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EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE

Character: simplicity, massiveness, Monumentality Material : stone and brick System : columnar and trabaeted

Comparative analysis: Plans - irregular and asymmetrical Wall - no windows (batter wall) Openings - doors are square headed Roof - flat roof Columns - interior only, 6d - bud & bell, palm, foliated, hatthor head, osiris, polygonal Mouldings - torus and gorge

PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS: Egyptian Tombs: a. Mastaba - stairway, halfshrunk, elaborate structure elements: offering chapel w/ stele (slab) serdab (statue chamber) sarcophagus

b. Pyramid - square in plan, oriented in cardinal sides elements: offering chapel mortuary chapel elevated causeway (passageway) valley building (embalmment) types: step (zoser) slope blunt (seneferu)

c. Rock-cut- mountain side tombs elements: passages sepultural chamber Egyptian Temples: a. Cult Temple - worship of the gods

b. MORTUARY TEMPLE- to honor the pharos elements: pylon (entrance or gateway) hypaethral court (open to the sky court) hypostyle hall (pillard or columnar hall) sanctuary c. MINOR TEMPLE- mammisi temple (carved along mountain) d. OBELISK TEMPLE (monumental pillars, square in plan Egyptian Architects: Senusurets - built the earliest known obelisk at Heliopolis Amenemhat I - founded the great temple at Karnak Thothmes I - began the additions to the temple of Amnon Karnak Amenophis III - built the famous Colossi of Memnon Rameses I - began the hypostyle hall at Karnak Seti I - built the temple at Abu- Simber Ptolemy II - built the pharos of Light House Ptolemy III - founded the Great Seradeum at Alexandria Comparative analysis: Plan Walls - palaces are elevated on platforms w/ room covered by vaults - are built with sun died bricks, battlement cresting

Sphinx: (mythical monsters) Mastaba of Thi, SakkaraPyramid of Gizeh- Cheops, Chepren, Mykerinos Tombs of the Kings, Thebes The Great Temple of Arnak (greatest example of Egyptian temple) Great Sphinx at Gizeh (god horus)

WEST ASIA ARCHITECTURE


BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN Character : simplicity, massiveness, grandeur Material : brick System : arch and vault

( ASSYRIA finished w/ chiseled alabaster slab)

Comparative analysis: Openings- doors are semicircular headed w/ sculptured monstrers Roof- externally appeared flat but covered by brick vaults internally Columns - no columns Mouldings - no mouldings Ornaments - chiseled alabaster slab

PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS: a. Ziggurat: holy mountains Archaic ziggurats - rectangular w/ upper temple Multi level ziggurats - 2 to 5 tiers Assyrian ziggurats - square in plan w/ continous ramp w/ fire altar

b. Palace : usually built by Assyrian elements: seraglio - palace proper harem - private family apartments khan - service chamber Palace of Sarbon, Corsabat

PERSIAN
(architect of light and airy magnificence, open type plan) Material: stone for columns, brick for wall surface, timber for roof System: royal palace are built on platforms to achieve monumentality : columnar and trabaeted

Comparative analysis: Plan - open widely spaced columns Wall - made of bricks covered w/ polychrome brickwork Openings - windows and doors are square headed Roof flat roof made of timber Columns - tall & slender w/ flutted shafts, 15d & scroll, twin horse capital Mouldings - Greek & Egyptian Ornament - polychrome brickwork

Palace Platform, Persopolis Propylaea, Xerxes Palace of Darius Palace of Cerces Hypostyle Hall of Cerces Hall of Hundred Columns

GREEK ARCHITECTURE
Character: Simplicity & harmony Purity of line Perfection of proportions Refinement of details Material: marble System: columnar and trabaeted

Early Period/ Minoan or Mycenaean Principal buildings: a. Megaron : domestic unit elements : enclosed porch megaron proper thalamus- sleeping room

Walls: 1. cyclopean 2. polygonal 3. rectangular 4. inclined blocks b. Tombs Rock Cut - rectangular chamber cut deep into the mountainside Tholos - is a subterranean vault, circular in shape dromos- passageway c. Palaces Palace King Minos, Knossos

Helenic Period- religious structures Comparative Analysis : (Greek Temples) Simple & balance Symmetrical Rectangular

Principal buildings: a. Temples elements: front portico crepidoma- stylobate, steriobate pronaos naos epinaos/ posticum w/ or w/o opisthodomos peroma- space bet the naos wall and columns

Number of columns Henostyle Dinostyle Tristyle Tetrastyle Pentastyle Hexastyle Hectastyle Octostyle Ennastyle Decastyle Dodestyle

Arrangement of Columns Antis, Amphi-antis Prostyle, Amphi-prostyle Peripteral, Pseudo-peropteral Edipteral, Pseudo-dipteral

Comparative analysis: Wall - solidly constructed of blocks or stones, use of dowels or clamps Openings - doors, windows & colonnade are square headed Roof - w/ sloping rafters covered w/ thin marble slab to permit light - lacunaria (coffer) Column - principal external feature

Orders Introduced by Greeks Doric Order Ionic order Corinthian Order

Parts of Greek Order Entablature - cornice frieze architrave Column - capital shaft base

Proportion of Greek Orders Doric Order - favored by Greeks Column- 4-6 D Tablature- height of order Ionic Order Column- 9D Tablature- 1/5 height of order Corinthian Order Column- 10D Tablature- 1/5 height of order

Doric Order Abachus Echinus Trachelion Hypotrachelion Entasis

Ionic Order Abachus Echinus- volute Attic base if 2 torus Torus Plinth

Intercolumnation Spaces Corinthian Order Abachus Cauli-coli Acanthus leaves Hypnostyle- 1 d Systyle- space bet col 2d Eustyle- space 2 1/4d Diastyle- 3d Areostyle- 3 d

Principal buildings a. Temples


elements: acroterion pediment tympanum entablature metope triglyph raking cornice crepidoma

Entablature spacing Monotriglyph Ditriglyph Polytriglyph Mouldings parabola hyperbola elipse

Basis of Shape of Mouldings Cyma reversa/ olgee - Waterleaf & tongue Cyma recta - Antheneon or honey suckle Ovolo - Egg & dart or egg & tongue Atragal/ bead - Bead & reel Torus - Guilloche or plait Corona - Fret Fillet cavetto escocia - Plains

Sculptured reliefs free standing statuary- single or group figures

Types: bigas - 2 horse chariot Quadbigas - 4 horse chariot Themenos sacred enclosure

Palace King Minos, Knossos Acropolis, Athens Propelea - gateway Pinacotheca - paintings Glyptotheca - sculptures Statue of Athena Promochos Erechtheion - unusual because of carriage Porch (Mnesicles) Old Temple of Athena Temple of Nike Apteros - architect : Callicrates - Ionic temple Temple of Artemis - architect : Deinocrates - master sculptor : Scopas

Parthenon - largest - geatest example of greek architecture - architect : Ictinus - master sculptor : Callicrates - Doric temple - naos : made of gold and ivory - holds the statue of Athena

Temple of Zeus, Agrigentum 2nd largest architect : Theron 3 naos Atlantes figure

Theater of Dionysus, Athens b. Greek Theater - hallow out of hillside - 2/3 of circle elements : cavea orchestra- complete circle at center skene- proscenia (oration) paracenia- width of orchestra epicenium- background - prototype - largest for 30,000 people Theater of Epidauror - most beautiful & preserved - architect : Polycletos

Helenistic Period - civic structure Principal buildings Agora - town square, center of social & business life Stoa - shed, long colonnade Prytaneion - senate building Bouleuterion - council palace Stadium - foot race course

Principal buildings Audeion - smaller scale theater, used for musical Hipodrome - hose chariot racing, prototype of roman circus Palaestra - resting school Gymnasium - place for all types of physical Exercises Tomb- mosoleum elements: pediment podium Comparative analysis: Plan - assymetrical due to complexity of needs of romans Walls- made of stone & concrete Types: Opus quadratum Opus incertum Opus reticulatum Opus testaceum Opus mixtum

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE
Character : Vastness & magnificence Olstentation & ornateness Material : pozzolana & lime System : columnar, trabaeted & arcuated

Walls - introduction of buttresses Types: Niche/ hemicycle - retaining wall, detached Spur buttress - attached to wall Pinnacle - similar to spur but more pronounced

Elements of Arch Extrados Intrados String Course Impost Abutment Plinth Archivault Voussoir blocks Stilting Rise Spring Line Span

Roof - vaulting system Types: semi circular/ wagon headed vault (made of bricks) cross vault dome/ cupula Mouldings - heavily decorated

Column Composite - Ionic volute w/ Corinthian Tuscan - similar to Greek Doric w/ base Column- 7D / Tablature- 1 3/4D Doric OrderColumn- 8D / Tablature- 2D Ionic Order Column- 9D / Tablature- 21/4d Corinthian Order Column- 10D / Tablature- 2 1/2D

Ornament a. mosaic - floor, wall ceiling (Tesserrae) types: opusteselatum - square for ceilings opusectile - tesserae cut into shapes for wall opuspilatum - inchevron for floor b. mural paintings c. accantus scroll- most popular

Principal buildings a. Forum- a central open shape used as a meeting place, market or rendevous for political demonstration. Forum Romanum - oldest & most important Forum of Trajan - largest forum

b. Rectangular Temples Temple of Venus, Rome Appolodorus of Damascus Pantheon Rome ( Sta. Maria Rotunda) Agripa (corinthian temple)

c. Basilica - hall of justice & commercial exchange Trajans Basilica, Rome Appolodorus of Damascus d. Thermae - palatial public bath e. Balneum - private bath for family

Elements of Thermae 1. Main building - tepidarium - warm lounge - calidarium - hot water bath - sudotorium - hottest room - frigidarium - cooling room w/ piscana or swimming bath - unctoria - perfume & oil f. Theaters - orchestra is used by important people - skene became the stage Theater of Marcellus, Rome- concrete Theater Orange- partly concrete g. Amphitheatre - gladitoria contests Colloseum, Rome- vast ellipse Architects : Vespasian/ Dominitian

2. xystus - large open space w/ landscaping ,stadium from various types of athletic sports 3. outer ring of apartments - lecture room, exedrae, stores 4. hypocaust - furnace Thermae of Caracalla Thermae Of Diocletian

h. Circus - for horse & chariot racing elements: spina carceres Circus maximus, Rome- largest i. Tombs

Classes of Tomb: 1. Coemetera w/ Columbaria- a niche in the rock containing ashes of the dead Loculi- recess for corpse w/c were sealed w/ a front slab

2. Monumental tombs- similar to the Greek mousoleum in form & plan Mausoleum of Agustus, Rome Mausoleum of Hadrian, Rome (Castle of Angelo) 3. Pyramidal tombs 4. Temple shaded tombs

5. Sculptured memorials - minor tombs of varied designs 6. Cenotaphs - memorial monuments to person buried elsewhere j. Commemorative Monuments 1. Triumphal arch - 3 openings, for emperors

2. Pilar of victory/ memorial column record triumph of victorius generals Trajans Column - Doric column Architect : Titus 3. Rostral column - victorius campaigns done in sea victories

k. Palaces Palaces of Emperors, Rome by emperor Augustus Palace of Diocletian, Spalato largest Roman House l. Villa - country house peristyle - inner colonnaded court (open) cubicula - bedrooms triclina - dining room oecus - reception room alae - reception for conversation kitchen & pantry o. Pons - roman bridges

m. Insula - tenement house for workers n. Domus - private house Elements: prothyrum atrium - entrance court open to the sky impluvium - water cistern tablium - open saloon p. Aqueduct - for water supply of towns & cities Aquaclaudia - Caligula & Claudius Pontgard, Nimes - most manificent 25 miles long q. Fountains Types: Locus/ Lacus - large basin of water Salientes - provide water

Etruscan Period Introduced radiating arch Tuscan column/ similar to Greek Doric w/ Base Atrium in domestic planning

EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE


Character: Simplicity in design and treatment Coarseness in execution Material : savaged from pagan structures Basilican plan for churches (east oriented) System: trabaeted & arcuated

Comparative analysis: Plan - evolved from roman basilica built on site of saints burial places Elements : bell tower atrium- with fountain narthex nave- side aisles choir- cancelli (low walls)

high altar - baldochino, crypt/ confessio/ cimborium ambo apse - for bishops & cardinals Materials : Masonry & concrete Walls - exterior : concrete w/ plain plasters - interior : mosaic

Openings - arcaded, doors & windows are span w/ semicircular arches lintels or entablature Roofs Nave - timber trusses Side aisles - semicircular arches Apse - side dome Columns - 4 roman columns

Mouldings - roman mouldings are adapted, very crude Ornament - linked to Christian religion 2 basic ornaments: mosaic mural paintings Example of Basilican Churches: Basilican Church of St. Peter, Rome Church of St. John Lateran

BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE
Removed the atrium Narthex became the entrance Covered by dome roof- external features

Character : Simplicity in external design Richness in internal treatment Material : bricks used for walls & concrete for domes marble for columns System : fusion of domical construction Classic columnar & trabaeted style

Comparative analysis: Plan - Greek cross plan Walls - bricks Exterior - brick in various design Interior - mosaic & marble Openings - are spanned by semicircular arches or lintels

Windows - 3 thick translucent marble Roof - dome Types: Simple - pendentives, dome Compound - supported by drum Melon shaped - with flutings Columns : dosseret block, soffit, capitals

Mouldings : Billet moulding Mosaic Mural paintings Ornaments : symbolism

Sta. Soffia of Constantinople, Hagia Sophia for emperor Justinian Arch. Arthemus of Tralles Isodorus of Miletus now a muslim mosque

Peacock - symbol of eternal life Endless knot - eternity Chirho - Jesus Christ

St. Mark, Venice Italy - most important example of Byzantine

ROMANESQUE - roman like art


Character : Sober & Dignified Material: stone & brick for Germany System : arcuated principle of equilibrium through vaulting system made up of rib & panel vaulting

External feature - towers on nave & transept, facades Walls - supported by pilaster strips Windows - rose or wheel windows Roof - Rib & panel Vaulting 1. quadripartite 2. sexpartite

Mouldings - are usually in horizontal courses, deviated from roman Ornaments - fresco paintings- principal - vegetable & animals forms Principal buildings a. Monastery

Elements of Monastery Church Cloister court Inner court Common court

Countries that adapted Romanesque ITALY Central Italy- ornamental faade- rising one from another North Italy- rose window
Pizza Cathedral Pizza Campanile Cathedral Baptistery

FRENCH ROMANESQUE Southern France - Muslim influence due to pointed arch Northern Italy - flanking towers Madeleine Vezelay - earliest form of cross-pointed vault in France Abbaye-Aux Homes, Caen Order - prototype of Gothic

GERMAN ROMANESQUE East & west apse Worms Cathedral - emperor Charlemagne

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE France- style ogivale - lofty & aspiry quality - structural honesty - economy in use of material

System : Arcuated w/ Pointed Arches Material : stone Principal building : Cathedral- Latin Cross (west oriented) Plan - asymmetrical Walls - rubble masonry, buttress to support walls Countries that adapted Gothic: FRENCH GOTHIC 1. 2. 3. Primary/ Lancet Period - pointed arches & geometric tracery windows Rayonnant Period - circular windows w/ wheel tracery Flamboyant Period - flame like or free flowing tracery

Roof - ribbed & paneled vaulting Column - group column Mouldings - 45 deg from wall Ornaments - stained glass & figured sculpture

Principal Buildings a. Cathedrals Notre Dame, Paris - oldest Gothic Cathedral By bishop Maurice De Sully Finest & most characteristic French gothic Chartres Cathedral - 130 stained galss windows Profussion of sculptured figures in west front

Rheims Cathedral - coronation church of kings of France 500 carved statues on west facades Ameins Cathedral - archt Robert de Luzarches Typical French cathedral Carved woodwork on choir stalls Beauvais Cathedral - tallest in Europe, 157 to the vault 1 of the wonders of medieval in France

b. Fortified Towns Carcassone - 50 towers, moat & walls c. Castles Chateau de Perrefonds - elongated location, overlooking town Arch. Viollet- le- Duc

ENGLISH GOTHIC English gothic vaulting : formerets diagonal ribs ridge ribs transverse ribs tierceron boss - covering of ribs (pendant)

English gothic vaulting : Moulding - nail head Double cone Dog tooth cable Ball flower Tablet flower Embatled sandwich

Classification of English Gothic Mouldings: bowtel - of a circle pointed bowtel - roll moulding in w/c 2 faces meet in a blunt arris bracket/ brace nail - double Mouldingheadogee wave moulding - a slight connexity followed by hallows keel moulding scroll casement hood & label Principal Buildings: a. Cathedrals 1 div : Cathedral of the Old Foundation served by secular clergy York Cathedral largest cathedral among English cathedral Salisbury Cathedral English gothic characteristic
st

Types of Trusses tie beam trusted rafter hammer beam collar beam aisle roof

2nd div : Cathedral of the Monastic Foundation served by monks or regular clergy Cantherbury Cathedral st 1 Norman church Winchester Cathedral longest gothic cathedral

3 div : Cathedrals of the New Foundation served by bishops presence of 2 chapels lady chapel - Virgin Mary chantry chapel - patrons are buried

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b. Monastery Westminster Abbey- largest Benedictine Foundation Triple group of monastery Coronation church & burial place for Eng kings Royal Palace - parliament & Big Ben Westminster Church - highest

c. Castles Tower of London - builder Bishop Gundolf for William I d. Manor House Hampton Court Palace - archt Cardinal Wolsey e. University University of Oxford Cambridge University

BELGIUM & DEUTCH GOTHIC - eastern & western apse Principal Buildings: a. Hall Church St. Elizabeth, Manburg - typical church in Germany Cologne Cathedral - largest gothic church in Northern Europe

ITALIAN GOTHIC Milan Cathedral - 2nd largest church in Europe archt Henrich Von Gmunden Sienna Cathedral - stripped marble found in walls & tiers of church Santo Corce - Arnolfo de Cambio, 1 of largest in Europe

Florence Cathedral - combination of gothic & renaissance Arnolfo de Cambio - Famous group bldg in the world Doges Palace in Italy - civic example gothic in Italy Giovanni & Bartolome Buon Ca D Oro - one of the famous palatial homes during gothic period

SPANISH GOTHIC - influenced by Muslim art - excessive ornament found in retablo - retablo & grilles or rajas- back of altar Civic Cathedral - largest Cathedral in Europe

Largest Church: St. Peters Cathedral Civic Cathedral William Cathedral Colon Cathedral St. Pauls, London

RENAISSANCE - rebirth of classical


Character : Dignity & Formality achieved thru Symmetry System : Trabaeted and Arcuated Elements : pediment, horizontal cornice, columnar arcade Rococo Comparative analysis: Plans - symmetrical Walls - often constructed w/ ashlar masonry, bricks for Germany Exterior wall - rustification : dado height 1.20m Doors & windows - semi circula head w/ greek entablature

Baroque - curve lines 1. twisted column/ solomonica 2. pediment segmented scrolled open swan neck broken

Roof - semi- circular vaults - dome or drum w/ semi circular windows Columns - classic orders Mouldings - roman mouldings Ornaments - fresco paintings Exterior color effect - sgrafitto (colored plaster)

Countries that adapted Rennaisance: ITALY - birth place of renaissance Florence - birthplace, typical form Rome - typical Venice - receded frontage, contextualization w/ Environment Brunelleschi - most famous architect in Italy

Dome of Florence Cathedral - gothic & renaissance Palazzo Pitti - largest except for Vatican Alberti - author of first architecture book after invention of printing ( De re Aedificatoria) Church of Santa Andrea, Mantua prototype of later renaissance Bramante - first Roman architect of renaissance time Pazzo Della Cancellaria Vatican Palace, Rome

Raphael - cousin, pupil of Bramante & one of the greatest painters Vatical Loggie Vignola - Villa of Pope Julius, Rome Palazzo Farnese, Caprarola most maginificent of Roman palaces Gesu Church, Rome prototype of Jesuit Church in baroque style Michael Angelo : Medici Mausoleum wealthiest family in Italy

Capitol, Rome - most successful civil work Longhena - Sta. Maria Della Salute, Venice structure in the middle of canal St. Peters Basilica most famous in Italy, Renaissance period Bramante first architect, plan in form of Greek cross plan Givliano da Sangallo - continued, after 2 yrs died

Fra Giacondo - died Raphael - changed plan into Latin cross Baldazar Peruzzi - went back to Greek cross plan Antonio de Sangallo - younger, extended vestibule - designed the campanile - proposed central dome Michael Angelo - change to Greek cross plan - redesigned surrounding chapels & apses - designed the dome

Giacomo Della Porta w/ Dominico Fontona - completed the dome Vignola - added side dome Carlo Maderna - change into Latin cross plan & colonnade Bernini - designed the entrance piazza containing 284 ionic columns

Panthenon, Rome - largest dome Roman Florence Cathedral, Italy - 138 Renaissance St Peters Basilica, Italy - 137 1/2 Renaissance St Paul, London - 112 Renaissance Sta Soffia, Constantinople - 107 Byzantine

FRENCH RENAISSANCE Chateau de Bury (typical French chateau) Chateau de Blois (spiral shell staircase) - Leonardo da Vinci

Principal Buildings a. Palaces Palais de Louvre (historical artifacts) - Pierre Lescot Palais de Tuilleries - Philbert de Larme (residence of French rulers till 1879) Palais de Versailles (for Louis xiv) - Le Vau

b. Churches Church of the Sorbonne - Le Mercier Dome of the Invalides (niche of Napoleon Boniparte) GERMAN RENAISSANCE French style, use of bricks Heidelber Castle Salzberg Cathedral

SPANISH RENAISSANCE - plateresque style - churrigueresque style (Spanish baroque) Plateresque - fancy design by silver crafts Churrigueresque - inspired by Jose de Churrigueresque - high baroque of Spanish renaissance ENGLISH RENAISSANCE Elizabethan Mansion Features: Towers Gable roof Parapets Balustrade Chimneystacks

Palace of Charles V. Granada - Pedro Machuca best example Escorial (art works) - Julian de Bautista, Julian de Herera w/ monastery, collage, church & place Granada Cathedral - Diego de Silde One of the grandest cathedral in Spain Tomb of Ferdinand & Isabela & others

Bay & oriel window Topiary work- landscaping sculpture Elements: Great hall Grand staircase Long Gallery (upper floor) - most striking feature Solar (with drawing room) - warmest room

Architects Inigo Jones - deciple of Italian Renaissance characterized by the use of bricks Banqueting House, White Hall Queens House, Greenwich

Sir Christopher Wren - deciple of French renaissance St Pauls Cathedral greatest masterpiece, model English 53 London churches Greenwich Observatory & hospital Fountain court & garden faade of Hampton Palace

REVIVAL ARCHITECTURE - 19TH CENTURY ARCH. Marked by Battle of Style- conflict between GOTHIC & CLASSIC Arts & Craft Movement - alliance of artists & factories, paved way to

Art Nouveau - organic & dynamic forms curving designs whiplash line Victorian Architecture - Britain revival architecture

BRITAIN 1830-1850 EARLY VICTORIAN Greek Revival & Graeco Roman Ex. Railway Buildings Personalities Awn Pugin S. Joseph Paxton - Crystal Palace S. W. Chambers - Somerset House S. John Soane - Bank of England

1850-1875 HIGH VICTORIAN Gothic Revival Renaissance Revival Personalities S.G. Scott - Liver Pool Cathedral S. Charles Barry - Westminster Palace 1875-1901 LATE VICTORIAN Romanesque, Byzantine Baroque, Flemish, Renaissance

CENTRAL EUROPE 1830-1848 JULY MONARCHY Neo Renaissance Ex. Vignon, Madeleine Paris Chalgrin - Arc de Triomphe Brandenburg Gate

1848- 1870 SECOND EMPIRE High Neo Renaissance Ex. Fernstel - Votive Church, Vienna 1870-1914 THIRD REPUBLIC Neo- Baroque Ex. Charles Garnier - Paris Opera House

EARLY 20 ENGLAND Queen Anne Style - popularized by Norman Shaw applied on domestic houses BRITAIN

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CENTURY

Art Nouveau - Charles Rennie Mckintosh Ritz Hotel - first building made of reinforced concrete & glass after war - Mewes & Davies

Schools Ecole Des Beaux-Arts - Architectural Design Ecole de polytechnique - Engineering Art Nouveau France - Le Modern Style Germany - Jugensdstil, Bandwurmstil, Tapeworm Austria - Sezessione Italy - Stile Liberty, Stile Inglese, English Style Spain - Modernismo C. Europe B. Lubetsrin W. Gropius Serge Chermayeff E. Mendelsohn Marcel Breuer German Exponents Of Arts & Crafts August Endel Henri Vande Velde

Architects of Modern Period Britain Wells Coates A.D. Connel C.A. Lucas Edwin Maxwell Fry B.R. Ward F.R.S. Yorke

Viennese Architects Otto Wagner J.M. Olbrich Important architects of 1900-1916 Peter Behrens - Germany Auguste Perret - France Adolf Loos - Austria

Foremost architects of Modern Period Erich Mendelson - Germany Ragnar Ostberg - Sweden Ivar Tengbon - Sweden Sven Markelious - Sweden Gunnar Asplono - Denmark

Prominent Art Nouveau Architects Mckintosh- Scotland Antonio Gaudi- Spain (undulating lines) Sagrada Familia Victor Horta- Belgium 19th century Precedents of Modern Architecture Crystal palace- Joseph Paxton Halles Centralles (market)- Baltard Bibioteque Nationale (lib)- Henry Labrouste

Pioneers of Modern Architecture Otto Wagner- Austria Peter Behrens- Germany August Perret- France Hendrik Berlage- Holland Louis Sullivan- U.S.

19 Century Inventions combination of glass & steel folded slab - introduced by Eugene Freyssinet flat slab - by Robert Millart laminated timber (plywood)

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AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE
Georgian/ Colonial Architecture White House, Washington Mckim, Mead & White Independence Hall, California Andrew Hamilton

NATIONAL PHASE 1. Post Colonial Period - 1790-1815 - Departure from English architecture to French influence, revival period in U.S.A Classic Revival example: Capitol, Washington D.C. Thornton, Hallet & Latrobe University of Virginia Thornton, Hallet & Latrobe

Montecillo Virginia Thornton, Hallet & Latrobe Plan of Washington D.C. Charles Pierre L Enfant Federal Hall, Washington D.C. Charles Pierre L Enfant Washington Monument, Washington D.C. Robert Mills Philadelphia Exchange William Stricklamp

Revival of Gothic example: Trinity Church, New York Richard Upjan St. Patricks Cathedral James Wrenwick

3. 2nd Eclectic Period- 1860-1930 2. 1st Eclectic Period - 1815-1860 predominant style of Greek architecture balloon frame introduction in building construction use of cast iron as building material - most important period in architecture in U.S.A. Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia- 1876 Worlds Columbian Exposition, Philadelphia- 1893 Predominant style: Gothic Revival- initiated by Henry Richardson later by Louis Sullivan

End of Gothic Revival Frank Loyd Wright Beaux-Arts - more academic in character St. John the Divine Cathedral, NY- Le Farge Marshal Field Store, Chicago- Henry Richardson

Skyscraper dominant: innovations metal frame construction non- load bearing curtainwall elevator

MUSLIM ARCHITECTURE 4. 1930- Modern Period in America Walter Gropius Erich Mendelsohn Mies Vander Rohe Eliel Saarinen Bauhaus Principal building Masjid/ Mosque 3 types: Fami Masjid/ Friday Mosque- biggest Madrasa- colligiate mosque, learning Tomb Mosque

Characteristics of Friday Mosque Minaret - tower Maqsura - screen Dikka - reading desk Mihrab - niche Mimbar - pulpit Liwanit - colonnade Fawara - fountain Sahn - open space

Characteristics of mosque Dome Colonnade - trefoil, ogee, horseshoe, lancet Ornaments - Mnemonic inscription (text) Superimposed ornaments - in layers Stalactite - found in pendentives (muqarna) 3d corbels

Examples of Muslim Architecture Arabian Saracenic Great Mosque Mecca Assyrian Saracenic Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem - holiest place Spanish Saracenic Great Mosque Cordova - capital of Islam religion in West Giralda, Seville most beautiful towers Alhambra Granada part of royal palace, most famous Turkish Saracenic Taj Mahal, Agra - most important, made of marble

INDIAN ARCHITECTURE Characterized by Buddhist, Jain, Hindu Buddhist Stambha/ Lath - monumental pillars Stupa/ Tope - domical sacred mound Chaitya - Indian Buddhist temple Vihara - Indian Buddhist monastery

Hindu temple elements Mandapa - hall for religious dancing & music Garbhagriha - unlighted shrine Vimana sanctuary Great Stupa Sanchi - characteristic of Indian architecture Golden Temple of Sikhs - holiest temple

CHINESE ARCHITECTURE Roof characteristics 1. steep gable roof w/ spreading eaves 2. extensive use of roof tilesyellow, green, blue- imperial palace red- mandarin black or gray- citizens 3. sculptural works found on roof ridges- dragon, fish

Principal buildings: Pai- Lou - Chinese gateway (3 openings) Pagoda/ Tais - houses relic of Buddha Temples - contains statue of Buddha

Elements of Temple Temple proper Dagoba Bell tower Pagoda Library Monks dwelling

House - generally one storey Emperor - 9 bays Prince - 7 bays Mandarin - 5 bays Ordinary citizens - 3 bays Great Wall of China - built by : emperor Si- Huang- Ti

JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE The Gussho System - based on rigidity of the triangle Features: Roof construction: 1. Kiruzuma/ Gabled Roof 2. Hogyo/ Pyramidal Roof 3. Shichu- Hip- Ridge Roof 4. Irimoya- Hip & Gabled Roof

Incorporation of Buddhist altar in Japanese mansion Incorporation of stupas in monastery Chasitsu or tea house in Japanese dwellings Modular planning of house & palaces thru use of tatami 3x5

CAMBODIAN ARCHITECTURE - Stone Carving Angkor Thom - founder Jayavarman - center of town Bayon (main temple 54 towers) Angor Wat - one of architectural wonders of world - largest religious structure in the world, behive shape towers INDONESIAN ARCHITECTURE - Hindu influenced (stone carving) Borubodur - largest budhist temple Stupa in Java

TIBETAN ARCHITECTURE NEPALIST ARCHITECTURE - Buddhist Stupa - 13 tiers, symbolizes heaven Swayambhunath Stupa, Katmandu - square base w/ eyes of Buddha Chorten- stupa Sakya Monastery - famous for collection of Tibetan manuscript Potala Palace, Lhasa - palace for entertaining important people

THAI ARCHITECTURE Wat - group of religious buildings Bot - temple Phra chedi - stupa w/ a round tower Phra prang - stupa w/ elliptical tower Pra sat - royal throne hall Mondop - library Sala - pavilion for resting Kuti - monastery Phra Pathom Chedi - most important architectural landmark in Thailand

PHILIPPINE ARCHITECTURE
Indigenous Folk Dwellings a. ISNEG ( binuron house ) - appears to have been influenced by boat design - roof : resembles inverted hull ; gable type ; halfsection of bamboo laid on like shingles

- 15 post : 8 inner posts support the floor 6 posts support the roof 1 post (atobtobo) support the end of the ridge - tarakip : an annex attached to one or both end of the ridge - side walls vertical planks may be removed to make windows - floor : reed mat which can be rolled up for washing

b. KALINGA binayon or finaryon (upper kalinga)

- on one side, the floor is removed leaving a space that extends from the ground level to the roof upper kalinga

- octagonal house ( the house of the rich) - supported by 12 post : 4 inner posts 8 outer posts to form an octagon - floor : reed mat - roof : hipped, not high and steep, made of bamboo

- floor area is divided into one wide middle section (dattagon) slightly narrow elevated side sections (sipi) - kinimpal : roof system using several layers of bamboo

c. BONTOC ( fayu house ) - tinalob : only 2 layers of bamboo (for poor) - basic form is like the ifugao house except that the quarters are on ground level and the house cage serves as the granary - walls : up to waist level, leaving a continuous opening protected by the eaves -falig : granary for richer people adjacent to their house

- 4 inner posts constitute the houses core support; outer posts at each corner of the house support the roof

- has a lot of sections having specific names for its area is quite bigger d. IFUGAO ( fale house ) - three-level structure : stone pavement, house cage and roof - posts : shoulder height, support only the girders - walls : slaut outward

- 3-level space within the house : floor, shelf, loft (granary) - ratguard : thin cylinders placed on the posts - roof : thatched, pyramidal, extends up to floor level - basket under second level - detachable stairs - slaughtered carabao and human heads displayed on front of their house - doors can be remain open - hagabi : bench under their house for socialization

local variations a. kiangan house - roof is not as steep and does not extend up to floor level, hipped - wall sidings wood or sawali; no ratguards

b. mayoyao house - roof is steeper and completely conceals the house cage; not ratguards - eminent for its pure, classic outline and fine craftsmanship

e. KANKANAI ( binangiyan house ) - high, steep, hipped roof, conceals the house cage - 4 posts support the house cage; roof is supported by the upper frame of the house - walls : made of narra or pine - living quarters consist of main area where the fireplace is located and a small room at the rear - only one entrance, door is decorated with fluting - no rat guards

f. IVATAN - made of thick lime-and stone walls with a thick roof of cogon - made up of two houses : one which makes up the living and the sleeping areas (rakuh), the other makes up the kitchen - rakuh has 2 doors and 2 windows built on 3 walls, fourth wall facing the strongest wind is left windowless

Special type of house a. chivuvuhung - cogon - itbayaten house - one structure, one room house sinadumparan - ivatan g. TBOLI - space surrounded by space h. TAUSUG and SAMAL - humanist architecture - clustered houses built on water

b.

i. MARANAO torogan house - colored - datus house - post are placed on top of rocks for earthquake purposes

SPANISH COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE


BAHAY NA BATO - brought about 19th century by the changes in society and economy

- 3 possible origins (Bahay na Bato) a. BAHAY KUBO open plan, concept of space (space surrounded by space), pointed roof and ventilation (wide window), silong b. TRIBAL LEADERS HOUSE strong construction; spacious with many furniture and rooms; elaborate decoration; best materials - the PEAK of native Philippine architecture : made the bahay kubo bigger and more extravagant but retained its character

c. CONVENTOS adjacent to the church, permanence permanence

spaciousness; may have been the local models of luxury and prestige

- earthquake proof : resting on wooden posts mortised on stone, buried on the ground to dance with the earthquake

- 10 areas GROUND FLOOR made of coral stones, adobe or rubble; with small windows; area include:

a. b. c. d.

zaguan for caruajes, grains quadra stables bodega old carozas, grains entrasuelo mezzanine where the valuables are kept, may also house offices or additional dwelling units e. patio enclosed courtyard

CEREMONIAL STAIRWAY first three step (descanzo) made of marble tiles; landing with bastonera; remaining steps are made of narra LIVING SPACES wide double doors may be opened to connect the spaces and create a large hall

a. antesala or caida for acquaintances; spacious hall separated by callado b. sala for friends and intimates; divided by movable screens or biombo c. bedrooms (quarto or silid) usually three; contains four-posted beds, armories, chests; SANTOS with ivory heads and hands are placed at the master bedroom d. comedor dining area; plateria and long table

COCINA kitchen; contains the paminggalan (food cabinet) and dispensa (rice storage) COMON or LATRINA toilet, sometimes with two-passenger water closet BAO or PALIGUAN bathroom ALCOVA additional quartos

BALCON terrace in the living room, jutting out of the house AZOTEA open terrace of stone and ceramic placed near the kitchen; with a cistern for gathering rain water VOLADA flying gallery over the zaguan; protects the interior from heat and rain

- distinctive features PERSIANA large windows with slats covered with capiz to filter light; unique in Southeast Asia VENTANILLA small windows usually at lower portion of the wall CALLADO open woodwork or tracery; fixed over a window or placed as space dividers BARANDILLAS wrought iron traceries on the wall BANGGERA where the dishes are kept

- regional differences ILOCOS sober architecture; Vigan houses are entirely made of bricks, pilasters embedded on sides, dignified without too much decoration CEBU expansive, ground floor made of huge coral stones SOUTHERN TAGALOG airy. Second flanges over the walls of the ground

MILITARY ARCHITECTURE - forts and fortresses constructed by Spanish friars as a defense against Moro pirates

REAL FUERZA DE SANTIAGO (Fort Santiago) shrine of freedom, - designed by Father Antonio Cedeno with Diego Jordan as engineer

INTRAMUROS - famous walled city within a city; - seven gates; - completed 1872; - made of bricks and hard adobe from the Pasig River quarries; - wall are 45 ft thick and rise 25 ft above the moat; Structures inside the city include: a. Fort Santiago b. San Agustin Church c. Convent

LATE SPANISH PERIOD


- Architectural development 1. 2. 3. roofs at 45 degrees gradient or less use of bricks, limestone, hardwood, capiz shells (G.I. sheets and clay tiles or tisa were imported) elaborate lace-like grillwork (1870s) 4. 5. 6. transoms with floral and foliate scroll work (1890s) 1890s Art Nouveau brought swirling vines and flowers for staircase balustrades, etched or colored glass panels replaced capiz emergence of Filipino and foreign architects working in the Philippines

a. FELIX ROXAS first Filipino architect; served as architect to the Manila government; studied in England and Spain b. JUAN HERVAS a Catalan who was one of the Spanish architects invited to reconstruct Manila after the earthquake of 1863 and 1880

7. churches a. Sto. Domingo Church, Intramuros b. San Ignacio, Intramuros first church designed by a Filipino architect c. San Sebastian Church, Manila only Gothic church in the Philippines

8. bridges
a. Fuente de Espana first bridge to span the Pasig River linking Intramuros and Binondo b. Colgante Bridge suspension bridge; only for pedestrians; framework of iron imported from England

AMERICAN PERIOD
- architectural development 1. 2. a regime of reinforced concrete and galvanized iron Neo-Classical styles

3. DANIEL BURNHAM commissioned by Gov. General W.H. Taft to draft the Master Plan for Manila and government buildings (Agri-Finance Building, Senate Building, among others) 4. MASTER BUILDERS (maestro de obras) acquired title either from practical experience or completed academic training of Master Builders course

5. LICEO DE MANILA first school to open three year course in architecture 6. TOMAS MAPUA first licensed architect; established the second school (followed by UST and Adamson) 7. MASONIC TEMPLE, Escolta first multi-storey reinforced concrete building in the Philippines

8. CHALET suburban house; simple design with verandah in front or around the house; middle-class 9. 1930s continued urban development; emergence of multistorey, multi-family dwellings and commercial structures; distinct simplification of lines, emphasis on verticality; other architects contradicted the trend by putting horizontal strips of glass window

POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE
- mediocre design, uncontrolled and hasty rebuilding only resurrected old designs - commercial building drew inspiration from contemporary architecture in the West - development of community planning

- BUNGALOW introduced in 1948; one-storey house with wide picture windows, a lanai and a carport for up to three cars - modern architecture with a renewed interest in Filipino Motifs a. use of pointed roofs, lattices, screens, wood carvings b. architecture of LEANDRO LOCSIN and FRANCISCO MANOSA