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CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN
I. TNG QUAN..3 1. Cc h mch logic lng cc3 2. Cc h mch logic n cc...3 II. C IM CHUNG CA CC VI MCH LOGIC.4 1. 2. Phn loi cc IC s.4 Cc c trng..4

III. CC H CNG LOGIC.10 1. 2. 3. H DDL (DIODE DIODE LOGIC).11 H DTL (DIODE-TRANSISTOR LOGIC) ..13 H TTL (TRANSISTOR-TRANSISTOR LOGIC) 13 Cc c im ca h TTL chun..14 H TTL ci tin15 TTL vi ng ra cc thu h (OPEN COLLECTOR OUTPUT)....17 H TTL ba trng thi (TRISTATE).17 H RTL (RESISTOR-TRANSISTOR LOGIC)..18 Mch logic MOS.19 H CMOS.21 Cng c bn NMOS.26 H ECL (EMITTER COUPLED LOGIC)...27

a. b. c. d.
1. 2.

a. b.
1.

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

2. 3.

Tm tt c trng ca mt vi h cng logic...28 IC s..29 Mc tch hp.30 K hiu v ca IC s.30 Mt s IC thng gp...31

a. b. c.

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN
I. TNG QUAN Xt v c bn c 2 lai thit b bn dn l lng cc v n cc. Da trn cc thit b ny, cc mch tch hp c hnh thnh. 1. Cc h mch logic lng cc: Cc yu t chnh ca IC lng cc l in tr, diode v BJT, hai hat ng trong IC lng cc l: tt v bo ha, cc h logic lng cc:

Mch logic DDL

Mch logic RTL Mch logic DCTL Mch logic HTL Mch logic TTL Mch logic Schottky TTL Mch logic ECL 2. Cc h mch logic n cc: Cc thit b MOS l cc thit b n cc v ch c cc MOSFET c vn hnh trong cc mch logic MOS, cc mch logic MOS l: PMOS NMOS CMOS II. 1. C IM CHUNG CA CC VI MCH S Phn lai cc IC s:

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Loi IC T hp quy m nh SSI T hp quy m trung bnh MSI T hp quy m ln LSI T hp quy m rt ln VLSI

Cc cng cn bn Nh hn 12 12-99 100-999 Ln hn 1000

S cc linh kin Ln n 99 100-999 100-999 Ln hn 10000

2. a. -

Cc c trng: Tc hat ng, l thuc vo thi gian tr truyn t. C hai loi thi tr truyn: Thi tr truyn t thp ln cao t
PHL PLH

v thi tr

truyn t cao xung thp t

. Hai gi tr ny thng khc nhau. S thay i

trng thi c xc nh tn hiu ra. Th d tn hiu qua mt cng o

Ty theo h IC, thi tr truyn thay i t vi ns n vi trm ns. Thi tr

truyn cng ln th tc lm vic ca IC cng nh. b. Tn hao cng sut (Power requirement), xc nh bi tch s ngun cung

cp Vcc v dng Icc (gi tr trung bnh ca dng Icc mc 0 v mc 1), n v mW.

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

PD (avg) = ICC (avg) . VCC


c. Ch s gi tr, xc nh bi tch s tc v cng sut nh gi cht lng IC, ngi ta dng i lng tch s cng sut-vn

tc l tch s cng sut tiu tn v thi tr truyn. Ch s gi tr (pJ) = thi gian tr hon truyn t (ns) x cng sut (mW). Th d h IC c thi tr truyn l 10 ns v cng sut tiu tn trung bnh l
-9 -3 -12

50 mW th tch s cng sut-vn tc l:

10 ns x 5 mW =10.10 x5.10 = 50x10 = 50 picojoules (pj)


Ch s gi tr cng nh cng tt

watt-sec

Trong qu trnh pht trin ca cng ngh ch to IC ngi ta lun mun

t c cc IC c cng sut tiu tn v thi tr truyn cng nh cng tt. Nh vy mt IC c cht lng cng tt khi tch s cng sut-vn tc cng nh. Tuy nhin trn thc t hai gi tr ny thay i theo chiu ngc vi nhau, nn ta kh m t c cc gi tr theo mun, d sao trong qu trnh pht trin ca cng ngh ch to linh kin in t tr s ny lun c ci thin . d. H s ti, l s cng c th c vn hnh bi mt cng, h s ti cng

cao cng thun li. e. Cc tham s dng v p VCC: in th ngun (power supply): khong in th cho php cp cho

IC hot ng tt. Th d vi IC s h TTL, VCC=50,5 V , h CMOS VDD=315V (Ngi ta thng dng k hiu VDD v VSS ch ngun v mass ca IC h MOS)

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

in p u vo mc cao VIH (High level input voltage) : in p ti

thiu m cng c th nhn bit mc 1 in p u vo mc thp VIL (Low level input voltage) : in p ti a in p u ra mc cao VOH (High level output voltage) : in p ti

m cng c th nhn bit mc 0 -

thiu ti u ra tng ng mc 1 in p u ra mc thp VOL (Low level output voltage) : in p ti a Cng dng in u vo mc cao IIH (High level input current) :

ti u ra tng ng mc 0 -

dng ti thiu c cung cp tng ng vi mc 1 Cng dng in u vo mc thp IIL (Low level input current) : Cng dng in u ra mc cao IOH (High level output current) :

dng ti a c cung cp tng ng vi mc 0 -

dng cc i m ng ra cung cp tng ng vi mc 1 Cng dng in u ra mc thp IOH (Low level output current):

dng cc tiu m ng ra cung cp tng ng vi mc 0 f. I


CCH CCL

,I

: Dng in chy qua IC khi ng ra ln lt mc cao v thp.

Nhiu Cc tn hiu nhiu nh tia la in, cm ng t c th lm thay i trng

thi logic ca tn hiu do nh hng n kt qu hot ng ca mch. Tnh min nhiu ca mt mch logic ty thuc kh nng dung np hiu

th nhiu ca mch v c xc nh bi l nhiu. L nhiu c c do s chnh lch ca cc in th gii hn (cn c gi l ngng logic) ca mc cao v thp gia ng ra v ng vo ca cc cng

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Tn hiu khi vo mch logic c xem l mc 1 khi c tr >V (min) v


IH

l mc 0 khi <V (max). in th trong khong gia khng ng vi mt mc IL logic no nn gi l vng bt nh. Do c s khc bit gia VOH(min) vi V (min) v V (max) vi V (max) nn ta c 2 gi tr l nhiu:
IH OL IL

L nhiu mc cao: V

NH

= VOH(min) - VIH(min)

L nhiu mc thp: VNL = VIL(max) - VOL(max) Khi tn hiu ra mc cao a vo ng vo, bt c tn hiu nhiu no c
NH

gi tr m v bin >V

u lm cho in th ng vo ri vo vng bt nh

v mch khng nhn ra c tn hiu thuc mc logic no. Tng t cho trng hp ng ra mc thp tn hiu nhiu c tr dng bin >V vo trng thi bt nh.
NL

s a mch

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

g.

Min nhit hat ng, t 0-700C cho cc ng dng tiu dng v cng

nghip, t 550C 1250C cho cc mc ch qun s. h. Logic cp dng v logic nhn dng Mt mch logic thng gm nhiu tng kt ni vi nhau. Tng cp tn

hiu gi l tng thc v tng nhn tn hiu gi l tng ti. S trao i dng in gia hai tng thc v ti th hin bi logic cp dng v logic nhn dng.

Hnh (a) cho thy hot ng gi l cp dng: Khi ng ra mch logic 1 mc cao, n cp dng I cho ng vo ca mch logic 2, vai tr nh mt ti ni IH mass. Ng ra cng 1 nh l mt ngun dng cp cho ng vo cng 2

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Hnh (b) cho thy hot ng gi l nhn dng: Khi ng ra mch logic 1 mc thp, n nhn dng I t ng vo ca mch logic 2 xem nh ni vi ngun
IL

V .
CC

Thng dng nhn ca tng thc khi mc thp c tr kh ln so vi

dng cp ca n khi mc cao, nn ngi ta hay dng trng thi ny khi cn gnh nhng ti tng i nh, v d khi ch cn thc cho mt led, ngi ta c th dng mch (Hnh a) m khng th dng mch (Hnh b).

i. -

Tnh Schmitt Trigger Trong phn gii thiu l nhiu, ta thy cn mt khong in th nm gia

cc ngng logic, y chnh l khong in th ng vi transistor lm vic trong vng tc ng. Khong cch ny xc nh l nhiu v c tc dng lm gim rng sn xung (tc lm cho ng dc ln v dc xung ca tn hiu ra dc hn) khi qua mch. L nhiu cng ln khi vng chuyn tip ca ng vo cng nh, tn hiu ra thay i trng thi trong mt khong thi gian cng nh nn sn xung cng dc. Tuy nhin vn cn mt khong sn xung nm trong vng chuyn tip nn tn hiu ra khng vung hon ton.

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

ci thin hn na dng tn hiu ng ra, bo m tnh min nhiu cao,

ngi ta ch to cc cng c tnh tr in th, c gi l cng Schmitt Trigger (hnh a).

10

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Hnh (b) m t mi quan h gia V Trigger. K hiu cc cng Schmitt Trigger.

out

v V ca mt cng o Schmitt
in

j. k.

Yu cu v ngun Tnh a dng, kh nng tch hp, gi thnh, ch to, d phi hp vi vi

mch cng ngh khc. III. 1. CC H CNG LOGIC H DDL (DIODE DIODE LOGIC) L h cng logic do cc diode bn dn to thnh.

11

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

(a) S cng AND

(b) S cng OR

Nguyn l hot ng ca cng rt n gin. i vi trng hp (a) ch duy nht mt t hp bin vo A = B = H (logic 1) lm c hai diode D1, D2 u b kha v u ra Y ly mc H, ngha l mch th hin mt cng AND. Ngc li, i vi hnh (b), ch duy nht t hp A = B = L mi khng to c dng qua cc diode v st p trn R1 = 0. Tng ng, u ra ly mc L. Trng hp ny mch th hin mt cng OR.

12

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

u im ca h DDL: Mch in n gin, d to ra cc cng AND, OR nhiu li vo. u im

ny cho php xu dng cc ma trn Diode vi nhiu ng dng khc nhau. Tn s cng tc c th t cao bng cch chn cc diode chuyn mch

nhanh. Cng sut tiu th nh. Nhc im phng v nhiu thp ( VRL ln ) H s ghp ti nh. ci thin phng v nhiu ta c th ghp ni tip

mch ra mt diode. Tuy nhin, khi VRH cng b st i 0,6V. 2. H DTL (DIODE-TRANSISTOR LOGIC) Bao gm diode ng vo v transistor ng ra V d, cng NAND DTL

Ng ra Y ko ln ngun Vcc c gi l ng ra ko ln th ng (Passive pull up)

3.

H TTL (TRANSISTOR-TRANSISTOR LOGIC)

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CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Loi DTL sm c thay th bi mch TTL tc Transistor ng vo v Transistor ng ra. V d, cng NAND TTL

Lu : khi cc ng vo A,B h (th ni ng vo) th khng c dng chy ra A, B nn ng vo h ging nh ni ln cao (logic 1) u ra TTL hot __________ng nh b thu nhn dng trng thi thp (Q4) v cung cp dng trng thi cao (Q3)

14

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Ng ra Y ko ln Transistor nn c gi l ng ra ko ln tch cc (Active pull up) hay cn gi l ng ra ct chm (Totel pole). Vi Q3 s khng c dng no truyn qua Rc khi ng ra mc thp nn s gim bt dng tiu hao trong mch. Trong khi kiu ko ln th ng s lm cho Q4 dn mt dng kh ln khi ng ra mc thp u im th hai ca cu hnh Totem pole l khi Y trng thi cao, Q3 c tr khng u ra thp nn rt thun tin nu ti c tnh dung C Nhc im ca cu hnh totem pole th hin trong gii on chuyn tip t thp ln cao. V Q4 tt chm nn khi Q4 cha tt m Q3 dn, thi gian ny (vi ns) c 2 transostor u dn in nn ht mt dng tng i ln. a. CC C IM CA H TTL CHUN Cc IC s h TTL c sn xut ln u tin vo nm 1964 bi hng Texas Instrument Corporation ca M, ly s hiu l 74XXXX & 54XXXX. Lot IC TTL chun u tin gi l seri 54/74. S khc bit gia 2 h 74XXXX v 54 XXXX ch hai im: 74: V =5 0,5 V v khong nhit hot ng t 0 C n 70 C CC 54: VCC=5 0,25 V v khong nhit hot ng t -55 C n 125 C Cc tnh cht khc hon ton ging nhau nu chng c cng s. Trc s 74 thng c thm k hiu ch hng sn xut. Th d SN ca hng Texas, DM ca National Semiconductor, S ca Signetics Ngoi ra trong qu trnh pht trin, cc thng s k thut (nht l tch s cng sut vn tc) lun c ci tin v ta c cc lot khc nhau: 74 chun, 74L (Low power), 74 H (High speed), 74S (Schottky), 74LS (Low power Schottky),
o o o o

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CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

74AS (Advance Schottky), 74ALS (Advance Low power Schottky), 74F (Fast, Fair Child). V d, cng NOR s c cc m s khc nhau DM7402, SN7402 Khong nhit v in th ngun Seri 74 vn hnh trong khong in th 4.75 n 5.25 v nhit 0OC n 70OC Seri 54 chp nhn in th ngun trong khong 4.5 n 5.5 v nhit 55O n 125OC Mc in th ca seri 74 Ti a VOL VOH VIL VIH 2.0 2.4 Chun 0.2 3.4 0.8 Ti thiu 0.4

Cng sut tiu hao bnh qun mt cng khong 10mW Thi gian tr tiu biu tpLH=11ns v tpHL=7ns, trung bnh 9ns u ra TTL chun c th kch thch 10 u vo TTL chun

b.

H TTL CI TIN

74

74S

74LS

74AS

74ALS

74F

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CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

nh mc hiu sut Tr do truyn (ns) Cng sut (Mw) Ch s gi tr (pJ) H s ti 9 10 90 10 3 20 60 20 9.5 2 19 20 1.7 8 13.6 40 4 1.2 4.8 20 3 6 18 33

Cc thng s in th VOH (min) VOL(min) VIH(min) VIL(min) 2.4 0.4 2.0 0.8 2.7 0.5 2.0 0.8 2.7 0.5 2.0 0.8 2.5 0.5 2.0 0.8 2.5 0.4 2.0 0.8 2.5 0.5 2.0 0.8

Cc nh mc dng ng ra IOH (mA) IOL (mA) -0.4 16 -1 20 -0.4 8 -2 20 -0.4 8 -1 20

Cc nh mc dng ng vo IIH (A ) 40 50 20 20 20 20

17

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

IIL (mA)

-1.6

-2

-0.4

-0.5

-0.1

-0.6

Lot 74S: Cc transistor trong mch c mc thm mt Diod Schottky

gia hai cc CB vi mc ch gim thi gian chuyn trng thi ca transistor do lm gim thi tr truyn. Lot 74AS v 74ALS l ci tin ca 74S lm gim hn na gi tr tch

s Cng sut - Vn tc. Lot 74F: Dng k thut c bit lm gim din dung k sinh do ci

thin thi tr truyn ca cng. V d, Xc nh gii hn nhiu DC cho mt IC 74LS so snh vi IC 74 V d, Mt u ra 74ALS kch thch 3 u vo 74S v mt u vo 74 c khng

c.

TTL VI NG RA CC THU H (OPEN COLLECTOR OUTPUT) S in hnh ca NAND cc thu h

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CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Lu : Mch c cc thu h c th c s dng nh mch Logic thng thng bng cch mc thm R thch hp vi tnh trng ca ti.

d.

H TTL BA TRNG THI (TRISTATE) Ngoi 2 trng thi c bn 1 v 0, cc mch logic cn c thm trng thi

tng tr cao Hi-Z V d xt cng NOT 3 trng thi sau

4.

H RTL (RESISTOR-TRANSISTOR LOGIC) Bao gm cc in tr v transistor, y l h logic c tch hp sm nht. V d, mt cng NOR RTL

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CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Cc mch RTL c c tnh chung l cn dng IB cho cc BJT nn cn c gi l mch thu dng (current sinking), v vy khi kt ni vi cc mch khc cn phi lu tha mn iu kin ny, nu khng mch s khng lm vic. L nhiu trng thi 0 l 0.5-0.2=0.3V L nhiu trng thi 1 ph thuc vo ti

5.

MCH LOGIC MOS Gm cc IC s dng cng ngh ch to ca transistor MOSFET loi tng,

knh N v knh P . Vi transistor knh N ta c NMOS, transistor knh P ta c PMOS v nu dng c hai loi transistor knh P & N ta c CMOS. Tnh nng k thut ca loi NMOS v PMOS c th ni l ging nhau, tr ngun cp in c chiu ngc vi nhau do ta ch xt loi NMOS v CMOS. Cc transistor MOS dng trong IC s cng ch hot ng mt trong 2 trng thi: dn hoc ngng.

20

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Khi dn, ty theo nng pha ca cht bn dn m transistor c ni tr


10

rt nh (t vi chc n hng trm K) tng ng vi mt kha ng. Khi ngng, transistor c ni tr rt ln (hng 10 ), tng ng vi

mt kha h.

Chuyn mch MOSFET c bn Mch s dng MOSFET c phn thnh 3 nhm: P-MOS, N-MOS v CMOS

c im ca logic MOS So vi h lng cc th N-MOS v P-MOS c tc hot ng chm

hn, tiu hao nng lng t hn, gii hn nhiu hp hn, khong in th ngun nui ln hn, h s ti ln hn v i hi t ch trn chip hn Mc logic dnh cho mch MOS l V(1) VDD c tnh ca h MOS Mt s tnh cht chung ca cc cng logic h MOS (NMOS, PMOS v CMOS) c th k ra nh sau: Ngun cp in : V Mc logic: V
OL DD

V(0) 0V

t 3V n 15V

(max) = 0V VOH (min) = VDD


DD

V (max) = 30% V
IL

V (min) = 70%V
IH DD

DD

L nhiu : V

NH

= 30%V

DD

NL

= 30%V

- Vi ngun 5V, l nhiu khang 1,5V, rt ln so vi h TTL. Thi tr truyn tng i ln, khang vi chc ns, do in dung k sinh

ng vo v tng tr ra ca transistor kh ln.

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CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Cng sut tiu tn tng i nh, hng nW, do dng qua transistor MOS

rt nh. S Fan Out: 50 UL Do tng tr vo ca transistor MOS rt ln nn dng ti cho cc cng h MOS rt nh, do s Fan Out ca h MOS rt ln, tuy nhin khi mc nhiu tng ti vo mt tng thc th in dung k sinh tng ln (gm nhiu t mc song song) nh hng n thi gian giao hon ca mch nn khi dng tn s cao ngi ta gii hn s Fan Out l 50, ngha l mt cng MOS c th cp dng cho 50 cng ti cng lot. Nh ni trn, CMOS c ci thin thi tr truyn so vi loi NMOS

v PMOS, tuy nhin mt tch hp ca CMOS th nh hn hai loi ny. D sao so vi h TTL th mt tch hp ca h MOS ni chung ln hn rt nhiu, do h MOS rt thch hp ch to di dng LSI v VLSI. a. H CMOS Cng c bn CMOS H CMOS s dng hai loi transistor knh N v P vi mc ch ci thin tch s cng sut vn tc, mc d kh nng tch hp thp hn loi N v P. (H 3.30a), (H 3.30b) v (H 3.30c) l cc cng NOT, NAND v NOR h CMOS.

22

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Bng di cho thy quan h in th ca cc ng vo , ra cng NOT

in

1 10

out

VDD (logic1) 0V (logic0)

ROFF=10 RON = 1K

RON = 1K R =10
10

0V (logic 0) VDD (logic 1)

OFF

Ngoi ra vn hnh ca cng NAND v NOR c gii thch nh sau: Cng NAND: Khi 2 ng vo ni ln mc cao, T v T ngng, T v T dn, ng ra 1 2 3 4

xung thp. Khi c 1 ng vo ni xung mc thp, mt trong 2 transistor T hoc T 3 4

ngng, mt trong 2 transistor T1 hoc T2 dn, ng ra ln cao. chnh l kt qu ca cng NAND 2 ng vo.

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CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Cng NOR: Khi 2 ng vo ni xung mc thp, T1v T2 dn, T3 v T4 ngng, ng ra Khi c 1 ng vo ni ln mc cao, mt trong 2 transistor T hoc T dn, 3 4
1 2

ln cao. -

mt trong 2 transistor T hoc T ngng, ng ra xung thp. chnh l kt qu ca cng NOR 2 ng vo. Cc cng CMOS khc Ngi ta cng sn xut cc cng CMOS vi cc Drain h v ng ra 3 trng thi s dng trong cc trng hp c bit nh h TTL.

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CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Hnh (a) l mt cng NOT c cc D h, khi s dng phi c in tr ko ln Hnh (b) l mt cng NOT c ng ra 3 trng thi: cao. Ngoi ra li dng tnh cht ca transistor MOS c ni tr rt nh khi dn, ngi ta cng ch to cc mch c kh nng truyn tn hiu theo 2 chiu, gi l kha 2 chiu. (H 3.32) l mt kha 2 chiu vi A l ng vo iu khin. Khi A = 0 kha h, khi A = 1, kha ng cho tn hiu truyn qua theo 2 chiu. Khi ng vo Enable =1, T v T dn, mch hot ng nh l cng o, 1 4 Khi ng vo Enable =0, T v T u ngng a mch vo trng thi Z
1 4

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CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Vn hnh: T v T vai tr l mt cng o


3 4

Khi A = 0, cc G ca T mc thp nn T (knh N) ngng, cc G ca T 2 2 1


1

(knh P) mc cao nn T ngng, mch tng ng vi kha h. Khi A =1, cc G ca T mc cao nn T dn, cc G ca T mc thp
2 2 1 1

nn T dn, mch tng ng vi kha ng. Tn hiu truyn qua mt chiu nh T (loi P) v theo chiu ngc li nh T (loi N)
1 2

Bin ca tn hiu V truyn qua kha phi tha iu kin 0 <V < V
i i

DD

Nh vy nu ta s dng ngun V qua. Cc loi CMOS

DD

th kha cho tn hiu xoay chiu i

Cng ngh CMOS tung ra cc sn phm c c im hiu sut ngy cng tt hn, cung cp khng ch tt c chc nng logic c TTL, m cn nhiu chc nng c bit khng c TTL

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CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

CMOS c hai k hiu: 4XXX do hng RCA ch to v 14XXX ca hng MOTOROLA, c hai lot 4XXXA (14XXXA) v 4XXXB (14XXXB), lot B ra i sau c ci thin dng ra. Ngoi ra cn c cc loi : 74C : CMOS c cng s chn v chc nng vi IC TTL nu c cng

s. Th d IC 74C74 l IC gm 2 FF D tc ng bi cnh xung ng h ging nh IC 7474 ca TTL. Hu ht (nhng khng tt c) cc thng s ca lot 74C ging vi 74 TTL nn ta c th thay th 2 loi ny cho nhau c. 74HC (High speed CMOS), 74HCT: y l lot ci tin ca 74C, tc

giao hon c th so snh vi 74LS, ring 74HCT th hon ton tng thch vi TTL k c cc mc logic. y l lot IC CMOS c dng rng ri. 74AC v 74ACT (Advance CMOS) ci tin ca 74 HC v HCT v mt

nhiu bng cch sp xp li th t cc chn, do n khng tng thch vi TTL v s chn.

CMOS Thng s VIH (min) VIL (max) VOH (min) VOL (max) VNH VNL 4000B 3.5 1.5 4.95 0.05 1.45 1.45 74HC 3.5 1.0 4.9 0.1 1.4 0.9 74HCT 2.0 0.8 4.9 0.1 2.9 0.7 74AC 3.5 1.5 4.9 0.1 1.4 1.4 74ACT 74AHC 74AHCT 2.0 0.8 4.9 0.1 2.9 0.7 3.85 1.65 4.4 0.44 0.55 1.21 2.0 0.8 3.15 0.1 1.55 0.7

27

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Lu : khng bao gi c php th ni cc u vo CMOS khng dng n, tt c u vo CMOS phi c ni hoc vi mc in th c nh (0 hoc VDD) hoc vi u vo khc (L do u vo CMOS th ni rt nhy vi tp m nhiu v tnh in vn c th d dng phn cc MOSFET trng thi dn in). b. Cng c bn NMOS

Hnh trn l cc cng NOT, NAND v NOR dng NMOS Bng di s cho thy quan h gia cc in th ca cc ng vo , ra cng NOT V
in

T1 RON = 100K RON = 100K R

T2 =10 = 1K
10

Vout +5V (logic 1) 0,05V (logic 0)

0V (logic 0) +5V (logic1)

OFF

ON

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CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Ngoi ra vn hnh ca cng NAND v NOR c gii thch nh sau: Cng NAND: Khi 2 ng vo ni ln mc cao, T v T dn, ng ra xung thp.
2 3

Khi c 1 ng vo ni xung mc thp, mt trong 2 transistor T hoc T 2 3

ngng, ng ra ln cao. chnh l kt qu ca cng NAND 2 ng vo. Cng NOR: Khi 2 ng vo ni xung mc thp, T v T ngng, ng ra ln cao.
2 3

Khi c 1 ng vo ni ln mc cao, mt trong 2 transistor T hoc T dn,


2 3

ng ra xung thp. chnh l kt qu ca cng NOR 2 ng vo.

6.

H ECL (EMITTER COUPLED LOGIC) L h cng logic c cc E ca mt s bn dn ni chung vi nhau. H

mch ny cng s dng cng ngh TTL, nhng cu trc mch c nhng im khc hn vi h TTL. Ngaoif vic s dng hi tip m trn in tr RE chng bo ha, mch in ca h ECL cn tn dng c u im ca mch khuch i vi sai, nn tn s cng tc h ny li c iu km hn cc h khc.

29

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Cng OR/NOR thuc h ELC V din th trn hai cc C ca Q4, Q5 l b nhau, nn c th ly ra cc E ca Q7 chc nng OR v cc E ca Q8 chc nng NOR. mchj hot ng theo logic mc m, + VCC c ni mt, - VCC c ni ti m ngun. Mc logic trong mch c bin i t gi tr L l 1,75 v n gi tr H l 0,9 v so vi in th mt. Khi mun c mc logic ra l dng, ta u cc cc E ti mt. 7. TM TT C TRNG CA MT VI H CNG LOGIC nh gi tng qut c trng ca tng h cng ta c th so snh mt s tham s c bn ca chng nh sau:

CMOS

CMOS cc ca kim loi

TTL tiu chun

Cng ngh

cc ca Silic

TTL + LS

TTL + S

TTL + ALS

TTL + AS

Loi

74HC

4000B

74

74LS

74S

74ALS

74AS

30

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

P0 tnh P0 ti 100KHz Tr truyn lan H s ghp ti -Cng loi -Vi LS chng nhiu -VNH -VNI Tn s ng h cc i ( MHz) SPP (pj) ti 100 KHz IRL min (mA) vi VR = 0,4 IVL max (mA) vi VV = 0,4

2,5nW

1...W

10mW 2mW 19mW

1mW 1mW 4ns

8,5mW 8,5mW 1,5ns

0,17mW 0,1mW 10mW 2mW 19mW 8ns 50ns 10ns 10ns 3ns

10 10 4 40

20 20

20 50

20 20

40 50

1,4 0,9

1,4 0,9

0,4 0,4

0,7 0,4

0,7 0,4

0,7 0,4

40

12

35

40

125

70

200

1,4

11

100

20

57

13

1,6

16

20

20

+ 0,001

- 0,001

- 1,6

- 0,4

- 2,0

- 0,1

- 0,5

T bng ta c th rt ra my nhn xt di y:

31

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Cng ngh CMOS cho SPP nh nht, ngha l ng vi tn s thp, cng

sut tiu th ca h ny l b nht. Ngy nay, cng ngh CMOS t c thi gian tr truyn lan ch khong di 10ns. Lun lun tn ti mu thun gia cc tham s vi nhau, c bit l gia

cng sut tiu th v tn s cng tc. Ni chung mun tng tn s cng tc th phi chu thit v cng sut. i vi h CMOS, tr truyn lan ph thuc nhiu vo VCC, khi tng gi tr ngun nui, thi gian tr s gim xung. ECL l h c thi gian tr truyn lan nh (1ns). Tuy nhin, cng sut tiu

th ln, ngun tri cc ( - 5,2 ) nn gy phc tp trong ng dng. 8. IC s IC l vit tt ca hai ch ting Anh Integrated Circuit, c ngha l mch tch hp. Mch tch hp l mch in c tp thnh bng cch vn dng cc cng ngh khc nhau cy ghp nhiu bn dn ln mt Chip. Ngy nay, ngi ta c th cy hng triu bn dn ln mt chip. a. Mc tch hp Mc tch hp c tnh theo s cng logic chc nng trn mt chip. Ngi ta phn ra my mc sau: chip chip SSI (Small Scale Integration) l mc tch hp b, vi s cng / chip 10.

MSI (Medium Scale Integration) l mc tch hp va, vi 10 < s cng / 100. LSI (Large Scale Integration) l mc tch hp ln, vi 100 < s cng / 1000.

32

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

Cao hn cn c cc mc rt ln (VLSI), cc ln (ULSI), siu ln

(ULSI). b. K hiu v ca IC s Bng di l k hiu ca mt s IC cng nghip thng dng nht cng vi quy c ph bin.

TTL --74--xxx-

MOS --14xxx--4xx--74HCxxx-

ECL --1xxx-

Ch thch Mi du - thay cho mt ch ci, 2 ch ci u l tn ca hng sn xut, 2 ch ci gia ch r c im cu trc v tnh nng, ch ci cui ch ra kt cu v. Cc du x l chc nng logic, thay

V d: MC74LS386N DM4011B SN74HC00 MC1010 MC1210

cho cc tp hp s t 000 n 999.

c.

Mt s IC thng gp

TTL
K hiu S cng S li vo / chip / cng K hiu

MOS
S cng S li vo / chip / cng

Chc nng

33

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

74LS04 74LS05 74LS15 74LS21 74LS32 74LS00 74LS01 74LS03 74LS10 74LS11 74LS12 74LS20 74LS22 74LS30 74LS37 74LS38

6 6 3 2 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 1 4 4

1 1 3 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 8 2 2

4069B

NOT NOT h cc C

4073B 4081B 4071B 4011B 4012B 4023B 4068B

3 4 4 4 2 3 1

3 2 2 2 2 3

AND(C h vi TTL) AND OR NAND NAND(C h vi TTL) NAND(C h vi

TTL) NAND NAND NAND h cc C NAND NAND h cc C NAND B m NAND

34

CC H VI MCH LOGIC C BN

74L240 74LS133 74LS27 74LS28 74LS33 74LS86 74LS386 74LS136 74LS13 74LS14 74LS132 74LS125A 74LS126A

4 1 3 4 4 4 4 4 2 6 4 4 4

2 13 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 1 2 4093B 4053B 4 6 2 4070B 4 2

B m NAND C h B m NAND NAND NOR NOR b m NOR B m NOR C h XOR XOR XOR C h NAND + TG Schmitt NOT + TG Schmitt NAND + TG Schmitt m 3 TT vi

m 3 TT vi E

35