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Investigation of Geogrid-Reinforced Railroad Ballast Behavior Using Large-Scale Triaxial Testing and Discrete Element Modeling 01514922 Component English http://amonline.trb.org/ Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2014 Paper #144812 Geogrids are well known to improve the performance of unbound aggregate layers in transportation applications by providing confinement and restraining movement through interlock between individual aggregate particles and geogrid apertures. Geogrid reinforcement offers an effective remedial measure when railroad track structures are susceptible to track geometry defects resulting from excessive movement and particle reorientation within the ballast layer. This paper presents findings from an ongoing research study at the University of Illinois aimed at quantifying the effects of geogrid reinforcement on the shear strength behavior of railroad ballast. The effects of two different geogrid types, with square and triangular and apertures, on ballast shear strength were evaluated through laboratory testing and numerical modeling. An imaging based Discrete Element Method (DEM) modeling approach was used to identify the optimal position for geogrid reinforcement to achieve the maximum shear strength gain in cylindrical triaxial specimens. Geogrids were installed at five different depths within the 610-mm (24-in.) tall cylindrical specimen and tested for shear strength properties using a large-scale triaxial test setup to evaluate the effectiveness of both geogrid aperture shape and reinforcement depth. Placing two layers of geogrids in the middle, 254 mm or 10 in. from the top and bottom of the specimen, was found to result in the maximum shear strength gain. This was attributed to the fact that such placement of the geogrid ensured the intersection of the shear failure plane with the reinforcement layer, ultimately leading to significant shear strength gains. The DEM simulations were observed to accurately capture the ballast shear strength behavior with and without geogrid reinforcement. This paper was sponsored by TRB committee AFS70 Geosynthetics. TRIS, TRB, ATRI 14-4812 Digital/other 18p

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Mishra, Debakanta Qian, Yu Kazmee, Hasan Tutumluer, Erol Figures; Photos; References; Tables TRB 93rd Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers

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Monograph Accession 01503729 Number: Corporate Authors: Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 USA Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 USA 20140000 Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual Meeting Location: Washington DC Date: 20140112 - 20140116 Sponsors: Transportation Research Board Aggregates; Ballast (Railroads); Discrete element method; Geogrids; Railroad tracks; Reinforcement (Engineering); Shear strength; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Geotechnology; Railroads; I42: Soil Mechanics

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Evaluation of Aggregate Resistance to Breakage, Abrasion, and Polishing Using Advanced Aggregate Imaging Systems 01514829 Component English http://amonline.trb.org/ Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2014 Paper #144580 Aggregate gradation and shape properties are known to significantly affect pavement mechanistic response and performance. Under repeated traffic loading, aggregate particles in pavement courses are routinely subjected to degradation through attrition, impact,

000 particles were scanned using both imaging systems at different MD time intervals to record the changes in aggregate morphological indices. Photos. Eduardo Madrigal Tutumluer. AIMS-II more closely reflected historical data on aggregate frictional properties obtained by Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT). Machine vision provides an objective and quantitative measurement of aggregate particle shape or morphological properties including flatness and elongation.grinding and polishing type mechanisms. Sheila Figures. The imaging results were used to develop regression based statistical models to determine the aggregate polishing and degradation trends considering both rate and magnitude of changes in shape properties. TRB. which result in altering their shape and size properties. ATRI 14-4580 Digital/other 19p Moaveni. Supplemental Notes: TRIS Files: Report Numbers: Media Type: Pagination: Authors: This paper was sponsored by TRB committee AFP00 Geology and Properties of Earth Materials. both E-UIAIA and AIMS-II successfully quantified changes in morphological properties of particles from the MD tests. angularity and surface texture. Micro-Deval (MD) apparatus was used in the laboratory to evaluate such field degradation/polishing resistance of 11 aggregate materials with different mineralogical properties collected from throughout the state of Illinois and neighboring states. Despite differences in the image acquisition/processing capabilities. NW . References. abrasion and polishing actions. Enhanced University of Illinois Aggregate Image Analyzer (E-UIAIA) and AIMS-II (second generation of Aggregate Imaging System). More than 26. used in this research study to capture changes in shape and size properties of aggregate particles caused by the breakage. Maziar Mahmoud. Erol Beshears. However. Enad Ortiz. Tables TRB 93rd Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers Features: Monograph Title: Monograph Accession 01503729 Number: Corporate Authors: Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street. TRIS. This paper focuses on the effectiveness of two advanced and validated aggregate imaging systems.

quantifications of shape.20140116 Sponsors: Transportation Research Board Aggregate gradation. Laboratory research tasks consisted of gradation analysis. shear strength evaluation by using large direct shear (shear box) tests. Deterioration. Polishing (Aggregates). highquality ballast aggregates such as granite.3141/2374-21 Class I freight railroads nearly exclusively use premium. Findings are presented from a comprehensive laboratory study on ballast aggregates undertaken at the University of Illinois to investigate differences in engineering behavior of premium railroad ballast materials obtained from 13 quarries across the Union Pacific Railroad system. Mechanistic-empirical pavement design. Materials. Image analysis. I36: Aggregates Publication Date: Conference: Index Terms: Subject Areas: Title: Accession Number: Record Type: Language: Record URL: Abstract: Investigation of Aggregate Properties Influencing Railroad Ballast Performance 01478903 Component English http://dx.000 turns and evaluations of subsequent ballast fouling.org/10. Highways. and ballast degradation and durability analyses with Los Angeles abrasion tests conducted at 400 and 1. DC 20001 USA Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street. and quartzite for their mainline ballast needs. and angularity properties with the University of Illinois aggregate image analyzer. Aggregate shape properties quantified through imaging-based shape . and their properties may vary significantly depending on quarry sources and production techniques. trap rock. Illinois Department of Transportation. Traffic loads Geotechnology.Washington. DC 20001 USA 20140000 Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual Meeting Location: Washington DC Date: 20140112 . texture. Repeated loads. Texture. These natural virgin aggregates are crushed stones with certain geologic origins. As the compacted ballast voids ratio increased. NW Washington. Pavements.doi. aggregate strength typically decreased because of lower solid densities obtained from shear box testing.

Properties of materials. Tables (6) Railroads 2013 Features: Monograph Title: Monograph Accession 01503754 Number: Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street. NW Washington. Railroads. Durability. TRIS Files: Report Numbers: Media Type: Pagination: Authors: TRIS. TRB. Aggregates by shape and surface texture. Maziar Gehringer. Eric Figures (5) . Michael A Tutumluer.indices were shown to be linked to the strength properties of different ballast density groups. I60: Maintenance Index Terms: Subject Areas: .aspx Find a library where document is available Order URL: http://worldcat. Materials. Higher angularities that generally resulted in higher strength properties could also yield higher fouling and increased breakdown potential of the aggregates. References (7) . Maintenance of way.org/main/blurbs/170148. One of the ballast aggregates with flat and elongated particles but very strong mineralogy had quite high strength properties despite the tendency for particles to break during shearing. Erol Moaveni. DC 20001 USA Order URL: http://www.org/isbn/9780309286893 ISBN: Publication Date: Serial: 9780309286893 20130000 Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Issue Number: 2374 Publisher: Transportation Research Board ISSN: 0361-1981 Abrasion tests. Los Angeles Abrasion Test. Angularity. Ballast (Railroads). Shear strength Maintenance and Preservation.trb. I36: Aggregates. Laboratory tests. ATRI 13-4338 Print pp 180–189 Wnek.

Linbing Sun. Consequently. the quantification of morphological characteristics of aggregates is essential for quality control of both aggregate production and pavement construction.Title: Accession Number: Record Type: Language: Record URL: Abstract: Evaluation of Aggregate Imaging Techniques for Quantification of Morphological Characteristics 01478802 Component English http://dx. ATRI 13-2955 Print pp 39–49 Wang. Analysis of variance between measurements using different methods is also conducted to evaluate the accuracy of each aggregate imaging system. accuracy. and surface texture. repeatability. angularity. From the data analysis. sieve and retained on a ½-in.3141/2335-05 Aggregate morphological characteristics. these imaging techniques adopt various mathematical methods with different instrument setups and result in different definitions of morphological descriptors that are usually incomparable with each other. sieve with manual measurements and visual rankings. Imaging techniques provide a cost-effective means for measuring the aggregate morphological characteristics conveniently without tedious work. including shape. Wenjuan Tutumluer.doi. have a significant impact on the engineering properties of construction materials such as hot-mix asphalt and hydraulic cement concrete. TRB. However. PRP. reliability. Erol TRIS Files: Report Numbers: Media Type: Pagination: Authors: . and Fourier transform interferometer system). and measured morphological parameters. recommendations that depend on morphological characteristics of most interest to engineers are made for the selection of appropriate imaging-analysis techniques. are further evaluated by comparing the analysis results of seven types of aggregates passing a ¾-in. TRIS. This paper evaluates prevalent imaging techniques used for aggregate morphological characteristics analysis. firstgeneration University of Illinois aggregate image analyzer. including equipment cost. Three imaging techniques (secondgeneration Aggregate Imaging Measurement System.org/10.

and the discrete element method (DEM) is the most widely adopted numerical method to simulate the particulate nature of ballast materials and their particle interactions. NW Washington.org/isbn/9780309263320 ISBN: Publication Date: Serial: 9780309263320 20130000 Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Issue Number: 2335 Publisher: Transportation Research Board ISSN: 0361-1981 Aggregates. References (10) .org/10.Druta. Texture Geotechnology. Properties of materials. I36: Aggregates Index Terms: Subject Areas: Title: Accession Number: Record Type: Language: Record URL: Abstract: Simulating Ballast Shear Strength from Large-Scale Triaxial Tests: Discrete Element Method 01478773 Component English http://dx. Shape. Large-scale triaxial tests performed in the laboratory under controlled monotonic and repeated loading conditions are commonly considered the best means to measure macroscopic mechanical properties of ballast materials. A DEM modeling . Cristian Features: Monograph Title: Figures (8) . Photos. Pavements. Materials. Highways. Pavement performance. and deformation characteristics.doi.3141/2374-15 The railroad ballast layer consists of discrete aggregate particles. DC 20001 USA Find a library where document is available Order URL: http://worldcat. directly related to load-carrying and drainage functions of the ballast layer in the field. Mathematical methods. such as strength. modulus. Image analysis. Tables (6) Geomaterials 2013 Monograph Accession 01490600 Number: Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street. Angularity.

TRIS Files: Report Numbers: Media Type: Pagination: Authors: TRIS.org/main/blurbs/170148. The ballast DEM model captures the strength behavior from both the traditional slow and the rapid shear loading rate types of monotonic triaxial compression tests. TRB.approach is described for railroad ballast with realistic particle shapes developed from image analysis to simulate large-scale triaxial compression tests on a limestone ballast material. yet could save significant computational resources and time. DC 20001 USA Order URL: http://www. Erol Hashash. Mishra. Youssef M. The results of the experimental study indicated that the shearing rate had insignificant influence on the results of the triaxial compression tests. ATRI 13-4102 Print pp 126–135 Qian. Jamshid Figures (11) .org/isbn/9780309286893 ISBN: Publication Date: Serial: 9780309286893 20130000 Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Issue Number: 2374 Publisher: Transportation Research Board . Tables (2) Railroads 2013 Features: Monograph Title: Monograph Accession 01503754 Number: Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street. NW Washington. This study shows that the DEM simulation approach combined with image analysis has the potential to be a quantitative tool to predict ballast performance. Seung Jae Tutumluer. The results also showed that the incremental displacement approach captured the measured shearing response. Yu Lee.aspx Find a library where document is available Order URL: http://worldcat. Debakanta Ghaboussi. References (20) .trb. A.

Railroads. This paper introduces field image-acquisition and image-processing techniques for extraction and analyses of size and shape properties of individual aggregate particles. and permanent deformation. Shear strength. TRIS. Vehicles and Equipment. and surface texture index. Triaxial shear tests Design.doi.3141/2335-06 Morphological properties of mineral aggregates are known to affect pavement and railroad track mechanistic behavior and performance significantly in relation to strength. property degradation in time) could be evaluated under service loading. With imaging technology. Image analysis. I22: Design of Pavements.ISSN: 0361-1981 Index Terms: Subject Areas: Ballast (Railroads).org/10. But these advances in aggregate imaging must be brought to project sites and quarries in the field. Discrete element method. and automated fashion. Railways and Guideways Title: Evaluation of Aggregate Size and Shape by Means of Segmentation Techniques and Aggregate Image Processing Algorithms 01476364 Component English http://dx. image-processing methods developed in this study analyzed two-dimensional field images of aggregates captured by a digital single-lens reflex camera. Referred to as segmentation techniques. an objective and accurate measurement of aggregate particle size and shape properties can be obtained in a rapid. PRP. modulus. TRB. Discrete systems. The segmented aggregate images were fed into the validated University of Illinois aggregate image analyzer to quantify particle size and shape properties by means of its image-processing algorithms for flat-andelongated ratio.e. The developed method successfully determined the properties of coarseaggregate samples collected from various depths in a layer of railroad track ballast. angularity index. reliable. ATRI 13-4167 Accession Number: Record Type: Language: Record URL: Abstract: TRIS Files: Report Numbers: . The promising preliminary results indicate that these segmentation techniques could be considered in the field for capturing several aggregate particles rapidly and reliably in a single image so that (a) size and shape properties of individual particles could be analyzed and (b) both spatial property variability and property changes with layer depth and usage (i..

Railroads. I36: Aggregates Index Terms: Subject Areas: Title: Accession Number: Record Type: Language: Blurb URL: Application of LADAR in the Analysis of Aggregate Characteristics 01444979 Monograph English http://www. Tables (3) Geomaterials 2013 Features: Monograph Title: Monograph Accession 01490600 Number: Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street. Erol Ahuja. Pavement performance. Shape. John M Tutumluer. DC 20001 USA Find a library where document is available Order URL: http://worldcat. Pavements. Maziar Wang.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/167752. Machine vision. Narendra Figures (7) .org/isbn/9780309263320 ISBN: Publication Date: Serial: 9780309263320 20130000 Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Issue Number: 2335 Publisher: Transportation Research Board ISSN: 0361-1981 Ballast (Railroads). Photos. Image processing. Case studies. Texture Geotechnology. Image analysis.aspx . Highways. NW Washington. Materials. Shengnan Hart.Media Type: Pagination: Authors: Print pp 50–59 Moaveni. Mineral aggregates. Field tests. References (26) .

org/isbn/9780309258456 TRIS Files: Report Numbers: Media Type: Pagination: Authors: Features: Availability: ISBN: Publication Date: Serial: 9780309258456 20120000 NCHRP Report Issue Number: 724 Publisher: Transportation Research Board ISSN: 0077-5614 Aggregate gradation. Evan M Wang. Grain shape (Geology).org/Main/Blurbs/167752. Laser radar.pdf This report describes a laser detection and ranging (LADAR)-based system for measurement of aggregate characteristics over a wide range of particle size. Photos. TRB Project 04-34 Print 94p Wang. Thus. Measurement. Paving materials Geotechnology. Materials.trb. I36: Aggregates Index Terms: Subject Areas: Title: Image Analysis Technique for Aggregate Morphology Analysis with Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Method .aspx Find a library where document is available Order URL: http://worldcat. Grain size (Geology). Anbo Druta. Tables Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street.Record URL: Abstract: http://onlinepubs. NW Washington. Wenjuan Lally. TRIS. Linbing Sun.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_724. Erol Appendices. Angularity. Figures. Aggregates.trb. the report will be of immediate interest to materials engineers in state departments of transportation and industry. Cristian Tutumluer. References. Highways. DC 20001 USA Order URL: http://www.

flatness ratio.3141/2267-01 This paper presents some results of the NCHRP 4-34 Laser Detection and Ranging project. The FTI system is easy to operate and can rapidly quantify morphologic characteristics of aggregates. Photos. In this paper. ATRI 12-2180 Print pp 3-13 Sun. The output results include sphericity.Accession Number: Record Type: Language: Record URL: Abstract: 01373188 Component English http://dx. This paper was sponsored by TRB committee AFP00 Geology and Properties of Earth Materials TRIS. A high-resolution Fourier transform interferometry (FTI) system was developed for aggregate morphology characterization with the use of a fiber-optic coupler to form a Young’s double-pinhole interferometer. Wenjuan Wang. to No. 50 and to reconstruct three-dimensional surfaces of aggregates on the basis of fringe distortions from the captured digital images. The FTI results of these aggregates are generally consistent with the results of AIMS II and UIAIA with regard to roughness rankings despite minor differences for several aggregates. to No. References. TRB.doi. 4 are presented. These aggregates were also analyzed with the Aggregate Image Measurement System (AIMS) II and the University of Illinois aggregate image analyzer (UIAIA) for further comparison. Erol Figures. The FTI system used a charge-coupled device camera to capture fringe images of aggregates with a size ranging from ¾ in. only the morphologic characteristics of seven types of coarse aggregate with sizes ranging from ¾ in. elongation ratio. and texture for each individual aggregate particle. Tables Geomaterials 2012 Supplemental Notes: TRIS Files: Report Numbers: Media Type: Pagination: Authors: Features: Monograph Title: Monograph Accession 01379841 Number: Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office . A program was developed in MATLAB to quantify morphologic characteristics of aggregates from a variety of sources.org/10. angularity. Linbing Tutumluer.

Highways.org/Main/Blurbs/167642. Aggregates by shape and surface texture. 3. along with the urethane coated particles. Pavements. The effectiveness of two chemically different elastomer polyurethanes and polyurethane with catalyst were evaluated for their ability to reduce aggregate breakage and resulting ballast fouling. 6. and 72 hours prior to subjecting the samples to a single direct shear pass.org/ Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2011 Paper #113060 This paper focuses on the applicability and potential benefits of polyurethane coating technology to railroad ballast studied at the University of Illinois in a controlled laboratory environment. Results show a major increase in the shear . Roughness Geotechnology. Morphology. 3. I36: Aggregates Index Terms: Subject Areas: Title: Accession Number: Record Type: Language: Order URL: Source Data: Abstract: Characterization of Polyurethane Coated Railroad Ballast Behavior 01340569 Component English http://amonline. 24. The polyurethane-catalyst coated ballast was allowed to set for 1.org/isbn/9780309223096 ISBN: Publication Date: Serial: 9780309223096 20120000 Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Issue Number: 2267 Publisher: Transportation Research Board ISSN: 0361-1981 Aggregates. The urethane coated ballast was allowed to set for 1. 7.500 Fifth Street. Materials. Laser radar. Fourier transforms. NW Washington. Shear and normal stress data were gathered during testing. and the fines generated by all powdering test samples were collected and analyzed.aspx Find a library where document is available Order URL: http://worldcat.trb. and 14 days prior to subjecting the samples up to 10 shear passes. AREMA No. were subjected to realistic field loading conditions in a large shear box test apparatus used for strength testing of ballast at full gradation. DC 20001 USA Order URL: www.4 aggregate.trb.

as well as a modest increase using the polyurethane-catalyst applicable to field maintenance applications. I22: Design of Pavements. NW Washington. Anthony P Peeler. Marcus S Tutumluer. and a decrease in particle reorientation which could lead to a reduction in ballast settlement were also observed. A decrease in the breakdown of the coated ballast. Polyurethane resins. Railways and Availability: Publication Date: Conference: Index Terms: Subject Areas: . TRB 11-3060 DVD 17p Dersch.trb. Railroads. Elastomers. 63020R and 63004R. 63020R was designed to achieve a higher strength while 63004R was designed to have a higher displacement before failure. were designed with specific goals in mind. Ballast (Railroads). DC 20001 USA Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street. NW Washington. DC 20001 USA Order URL: http://amonline. Erol Mareno. Ballast fouling (Railroads). Coatings. Calvin T Bower.20110127 Sponsors: Transportation Research Board Aggregates. The two polyurethanes tested. Tables (2) TRB 90th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers DVD Features: Monograph Title: Monograph Accession 01329018 Number: Corporate Authors: Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street. David K Figures. TRIS Files: Report Numbers: Media Type: Pagination: Authors: TRIS.org/ 20110000 Transportation Research Board 90th Annual Meeting Location: Washington DC Date: 20110123 . Photos.strength gained with one of the polyurethane coatings. Railroad traffic. Railroad transportation. Failure. Shear stress Design. References (9) .

Results of ballast samples fouled with clay and mineral filler also showed decreasing trends in strength properties.Guideways Title: Accession Number: Record Type: Language: Record URL: Abstract: Laboratory Characterization of Fouled Railroad Ballast Behavior 01128765 Component English http://dx. Test results showed that when the coal dust fouling percentage increased. In the case of ballast fully fouled with wet coal dust at 35% OMC. the ballast shear strength steadily decreased. Approximately 15% coal dust fouling by weight of ballast was statistically significant to cause considerable strength reductions. and mineral filler—were added to clean ballast samples at various percentages by weight of ballast under both dry and wet [mostly optimum moisture content (OMC)] conditions. however. Wet fouling was found to exacerbate this trend. or subgrade soil intrusion. which commonly come from breakdown of the ballast aggregate. Erol Dombrow. plastic clayey soil. the friction angles obtained were as low as the friction angle of coal dust itself. TRB. Hai Tutumluer.doi. ATRI 09-2065 Print pp 93-101 Huang. References (11) . Tables (2) TRIS Files: Report Numbers: Media Type: Pagination: Authors: Features: . the strength properties of both clean and fouled ballast samples were determined when three types of fine materials—coal dust. Photos (13) . Realistic sample preparation procedures were conducted to closely simulate field-fouling scenarios. William Figures (6) .org/10. coal dust was by far the worst fouling agent for its impact on track substructure and roadbed. Effects of different fouling agents on ballast aggregate shear strength were studied at the University of Illinois. TRIS. outside contamination such as coal dust from coal trains.3141/2117-12 Fouling refers to the condition of railroad ballast when voids in this unbound aggregate layer are filled with relatively finer materials or fouling agents. Through the use of a large direct shear (shear box) device.

The resilient behavior of unbound aggregate layers is affected by the stress states experienced because of wheel loading and physical properties of aggregate materials. such as the unbound aggregate base–subbase materials. Laboratory tests.org/10. Moisture content. Shear strength Railroads. Contaminants.Monograph Title: Monograph Accession Number: Availability: Railways 2009 01147420 Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street. under repeated traffic loading. Railroad tracks. Terminals and Facilities. Among the physical properties.org/Main/Blurbs/Railways_2009_162778. I22: Design of Pavements.org/isbn/9780309126335 ISBN: Publication Date: Serial: 9780309126335 20090000 Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Issue Number: 2117 Publisher: Transportation Research Board ISSN: 0361-1981 Ballast (Railroads). NW Washington. DC 20001 USA Order URL: http://www. angularity. This paper focuses on .doi. Coal dust. and surface texture characteristics of aggregate particles.trb.aspx Find a library where document is available Order URL: http://worldcat. the influence of aggregate morphology on the resilient behavior of base–subbase materials is not yet well understood because of a lack of quantitative measurements of shape. Railroad track beds. Clay soils.3141/1952-02 The resilient modulus (M sub R) defines the nonlinear elastic response of pavement geomaterials. Railways and Guideways Index Terms: Subject Areas: Title: Accession Number: Record Type: Language: Record URL: Abstract: Aggregate Morphology Affecting Resilient Behavior of Unbound Granular Materials 01023076 Component English http://dx. Mineral fillers.

Erol Anochie-Boateng. References (20) .trb. TRIS Files: Media Type: Pagination: Authors: TRIS. With an image analysis approach. NW Washington.org/isbn/0309099617 ISBN: Publication Date: Serial: 0309099617 20060000 Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Issue Number: 1952 Publisher: Transportation Research Board . Twenty-one unbound specimens were prepared with the blending of six aggregate materials and tested for resilient moduli in a laboratory triaxial setup as per the AASHTO T 307-99 protocol. DC 20001 USA Order URL: http://www. As the aggregate angularity and surface roughness increased. two important aggregate morphological indices [the angularity index (AI) and the surface texture index (ST)] were defined to quantify accurately the angularity and surface texture properties of six types of commonly used aggregate materials with varying surface irregularities. which was primarily because of the increased shear strength with better aggregate interlock and frictional properties and the increased confinement levels expressed by higher bulk stresses. Tables (2) Geomaterials 2006 Features: Monograph Title: Monograph Accession 01032925 Number: Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street. ATRI Print pp 12-20 Pan. the resilient moduli were considerably improved. Joseph Figures (7) .aspx Find a library where document is available Order URL: http://worldcat. Tongyan Tutumluer.investigating the influence of aggregate angularity and surface texture properties on the resilient behavior of unbound granular materials expressed by a nonlinear.org/Main/Public/Blurbs/158689. TRB. stress-dependent resilient response model. Both AI and ST were found to be closely linked to M sub R values of the aggregate specimens blended in different percentages.

Texture. Image analysis. Modulus of resilience. The ballast type with the highest mill abrasion value was found to accumulate the highest permanent deformation under repeated load triaxial testing. Unbound granular materials Geotechnology.).) and a height of 610 mm (24 in. a new triaxial test setup was recently developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. TRIS. Triaxial shear tests.3141/2374-20 Characterizing railroad ballast behavior under repeated train loading is of significant importance for evaluating field settlement or permanent deformation potentials of unbound aggregate ballast layers. For the proper characterization of ballast behavior under dynamic loading.ISSN: 0361-1981 Index Terms: Aggregate mixtures. Interlocking aggregates. Angularity. Permanent deformation trends observed for four other ballast types showed direct correlations to the degrees of particle degradation observed in track sections constructed with these ballast materials and trafficked for approximately 18 months with a total track usage of 320 million gross tons. ATRI 13-4269 Print pp 169–179 TRIS Files: Report Numbers: Media Type: Pagination: .doi. I36: Aggregates Subject Areas: Title: Accession Number: Record Type: Language: Record URL: Abstract: Characterization of Railroad Ballast Behavior Under Repeated Loading: Results from New Large Triaxial Test Setup 01478905 Component English http://dx. Aggregates. Blends.org/10. Capable of accommodating cylindrical specimens with a diameter of 305 mm (12 in. Stresses. Preliminary test results evaluating effects of different applied stress states as well as geogrid reinforcement on ballast behavior established the consistency and repeatability of this new test equipment. Laboratory findings are presented from an ongoing research study aimed at investigating the effects of different ballast types and field degradation trends on permanent deformation accumulation. this closed-loop servohydraulic test setup used a load cell and four displacement transducers mounted on the specimen to quantify deformation behavior under loading. Highways. TRB. Shear strength.

Repeated loads. David Gehringer. Geogrids. Debakanta Kazmee. Erol Pforr. Hasan Tutumluer. Maintenance and Preservation. Eric Figures (11) . Tables (2) Railroads 2013 Features: Monograph Title: Monograph Accession 01503754 Number: Availability: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street. Permanent deformation. Railways and Guideways. I60: Maintenance Index Terms: Subject Areas: Title: Accession Number: Record Type: Language: Record URL: Abstract: Sandwich Model to Evaluate Railroad Asphalt Trackbed Performance Under Moving Loads 01128831 Component English http://dx.3141/2117-08 Today.org/10. Maintenance of way. NW Washington. I22: Design of Pavements.org/isbn/9780309286893 ISBN: Publication Date: Serial: 9780309286893 20130000 Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Issue Number: 2374 Publisher: Transportation Research Board ISSN: 0361-1981 Ballast (Railroads). DC 20001 USA Order URL: http://www. Triaxial shear tests Design.Authors: Mishra.aspx Find a library where document is available Order URL: http://worldcat. Deformation. Railroads. asphalt trackbed is gaining more attention because it . Degradation failures. James Read. References (11) .doi.org/main/blurbs/170148.trb.

and missing tie support decreased asphalt trackbed fatigue life. ATRI 09-1416 Print pp 57-65 Huang. the effect of track defects.2 m significantly extended its fatigue life and also decreased subgrade stress. under different train speeds. missing tie support was proved to be the most critical factor that could dramatically decrease the trackbed fatigue life. the developed computer program based on the derived semianalytical solution can be used as an optimization tool for evaluating asphalt trackbed performances under various field conditions.aspx Find a library where document is available Order URL: http://worldcat. on asphalt trackbed service life.org/Main/Blurbs/Railways_2009_162778.effectively strengthens railroad track support. NW Washington. which does not consider nonuniform. DC 20001 USA Order URL: http://www. In this paper.org/isbn/9780309126335 Features: Monograph Title: Monograph Accession Number: Availability: . References (15) Railways 2009 01147420 Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street. Hai Shen. Of the scenarios tested. a computer program was developed and applied to study. On the basis of this solution. discrete support due to varying tie and ballast service conditions. Traditional analytical track models are either quasi-static or based on a continuous support assumption. weaker subgrade support. and securely confines the subgrade layer. a discretely supported track model with asphalt trackbed under dynamic moving loads was solved semianalytically. Shihui Tutumluer. TRIS Files: Report Numbers: Media Type: Pagination: Authors: TRIS. such as broken tie and weak subgrade. helps waterproof underlying subgrade.trb. A case study analysis showed that all cases of faster train speed. Erol Figures (11) .1 to 0. It also has the potential for backcalculating dynamic track modulus when track deflections are measured. Increasing asphalt trackbed thickness from 0. Although only limited situations are discussed here. TRB.

Case studies. Terminals and Facilities. Railroad track beds. Mathematical models. Service life Railroads. Railroad tracks. Computer programs.ISBN: Publication Date: Serial: 9780309126335 20090000 Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Issue Number: 2117 Publisher: Transportation Research Board ISSN: 0361-1981 Asphalt. Deflection. I22: Design of Pavements. Railroad ties. Railroad transportation. Defects. Railways and Guideways Index Terms: Subject Areas: . Fatigue (Mechanics).

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