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Nicola Tesla (C 135174)

Nicola Tesla (C 135174)

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TO ALL ·,ISO::.l I:' ::AY ::o:rC~!1:

Be it knOi1Q tl~at I liIZOlA ~:::3LA an enelneer residing at rhe ualdorf Astjria, corner Jifth Avenue and Thirty Fourth street, in the 3,r:>ugil of !:anht.ttan, City and sta~e of new York, United stat~s o~ ~erica, having invented certain ne~ ~d useful imnrovccents In FLUID ?R0PUL3I Oll, do he:-ebj decl~rc tt.o !Ollo· .. ;lng is a full, clear and exect description of the s~e.

In tee prtlcticr.l application of cocilanicnl power basod on tho use of n fluId as vehicle of energy it has been deconstrsted t~tlt, In or~cr ~o attain t:'e higile&t econocy, t1e chnn~cs In veloc1tj and dire~tion of Dovement ot the fluId should be aE l7adual as poscible. In the present f:>rz:s of such epr,ara~us !:lore .,:- less sudden changes, ahocka 8rld. vibrations, are ,mav')ldeblo. Eeoid.os the e:plo;ment of the usu~l devices for ~=par~1ng ~o,

or derivinc' ene-rry f:-om a flUid, Be pistc.ns, paci.;les, vanes ~.d b~ades, necessarily in~rj~~ces Ulcerous defects ~d li~ithtions and adds to the co~plica~ion, cost of rroduction and cainte~ance of the cachine.

The object of my inve~tion is ~o overcone these deficiencies and to effect tr.e truns!:1iseion and transforcntion of r:.ec!lllJif"ct:l enera tuouch tr.e E.t;ency of fluids in a :!lore per!'ect canner, end by ~car.3 ~ impler and. more econocicc.l thnn ~;:'l£e heretofore Clr.:plo~ed.

I accoDPlish this by cauBin~ the propelled or propelling fluid to move in nn~urnl paths or streem lines of least r~Distcnce, free f=o: constraint and disturbance such 6S oco6~ioned by vanes or kindred devices. a~d to chance its velocitj and diroction of movement by imperceptible degrees, t~!us avoiding the 102ses due to sudd6n variations nhilo the f.luid is rec~iving

or imparting ener£rJ.

It is nell knoan that a fluid poece2ses, a~oD6 others, t .. o salient pror.erties; adr.e~ion and viscosity.

Owin6 to ti~e5e a 001y }jr01-·e:'~ed ~;.r(;t:t:3!. s u c l: Co r-,eiili::: erie oun t e r s a l-ec ... liar i!'!pedi::;e n t ~{nowr: a s -latera P c r ·s~:in r ea i s tanc e'", 'Nr.icr. :'s tw-:,-f:.lld; one arisir,:: from t:1e shock :Jt the fluid lie;a.illst the asperi ties of tr.e solid suostance, t~e ctfier from internal forces 0pposin~ ~olec~lar se~aratio~. As en inevitable consequence a c ercaan amcun! ot the fluid is dru[r;ed a.long by the r.lnin::; b~1::,'. Conve:-sely, ir tile tody be placed in a fluid in ~~tlon, for ~L~ sa~e redBons. i~ is impelled in the direction of EOYc~cn~.

:or.ese et'fects, in tl.cmelves, are at daily ou- 5eryat1o~, hut I telieve t~at I An the :irst to apply the%:. in a I-rac t! cal and ec ono'%lical mar.r.er of fluid propu Ls Lcn , Tlle na tur e r.,f ::cJ.' discoverj' and t r.e prir.ciples of c ons t ruc t Lor, or t::e appar'a tus y;r.ich ! have designed tor cQrrJlng it out, I si~ll now ~rc:eed to d.scribe

by reterence to the acco::J:.a:i:.':r.t; d:-awicgs which illustrate Qn operative and efficien~ embodiment of the same.

~i6. I is a partial end .iew, and Fig. 2 a vertical erO~6 sc:t!on c: Q ~~ or co~pressort ~tich PiLs. ~ and' :-epresent, re5~ectively, in cor:-espond1ng views, • rotAry engine or tur1.1ne, bot>". machines being c on - structed and adapted to ~e operated in accordance with rtr:f iaventi on.

Pigs. 1 and 2 sr.QW ~ runner coopoeed of a plurality of flat rigid disks 1 or 6 s~itable d1ameter, keyed to a shaft 2 and held in posit jon by a threaded nut ~, a ahoulder , and ~st.ers 5 or the requisite thickness. Each disk has a number of :entral open1ngs 6, the solid portions ce!ween wt1:h form spokes 7 preferably curved, as shown, tor the ~urpose o! re1ucing the 10s8 of energy due to tt.e i~pa:t of the fluid.

!his runner is ~ounted in a two-par~ volute cnsiog 8 havinc stuff1ng ~oxes 9 and inlets 10 leading to its central portion. In addition a gradually widening and rounding outlet 11 is ;rOYiQ9d t~r~ed with a flange for connection to a p1pe as ueual. ~e casing 8 rests upon a base 12 sho ... n onl.j' Ln part and si.:pl-0rti::g the bearings for the ~haft 2, which being of ordinary construction are omitted tram tL8 drawings.

An understanding of the principle embodied in this dey1ce will be ia1Red from the t~llowicg aascription of its mode of operation.

Power being applied to the shaft and the runner set in rotation in the direction of the solid arrow, the fluid by reason ot its properties of a~erer.ce and viscosity, upon entering through the inlets 10 and cocin£ in contact with the disks 1 i8 taken hold of by the same and subjected to two forces, one acting tangentially in the direction of rotation, and the other radially outward. The combined eftect of these tangential and centrifugal forces is to propel the fluid with continuousl~ increasing ~elocity in a spiral pa~h until it reache. the outlet 11 from which it is ejected. !his spiral

"O',p.n:ent, free and unrii:5tur:;ed and esse:-,:i~11:: d.~pe:"ld.ent on the~e properties or the fluid, p~r~ttin[ it to adjust it~elf to natural ~athl!5 or s t r-eazi li!'le~ 'l.!:·i to cha nge i t~ veloel t:.' and di r-e c t i cn h:,.r i ",:s~::5i ::-le detrp.es, is cr~racteristic CJ~ this ~etr.od of p r opu Ls a on :-.~.d s.dvantaseous in its ~pplica:ion.

'lihile traversin£ ti!e cnamce r e nc lC6in~ tile runner, tr.e particles or tl.e !l .. !id l:IaJ C Orli=lete one or z.or e turns, or cut a rar: of one turn. In a~' gi7en =a~e :r.e1r path can be:losely ca Lcu.La t ed and ~raphi.:a).ly represented, but r .. irly accurate estica.tes c! t ur ns

:i:!.11 'te ob":.ained simply by de'ter::linini ti.~ numbe r of revolutior.~ required to renew the rluid ~~5sin6 tr.rou£h the c!..acber ar.d multiply inC; it :'y tile rat 1 0 cetl.'een

the ::lean speed of ::.~ fluid and that or the disks.

I have found that the qua~tity of fluid propelled in this ::w.nner is. other c ~nditions being eq .. al, approxi:lately propcrtiuna te to t1".e a: ti "l!! o:;urfa::e of tt.e runner and to i:s efte: t.i ve sj.e ed , POI" :1.!.1'; rehS an , the perfor::"4nce or such IT.a:hines a:Jt;::e:1:s at an exceedin61J' 111gh rate "it:, the inc.:rease of t;~e!.!'" size and speed or revolution.

Tn.e dicer.siO:ls 0.:- t::e cie"/ice as a whole, and :he spacing of t~e disks in any b1ve:l ~~htne ~ill be tiet.er.minerl by tl~e condi tions and re1uire::.en:s 0: special cuell. It may be atated that. tl".e ir.t,erve!lin~ distance IIhould be tile greater, tr.e larger :~e diaoeter ut the disks, the lonser the spiral path or t~e fluid and the greatdr its vi~cosity. In ge~eral :r.e spacing should be such that the entire ~ftS of the fluid, before leaving the runner, is accelerated to a nearly unitorm velocity, not much below tr~t or the poriphery of the disks under normal ~orkin£ c~nditions and a~ost equal to it wt,en the outlet is closed and :::.e I-<!rticles ~ove in concentric circles.

It ~y &ls~ be pointed out that such a pu=~ can be ~do .it~out openings and ~pokes in t~e runner, a~

by using one or more solid disks, ea~h in its OTn casing, in which for!!! the !D8.::h1ne willoe e::lil".er.tl:r adapted tor lIe.a~e, dredg1n~ and the like, when the water is charged with toreign bodies ~~d =pokes or vanes especially objectionable.

Another application of this prineiple wh~ch I have discovered to be not only feasible, but thorOUGhly practi~able and effieient, is the utilization at =achinell auch as above des~rib6d ror t~e compression or raretaction of air, or gases in general. In such eases it will be tound tr.at most of the !.;eneral considerations obtaining 1n the ease at liquids, properly interpretod, hold true.

When, irrespective ot the chara~ter ot the fluid, considerable pr •• surell are desired, staging or compounding may be resorted to in the usual way the individual runners being, pref"rably, mounted on the same shaft.

It sho~ld b~ added that the same e~d aay ~e at:ained with on .. ~ sinr;le runner- by 5uita"':lle deflection of the fluid through r/)t,tt1"/e or :5ta~ior.ary pa s sn g e s ,

The prin:iples underlying the inve~tion are capable of e~bodi~ent also in that ~ield of ~echanical eni,ineeri~g whi~~ is con~erned in t~e use 0: rl~ids as ~otive agents, tor while in so~e !"espec~! !t-e act:on~ in the La t t ar cas e are 1ire::tly .Jpj..\Jsi ta :0 ~hose met with in t~e prQ~ulsi~n of fluids, the f~ndamental laws ... ppli:::able in ti:e t .... o cases are trie sa!:1e. In ('thar wards, the operation atove described is reversitle,

for if ~ater or air under pressure oe ad=dtted to t~~ openil'li: l.l the runner !.s s e t in r ot.a t a on ir, the direction c~ t~e do~ted arrow 0l re~so~ or :~e pe:~lla!" pr~er~ies of tte ~luid wni=~. tr~~ellinb in a spiral pa th and wl th continuouslj- diminishinr: veloc it;". r eccn .. - es the orifices 6 t.nd 10 t:.rou(,.h -s?~ic:-. it is .:i1scharged. If Ue runner be allowed to turn treelj', in nearly frictionle~s bearinhB, its ri~ will attain a speed ~laselj approxi~tin6 the maxim~ 'f that ot tt.e fluid in the volute e~~nnel and t~ Ipir.l ~ath or the yartielea will oe ~o~arative1J lor.g, consistin~ or ~ny al!!lost circulG:" t:.rns. If load is lout Oll &.114 tr.e runner slowed down, the :otion of the fluid i8 retarded, the turns are reduced, and tho path is shortened..

~~ing to a number or caus~s atfecting the pertormance, it is difficult. to fra:u a precise rule which would be generally applicable, but it may be stated that within certain limits, and other condition. being the same, the torq~e is directly pr~portionate to the square or the velocity of the fluid re1ative1y to the runner A.~d to the effective arep. of the disks and. inversely, to the distance separat~n6 them. The machine wl11, generaLl], ~~~r~r~ ita mAXi~~ ~ork .hen the effective speed. or tl.e :-"unner is on" hal! g! that o! the fluid. But to attain the highest econo~ the relative speed or slip, tor an] given perto~nce, should be as small as possible. This condition ~J oe to any desired degree approJXimated by incre ... sine. tl ... ~ active area. And reducing the sp~ce b.tween the dis~~&.

When apparatus of the kind described is employed tor the transmission of power certain departures

trom similarity between trans~tter and reclver may be necessary !'~r se~urIn~ the be": ~ es:;! ~. It i8 evident. that, when transmItting power from one shaft to another by .uch machines, any desired ratio be~een the speeds

of rotation ~v ne obtained by propF.r .eleetion of the diameters ot the disks, or by S~i'4bly staging the transmitter, the re~ei •• r. or Doth. ~ut it may oe pointed

out that in one respect. at least, the two machines are e.sentially diUerent. In tr.. 1.J1~Ep, the radial or statie pr •• sure, due to centrifugal rorce. is added to the tanbential or dynaEic, thus increasing the .tlective

head and assisting in ~he expul~ion or the fluid. In

4

the z::otor, on the c~nt!"ar.}, the first name d pr-e s eur-e , oe1ng oppceed ~o trzt at supply, reduces the effect1Te head and the Telacit) or radial :low t~warda the center. Again, in the ~ropelled machine A breat tOl~U. 1s always de.1rat,let tr.::.s callin~ ror an int"reased number

~t dil!<s and sralle!" di!!tance ot se~aratiox:, while in the pro~ellinl ~~~hir.e. :C~ r.~~~rous econo~ic reasons, tht" rotary c!"!'-:,rt ., i.ou Ld be t:~e s!211ea t and tr.e slieed the greatest ~ractica.bIe. Yany other e onsz der-a t i cna , wh:'~l: will :1a!urally ;;u~[eat theJ!lSelTe!!t !2Y aftect

the deiin and con~truct.ion, bu t t!:e precedins is :houtr.t to contain al! necessary in!ormatio~ in this re£ard.

!~e freate~t Yal~e of tr.i~ inventicn will c~ round in its use for' :1'.e ther:.o-d:. :l&ll%:i~ c onv er-s I on or energy. Re!er~nce 18 now ~de ~c ?!i8. ~ u~d 4, illuatra~iTp. or t:.e :".ar.ner ir: ."!:icr.. i! i:;, c r ::::ay c e , so applied.

As .:!; tl~e prey i o,.tI :ie.,ures. a :-;,wner is :FroV'id ed oade up ~~f dis:<s I! wi t h tJpenir.f~ 1.; an1 spokes 15 which, in tGb cas e , :na:,' ce s ~rc..i.~!; to. ':'he disks are ke~ed t~ aud held in pODiti~n on a ~r.af~ 10, ~ounted

to turn freely in uUitable bearinis, not shown, and are soepb.rated by wasr-erB 17 confor::ar.g !:: sl"Jipe with tr.e spokes and tirrJ.y urn ted t::e!'"eto '::;,y ri ve t s 18. :!o'or

the sake ot clearn£sa but a r~" disks, 7ith co~para.tively wide intervening spaces, are indicated.

The runner is counted in a casing campr1sin& two end castings 19 witr. outlets 20 and stuffing bOAes 21, and a central ring 22, Which is bored ou~ to a circle of a di~eter slightly larger than that ot the disks, and has t~nged ext&nsiona 23 and inlets 2~ into which finished ports, or nozzles, 25 are inserted. Circular 6r~oves 26 and labY!'"inth pac~inba 27 are provided on the sides of tr.e runner. S~~ply pipes 28, with valves 29, are connected to t~e flanged extensions ot the central.rine one 0: the TalTes being, nor:ally, c::'osed.

With the exception ot certain particulars, Which will be hereinafter elucidated, tr.e ~ode of operation will be understood trom the prece~ir.& description. Steam or gas under pressure being allowed to pass through tr.e valve at the side ot the solid arrow, the runner is set in rotation in clockwise direction.

In order to bring out a distinctive feature asaume, in the tirst plac6, that the motive medi~ 1s admitted to the disk chamber tbrouEh a port, that iSt a channel which it traveradS "ith nearl:; uni=orm "/e10city." In this case, the =achine w111 opera!e as ~ rotary engine, the tluid continuously expar.d!n~ on its tortuous path tG the central outlet. The expansion takes place chietly along the spiral path, tor the spread inward

is opposed by the centritugal torce due to tn. velocity of whirl vr.d by the great resistance to radial exhaust. It i8 to be ebseryed that the resistance to the passage

5

of the fluid between tee plate6 is, appr~x~~ately proportionate to the square or t i,e r-e La t a v e sp e sd , ?'~lich

is !!laXimum in the directivn tCfl'ards tho:! c en t e r and equal to the tull tangential velocity of the rlui1, ~he path ot least resistance, necessarily taken in Q~edience to

a universal law of motion is, virtually, also t~~t of leas· relative velo:ity.

Next, assume that the fluid 1s a1=litted to t!H~ dilSk ~he.!!lber not through a port, b;.xt a di vergine; nozzle' a device conver~in6, ~holly or in part, the expansive into veluclty-ener~. The machine will then work rather like a turbine, absorbing the energy of kinetic mO:::1entum or the particles ae they ,.,'h1rl, · ... i th continuously decreasing speed, to the eX~4ulSt.

The above description or t~e ope~ation, ! may add, is suggested by expe!'!.e!1ce and obser' .. a t f on , and 1s advanced merely tor t~e purp~se of explanation. The undeniable tact is that the machine does operate, both expansively and impulsively. When the expansion in the nozzle is complete, or nearly 80, the fluid pressure

in the peripheral clearance space is s~ll; as the nozzle is ~de less divergent and its section e~larged, the pressure rises, tinally approxi:ating that or the supply. But the transition from purely icpulsiye to expansive action :ay not be continuous tr.roughout, on account at critical states and conditions and comparative17 great variations at pr~ssur. may be caused by scall chanEes ot nozzle velocity,

In the preceding it has been &ssa:::1ed that tne pressure or supply is constant or cor.tinuous, but it will be understood that the operation will be, essentially, the same it the pressure be fluctuating or intermittent, ae that due to explosions occurring in core or less rapid succession.

A very desirable teature, c~~racteristic or machines constructed and operated in accordance with t~~s invention, is their capability or revereal Of rotation. Pig. 3, while illustrative of ~ special case, !Ila7 be regarded as typical in t!:h respect. If the right hand valve be shut ott and the fluid supplied through the second pipe, the runner is rotated in the direction or the dotted arrow the operation, and aleo the performance, remaining the same as refore, the central ring being bored to a circle ~ith this purpose in view. The same result ~y be obtained in ~ny other ways b.Y specially designed Yalves, ports or nozzles

tor reversing the tlow, the deecript10n at which 1s omitted ~ere in the interest ot si~licitJ and clearness. Par the same renson3 but one operative port or nozzle is illustrated which might be a~e.pted to a volute but does not fit best a circular bore. It will be understood t~At e number of suitable inlets ~y be provided around the periphery o~ the runner to improve the action and that the construction 0: the mach1ne ~y

6

- .. e r.-;odifjed i:-. :--ar./ wa;ys .

.3till ano tuer vC'.l;Jable and p r o oa'c Ly un i qu e ~£\.i.a}_i fy C: S~::r. mc t cr-s or ~l·iI!le nov e r s =:.u.y b e c:ietccrit.

ed . ?:. proper c cns t ruc t t cn :".0 ui::'Sf!l"',·~.r::'e .):" wc:-;';'i::£,;

'.;o!lditions tl.e centriI'l,,;£al rre!l!!ure, cp!oosint: top. ra:ssage 0: t::e flu! d, In::!Y t a3 alreau;; ! :",di ':"'.:' ed , 't e n c:.de ncarl.: equal t c tt.e pr ae sur e C!" =~:'Pt:.:;.y ',\';".-:!l tLt! ::-~,.hine is runn1ni idle. r: <;i.e 1:l1et I'e,=tion l-e l~!'~e, s!t2.11 e:.a~.rell 1:1 the spee d 0: r ev c Lu t i or; ,,:':1 ;r.:.duce £rea t dir:eren~ee of flc'K w:.ici: a r e !'urtL,;.!" enhare ed

bj' tl!e c one Q::::"''T.i ttar.t ... ~'iFo ~ r ':"!".:! ::":1 tne le:lr;ti. ur 'dlP 5~iral p:!.t.h. J.. self-recu1atini Ml',,~r.ir;e. i:5 enue o'btair.e1 b~aring a ~trik1ng re8e~blence to a direct-:urrent electric ~o~or in :hls r~s!oec~ th~t, ~ith ~reat dif~eren~e~ c: i~pre8bed pressure in a .. ide o~en channel the flo',v of tt.e fluid thro~g}-c the ~e is preyented "0'1 virtue ot rotatio~. ~~nce t~e centrifu!al head increases a6 tr.e squar e of tr:e revol-.:tion:s. or e'YeD more rapidly, and with mOdern high grade steel great per1- pheralve:oci~les are practi~ahle, It is po~sib:e to attain that. ~cndiaon in a sint,le stage z::.a.:hine, Itore rE:adily it tiie runner be of large din~e~e!". Obviously this proole~ !s !acilitGted by c:~poundin~. as will be underetcod blo thoae skilled 1n the Ilrt. Irrespective of ita bearir.g on ecor.c~, tnis tendenc: which is, to

a degree, common to motors ot ~he &bo.e deacrl~tiQn,

is of special ~d/antage in the cperetion 0: large units, aa it arrords a sateguard aia1nS! r~nning 27RY and ~~s-

truct1on.

=esideE these. such R prime ~ov~r possesses

many other ad~antages, both con8tru~tive and operative. It ia simple, light and cocpact, sUbj6:~ to but little wear, cheap and exceptionally easy to manu!~ctur. as small c~earances and accurate millin~ ~crk are not esBentia~ to sood pertormanc~. I~ operation it is reliable, the~e bein£ no valves, sliding contac~s or trouble80::e Tanes. It is al:lost free ot wi:!dabe, largely indepen~ent or nozzle efficiency and suitable tor high as wel~ as tor low fluid velccitie8 2nd speeds of revolution.

It ... i~l be understolJ~ that ~he principled ct construction and operation above ber.er~lly set forth, are capab~e of embodiment in machines of th~ ~ost widely ~irrerent forma, and adapted for the greate6t yarie~ or purposes. In my rresent application I have sou~'1t

to describe and exp~ain only the 6enara~ an1 typical applications of the principle which I believe I am the first to realize and turn to useful account.

7

~av1n~ nOif particularly de s c r Lbed a.id asc~rtained the na tur e of tilis said Lnv e n t I 0:"\ , and in wi'.?+; za nner- ~!~e sane ts t 0 O~ p er r or-med , I ae:lc.r':' :;.r:.~ \',';~at I -::1G.im is:

1. Tl.e ne tnou of impartin£ ene!"fY to or der1'1- in~ it trom a fluid, ~ased on adh~sive Rnd visccus action, -"hien e onaf s ta 1n adm1tt:ln~ thf' tluid to tr.e c entralor peripheral portion of a rocaily arranged system ana causing it to tlew, under the eonoin6d a~tiun ot radial an1 tan3sntial forces, in a spiral path 'ow~!"ds the periphery, or t~e axis, ot the rotatl~E syste~, as set torth.

2, As an ir.pro~e~ent in the tran5~is~inn or pO"6er the method c~ impartiua; enariY to or derivi!'lt; i~ trem a fluid, baaed on adhesive E.nC V1S~l'US action, which consists in causing the !luid to tlo"6, under tne r;l)mn1ned ttl!tion of r3jiul and tanL~!'l~1al .:4orr;es, in curvert paths awa;: fro~. or towards the ;-~xis of a rotably arrallt;ed rigid sj'ste!!l, RS set forth.

~. ~he :eth~d of 1~partinc enerfY to or deriving it trom a fluij, ~aeed on ad~~sive and viscous ac:ion, which consi8ts 1n admittin; the fluid tl) the =entral or peripheral portior. of a rotabll arranged 8yste~ and causing it to flow, under the =ombined action of radi~l and tan~ential for~e8, in a spir~l path with 6radually increasln6 or diminidhir.~ valo~i~y towards the periphery, or the axi:, .J! the rotating systee, as set tortr..

4. '::ile l!1et~od of deri ,,1:6£ enereY from a maTing fluid, baaed on adnas tve a:tt1 ViSi~OUS ae t I on , which consists in admitting the fluid to tee peripheral portion ot a runner and causing 1~ to give u~ l~s energy of ~oveDent while flowing with continuously diminishing velocity 1n II spiral path toW'a!"·:is the axis Clr the runner, as set forth.

5. ~ne l!1ethod ~f imparting e:tergy to a fluid, based on adhesive and viscous aetion, which consists

in a~tt1ng the fluid to the ~entral portiGn of a runr.er and :ausing it to flo~, by the ~cmbined etfect of the tanr-ential ar.d r~dial forces, in a spiral path with continuous17 increasine T31oei~y towards the periphery of the runner, as set forth.

6. A tluid propelling or tlu1d propelled %!lachine consisting in the cOl!lb1nation of a shaft, a plurality ot diSKS spaced apart and mounted o~ the same, and ports or passages ot 1nlet and outlet adJa~ent to the ~enter and periphery ot said disks, as set torth.

8

7. A iluid ~otor O~ engine ~o=pri~ir.g in cambinatiog a plurality ot ~~ac9d plane rotably mounted disks, and ~3ans f~r admitting ~r discharging the fluid a t tl-.e center and peripher;: of saiQ disk~, as se t forth.

e. ~ fluid pro~elled machine cc~ri$in6 in COQbin<:..U,-,n Po ,lurality of' lo" ... ced plane r:ltably mour.tad

di SJl:S, an en,::lcslnE cas lng and ports or passages 01" inlet and outlet at the center and ~erip~ery of t~e casing, as set f~rth.

9. A fluid mo~cr or enEine cocprisinc i~ co:::1nation 0. runner' ~ccpcse,1 e r a ~lu:-al1ty of dhk~ r-c - ta~ly ~ount~d with interve~in2 s~a:es. and a rasin£ enclosl1".€ the runner l='roYided ·".i th ports or passa~es ot inlet Gnd outlet a~ the ~xis and ~eriph~ry or the runner reapectiTely, as set rc~th.

10. A tlui1 ~otor or engine cacprising in combination a runner compusbd cf a plurality of disks ~o~~tad at intervals and for:ed ~1th c~enin~~ n~ar their centers, and aeans tor a~tting a li~uid to or discharging it frO!!! the spaces between the disks and 10- ~at8d respact1y.ly at tr.e een~~r a~d p~ripher,y ot the same.

11. A thermo-d,namic co~ver~er comprising a shatt, a plurality ot disks $pace1 thereon, an inlet tor the !!loUve fluid at the }:er1;;!-.ery of the disks a:lJ tangential tr.ereto, and an outlet at the ~p~tral portions or th~ same, as set torth.

9

~NVENTOR

N, KOLiliSLA. "b1irv~

Attcr(Y\ey

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