Question: 1

The purpose is to select materials that could be used in a spring. The spring will be used in a door closing mechanism, meaning that the door will be opening and closing number of times a day. The springs need to be as compact as possible because it has to go through large deflections. The idea for the spring is to maximise the stored elastic energy per volume. Function: as compact as possible, strong and tough Constraints: Stiffness, deformation Objective: maximize the stored Elastic energy and low young’s modulus. Free Variables: choice of the Materials, design of the spring, and cost of the product / material Below is the chart that shows the possible materials used in a Coil Spring.

1( 5 and hardens when 6uenched and is used for ma7ing tools whereas medium carbon steel has . the possible materials are #opper "lloys./2'( 2 *+.) *+.0 *+.. "ccording to the chart. $igh carbon steel./-g % Medium carbon steel% ./-g % 3ow carbon steel% . medium carbon steel..2 *+./ -g % Tungsten alloys% &)../2'( 2 *+. $igh. So in conclusion the suitable materials to ma7e a coil spring are high carbon steel and medium carbon steels.04'(../( . ./01(2. % $igh carbon steel% ../01(2.0 *+..'( &./1 *+. low carbon steel./-g % 3ow carbon steel% ./-g % $igh carbon steel% ..The chart shows that the term σ f / E is maximised where σf is the strength and E is the elastic modulus..04'(../-g #onsidering the economical factor as a constraint./-g % Medium carbon steel% ./1 *+.. The costs for these materials are% #opper "lloys% &.'(1 .' *+.. The Elastic modulus is on the ! axis and the yield strength is on the y axis../-g % "luminium alloys% ...15 carbon which is also used to ma7e cheap tools so the two materials ta7en under consideration is high carbon steel and medium carbon steel. Medium and low carbon steels are the best ones to use. (. tungsten alloys and aluminium alloys./ -g Since high carbon steel has .

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