/4 cups sugar 1/4 cups ammonium sulfite vinegar starter (or very strong vinegar) baker's yeast Procedure: 1. Boil the peelings in 4 cups water. 2. Remove the water, filter in muslin cloth. 3. Add the ammonium sulfite and sugar. Cool.

4. Add a pinch of baker's yeast. 5. Allow to ferment for 8 days. Its alcohol content will be 9%-10%. 6. Add a cup of vinegar starter and set the mixture aside. 7. Allow to ferment for 27 days. At this time, its alcohol content will be about 4%-6%. 8. Allow the mixtures to ferment further in bottles. Source: InfoScience, vol. 1, no.3 DIFFERENT USES OF VINEGAR According to researchers, vinegar is used, not only for food but for many other uses as well, such as: 1. To avoid much absorption of oil, put a teaspoon of vinegar in oil when frying. 2. So as to keep potatoes from blackening before boiling, put some drops of vinegar in the boiling water. 3. When cooking eggs out of its shell, put a teaspoon of vinegar in the water so that the eggwhite will not scatter. 4. To keep the grains of rice whole (and not splitting), put a teaspoon of vinegar in the water when cooking. 5. A teaspoon of vinegar hastens the tenderizing of meat during cooking. Other Uses: 1. To remove odor from bottles or jars, rinse them with water containing a small amount vinegar. 2. When dirty clothes are soaked in warm vinegar, perspiration stains will disappear. 3. Stains of scorching from ironing can be removed if the garment will be washed with vinegar water. 4. A teaspoon of vinegar added to rinsing water for nylon stockings will retain its elasticity. 5. A teaspoon of vinegar in a pint of varnish gives gloss to the varnish. 6. The smell of paint in a room can be removed by putting a small saucer of vinegar in the room. SAUCE FROM BANANA PEELINGS For every kilo of banana peelings (cavendish or saba), add: 12 tbsp. sugar 1/4 tsp. sodium benzoate 9 tbsp. vinegar salt, pepper to taste Procedure: 1. Wash and slice the banana peelings into small pieces. Remove fibers. 2. Dip in boiling water for about 10 minutes. 3. Add 2 cups water, mash well, strain in muslin cloth. 4. Add the sugar, vinegar, salt and pepper. 5. Cook in a casserole with cover for 10 minutes. 6. Add vinegar syrup with flavoring and continue stirring until thick. 7. Add 1/4 tsp. sodium benzoate. 8. Transfer in clean bottles, cover tightly. 9. Boil for 15 minutes in water, cool. Source: Info Science, vol. 1, no.3 PASTE FROM BANANA PEELINGS For every kilo of banana peelings, add: 1 tsp. salt 1. cups water Procedure: 1. Dip the peelings in boiling water for 10 minutes. 2. Add 2 cups water to the peelings, mash well and strain in a muslin cloth. 3. Add salt.

4. Cook until a thick paste is attained. 5. Pour into clean bottles, remove the air. 6. Boil for 15 minutes, cool. Source: InfoScience, vol. 1, no.3 CHAYOTE CATSUP Materials: Chayote Sodium benzoate Salt Garlic Vinegar Sugar Onions Pepper Procedure: 1. Wash the chayote, slice lengthwise. 2. Peel, remove the seed and cut into cubes. 3. Boil in little water. 3. Drain, mash well. 4. Slice the onions, garlic, hot pepper 5. Mix well in enough vinegar, sugar and a pinch of salt. 6. Cook until thick consistency is attained. 1. Dissolve a little food color if desired, in 1/2 cup of water; add a pinch of sodium benzoate. 8. Put in a bottle or jar; cook in a double boiler. Source: PCARRD Farmnews, May 1987 BEAN CURD (Tokwa) Materials: 1 cup soybeans 1. teaspoon vinegar Procedure: 1. Soak the beans in water overnight. Change water several times and remove floating grains. 2. Wash, grind the soybeans. Add about 6 cups water for every cup of beans while grinding. 3. Boil the ground beans in water for 1/2 hour while stirring. 4. Strain in muslin cloth. 5. Mix in well a teaspoon of vinegar. 6. Wrap in cloth the curdled soybean. 7. Remove the express water by putting weight on top of it. The curdled tokwa can be a substitute for meat. Source: The Philippines Recommends, PCARRD, 1991 MISO (SOYBEAN) The preparation of miso (which comes in 3 kinds) depends on the length of time. It is fermented and stored. Materials: Wooden box 60 x 30 x 5 cm. Pressure cooker or casserole Grinder A. White miso 1/2 kilo soybeans 300 grams salt 1 kilo rice starter (A. Oryzae) B. Average Salty and Yellowish Miso 5 kilos soybeans 2 kilos salt 3 kilos rice starter C. Salty and Darker Miso 5 kilos soybeans 2-10 kilos salt 3 kilos rice starter Procedure: A. RICE 1. Wash the rice, soak overnight.

2. Steam cook until the grains can be pressed between the fingers. 3. Cook until 35°C and add starter. 4. Mix well, put in a box and in a place with about 25°C temperature. If the place is warmer than this, open all ventilation to allow free circulation of air. 5. Let the mold grow within 24-48 hours. Stir the rice in the box every 5 hours and change the places of the boxes as they are piled. A. SOYBEANS 1. Wash the soybeans, soak overnight. 2. Change the water 3 times and remove the coatings. 3. Cook in 2 parts water until soft. Cool. 4. Grind or mash. 5. Mix the rice with mold and salt. Set aside 20 grams salt for covering the top of the mixture. 6. Put in a barrel, pressed and compact (no air) and put salt on top. 7. Cover with plastic sheet, put weight over it so as to keep it from floating. 8. Keep in a room with about 15°C - 30°C temperature. 9. Let this ferment: 1 month for white miso 3 months for average miso 6 months for salty miso 10. Grind the miso. 11. Cook in double boiler at 50°C for 20 minutes. 12. Put in plastic bags, remove air and seal. Source: The Philippines Recommends for Soybeans 1991 RICE-SOY NOODLES To increase the protein content of the Filipino diet, researchers at FNRI (DOST) have come up with an enriched kind of n oodle that can somehow supplement their Protein and energy needs. Materials: Utensils: Rice (880 grams) - or -------4 1/2 cups Bowl, Mixer, Kettle, Cup Water (630 ml.) - or ---------2 3/4 cups Teaspoon, Noodle machine Soybean flour (200 grams) or 2 1/2 cups Cornmill/grinder Salt (30 grams) --- or ------ 6 tps. Solar dyrer/cabinet dryer Cornstarch (50 grams) or 1/2 cup Procedure: 1. Measure 4 1/2 cups rice, soak in 2 3/4 boiling water for an hour. 2. Grind the soaked rice. 3. Add the 2 1/2 cups soybean flour, 6 teaspoons salt and 1/2 cup ground rice. 4. Mix well for about 5-7 minutes to make dough. 5. Mold the dough into balls about 6.5 cm.-7.5 cm. diameter. 6. Cook in boiling water for 30 minutes. 7. Drain the cooked dough for about 10 minutes. 8. Pass the dough through the noodle machine to make noodles. 9. Dry the noodles in a cabinet dryer for 4 hours at 48°C-50°C or in the sun until they become brittle. Source: FNRI (DOST) SOTANGHON FROM MONGO The usual sotanghon is made from soybeans, but since this is important and more costly, researchers at UP Los Baños have produced sotanghon using mongo, without any distinction from the usual soybean sotanghon. Procedure: To make starch: 1. Soak the mongo overnight. 2. Grind several times and sieve at 400 mesh. 3. The residue that is left is the material for sotanghon. The portion that is not used contains much protein, which is used as hog feed. To make noodles:

1. Add water to the starch while stirring, until the right consistency is attained, that is the starch becomes fibery but does not snap. 2. Dip the fibrous starch in boiling water. Rinse. 3. Store first in a cool place before drying. 4. Dry in the sun until only about 4% moisture is retained. Source: Division Ideas Magazine, August 1990 SPROUTED MONGO (TOGE) Toge can be made from both mongo seeds or soybeans. Procedure: 1. Soak the beans in water overnight. 2. Spread a piece of white cloth over a "bilao" or tray and put the beans on it. 3. Cover with another cloth; sprinkle water over it every now and then. 4. Keep in a cool dark place. This will sprout in 3 days. This can also be done in a container where water passes through and has enough space for growth of the beans. Wet the beans now and then as in the cloth in the "bilao." Source: The Philippines Recommends for soybeans, PCARRD 1991 GELATIN FROM SEAWEEDS Seaweeds must be harvested from the sea very early in the morning or while the tide is still low. Procedure: 1. Wash the seaweeds very well, drain and dry (Spread over a wire or bamboo screen for the purpose) for a week. 2. To remove the fishy odor and taste, soak and dry the seaweeds in fresh water for 5-10 minutes, and dry again in the sun until it becomes dirty yellow in color. 3. Bleach in 1 liter water with 1 tbsp. vinegar until it turns olive green in color. 4. Put again in the sun until it turns light brown. To extract agar: 5. Put 1 kilo dried seaweeds in 1 liter water with 1 tbsp. vinegar (or, more effective, in 3 1/2 liter water, 80 ml. 0.1 N sulfuric acid (H2S04) 6. Boil and constantly stir for 1 hour. 7. Strain in muslin cloth while hot. 8. Allow to cool in room temperature for 5 hours. 9. When it has hardened, slice into desired sizes. 10. Put in ice sprinkled with salt for 2-3 days, or in a freezer overnight. 11. Next day, thaw the frozen seaweeds and allow to dry. 12. Put again in the sun until the desired fineness is attained. 13. When it cools, it is then ready to cook or bring to market. Source: PCARRD Monitor, August 1987 MEAT TENDERIZER Soak the meat for a few minutes in papain-water solution, 1/10% to 1% before cooking. Source: Chemical Formulary by Bennet, vol. 23 HOW TO MAKE PAPAIN Papain is made from green papaya fruits while these are still attached to the tree. The bigger is the fruit, the more latex is derived. More amount of latex is gathered if this is done 3 times a week in a month. The more cuts are made, the less is the flow of latex. The best time for gathering latex is between 8:00 am to 12 noon. Procedure: 1. Cut the raw papaya (on the tree) with a sharp glass, about 2 mm deep. 2. Collect the flowing latex in a plastic container and put in a glass bottle. 3. Dry the latex in the sun or oven. 4. Pulverize the dried latex. Source: Selected R & D completed projects, NSDB 1980.

HOW TO MAKE BALUT There are two ways of making balut - one is for a commercial scale and the other for a small home industry. Both duck and chicken eggs may be used, but the usual eggs used are ducks' eggs. Procedure: For Small Scale Industry: 1. Prepare a big wooden box; line this with heated rice hull at the bottom, about 38°C and 6-8 inches thick. 2. Arrange the eggs in bags of about 20 or 50 pieces each, put them on the heated hull and cover again with same thickness of heated hull. 3. Cover the box very well so as to prevent quick loss of heat. 4. Every morning, inspect the eggs to see if the rice hull needs reheating. The hull must be about 38°C. 5. On the third day, examine the eggs against a bright light to see if the germ plasm has developed. This is the part of the egg that becomes the chick, if the egg is fertiled. If no germ plasm develops, remove the eggs. These are sold as "penoy". Put back into the heated hull those eggs with germ plasm. 6. On the 13th day, examine again the eggs against the light. Remove the eggs with out germ plasm. At this stage, those with developing germ plasm are the "balut sa puti". 7. On the 17th day, the chicks will be growing little feathers. These may now be cooked. For commercial scale: The process is the same except that an incubator is used instead of heated rice hull. Source: Coffee and Cocoa Journal, February 1981. SALTED EGGS IN CLAY (MUD) Another way of salting eggs is by storing them in clay instead of in brine. Materials: Utensils: Eggs (duck or chicken) measuring cup Salt, clay earthenware Procedure: 1. Mix together 12 cups clay and 4 cups salt. Add water little by little as it is being mixed until an even distribution is attained. 2. Put a thick layer of this mixture at the bottom of the pot. 3. Wrap each egg in clay. 4. Arrange the eggs in the pot, about 2 1/2 cm. apart to keep from breaking. 5. Cover again with salted clay and set aside for 2 weeks. 6. After about 2 weeks, try an egg. Cook at a heat that does not reach boiling point. If it is not yet salty enough, let the rest stay longer in the pot. 7. When the right saltiness has been reached, cook the eggs in water that does not boil up to 100°C for 15 minutes. 8. Brush with red color if desired. FRESH EGGS AND THEIR USES Eggs are fresh when: 1. The yolk can be discerned if the egg is put against the light. 2. The egg lies flat on its side when put in water. 3. The yolk is firm and the white is jelly-like, not spreading when the egg is broken. Extends the freshness of eggs: 1. In storing, the pointed end should be down and the rounded end up. 2. Do not wash soiled eggs, just wipe them with a clean cloth. So, buy only eggs with clean shell. 3. Keep in a refrigerator or in a cool place. 4. Keep in a well-ventilated place. Eggs absorb the odor of the room or its surroundings when this is in a closed place.

Uses of eggs in cooking: 1. To thicken soup or sauces. 2. As binder, as in making embutido, torta or relleno. 3. To lighten cakes and muffins. 4. Improve the color of the baked food like bread. 5. Used in making mayonnaise and for salads. 6. As decorations for viands. Health benefits from eggs in the diet: 1. Makes the muscles firm and the skin healthy. 2. Adds red color to the blood. 3. Gives clarity to the eyes. 4. Hastens the growth of growing kids. 5. Gives stamina for work or play. Children, pregnant women or nursing mothers as well as the aged need at least an egg a day to meet the needs of the body. Those aged 20-59 need only about half of this requirement. Other characteristics of eggs: 1. The color of the shell has nothing to do with the nutrients they provide. 2. Balut contains more calcium and vitamin A than ordinary eggs. 3. Eggs give much cholesterol, but should not be skipped in the diet, at least every other day. 4. In cooking, put over low fire or moderate heat, as overcooking causes hardening. 5. To remove the shell easily after cooking, put the boiled egg immediately in tap water after removing from the fire. It is also in this way that the black rim around the yolk is avoided. Source: FNRI (DOST) MAYONNAISE The basic ingredients for making mayonnaise are lemon juice or vinegar, salad oil or winterized oil not less than 65% or 2/3, egg yolk or whole egg, and sugar, salt and spices (paprika, mustard) and vetsin. However, substitutions maybe made. Materials: 1 cup lard (or cooking oil) 28°C 1 egg yolk 1 1/2 tbsp. 4.5 vinegar (del Monte) 1/2 tsp. iodized salt 1 tsp. white sugar Procedure: 1. Separate yolk from the whole egg and place it in a clean and dry quartsized bowl. 2. Using a table fork, beat egg yolk rapidly and continuously until light yellow, for about 5 minutes. 3. Add salt and beat well. 4. Add oil (or lard) by drops, beating well after each addition until about 1/4 cup is used. 5. Add 1/2 tsp. vinegar and beat well. 6. Add lard alternately with the vinegar and beat vigorously after each addition. Increase the amount of oil added by half tablespoon when the mayonnaise has already formed a stable emulsion. 7. Continuously beat the emulsion after all the oil (or lard) and vinegar have been added. 8. Place the mayonnaise dressing in a sterile dry bottle or jar and seal tightly. 9. Store in a screened cabinet at room temperature until use. Source: CMU Journal of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Official Publication. PRESERVE FRESH FOODS FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Extend the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables.

Procedure: 1. Place moist sawdust in a big basin or pail. Take care to remove sharp or pointed pieces in the sawdust that will hurt the fruits or vegetables as it is in this way that rotting caused by bacterial organisms start. 2. Place the fruits and vegetables in this pail and cover with moist sawdust again. 3. Do not allow water to accumulate at the bottom of the pail. Within 11 days, the fruits/vegetables will lose only 2% of their weight while in the usual way of storage, the total loss of weight is 10% within the same period of time. Source: Philippine Farmers' Journal, July-August 1983 Other Ways of Storing Fruits/Vegetables: A. Moistened sawdust 1. Wash very well in water with chlorox - 1 liter water for every tablespoon chlorox. 2. If the sawdust has been used before, sterilize first by spreading under the sun. 3. Remove all sharp pieces that might start bruising the fruits/vegetables. 4. Moisten the sawdust and mix well -- 1 liter water for every kilo sawdust. 5. Arrange the vegetables in the moist sawdust and store in a cool place. A. Fresh Banana Leaves 1. Heat over the fire fresh banana leaves to prevent them from breaking apart. 2. Wrap the vegetables in the leaves. Change the leaves when they crumple or lose the ability to keep the vegetables fresh. Winged beans kept in this way stay fresh for about one and a half weeks, but if not stored in this way, last only three days. A. Earthen pot 1. Pour water over the covered pot, wet the sides very well. Repeat the process when the pot shows drying. 2. Place the pot on a basin or container with water at the bottom, but place a platform for the vegetables inside to keep from rotting because of wetness. Vegetables such as cabbage, tomatoes, beans, eggplant, and mangoes can last for a week if stored in this manner. Source: PCARRD Farmnews, April 1984 PRESERVE TOMATOES Procedure: 1. Select tomatoes that are mature and ripe, but firm. 2. Dip in boiling water for about one half to one minute or steam for 2-3 minutes. 3. Dip in tap water to remove the peel easily. Remove the core as well. 4. Arrange the tomatoes in a jar compactly, but with a spare of about one centimeter from the rim. 5. Do not add water. Add in 1/2 teaspoon salt and 1/3 teaspoon lime in the jar.

6. Remove the air from the jar -- place this in a casserole and heat at 77°C for about 15 minutes. The level of water should be only 2/3 of the height of the jar to prevent the water from entering the jar. 7. Close the jar well and boil in water for 35 minutes. 8. Cool, store. Source: FNRI (DOST) EXTEND THE SHELF-LIFE OF TOMATOES Research at the UPLB has shown that the ripening of tomatoes can be hastened or delayed. 1. Ripening can be hastened if the tomatoes are kept in Dry Hull Ash. This increases the ethylene gas which hastens ripening. 2. If this is placed in a cool place, it will have the red color of ripening. 3. If tomatoes are kept in moist ash, this will neither hasten nor delay ripening, but the ripening will be natural, and the tomatoes will be firm even if ripe, better than if stored in dry ash. Source: Farming Today, July 1983 POWDERED TOMATOES Procedure: 1. Dip the tomatoes in boiling water for a minute. 2. Dip in 500 ppm solution of sodium metabisulfite for 2 minutes. 3. Dry in the oven at 54°C for 9 hours or until its moisture goes down to 7.5%. 4. Pulverize the dried tomatoes in a pestle. The resulting product is red in color and smells and tastes like fresh tomatoes. To cook, mix with water as needed. Source: Selected R & D Completed Projects, NSTA 1982. DEHYDRATED CARROT Carrot is rich in Vitamins A and C. It is good to store it during its abundance so as to make it available during scarcity. Materials: Carrots -- mature, bright colored, fresh Starch flour -- 4 tbsp. in 4 cups water (stir continually while heating) Plastic bags Procedure: 1. Wash carrots very well, slice into 4 x 10 x 10 mm. sizes. 2. Arrange on a sinamay or nylon cloth and dip in boiling water for 3 minutes. 3. Dip the carrots in the cooked starch for one minute. 4. Drain and arrange on a tray. 5. Dry in the oven at 60°C-65°C for 7-8 hours or under the sun until no juice can be extracted when pressed. If the carrots will be dried in the sun, do not expose them directly. Put them inside a box with holes at the 4 sides. Cover the top of the box with black or dark cloth or plastic sheet. 6. When dried, pack in plastic bags and seal. 7. To reuse soak 1/4 cup carrots in a cup of warm water for half an hour. 8. Cook in the usual way like fresh carrots. Source: FNRI, Oct. 1989 DEHYDRATED BELL PEPPER Procedure:

1. Select fresh, mature green pepper with deep green color. Wash them very well in running water. 2. Cut in halves, remove seeds, placenta and stems. 3. Slice into 2 cm size thick before blanching. 4. Spread on a sinamay or nylon cloth (not thicker than 2 cm.) before steaming. 5. Dip in 5% salt solution for 30 minutes. 6. Blanch steam for 2 minutes. 7. Dry at 60°C-65°C for 7-8 hours. 8. Pack in plastic bags. DEHYDRATED CELERY Procedure: 1. Select green, fresh celery with fleshy stalks. 2. Cut into 3/4 cm cubes and the leafy parts 3 cm. long. 3. Spread on wide nylon or sinamay basket about 2 1/2 cm thick before blanching. 4. Steam blanch for one minute. 5. Soak in 0.05% lime (calcium chloride) for 5 minutes. 6. Dip in boiling 0.2% sodium metabisulfite solutionn for 2 minutes. 7. Dry at 60°C -65°C for 6-7 hours. 8. Pack in plastic bags and seal. Source: Selected R & D completed projects, NSTA RIPENING OF FRUITS One of the ways to hasten the ripening of fruits is by the Right Use of Calcium carbide. The fruits must be in a box with the right temperature and right humidity. The wrong use of calcium carbide for artificial ripening of fruits is by wrapping the calcium carbide in paper and putting it among the fruits. This burns (hurts) the fruits. When the fruit is mature and made to ripen artificially, its ripening is no different from natural ripening, both in quality and in taste. And if calcium carbide is placed properly, the color of the fruit is stronger and the shriveling of its skin or peeling is delayed. What hastens the ripening of the fruit is the ethylene gas that emanates from the calcium carbide, and not the calcium carbide itself. Ethylene gas is not poison to humans and gives no damaging effects. Source: Philippine Farmers Journal, Nov.-Dec. 1983. HOW TO RETARD THE RIPENING OF FRUITS According to researchers at the UP Los Baños, the ripening of fruits can be delayed from one to two weeks under the following conditions: 1. Don't pick the fruits very soon. Trees have a natural way of retarding the ripening of fruits. 2. Take care not to bruise the fruits in picking, transporting or changing containers. It is in these ways that microorganisms enter the fruits and causes rotting to start and lose weight. 3. Ripe fruits give off ethylene, a kind of gas that hastens ripening. Don't put together ripe and raw fruits. 4. Don't put together healthy and non-healthy fruits. Non-healthy fruits give off much ethylene. 5. Don't expose the fruits in the sun. This hastens ripening. 6. Keep the fruits away from heat given off by motor or machine. They also give off ethylene gas.

7. Ripening is slow in low temperatures. If no refrigerator is available, put the fruits in the coolest possible place. 8. If a refrigerator is available, put the fruits in a plastic bag with small holes. 9. Put charcoal soaked in potassium permanganate or small pieces of cement or perlite in containers with fruits. Source: Farming Today, April 1982 RETARD THE RIPENING OF MANGOES (Hot Water Treatment) Hot water treatment (HWT) retards the ripening of mangoes without affecting its taste; makes the color of ripening brighter and evenly, and does not require the use of pesticides, chemicals because the fruits are not infected by bacteria or pests. Procedure: 1. Prepare two containers of hot water -- this may be half of a drum or similar, according to the quantity of mangoes to be treated. One drum that contains hot water will be for immersing the mangoes, And the other will be for maintaining the heat of the water used for immersing. 2. The heat of the water should be within 52°C-55°C range. To maintain this heat, it is necessary to use a bulb thermometer. 3. Immerse soonest the newly harvested mature mangoes for 10 minutes. 4. Cool the mangoes in running water after immersing. 5. Air dry the mangoes before storing in container. Source: PCARRD-DA Farmnews, March-April 1991 ETHREL: RIPENS BANANAS AND TOMATOES Fruits must not be picked when immature because they will not ripen naturally. However, there are instances when this is inevitable, such as during a storm or unavoidable circumstances. Researches were conducted at UP Los Baños have shown that immature fruits can somehow be made to ripen with the aid of a chemical, Ethrel. Procedure: Bananas 1. Fill with water up to 1/2 a kerosene can (balde). Dissolve 10 tbsp. Ethrel in this water. 2. Pour more water gradually until the can is full (19 liters) and stir well while pouring. 3. Transfer one-half of this to another container. 4. Immerse the bananas in the mixture for 5 minutes, then let it dry in the air. These will ripen in 5 days. 5. If the mixture will be used again cover it and store in a cool place. This can be used up to 15 days provided the fruits being immersed are clean and dry before they are immersed. It was seen by the researchers that if the fruits are immersed in ethrel on the fourth to the seventh day (4th-7th) after harvest, the banana ripen in 2-3 days. Tomatoes 1. For immature tomatoes, 90% of 21 day-old fruits ripen in 10 days after putting them in ethrel. Some of these did not turn red. 2. If the ethrel solution is weak, tomatoes do not ripen well. 3. If the tomatoes are less than 21 days, tomatoes are not edible. Calcium chloride and ethrel: Less ethrel is needed to ripen bananas, compared to calcium carbide. It requires 20 grams carbide for every liter of water.

Source: Agricultural & Industrial Life KAKAWATE LEAVES RIPEN SABA BANANAS Studies made at the UP Los Baños showed that when raw saba bananas are put in kakawate leaves, its ripening is hastened. This is because the kakawate leaves emit bioethylene, a gas that ripens fruits. It was also seen that when bananas are ripened with kakawate leaves, the weight loss is only 5%, while those not treated loses 19% of its weight within 6 days. Procedure: Stack the banana bunches with kakawate leaves alternately. Source: PCARRD (DOST) DELAYING THE RIPENING OF BANANAS IN MALAYSIA Researchers at the Malaysia University and of the Malaysia Agricultural Research and Development Institute have a way of delaying the ripening of bananas. This is not their present method of wrapping the fruits in a bag with polythene - this is good only until 11 days. The new method is by the use of the chemical, Bynonyl, used to combat, molds, but is not harmful to humans. They tried this on raw bananas called "pisang emas." This method reduced the growth of molds and retards ripening besides improving the quality of the fruits. Procedure: 1. Pack and seal the bananas in an air tight bag with bynonyl. 2. When the packing is removed, keep the fruits in temperature at 15°C. It is only then that the fruits will start to ripen normally. Source: PCARRD Farmnews, August 1987 RIGHT WAY OF STORING SWEET POTATOES Sweet potatoes or kamote can last up to 2-3 months if harvested and stored properly. Procedure: 1. When harvesting, use a container that can take only what is accomodated to avoid falling off and having bruises. It is in getting hurt that rotting of fruits begin. 2. Avoid using sacks for this reason. 3. The storage should be near the place of harvest or near the place of transport. 4. In places of storage, use bamboo, kogon grass or leaves of coconut as roof or walls. RIGHT WAY OF HARVESTING FRUITS 1. Harvest fruits at the right season of maturity. For example: Mangoes: 82 days from flowering and bearing fruits When the fruits that are exposed are immersed in water, these grow further and become more darkly or strongly colored than those hidden (which grow slowly). Tomatoes -- if to be transported far--harvest when the end of the flower becomes pinkish, which are formerly green: if to be transported nearbyharvest them when the fruits are colored orange. 2. Mango and Citrus: pick the fruits with all care. Avoid excessive stain or sap on the skin, if they are to be harvested at the last hours of the morning or before 3:00 p.m. Sweet corn: pick early to retain its sweetness. When harvested late in the morning, its sugar turns into carbohydrates.

3. Arrange properly in containers to avoid bruises or crushing, and to allow free circulation of air in containers. Use old newspapers, thin polyethene or plastic bubbles sheets as lining at the bottom of containers. 4. Transport quickly and carefully. Insert potassium permanganate in the container. This is dissolved and made to be absorbed by perlite blocks which in turn will absorb the ethylene emitted by the fruits. Perite blocks --- 1 part cement --- 4 parts perlite beads water to make thin paste a. Allow this to dry and harden in 36 hours. b. Cut in small pieces depending on use. RIGHT SELECTION AND STORAGE OF FRUITS Bananas - good, mature bananas are rounded, have no sharp edges. It can withstand only up to 14°C storage. Caimito - the green variety is sweeter than the purple ones. Choose slightly soft fruits (Hard caimito will not ripen). It can be stored at 7°C temperature. Mango - good mango of any variety has full "cheeks" and slightly yellow at the base (near the stem). Avoid sick, bruished mangoes or those with hard lumps. Keep in a cool place. Melon - mature melon is sweet. The peel is yellow and a little soft near the stem. It cannot stand very cold temperature. Immature ones are not sweet and will not ripen. Papaya - good papaya has streaks of yellow at the base and has deep lines lengthwise. It can be stored at 10°C. Watermelon - mature fruits are whitish to yellowish; it gives off a dull sound when knocked (filliped) with the thumb and index finger. Immature fruits give off a metallic sound when filliped. They will not ripen and are not sweet. It can be stored at 5°C. Source: Agricultural and Industrial Life, 1990. EXTEND THE STORAGE LIFE OF CORN Weevils and mildew are the usual enemies of corn in storage. The grains attacked by these do not germinate. One way of extending the storage life of corn is by: 1. Drying the grains of corn until moisture is reduced to 10%. 2. Put them in a can (5 gal. Capacity) without leaks or hole. 3. Dry about 2 kilos charcoal (up to 4%-5% moisture) and pulverize. 4. Place the powdered charcoal at the bottom of the can; put a cardboard perforated with holes on top of the charcoal. 5. Put the grains of corn on the cardboard. They can accommodate about 6 kilos grains. 6. Close the can and seal with glue around the cover to keep air from entering and thus damage the grains. To prepare glue: Put 1 part pomade or grease in 1 part powdered clay or lime If there are weevils present in the grains inside the can, the carbon dioxide that will emanate from the grains will kill them. Source: PCARRD Farmnews, October 31, 1985 EXTEND THE STORAGE LIFE OF RICE Rice can be stored without using pesticides. Instead, carbon dioxide which is not poison, is used as fumigant. Pesticides don't really control the insects in the rice sack as the spraying does not penetrate the interior of the sack. Thus, the pests in the middle part of the sack can keep on multiplying. And pesticides leave residues that are harmful to humans. Procedure: 1. Pack carbon dioxide in a plastic bag and seal.

2. Put this bag in the sack of rice. Rice can be stored for as long as 15 months and still retain its good quality. Source: PCARRD Farmnews, December 1988 FISH AND MARINE PRODUCTS MEAT SIGNS OF FRESHNESS IN FISH AND MARINE PRODUCTS: FISH 1. The skin is glossy and tight. 2. The gills are red (although artificial coloring can be done to imitate freshness). 3. The eyes are clear and shallow, not reddish or sunken. 4. The body is firm, not soft. 5. The smell is not fishy. 6. The intestines are intact and whole. 7. The body is slippery with saliva. SHELLS AND CRUSTACEANS 1. The shell is closed. 2. The smell is clean and not offensive. CRABS 1. Appearance is heavier than they actually seem. 2. Firm in texture and the legs are intact, not loose or dangling SHRIMPS 1. The smell is not offensive. 2. The shell or skin is tight and firm. Source: FNRI 1982 EXTEND THE SHELFLIFE OF FISH The freshness of fish can be seen through its external appearance and odor, and in a chemical analysis. Besides the mudfish and catfish, all fishes stop breathing the moment they are removed from the water, especially sea fishes. Our fish products are in demand abroad, but they cannot pass the rigid quality control imposed by importing countries because of our family way of freezing, and so we export only dried and smoked fish. The decay of fish is caused by bacteria and enzymes that are outside the fish, not within the flesh of the fish. These are in the water, the slimy substance around the fish, in the gills and internal organs. For example, the tuna that comes from Mindanao carries with it 18 kinds of microorganism in every gram of its shell/skin; the oysters caught in the Manila Bay contains thousands of this in every gram. Thus, to delay the decay of fish, remove the gills and internal organs and wash very well to remove the slimy substance. In freezing, temperatures between 0°C-3.89°C causes crystal iciness in the muscles. If the fish is placed at 0°C as soon as this is removed from the water it will last for 7 days. The faster the muscles become icy and the smaller that ice crystals that are formed in the muscles, the longer the good taste or quality remains. This is "quick freezing". The temperature must be reduced to -3.89°C from 0°C for not more than 2 hours for quick freezing. If it gets longer than 2 hours to have crystals in the flesh, this is "slow freezing" which is the usual way of freezing in domestic refrigerators. Fish contains 15%-25% protein that has all the amino acids as in beef or chicken meat. Source: Milkfish as food, NSTA 1978. PRESERVE FISH EVEN WITHOUT ICE It has been tested and found acceptable in India to preserve fish using certain preservatives. Procedure: 1. Clean fish very well - remove scales, gills, internal organs. 2. Slice 3. Soak in the following solution:

8% salt - boil for a few minutes and cool; add: 0.5% potassium sorbate and, 0.25% sodium benzoate The fish put in this solution lasts for 72 hours. b. 8% salt - boil the solution and cool, add: 0.5% potassium sorbate and 0.1% sodium bisulphite 0.25% sodium benzoate The taste of fish preserved in this solution tastes better on the 48th hour, and lasts as long as the fish is in solution. Source: Fishery Technology, January 1988 PRESERVE SHRIMPS Materials: Sodium bisulfite -- 1 1/4 % Water ---------------- 98.34% Mix the above. Put in the shrimps here then drain: Keep in ice. Source: Chemical Formulary (Bennet) vol. 23 PRESERVED TILAPIA Materials: Utensils: Rice (cooked) Knife, jar with a big mouth (sterilized) or put in Angkak the sun Procedure: 1. Slice the fish on its back. 2. Remove the gills, internal organs, blood. Wash very well. 3. Cook 2 cups rice in 4-5 cups water; cool. 4. Refine the angkak and mix it with the cooked rice. 5. Spread thin the rice with angkak at the bottom of the container and arrange the tilapia over it alternately. 6. Cover with a thick rice spread over the fish. 7. Close the container tight, allow to ferment in 3 weeks. Source: PCARRD Farmnews, October 31, 1985 IMPROVED WAY OF PRESERVING SHRIMP CAKE (ALAMANG) Materials: Shrimps, pestle, mortar Procedure: 1. Use only fresh shrimps, wash very well. 2. If gathering is made from the sea, put the shrimps in a basket and dip several times in the water to remove all dirt. Remove stones, fish, shells, and whatever else that might affect the taste and aroma of the shrimp cake. Avoid handling to prevent growth of microorganisms. 3. Drying: a. Drain the shrimps and spread over a mat under the sun for 3-5 hours. b. The mat should be on an elevated place to keep from dust and intrusion of stray animals. c. Keep flies away. d. Drying can also be done in an oven. Pounding: Pound the dried shrimps in a clean pestle until fine and sticky (about 5 minutes). Storing: Wrap the shrimps in a bag and let it stay overnight. Molding: On the following day, mold into small cakes manually. Drying:


Put under the sun for 2 hours to reduce moisture down to 39%. Pounding: Pound the shrimps in the pestle until fine. Molding: Mold the dried shrimps like balls, about one kilo each. Cooling: allow the shrimp balls to cool at room temperature until dry. Packing : use banana leaves for wrapping or polyethylene bags (plastic bags). If properly done, dried shrimp cakes can last up to two years in storage. Source: Farmnews, February 1989 FISH QUEKIAM Materials: 1/2 kilo dalagang bukid 1/2 cup flour 1. egg well-beaten 1/4 cup nguyong powder 1/4 kilo shelled shrimps 1/2 tsp. pepper 1/2 cup chopped turnip 1 1/2 tsp. salt 1/2 cup chopped onions 3 pcs. taupe (wrapper) 1/2 cup chopped celery Procedure: 1. Remove all bones and skin from the fish. 2. Grind together with the shrimps. 3. Mix all ingredients and steam for 20 minutes. 4. Wrap in taupe or aluminum foil. 5. Fry in hot lard. 6. Slice in desired sizes. Sweet sour sauce: 3/4 cup water 1 tbsp. vinegar 1 tbsp. cornstarch 2 tbsp. soy sauce, vetsin 3/4 cup sugar Mix all together and heat until the desired thickness. Source: Fisheries Newsletter, Oct. 18-24, 1981 FISH FRANKFURTER Materials: 1 1/4 kilo fish meat (labahita) 1/4 kilo pork fat 1. gms. salt 4 gms. accord powder (binder) 12 gms. frankfurter seasoning 5. gms. prague powder (available at ITDI, DOST) 5. gms. sugar 1/2 kilo ice Procedure: 1. Separately grind the pork and fish meat. 2. Add salt and seasoning to the fish. 3. Add the ice and keep on mixing and cutting the mixture. 4. Add the frankfurter seasoning, fat, sugar and the rest of ice. 5. Mix well until fine. 6. Stuff into the sausage casing about 10 cm. long each. 7. Smoke for about one-half hour at 71°C-75°C. 8. Dip in hot water (about 73°C for 10 minutes). 9. Remove the casing. 10. Pack in plastic bag and freeze. (Note: guava leaves are good for smoking). Source: Fisheries Newsletter, August 18-24, 1981 CANNING OF BANGUS One way of preserving bangus or any fish is by canning. But since not all have a pressure cooker and the use of tin cans need a special sealer, it is possible to can or preserve fish in the following manner:

Procedure: 1. Select fresh bangus (or any fish) for preserving. 2. Remove the scales, internal organs, fins and tail. 3. Wash very well; soak in salt water to remove the remaining blood and make the flesh white and firm. Before preserving, the fish may be steamed, smoked, dried in the sun, fried, salted or ground. 4. In putting in the jar, leave about 4-5 cm. space from the rim before closing. 5. Remove air by putting the jar in water boiling at 82°C (steam). 6. Close the jar. Put a rubber sealer around the cap. 7. Boil at 115°C-121°C (or at 10-15 pressure per sq. in. if in pressure cooker). 8. Let it cool by itself. Source: Milkfish as Food. FISH BURGER Materials: 1. kilo fish meat 2 eggs 3 tsp. salt 1 cup chopped onions 2. tsp. pepper 2 tbsp. milk powder or 4 tbsp. evap. milk 1. tsp. hamburger seasoning oil for frying Procedure: 1. Mix all ingredients together. 2. Make balls, flatten the balls, fry. Source: Fisheries Newsletter, Oct. 16-24, 1981 FISH KROPECK Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC) Materials: 1. cups corn flour a little vetsin flour 4 tbsp. powdered fish (FPC) 4 cups water 2 tsp. salt 1. cup cooking oil 1 1/2 tsp. fine pepper Procedure: 1. Mix well together in 4 cups water: the fish powder, cornstarch, salt, pepper, flour, vetsin. 2. Use a tray that can be heated. Line this with oil. 3. Spread on the tray about 3 tbsp. of the mixture, about 1/2 cm. thick. 4. Steam this for two minutes. 5. Slice the steamed mixture into desired sizes. 6. Arrange on a tray and dry in the sun or in a solar dried for one or two days. 7. Deep fry in oil. 8. Drain, cool, seal in plastic bag. Source: NSDB Appropriate Technology, Series 27 SARDINES Materials: 100 grams size bangus 1/2 tsp. vetsin 1/2 teaspoon salt 4 tbsp. tomato sauce 2 tbsp. cooking oil 2 slices bell pepper Procedure: 1. Remove the fish scales, gills and internal organs, fins, tail, and the black lining in the belly. 2. Wash very well and drain.

3. Slice according to the size of the can, and arrange the pieces inside the can. 4. Steam the can for 20 minutes to remove the moisture in the fish. 5. Remove all moisture from the can, put in the tomato sauce and all other ingredients. 6. Seal the can and heat at 115.6°C for one and a half hours. 7. To avoid overcooking, put the can immediately in running water after cooking. 8. Wipe clean the cooled can. The viscerals removed from the fish can be used as fish concentrate when dried and powdered, and for fish curls. Source: PCARRD Farmnews, January 1984

Boneless Bangus (Bangus Deboning)
Raw Material: Fresh bangus (preferably 3 pieces to a kilo) Equipment/Utensils: Mosquito forceps, straight, cutting board, sharp knife, utility tray, basin. Procedure: Pre-preparation: 1. Washing - wash fish upon arrival from the market. Scales may or may not be removed. 2. Splitting - split fish on the dorsal side starting from the tail to the head by running the edge of the knife along the backbone. 3. Removal of Internal Organs - lay fish open like butterfly fillet. Remove gills and internal organs. Wash fish to remove blood and dirt. The black membrane covering the belly cavity may or may not be removed depending upon the consumers choice. Wash fish in running water. 4. Removal of backbone & dorsal fin. Remove backbone by laying fish flat on the cutting board with the skin down. Hold the knife in a horizontal/standing position and cut in with the tip of the blade along the backbone from head to tail. Trim off the dorsal fin. 5. Place fish in a shallow tray. With the aid of a mosquito forceps, start removing the spines. Rib bones - the rib bones are located in the belly cavity. They are visible and are superficially embedded thus easy to pull out. The spines on the head portion are branched spines while the rest are unbranched. The spines on the tail portion are very much attached to the muscle tendon, making it difficult to remove. It is necessary to make a horizontal slit on this portion for easier removal of the spines. Lateral intermuscular spines - are located in-between the dorsal and ventral muscles. Pull out first the large arch-shaped spines at the base of the operculum. Proceed pulling out the Y-shaped spines up to the mid-portion of the body ending with 3 single delicate spines. Dorsal intermuscular spines - make a superficial slit from head to tail along the dent of the dorsal muscle. Pull out the embedded intermuscular spines one at a time. It is important to know the exact location of the spines most especially the intermuscular spines. SAUSAGE CASINGS The usual materials for sausage casing is the intestine of the slaughtered hog, sheep or cow. The intestines are lined up with five layers from within, such as: 1. Mucosa or lining of mucosa or saliva composed of cells that aid in digestion, absorption and circulation of substances to the various parts of the body. 2. Submucosa - nerves and fibers with fatty tissues in them. These are

rich in collagen, the chief material in casing. 3. Smooth muscles that surround the intestine. 4. Layer of fibers. 5. Serosa (outermost layer), composed of thin elastic fibers. Cow serosa is thicker than hog serosa. Procedure: Carefully pull the intestines from the slaughtered animal. Fat removal: Carefully scrape the fat with a knife. Remove all fat as much as possible because this will cause rancidity in the casings. This fat can be used for cooking. When pulling the intestines from the slaughtered pig or sheep, remove as well the adhering hairs, from the intestines. If it will facilitate, the intestines can be cut in pieces according to need. Removal of other materials: This can be done manually carefully or by means of a water hose for cleaning as well. Removal of slimy substance: The removal of slime depends on the kind and size of intestine. It may be cleansed by passing the intestine under a roller, or by scraping it to remove the serosa. Bigger intestines are flushed with water or turned inside out. After cleaning, soak the casing overnight in strong salt solution. Grading and Storing: The grading of casings is according to class, size and quality. The higher quality (or export quality in the U.S.) is that which is free from defects like holes, bruises or warts. After grading this is pumped with air or with water to enable the measuring of the circumference. Hog and sheep casings are marketed in lengths of 90 meters more or less, and those of cow's by 30 meters. After grading, these are salted with fine salt and stored further, and drained if wet. After draining, it is further shaken to remove any remaining water and salted again if necessary. Storage: Casings packed in salt get deteriorated too. These have to be put in 4°C temperature, but freezing must be avoided, as it could cause cracks that will be the start for the growth of molds. Avoid also the growth of red molds that thrive on salt. This will cause the decay of the casings. Other casings: 1. Cow bladder - after cleaning, air dry them. When dry, they are ready for marketing. 2. Hog or sheep intestine parts - these are joined together into various shapes. To make the edges adhere together, these are passed through heat and then joined together. 3. When cool and dry, they are packed and are ready for marketing. Source: Edible Meat By-Products by Pearson and Dutson

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