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First published in American Journal of Psychology, 31, 219-269.
LECTURE Ladies and Gentlemen: When I was honored with the invitation rom !lar" #niversit$ to le%ture be ore this esteemed assembla&e, a wish was at the same time e'pressed that I should spea" about m$ methods o wor", and espe%iall$ about the ps$%holo&$ o %hildhood. I hope to a%%omplish this tas" in the ollowin& manner: In m$ irst le%ture I shall tr$ to present to $ou the view points o m$ asso%iation methods( in m$ se%ond le%ture I shall dis%uss the si&ni i%an%e o the amiliar %onstellations( while in m$ third le%ture I shall enter more ull$ into the ps$%holo&$ o the %hild. I mi&ht easil$ %on ine m$sel e'%lusivel$ to m$ theoreti%al views, but I believe that it will be better to illustrate m$ le%tures with as man$ pra%ti%al e'amples as possible. We shall there ore o%%up$ ourselves irst with the method o asso%iation, a method whi%h has been o valuable assistan%e to me both pra%ti%all$ and theoreti%all$. )he asso%iation method in vo&ue in ps$%holo&$, as well as its histor$, is o %ourse, so amiliar to $ou that there is no need to spea" o it. For pra%ti%al purposes I ma"e use o the ollowin& ormular$:
)his ormular$ has been %onstru%ted a ter man$ $ears o e'perien%e. )he words are %hosen and partiall$ arran&ed in su%h a manner as to stri"e easil$ almost all %omple'es o pra%ti%al o%%urren%e. *s shown b$ the above ormular$ there is a re&ular mi'in& o the &rammati%al +ualities o the words. )his, too, has its de inite reasons.,2.e ore the e'periment be&ins the test person re%eives the ollowin& instru%tion: /*nswer as +ui%"l$ as possible the irst word that o%%urs to $our mind./ )his instru%tion is so simple that it %an easil$ be ollowed b$ an$bod$. )he wor" itsel , moreover, appears e'tremel$ eas$, so that is mi&ht be e'pe%ted that an$ one %ould a%%omplish it with the &reatest a%ilit$ and promptitude. .ut %ontrar$ to e'pe%tation the behavior is +uite di erent.
.)he ollowin& %urves illustrate the %ourse o the rea%tion time in an asso%iation e'periment in our normal test persons. )he len&th o ea%h %olumn denotes the len&th o the rea%tion time.
)he li&ht %ross-hat%hed %olumns denote the lo%ations where the test person was unable to rea%t 0so-%alled ailures1.wron&l$. or an$ ps$%hi% o%%urren%e is never a thin& in itsel . )he result o m$ stimulus words would thus undoubtedl$ approa%h in initel$ nearer per e%tion. as we are o ten dealin& with ver$ intelli&ent persons o luent spee%h. )he asso%iation e'periment. situations. Words are reall$ somethin& li"e %ondensed a%tions. )he irst thin& that stri"es us is the a%t that man$ test persons show a mar"ed prolon&ation o the rea%tion time. and thin&s. )his would ma"e us thin" at irst o intelle%tual di i%ulties. a %onversation between e'perimenter and test person. is not merel$ a method or the reprodu%tion o separated word %ouplets. In order to understand the matter %omprehensivel$ we must bear in mind that the asso%iation e'periments %annot deal with a separated ps$%hi% un%tion. however.ut as we are not ma&i%ians we must be . In a %ertain sense it is even still more than that. .)he illustrations below show the %ourse o the rea%tion time in h$steri%al individuals. . and as" him. but is alwa$s the resultant o the entire ps$%holo&i%al past. I should then stud$ his manner o rea%tion. too. When I present a word to the test person whi%h denotes an a%tion it is the same as i I should present to him the a%tion itsel . but it is a "ind o pastime. /2ow do $ou behave towards it3 What do $ou thin" o it3 What do $ou do in this situation3/ I I were a ma&i%ian I should %ause the situation %orrespondin& to the stimulus word to appear in realit$ and pla%in& the test person in its midst. )he e'planation lies rather in the emotions.
)he situation /bride/ or /bride&room/ will not evo"e a simple rea%tion in a $oun& lad$( but the rea%tion will be deepl$ in luen%ed b$ the provo"ed stron& eelin& tones. or thin&s. situations. about whi%h the test person %annot thin" +ui%"l$ and surel$.p. the more so i the e'perimenter be a man. It all depends on how the test person rea%ts to this situation.must not or&et that the stimulus word will as a rule alwa$s %on5ure up its %orrespondin& situation. too. It thus happens that the test person is o ten unable to rea%t +ui%"l$ and smoothl$ to all stimulus words. In realit$. 224. . )he e'ample whi%h I have 5ust presented shows an abundan%e o lon& rea%tion times and other disturban%es. and this a%t is shown in the asso%iation e'periments. there are %ertain stimulus words whi%h denote a%tions.%ontented with the lin&uisti% substitutes or realit$( at the same time we .
is in a %ertain sense reall$ but imper e%tl$ adapted to realit$. )he stimulus words are there ore merel$ a part o realit$ a%tin& upon us( indeed. the adaptation to the stimulus word is disturbed. .In this %ase the rea%tion to the stimulus word is in some wa$ impeded. a person who shows su%h disturban%es to the stimulus words. that is.
6isease is an imper e%t adaptation( hen%e in this %ase we are dealin& with somethin& morbid in the ps$%he, - with somethin& whi%h is either temporar$ or persistentl$ patholo&i%al, that is, we are dealin& with a ps$%honeurosis, with a un%tional disturban%e o the mind. )his rule, however, as we shall see later, is not without its e'%eptions. Let us in the irst pla%e %ontinue the dis%ussion %on%ernin& the prolon&ed rea%tion time. It o ten happens that the test person a%tuall$ does not "now what to answer to the stimulus word. )he test person waives an$ rea%tion( or the moment he totall$ ails to obe$ the ori&inal instru%tions, and shows himsel in%apable o adaptin& himsel to the e'perimenter. I this phenomenon o%%urs re+uentl$ in an e'periment it si&ni ies a hi&her de&ree o disturban%e in ad5ustment. I %all attention to the a%t that it is +uite indi erent what reason the test person &ives or the re usal. 7ome ind that too man$ ideas suddenl$ o%%ur to them, others, that not enou&h ideas %ome to their minds. In most %ases, however, the di i%ulties irst per%eived are so deterrent that the$ a%tuall$ &ive up
the whole rea%tion. )he ollowin& e'ample shows a %ase o h$steria with man$ ailures o rea%tion:
In e'ample 8 we ind a %hara%teristi% phenomenon. )he test person is not %ontent with the re+uirements o the instru%tion, that is, she is not satis ied with one word but rea%ts with man$ words. 7he apparentl$ does more and better than the instru%tion re+uires, but in so doin& she does not ul ill the re+uirements o the instru%tion. )hus she rea%ts: %ustom - &ood - barbari%( oolish - narrow minded - restri%ted( amil$ - bi& - small ever$thin& possible. )hese e'amples show in the irst pla%e that man$ other words %onne%t themselves with the rea%tion word. )he test person is unable to suppress the ideas whi%h subse+uentl$ o%%ur to her. In doin& this she also pursues a %ertain tenden%$ whi%h perhaps is more distin%tl$ e'pressed in the ollowin& rea%tion: new - old - as an opposite. )he addition o
/as an opposite/ denotes that the test person has the desire to add somethin& e'planator$ or supplementar$. )his tenden%$ is also shown in the ollowin& rea%tion: in&er - not onl$ hand, also oot - a limb - member - e'tremit$. 2ere we have a whole series o supplements. It seems as i the rea%tion were not su i%ient or the test person, as i somethin& else must alwa$s be added, as i what has been alread$ said were in%orre%t or in some wa$ imper e%t. )his eelin& we ma$ with 9anet desi&nate as the :sentiment d'incomplêtude,: whi%h b$ no means e'plains ever$thin&. I enter somewhat deeper into this phenomenon be%ause it is +uite re+uentl$ en%ountered in neuroti% individuals. Indeed it is not merel$ a small and unimportant subsidiar$ mani estation in an insi&ni i%ant e'periment, but rather an elemental and universal mani estation whi%h otherwise pla$s a r;le in the ps$%hi% li e o neuroti%s. With his desire to supplement the test person betra$s a tenden%$ to &ive the e'perimenter more than he wants, he even e'erts the &reatest e orts to see" urther mental o%%urren%es in order inall$ to dis%over somethin& +uite satis a%tor$. I we translate this elementar$ observation into the ps$%holo&$ o ever$da$ li e, it si&ni ies that the test person has a tenden%$ %onstantl$ to &ive to others more eelin& than is re+uired and e'pe%ted. *%%ordin& to Freud, this is a si&n o a rein or%ed ob5e%t-libido, that is, it is a %ompensation or an inner unsatis a%tion and voidness o eelin&. In this elementar$ observation we there ore see one o the main +ualities o h$steri%s, namel$, the tenden%$ to allow themselves to be %arried awa$ b$ ever$thin&, to atta%h themselves enthusiasti%all$ to ever$thin&, and to alwa$s promise too mu%h and hen%e do little. <atients havin& this s$mptom, in m$ e'perien%e, are alwa$s hard to deal with( at irst the$ are enthusiasti%all$ enraptured with the ph$si%ian, or a time &oin& so ar as to a%%ept ever$thin& blindl$( but the$ soon mer&e into 5ust as blind a resistan%e a&ainst the ph$si%ian, thus renderin& an$ edu%ative in luen%e absolutel$ impossible.
I alwa$s +uarrel at home( to marr$ . )he$ repeat it 5ust as we repeat a di i%ult +uestion in order better to &rasp it be ore answerin&.union( plum . and o allowin& themselves to be %arried awa$ b$ momentar$ impressions( this a&ain shows the %hara%teristi%s o the enhan%ed ob5e%t-libido. In man$ e'periments we observe that the same rea%tion %onstantl$ reappears to the most varied stimulus words.what do $ou mean b$ it3 . )he test person entirel$ or&ets that we deal with mere words whi%h stand in print be ore us.this idea is +uite stran&e to me. )he +uestions are repeated be%ause the stimulus words a%t on h$steri%al individuals almost li"e di i%ult and personal +uestions. and see"s in them a personal meanin&( he tries to divine them and de end himsel a&ainst them.reunion . 2ere we ind that the stimulus words apparentl$ a%t with e'%essive stren&th.We see there ore in this phenomenon the e'pression o a tenden%$ to &ive more than the instru%tion demands and e'pe%ts.is it s$mboli%3 to sin . *nother si&n o impeded adaptation is the o ten o%%urrin& repetitions of the stimulus words. o never bein& able to remain ob5e%tive. )his same tenden%$ is shown in the e'periment. )his elementar$ observation depi%ts another %ommon pe%uliarit$ o h$steri%s. I do not re%o&ni=e it. that o ta"in& ever$thin& personall$. In prin%iple it is the same phenomenon as the subse+uent %ompletion o the rea%tion.di erent thin&s .an&r$ .to eat . that the$ are ta"en as i the$ were dire%t personal +uestions. )hese rea%tions show that the test person &ets awa$ altoðer rom the situation o the e'periment. )hese words seem to possess a spe%ial reprodu%tion . namel$. )his tenden%$ betra$s itsel also in other ailures to ollow the instru%tion: to +uarrel . )he test persons repeat the stimulus word as i the$ had not heard or understood it distin%tl$. thus altoðer or&ettin& the instru%tions.how %an $ou marr$3 . For the instru%tion demands that he should answer onl$ the word whi%h ne't o%%urs to him.to plu%" .
si&ni ied to him a &reat man$ pain ul e'perien%es. who in %ontrast to him are all tall. and the other to the head nurse. who was an intimate riend o the . )he test person %ould not dire%tl$ state the reason or the repetition o the word /short. )his a%t is the oundation o the so-%alled /dia&nosis o a%ts/ 0Tatbestandsdiagnostik1( that is. but onl$ in ver$ de inite lo%ations( namel$. I assumed that in this word /short/ he desi&nated himsel . the %ulprit amon& a number o persons suspe%ted o a %rime. in those stimulus words whi%h stri"e a&ainst spe%ial emotionall$ a%%entuated %omple'es. and despite lon& stud$. and it is ver$ interestin& to e'amine their relationship to the test person. and that in this wa$ he helped to e'press somethin& ver$ pain ul to him. )he %upboard %ontained two %ompartments. )he a%ts were as ollows: )he nurse "ept her mone$. )he word /short. )his is usuall$ the %ase with the repeated words( the$ alwa$s %ontain somethin& ver$ important or the individual ps$%holo&$ o the test person. >n the 6th o Februar$. he too" deli&ht in wal"in& about in his room on his toes in order to appear taller. 19?@.tenden%$./ there ore. )hese two nurses and a third one. o whi%h one belon&ed to the nurse who was robbed. amountin& to A? ran%s. For e'ample. 2e was alwa$s the /child/ in the amil$. our supervisor reported to me that a nurse %omplained to her o havin& been robbed durin& the orenoon o the previous da$. )he test person is o ver$ small stature. in a po%"etboo" whi%h she had pla%ed in her %upboard where she also "ept her %lothes. )hat this is possible I should li"e to demonstrate brie l$ in a %on%rete %ase. whenever he was alone. he was ni%"named /7hort/ and was treated b$ all as the /little one. 2e is the $oun&est o our brothers. o the method emplo$ed to dis%over b$ means o an asso%iation e'periment. he %ould not de%ide to present himsel or e'amination( he inall$ be%ame impotent. )he si&ns thus ar depi%ted are not ound arbitraril$ spread throu&hout the whole e'periment./ From e'perien%e I "new that su%h predi%ates alwa$s relate either to the test person himsel or to the person nearest to him. I have observed a %ase in whi%h the patient repeated the word /short/ a &reat man$ times and o ten in pla%es where it had no meanin&./ )his resulted in a total loss o sel -%on iden%e. and mer&ed into a ps$%hosis in whi%h. *lthou&h he was intelli&ent.
nor was it shown that an$ o them had spent an$ time there on the previous da$. thus the head nurse had been able to learn the smallest details. and I there ore be&an b$ sub5e%tin& the irst three to the e'periment. It was there ore natural that these last three nurses should be re&arded or the time bein& as less impli%ated. some %entimes. whi%h naturall$ rendered the e'periment still more di i%ult. and one small re%eipt rom 6osenba%h:s shoeshop in CDri%h. slept in the same room where the %upboard was.esides the plainti and the &uilt$ one. and %ontained the ollowin& ob5e%ts: one B? ran% ban"note. Further investi&ation showed that on the mornin& o the the t the above-mentioned riend o the head nurse was sli&htl$ indisposed and remained in bed in the room the whole mornin&. there was onl$ one who re&ularl$ attended to the %leanin& o the room in +uestion. sin%e the$ "new nothin& %on%ernin& the parti%ulars o the deed. that the po%"etboo" was between the linen in an in%onspi%uous pla%e. or as soon as the ormer missed her mone$ she immediatel$ as"ed the head nurse to help her ind it. . )he room was in a se%tion whi%h was re&ularl$ o%%upied in %ommon b$ si' nurses who had ree a%%ess to this room. moreover. one small silver wat%h %hain. onl$ the head nurse "new the e'a%t parti%ulars o the deed. that on openin& the %upboard the irst thin& to be seen was a ur ornament 0boa1. or she was pre%isel$ the one most suspe%ted. one 2? ran% pie%e. > the other our nurses upon whom suspi%ion %ould all. From the parti%ulars o the %ase. )he %onditions or the e'periment were better or the others. and some not even that . while the remainin& three had nothin& to do in this room.head nurse. and. Given su%h a state o a airs it is not to be wondered that the supervisor shru&&ed her shoulders when I as"ed her whom she most suspe%ted. ollowin& the indi%ations o the plainti . 2en%e. the the t %ould have ta"en pla%e onl$ in the a ternoon. one sten%il used in the insane as$lum to mar" the "it%hen utensils. I also "new that the %upboard was lo%"ed but that the "e$ was "ept not ar awa$ in a ver$ %onspi%uous pla%e. )he po%"etboo" was o dar" reddish leather.
"e$. %hain. re%eipt. ur./ and /%hain/ and /silver. )he head nurse was ne't e'amined( she showed mar"ed e'%itement. Eevertheless. )he last to be e'amined was the nurse who attended to the %leanin& o the room in whi%h the the t o%%urred. )he ob5e%tion is o ten made to the last spe%ies o words that the$ ma$ produ%e a stron& a e%tive resentment even in inno%ent persons. A?. and or that reason one %annot attribute to them an$ %omparative value. $esterda$. her pulse bein& 12? per minute immediatel$ a ter the e'periment. dar" reddish. mone$. *s a rule it is well to ollow up the %riti%al words b$ indi erent words in order that the a%tion o the irst ma$ be %learl$ distin&uished. blame. it ma$ alwa$s be +uestioned whether the a e%tive resentment o an inno%ent person will have the same e e%t on the asso%iation as that o a &uilt$ one. to lie. 6osenba%h. open.ut one ma$ also ollow up one %riti%al word b$ another. silver./ * ter this preparator$ wor" I undertoo" the e'periment with the three above mentioned nurses. . po%"etboo". poli%e. %entimes. plus the ollowin& words: %upboard. I maintain that even words o the above mentioned t$pe ma$ pro itabl$ be used. to ta"e. %ourt. to ear. *s %riti%al stimulus words I sele%ted the name o the robbed nurse. to dis%over. and 5ud&in& b$ the %ir%umstan%es she appeared onl$ sli&htl$ moved. I irst undertoo" the e'periment with the riend o the head nurse. espe%iall$ i one wishes to brin& into relie the a%tion o the se%ond. sten%il. and with &ivin& some e'amples. &old. #ntil the %ontrar$ shall be demonstrated. door. inno%ent. *s e'aminations o this "ind %an be rendered into a orei&n ton&ue onl$ with the &reatest di i%ult$. I too" also the ollowin&. suspi%ion. I then distributed these %riti%al words amon& twi%e as man$ indi erent stimulus words in su%h a manner that ea%h %riti%al word was ollowed b$ two indi erent ones. 2?. and that +uestion %an onl$ be authoritativel$ answered b$ e'perien%e. B?. to steal. ban"note.esides these words whi%h re erred dire%tl$ to the deed. . to arrest. to hide. I will %ontent m$sel with presentin& the &eneral results.a %rime had been %ommitted. 7he was the most . )hus I pla%ed toðer /dar"ish red/ and /leather. wat%h. leather. whi%h had a spe%ial a e%tive value: the t.
>ne %an ma"e use o man$ spe%ial methods o %omputin&. It shows at a &lan%e the di i%ulties whi%h the person in the e'periment had to over%ome in the rea%tion.ut the avera&e rea%tion times %al%ulated separatel$ or the indi erent rea%tions. A. It seemed to me that she evin%ed a ver$ /suspi%ious. A./ or I mi&ht almost sa$. or the %riti%al. )he number ound in the middle 0@1 is the probable avera&e o this series. Followin& the order o the e'periment. but the$ are not all e+uall$ &ood and e+uall$ e'a%t. as appearan%es are enormousl$ de%eptive. 9. I shall denote the riend o the head nurse b$ the letter *. . 18. . /impudent/ %ountenan%e. 12.1 )he method whi%h is most to be re%ommended is that o the probable avera&e o the rea%tion time.? . 14. )he rea%tion times are.tran+uil o the three( she displa$ed but little embarrassment. A. B. or e'ample.B Eo %on%lusions %an be drawn rom this result. and onl$ in the %ourse o the e'periment did it o%%ur to her that she was suspe%ted o stealin&.? ! 18. and or those immediatel$ ollowin& the %riti%al 0post-%riti%al1 are more interestin&. A. 12. )he &eneral impression rom the e'amination spo"e stron&l$ a&ainst the head nurse. 0>ne must alwa$s resort to %al%ulation. 9. 9. @. a a%t whi%h mani estl$ disturbed her towards the end o the e'periment. With the de inite idea o indin& in her the &uilt$ one I set about addin& up the results.8. and the third nurse b$ !.pla%ed in the ollowin& manner: B. B. )he probable avera&es o the rea%tion are: * 1?. )he probable avera&e is the middle number o the various rea%tion times arran&ed in a series.. )he te%hni+ue o this %al%ulation is ver$ simple. the head nurse b$ .
is 6 or *. 2 or . she shows in %omparison to the other two persons o the e'periment.4.A.From this e'ample we see that whereas * has the shortest rea%tion time or the indi erent rea%tions. F ?. or ! F ?. *nother +uestion to %onsider is.. )he di eren%e between the rea%tion times. In the same wa$ we %an %al%ulate how man$ %omple' indi%ators there are on an avera&e or the indi erent. et%.. the lon&est time or the %riti%al rea%tions. %riti%al. rea%tions. let us sa$ between the indi erent and the %riti%al. and 8 or !. in what spe%ial wa$ do the imper e%t rea%tions behave3 . that is. )he di eren%e between the indi erent and %riti%al rea%tions or * F ?. or . * is a&ain the hi&hest. it is more than double or * when %ompared with the other two persons.
2ere. BB.ut in order that this should be probable it %ould not o%%ur in so &reat a measure as in our %ase. *sso%iat. as this would lead me be$ond the limits o the present wor". %riti%al. * rea%hes the hi&hest value. *&ain we ind that * has the &reatest per%enta&e. and ! have not a mu%h smaller number o imper e%t rea%tions when %ompared to *. . unable to e'plain here %ir%umstantiall$ the reasons wh$ I maintain that memor$ errors are related to an emotional %omple'. It is si&ni i%ant that ! with her sli&ht emotions durin& the e'periment shows the minimum o imper e%t reprodu%tions arran&ed in series. 7tudien1. with the result that not onl$ the %riti%al asso%iation. and or ! F 8?G. rea%tions. *s it o ten happens that an asso%iation o stron& eelin& tone produ%es in the e'periment a perseveration. it will be ver$ interestin& or our %ases to see how man$ imper e%t reprodu%tions are so arran&ed in the series. it is ne%essar$ to see how the$ distribute themselves in respe%t to the indi erent. Given a small +uantit$ o rea%tions it is usual that the &reater the total number o the same the more imper e%t rea%tions will o%%ur in &roups. I there ore re er the reader to m$ wor" /Ueber die eproductionsst!rrungen im Associationse"periment/ 0IH .BG. F 2@G.eitra& der 6ie&nost. or .. we see the %hara%teristi% moment o the &uilt-%omple' in *. .?G. where on the other hand . too. and in this. *s imper e%t reprodu%tions are also %omple' indi%ators. )he result o %omputation shows that the imper e%t reprodu%tions thus arran&ed in series are or * 64.AG. or . I am.)he result or * F 84G. however. et%. )o be sure this ma$ partiall$ depend on the a%t that * also possesses the &reatest number o imper e%t reprodu%tions. I believe. and or ! 8?. but also two or three su%%essive asso%iations are imper e%tl$ reprodu%ed.
or ! the$ are ?.9 hi&her than the e'pe%ted. Eaturall$. while or . too. . and !1 even as rea%tions to %riti%al words. sin%e * has the &reater number o imper e%t reprodu%tions. there is a probabilit$ that the &reater the +uantit$ o the imper e%t reprodu%tions the &reater is their number in the %riti%al rea%tions. *dmittin& su%h a uni orm distribution o the imper e%t reprodu%tions. In this respe%t.It is hardl$ ne%essar$ to brin& into prominen%e the di eren%es between the indi erent and the %riti%al rea%tions o the various sub5e%ts as shown b$ the resultin& numbers o the table. * o%%upies irst pla%e. too. it is eas$ to %al%ulate how man$ we ou&ht to e'pe%t to belon& to ea%h individual "ind o rea%tion. the real number is less than the one e'pe%ted. I we suppose that the imper e%t reprodu%tions are distributed re&ularl$ and without %hoi%e amon& all the rea%tions there will be a &reater number o them or * 0in %omparison to . From this %al%ulation it appears that the disturban%es o reprodu%tions whi%h %on%ern the %riti%al rea%tions or * surpass b$ ar the e'pe%ted. here.
I maintain that su%h a result should be o s%ienti i% interest and worth$ o %onsideration. even thou&h the test person stron&l$ denies it. <ra%ti%all$ one ma$ venture to desi&nate su%h a sub5e%t as probabl$ &uilt$. and thus the su%%ess o the e'periment was %on irmed. and hen%e the &reatest suspi%ion alls on *. What has been possible on%e or twi%e ou&ht to be possible a&ain in other %ases. )his appli%abilit$ o the e'periment shows it possible to stri"e a %on%ealed 0indeed and un%ons%ious1 %omple' b$ means o a stimulus word( and %onversel$ we ma$ assume with &reat %ertaint$ that behind a rea%tion whi%h shows a %omple' indi%ator there is a hidden %omple'. to wit.*ll this points to the a%t than in the sub5e%t * the %riti%al stimulus words a%ted with the &reatest intensit$. )here is mu%h in e'perimental ps$%holo&$ whi%h is less use ul than the material treated in this wor". )he same evenin& * made a %omplete %on ession o the the t. we have brou&ht to li&ht the %ulpable a air in a mu%h easier and shorter wa$ than is %ustomar$. we have in this %ase somethin& that is not to be despised rom a pra%ti%al point o view. >ne must &et rid o the idea that edu%ated and intelli&ent test persons are able to see and admit their own %omple'es. Iver$ human mind %ontains mu%h that is una%"nowled&ed and hen%e un%ons%ious as su%h( and no one %an boast that he stands %ompletel$ above his . and it is well worth while to investi&ate the means o renderin& the method in%reasin&l$ %apable o rapid and sure results. <uttin& aside altoðer the theoreti%al interest.
but depend entirel$ on the proportionate emotional state. and it is there ore +uite usual in imbe%ilit$. )hus a $oun& student rom whom asso%iations were ta"en b$ an older intelli&ent woman student rea%ted altoðer with de initions. and that is wh$ his asso%iations are more si&ni i%ant. )his t$pe %onsists in the a%t that the rea%tion alwa$s &ives an e'planation or a de inition o the %ontent o the stimulus word( e. . )hat is not the %ase.a pie%e o household urniture( to promenade. whereas the unedu%ated orm more valuable asso%iations and o ten o in&enious si&ni i%an%e. *side rom the t$pes determined b$ edu%ation we have to %onsider three prin%ipal individual t$pes: 1.%hie o the amil$. . but are simpl$ the results o a spe%ial emotional state. . based on intelle%tual pe%uliarities. however. )he e'periment does not &ive us an$ parti%ular insi&ht into the purel$ intelle%tual.p. his emotion is &reater and or that reason he pa$s more attention to the e'periment than the edu%ated person.enables one to distin&uish %ertain intellectual t$pes. )he test person was o the opinion that it was an e'amination in intelli&en%e. )his behavior would be parado'i%al rom an intelle%tual viewpoint. )his t$pe is %hie l$ ound in stupid persons. *n ob5e%tive t$pe with undisturbed rea%tions. )o be sure we %an ere%t %ertain t$pes o rea%tion( the$ are not. .. )hose who persist in maintainin& it do not see the spe%ta%les whi%h the$ wear on their noses.: apple. * so-%alled %omple' t$pe with man$ disturban%es in the e'periment o%%asioned b$ the %onstellation o a %omple'. but rather onl$ into the emotional pro%esses. but who do not wish to be taken as stupid. 286. )he meanin& ul asso%iations o the unedu%ated are not reall$ the produ%t o intelle%tual thin"in&. and there ore dire%ted most o his .%omple'es.a tree.ut it %an also be ound in persons who are not reall$ stupid.ruit( table. )he whole thin& is more important to the unedu%ated. Idu%ated test persons usuall$ show super i%ial and lin&uisti%all$ deep rooted asso%iations.an a%tivit$( ather. 2. It has lon& been thou&ht that the asso%iation e'periment . 3. * so-%alled de inition-t$pe. g.
)he test persons wish to be more than the$ are. there ore. )he de inition t$pe is %losel$ related to the predi%ate t$pe. to the predi%ate t$pe e'pressin& personal 5ud&ment 0#ertpr$dikattypus1. those whom their stupidit$ is pain ul. In the de inition t$pe the intelle%tual si&ni i%an%e o the stimulus word is rendered prominent.&hastl$. and thus to %ompensate or the pain ul eelin& o stupidit$.%onvenient( animal . and other intelle%tual ornaments.love:s un oldin&( to "iss . however. )here are predi%ate t$pes whi%h are altoðer overdrawn where there appear rea%tions li"e the .heart an&uish( to "iss .dan&erous( death .u&l$( "ni e . For e'ample: lower .attention to the si&ni i%an%e o the stimulus words( his asso%iations. rea%t with de initions( probabl$ onl$ those so rea%t who would li"e to appear smarter than the$ are. the$ wish to impress others with their apparent edu%ation and intelli&en%e. loo"ed li"e those o an idiot. while in the predi%ate t$pe it is its emotional significance.per%eption o riendship. hi&h soundin& +uotations. )his t$pe &ives a %onstrained and unnatural impression. In this wa$ the$ wish to in luen%e their ellow bein&s. or to e'press it more pre%isel$. Eot all idiots. I desi&nate this widespread %omple' as /intelli&en%e-%omple'. that is. 2en%e we see that persons with an intelli&en%e %omple' are usuall$ not natural and un%onstrained( that the$ are alwa$s somewhat unnatural and lower$( the$ show a predile%tion or %ompli%ated orei&n words./ * normal test person rea%ts in a most overdrawn manner as ollows: an'iet$ . the$ wish to e'ert more in luen%e than the$ reall$ have.prett$( mone$ .
there a%tuall$ o%%urs %onsiderable emotional loss.ardentl$ loved( ather . I need hardl$ add o what importan%e su%h determinations are or the dia&nosis o %hara%ter.>n investi&atin& the in luen%e o the amiliar milieus on the asso%iation t$pe it was ound that $oun& individuals seldom possess a predi%ate t$pe. namel$ that an inner emotional de i%ien%$ must produ%e a predi%ate t$pe. and in men a ter the 6?th.somethin& &ood. )hat is the pre%ise time when. I a test person evin%es a distin%t predi%ate t$pe it ma$ alwa$s be in erred that a mar"ed internal emotional de i%ien%$ is thereb$ %ompensated. and the %onstrained soundin& lan&ua&e so o ten observed in so%iet$.heavenl$( mother . . ni%e.horrible( to sin& . but that on the other hand. 7till one %annot reason %onversel$. no more than that idio%$ dire%tl$ produ%es a de inition t$pe. 5ust as the de inition t$pe reall$ %on%eals a la%" o intelli&en%e so the e'%essive emotional e'pression %on%eals or over%ompensates an emotional de i%ien%$. but here there is a ver$ emotional one. enthusiasti% e'%lamations. the predi%ate t$pe in%reases in re+uen%$ with the advan%in& a&e. * predi%ate t$pe %an also betra$ itsel throu&h the e'ternal behavior.ollowin&: piano . . owin& to the de i%ien%$ o se'ualit$. In the de inition t$pe an absolute intellectual ma"e-up is mani ested or rather simulated. as. )he %omple' t$pe shows no parti%ular tenden%$ e'%ept the concealment o a %omple'.ut whereas the de inition t$pe tends to brin& to li&ht its intelli&en%e. throu&h a parti%ular a e%tation. an embellished behavior. )his %on%lusion is ver$ interestin&l$ illustrated b$ the ollowin& dis%over$: . hol$. Jet. the predi%ate t$pe displa$s its emotion. In women the in%rease o the predi%ate t$pe be&ins a little a ter the 4?th $ear. or e'ample. whereas the de inition and predi%ate t$pes betra$ a positive tenden%$ to e'ert in some wa$ a definite in luen%e on the e'perimenter.
or stimulus words immediatel$ ollowin& su%h %riti%al words. )hese rare %ases are espe%iall$ ound amon& ver$ intelli&ent . with resistances. despite that a%t. but it does not hold or the linguistic e'pression o an emotionall$ a%%entuated %ontent. In man$ instan%es the memor$ ails. however. )he reprodu%tion %ertaint$ is there ore in %ertain %ases a measure or the emotivit$ o the test person. we o ten ind rom 2?-4?G o alse reprodu%tions. >n the %ontrar$ one ver$ easil$ or&ets what he has said under emotion. and as e'perien%e shows. For it is "nown that emotionall$ a%%entuated thin&s are better retained in memor$ than indi erent thin&s. undoubtedl$ present neuroti% s$mptoms.$ ar the &reater number o neuroti%s rea%t onl$ under &reat and hen%e ver$ distin%t resistan%es. while in abnormal persons. In normal persons we usuall$ ind a limited number o alse reprodu%tions.* ter inishin& an asso%iation e'periment I usuall$ add another e'periment o a di erent "ind. so that the do%tor inds it ver$ di i%ult to orm a proper pi%ture o the patient:s ps$%holo&$. these lo%ations are stimulus words whi%h tou%hed an emotionall$ a%%entuated %omple'. In su%h %ases I am &reatl$ assisted b$ the asso%iation e'periment. Indeed the e i%a%$ o %ross-e'aminations in %ourt depends on this a%t. seldom more than 1?-2?G. that his ps$%holo&i%al un%tions pro%eed with mar"ed internal ri%tions. )he reprodu%tion method there ore serves to render still more prominent the %omple' stimulus. but who.p. I repeat the same stimulus words and as" the test persons whether the$ still remember their ormer rea%tions. I see a &reat man$ ver$ prolon&ed times whi%h in itsel means that the patient %an onl$ ad5ust himsel with di i%ult$.$ ar the lar&er number o neuroti%s show a pronoun%ed tenden%$ to %over up their intimate a airs in impenetrable dar"ness. )his phenomenon has been desi&nated as parado'i%al and %ontrar$ to all e'perien%e. even rom the do%tor. %ases in whi%h the avera&e rea%tion times are as short as in the normal and in whom the other %omple' indi%ators are la%"in&. When the e'periment is inished I irst loo" over the &eneral %ourse o the rea%tion times. one is even apt to %ontradi%t himsel about it.and edu%ated %hroni% patients who a ter man$ . the so-%alled reproduction. . espe%iall$ in h$steri%s. there are. . 289. )his is +uite true.
$ears o pra%ti%e have learned to %ontrol their outward behavior and there ore outwardl$ displa$ ver$ little i an$thin& o their neuroses. >n super i%ial observation the$ %an be ta"en as normal. $et in some pla%es the$ show disturban%es whi%h betra$ the repressed %omple'. .
)he patient is sure that she loves him and that her e'%ited states are &roundless. * ter her marria&e she su ers rom episodi% e'%itements in whi%h she is violentl$ 5ealous o her husband. I it is a predi%ate t$pe I draw the %on%lusions whi%h I have detailed above( i it is a %omple' t$pe I tr$ to as%ertain the nature o the %omple'. while her husband is a protestant. be%ause the se'ual moment su&&ested therein %aused her the &reatest e'%itement. It is to be noted that the patient is a %atholi% and has been brou&ht up reli&iousl$.* ter e'aminin& the rea%tion times I turn m$ attention to the t$pe o the asso%iation to as%ertain with what t$pe I am dealin&. 7he %annot ima&ine when%e these e'%ited states ori&inate. or e'ample. no one was allowed to tal" in the patient:s presen%e about her sister:s %hildbirth. In some %ases it is ne%essar$ to put a +uestion here and there. * more thorou&h anamnesis showed the e'isten%e o an e'treme prudishness. and the $ellow %olumns show those asso%iations in whi%h . In man$ %ases a mere assortment o these words su i%es to show the %omple'. I at irst loo" or the reprodu%tion words and put them toðer. and I then loo" or the stimulus words whi%h show the &reatest disturban%es. )he blue %olumns represent ailures o reprodu%tions. It will be best to illustrate this with a %on%rete e'ample: It %on%erns an edu%ated woman o 8? $ears who has been married or three $ears. )hus. and eels +uite perple'ed over them. et%. )he marria&e is a happ$ one in ever$ other respe%t and it should be noted that the husband &ives no %ause or the 5ealous$. 7he alwa$s undressed in the ad5oinin& room and never in her husband:s presen%e. the &reen ones represent repetitions o stimulus words. *t the a&e o 2A she was supposed to have had no idea how %hildren were born. )he asso%iations &ave the results shown in the a%%ompan$in& %hart. )his di eren%e o reli&ion did not admittedl$ pla$ an$ part. With the ne%essar$ e'perien%e one %an readil$ eman%ipate himsel rom the test person:s statements and almost without an$ previous "nowled&e o the test persons it is possible under %ertain %ir%umstan%es to read the most intimate %omple'es rom the results o the e'periment.
that she is alse.e%ause she was aithless in her an%ies and did not admit it to hersel she was 5ealous o her husband. she entertains an%ies o aithlessness. )he stimulus words %hara%teri=ed b$ mar"ed disturban%es are the ollowin&: $ellow. ear. old. )he %on%lusion that %an be drawn rom this is that she is not indi erent to the a%t that her husband is a protestant. to +uarrel. I must %ontent m$sel with havin& demonstrated to $ou at least some o its %hie uses. or she a&ain thin"s o pra$in&. seemin&l$ stri"e the %omple' above all. amil$. to "iss. reproa%hes a&ainst her husband. to marr$. &er prudishness and 'ealousy were merely a pro'ection of her own se"ual wishes on her husband. she is a raid 0o the husband3 o the uture31. . et%. )he hei&ht o the %olumns represent the len&th o the rea%tion time. to separate. she is not %ontented with her %hoi%e 0to %hoose1 and she thin"s o separation. to %hoose. When I told her this result she was a e%ted and at irst attempted to den$ it. but inall$ she admitted ever$thin& I said and added still more. usin& man$ instead o one word. that is. It is impossible in a le%ture to &ive a review o all the possible uses o the asso%iation e'periment.the patient either lau&hed or made mista"es. there ore. alse. bride. %ontented. that there is somethin& wron& with marria&e. . then to min%e over it. )hese words. to pra$. )he stron&est disturban%es are ound in the ollowin& stimulus words: to pray% to marry% happiness% false% fear% and contented. 7he reprodu%ed a lar&e number o an%ies o aithlessness. )he patient there ore has a separation %omple' or she is ver$ dis%ontented with her married li e. happiness.
LECTURE The !a"iliar Constellations Ladies and Gentlemen: *s $ou have seen. 1. 6i eren%e 6 A @6. et%. has made the ollowin& resear%h: she has applied the asso%iation e'periment to 24 amilies.7imple predi%ate LI. ?.7ub and supraordination III. K$ pupil. Kotor-spee%h %ombination HII.6e inition IH. !omposition o words HIII. 11.B 12.!ontrast IL. there are mani old wa$s in whi%h the asso%iation e'periment ma$ be emplo$ed in pra%ti%al ps$%holo&$. 6. 1B. I should li"e to spea" to $ou to-da$ about another utili=ation o this e'periment whi%h is primaril$ o onl$ theoreti%al si&ni i%an%e.B ?.<redi%ate e'pressin& a personal 5ud&ment L.B 1A.B 21. 11. 1. K.!o-ordination II.Melations o the verb to the sub5e%t or %omplement LII. Kiss FDrst..B N 12 1A8. LIII. Identit$ HI.6. 6e e%tive rea%tions )otal.2?? asso%iations. !ompletion o words HIL.B 8.B Wi e ?.B ?.B 9B.B 11.B 1B.B A @. !lan& asso%iations HL. %onsistin& altoðer o 1?? test persons( the resultin& material amounted to 2. and the asso%iations were arran&ed as ollows: 2usband I. 11.6esi&nation o time. )his material was elaborated in the ollowin& manner: Fi teen separate &roups were ormed a%%ordin& to lo&i%al-lin&uisti% standards.B . !oe'isten%e H.
2. and that between emale related test persons is 8.A. L. IL. 6i eren%e between mothers and their sons F 4. 6i eren%e between athers and their sons F 8. 6i eren%e between brothers F 4. )he avera&e di eren%e o male unrelated test persons is B.B O 1B F 22.214.171.124G. I the married sisters are omitted rom the %omparison we &et the ollowin& result: 6i eren%e o unmarried sisters F 8. I utili=e the di eren%e to show the de&ree o the analo&$. and that o emales o the same &roup is 6G. From these numbers we see that relatives show a tenden%$ to a&reement in the rea%tion t$pe. )he rea%tion t$pes o %hildren %ome nearer to the t$pe o the mother than to the ather. In order to ind a base or the total resemblan%e I have %al%ulated the di eren%es amon& all o Kiss FDrst:s test persons not related amon& themselves b$ %omparin& ever$ emale test person with all the other unrelated emales( the same has been done or the male test persons. II.9G. the &reatest di eren%e possible bein& 2?? O 1B F 18.@. 6i eren%e between sisters F B.?. 6i eren%e between athers and their dau&hters F 4. 6i eren%e between mothers and their dau&hters F 8. )he avera&e di eren%e between male related test persons is 4. )he most mar"ed di eren%e is ound in those %ases where the two test persons %ompared have no asso%iative +ualit$ in %ommon.A. *ll the &roups are %al%ulated in per%enta&es.B. 6i eren%e between mothers and %hildren F 8.8G I. .B *s %an be seen rom this e'ample.@G.1. 6i eren%e between athers and %hildren F 4.*vera&e di eren%e 1A8. III.
there are some %ases whi%h show a mar"ed di eren%e and some whi%h show a mar"ed a&reement. )he di eren%e between unmarried brothers F 4. sums up ver$ inade+uatel$ the di erent values( that is. the material whi%h we have at our disposal is not as $et enou&h to allow us to draw de inite %on%lusions. Karria&e seems to e'ert no in luen%e on the asso%iation orms in man. )his number.)hese observations show distin%tl$ that marria&e destro$s more or less the ori&inal a&reement.@. In the %urves here reprodu%ed I have mar"ed above the number o asso%iations o ea%h +ualit$ in per%enta&es. )he des%ription in %urves o the di erent results ollows. . however. as the husband belon&s to a di erent t$pe. LI. )he di eren%e between husband and wi e F 4. Eevertheless. )he Moman letters written below the dia&ram desi&nate the orms o asso%iation indi%ated in the above tables 0see above1.A.
!urve *. )he ather 0%ontinued line1 shows an ob5e%tive t$pe. while the mother and dau&hter show the pure predi%ate t$pe with a pronoun%ed sub5e%tive tenden%$. .
the predi%ate sub5e%tive bein& somewhat more numerous in the wi e. )he husband and wi e a&ree well in the predi%ate ob5e%tive t$pe..!urve . !urve !. . * ver$ ni%e a&reement between a ather and his two dau&hters.
)he similarit$ o the asso%iations is o ten ver$ e'traordinar$. !urve I. 7he approa%hes ver$ %losel$ to the t$pe o her husband. I will reprodu%e here the asso%iations o a mother and her dau&hter.!urve 6. )he dotted line represents the married sister. 2er %urve is the dire%t opposite o that o her sisters. 2usband and wi e. )wo sisters livin& toðer. )he wi e is a sister o the two women o %urve 6. .
oth have a ver$ distin%t predi%ate t$pe e'pressin& personal 5ud&ment. and that there ore one mi&ht e'pe%t a ver$ &reat diversit$ and lawlessness o asso%iations. )he same %auses %annot. more in%onstant.1 )he mother is 4B $ears old and the dau&hter 16 $ears. hopes.ut as we see the opposite is the %ase. a rapidl$ passin& thou&ht3 It is not. where ull s%ope is &iven to %han%e. however. . but %losel$ determined within the limits o the milieu. and di er rom the ather in the most stri"in& manner. individualit$ would be%ome a a%tor o the utmost importan%e. she even uses the same words. 07ee above. and not ree. lawless. what should we e'pe%t or the more important %onditions o the mind. . wishes. I . operate in . even the super i%ial and mani estl$ most li&ht$ ormations o the intelle%t are altoðer sub5e%t to the milieu%onstellation. and intentions3 Let us %onsider a %on%rete e'ample. there ore.the %urve *. or the emotions. however. and more lawless than a an%$. What seems more li&ht$.>ne mi&ht indeed thin" that in this e'periment. . )he ather is a drun"ard and a demorali=ed %reature. not onl$ in her thou&ht but in her orm o e'pression( indeed. )hus the dau&hter lives %ontentl$ in the same %ir%le o ideas as her mother. We %an thus readil$ understand that his wi e per%eives an emotional voidness whi%h she naturall$ betra$s b$ her enhan%ed predi%ate t$pe.
the dau&hter. I a $oun& &irl rea%ts to the world li"e an old woman disappointed in li e this at on%e shows unnaturalness and %onstraint. 7u%h an emotional state is no lon&er dan&erous in the mother. 7he will thus be e'posed to the &reatest dan&er o allin& a vi%tim to brutalit$ and o marr$in& a brute and inebriate li"e her ather. >ri&inall$ the a e%ts and their ph$si%al mani estations had a biolo&i%al si&ni i%an%e( i. I we mani est emotions we %an with %ertaint$ e'pe%t to re%eive emotions in return. )he dau&hter simpl$ imitates the mother( she merel$ appears li"e the mother. )hus we %annot prevent ourselves rom answerin& at least inwardl$ to the eelin&s and passions o our nearest environment( we allow ourselves to be in e%ted and %arried awa$ b$ it.. )hat is the sense o the predi%ate t$pe.ut or a &irl o 16 su%h an emotional state is to sa$ the least +uite dan&erous( li"e her mother she rea%ts to her environment as a su erer soli%itin& s$mpath$.ut more serious %onse+uen%es are possible. I the dau&hter imitates this situation she does the same thin& as her mother. or in the irst pla%e she is not married to a drun"ard. *s $ou "now the predi%ate t$pe is a mani estation o intensive emotions( emotions are alwa$s involved. she will be a su erin& woman %ravin& or inner &rati i%ation. the$ were a prote%tive me%hanism or the individual and the whole herd. and it is or that reason that she is an ardent parti%ipant in the !hristian 7%ien%e meetin&s. Let us %onsider what this %an si&ni $ or a $oun& &irl.. )he e'ample shows what passes over rom the mother to the %hild. in love in her marria&e relations she see"s to obtain rom the outside. . . What the 4B-$ear-old woman la%"s in emotions( i(e(. >n%e reed rom her ather and mother she will be li"e her-mother( i(e.ut whereas in the mother the ormation is in a wa$ a natural %onse+uen%e o her unhapp$ %ondition o li e. It is not the &ood and pious pre%epts. It is distin%tl$ unnatural or the dau&hter to show an e'treme predi%ate t$pe e'pressin& personal 5ud&ment. this %ondition is entirel$ la%"in& in the dau&hter. 7he responds to the stimuli o the environment 5ust li"e her mother. )his %onsideration seems to me to be o importan%e or the %on%eption o the in luen%e o environment and edu%ation. . nor is it an$ other in%ul%ation o peda&o&i% truths that have a mouldin& in luen%e upon the %hara%ter o the developin& .e. and se%ondl$ li e with all its hopes still lies be ore her. but or obvious reasons it is +uite dan&erous in the dau&hter. she see"s to obtain emotions rom the outside.
stones. a &rumbler. as it eels itsel .%hild. so to spea". It is not rare. but what most in luen%es him is the pe%uliarl$ a e%tive state whi%h is totall$ un"nown to his parents and edu%ators. too. 9ust as the parents adapt themselves to the world so does the %hild. old dried lowers. he was stran&e and almost hostile to them. and even small bottles o water rom the well at his home and rom a river alon& whi%h he wal"ed with his parents. )hus even thin&s that are never spo"en about are re le%ted in the %hild. )he irst attempts to assume riendship and love are %onstellated in the stron&est manner possible b$ the relation to parents. )he $outh ul person at irst tries to separate himsel as mu%h as possible rom his amil$. )he %hild imitates the &esture. and 5ust as the &esture o the parent is the e'pression o an emotional state. I &rown-up persons are so sensitive to su%h surroundin& in luen%es we %ertainl$ ou&ht to e'pe%t more o this in the %hild whose mind is as so t and plasti% as wa'. and here one %an usuall$ observe how power ul are the in luen%es o the amiliar %onstellations. into the &esture. the se%ret worr$. the more sensitive and mouldable the %hild the deeper is the impression. )he %on%ealed dis%ord between the parents. he ma$ even estran&e himsel rom it. We "now that asso%iation with mourn ul and melan%holi% persons will depress us. but he admitted to me that he possessed a spe%ial san%tum( it was a stron& bo' %ontainin& his old %hildhood boo"s. wor"s its wa$ into the %hild:s mind. thou&h un%ons%iousl$. the repressed hidden wishes. it enters into li e with so to sa$ a sur a%e o ra%ture entirel$ in "eepin& with that o the ather and mother. but inwardl$ this onl$ ties him the more irml$ to the parental ima&e. et%. so in turn the &esture &raduall$ produ%es in the %hild a similar eelin&. )he ather and mother impress deepl$ into the %hild:s mind the seal o their personalit$. I re%all the %ase o a $oun& neuroti% who ran awa$ rom his parents. e(g(. or a health$ . *t the a&e o pubert$ when it be&ins to ree itsel rom the spell o the amil$. et%. produ%in& therein the same %onditions and hen%e the same rea%tions to e'ternal stimuli. * restless and nervous individual in e%ts his surroundin&s with unrest and dissatis a%tion. with his dis%ontent. )he re+uent and o ten ver$ deep depressions of puberty emanate rom this( the$ are s$mptoms whi%h are rooted in the di i%ult$ o new ad5ustment. all these produ%e in the individual a %ertain a e%tive state with its ob5e%tive si&ns whi%h slowl$ but surel$.
statin& that she had on%e be ore been en&a&ed to be married to a normal man. Further investi&ation showed that her desertin& lover was alunati% . )his s$mptom immediatel$ aroused in me the suspi%ion that I dealt with a %ase o paranoia rather than with a neurosis. 2er whole love had there ore been turned awa$ rom her ather to a brother @ $ears her senior( him she loved and honored as a ather. and in later $ears entirel$ estran&ed rom his amil$. I was mista"en. . or or the dau&hter o an al%oholi% to %hoose an al%oholi% or her husband. )his she denied. a ter whi%h she %hose her lovers. We must ta"e into %onsideration . It was impossible to %onvin%e her o the alsit$ o her %onvi%tion. too. I e'pressed m$ surprise at her unsuitable %hoi%e and added that she must have had a %ertain predile%tion or lovin& mentall$ abnormal persons. When%e ori&inated this stran&e taste3 2er ather was an e%%entri% %hara%ter. 7he elt utterl$ orsa"en. and this brother be%ame hopelessl$ insane at the a&e o 14. and throu&h whi%h she had to be%ome unhapp$. at whi%h both were embarrassed or in%lined to lau&h. 2er neurosis whi%h &ave the impression o insanit$ probabl$ ori&inated rom this in antile model. turned awa$ and said somethin& rapidl$ to his nei&hbor. . deserted her( and on urther investi&ation it was ound that he. 7he thou&ht that her e$es now and then too" on a stran&e e'pression whi%h e'erted a disa&reeable in luen%e on men. or the s$mptom promptl$ disappeared a ter it had been e'plained b$ anal$sis. In her se%lusion there a%%umulated unadmitted and repressed eroti% wishes whi%h she un%ons%iousl$ pro5e%ted on men whenever she was in their %ompan$.another lunati%P )his seemed to me to %on irm with su i%ient %ertaint$ m$ belie that she had an un%ons%ious tenden%$ to %hoose insane persons. )hat was apparentl$ the model rom whi%h the patient %ould never ree hersel .man whose mother was h$steri%al to marr$ a h$steri%al. she withdrew rom all so%iet$ and pleasure. I was on%e %onsulted b$ an intelli&ent and edu%ated $oun& woman o 26 who su ered rom a pe%uliar s$mptom. had been in an insane as$lum shortl$ be ore. I she then loo"ed at a &entleman he be%ame embarrassed.ut as was shown onl$ three da$s later b$ the urther %ourse o the treatment. )his &ave rise to her %onvi%tion that her loo" e'%ited eroti% wishes in men.si%-. )he patient was %onvin%ed that her loo" e'%ited inde%ent thou&hts in the men. 2e. and entertained sui%idal ideas. It ori&inated in the ollowin& manner: )he lad$ had a lover who deserted her in a ver$ stri"in& manner. whi%h she did not apparentl$ observe. too.
that we are dealin& in this %ase with a hi&hl$ edu%ated and intelli&ent lad$ who did not pass %arelessl$ over her mental e'perien%es. and where still the person does not eel well but wor"s and lives under %onstant di i%ulties. 7u%h %ases o ten appear in the &uise o %hroni% neurasthenia. a ter su erin& man$ $ears rom a severe neurosis. 6espite that the marria&e was an unhapp$ one merel$ be%ause the wi e was neuroti% and there ore prevented all %on&enial %ompanionship. where the husband or wi e leaves nothin& to be desired. I %ould %ite an$ number o e'amples o this "ind. Eumberless unhapp$ %hoi%es o pro ession and matrimonial ailures %an be tra%ed to this %onstellation. I the husband has a neurosis the neurosis thus loudl$ pro%laims that he has intensive resistan%es and %ontrar$ tenden%ies a&ainst his wi e. %ases where the pro ession has been happil$ %hosen. and in ever$ respe%t suitable or her( his %hara%ter showed nothin& that would in an$ wa$ inter ere with a happ$ marria&e. )hese are thin&s whi%h inwardl$ appeal to us as matter o %ourse. I the person is unmarried the . Iver$ patient urnishes %ontributions to this sub5e%t o the determination o destin$ throu&h the in luen%e o the amiliar milieus. who indeed re le%ted mu%h over her unhappiness without. 2ere the di i%ult$ is due to the a%t that the mind is un%ons%iousl$ split into two parts o diver&ent tenden%ies whi%h are impedin& ea%h other( one part lives with the husband or with the pro ession. and i the wi e has a neurosis the wi e has a tenden%$ whi%h diver&es rom her husband. in its ver$ details. I have treated a lad$ who.the counter*argument against the relationship of the patient to the personality with which he is most intimately connected . havin& an$ idea when%e her mis ortune ori&inated. while the other lives un%ons%iousl$ in the past with the ather or mother. mer&ed into a dementia prae%o'. In ever$ neuroti% we see how the %onstellation o the in antile milieu in luen%es not onl$ the %hara%ter o the neurosis but also li e:s destin$. well to do. however. )he important heuristi% a'iom o ever$ ps$%hanal$sis reads as ollows: )f a neurosis springs up in a person this neurosis ontains . )here are. )his lad$:s husband was "ind. )he neuroti% a e%tion be&an with her marria&e. however.si%. edu%ated. and it is or this reason that we do not see them but attribute ever$thin& to the so-%alled %on&enital %hara%ter.
and at the same time there appeared a violent h$steri%al a e%tion. In the dream she saw a tall. and estran&ed hersel more and more rom her husband. she was loo"in& ever$where or a spiritual riend. mas%uline i&ure with a ver$ beauti ul white beard( at this si&ht she was permeated with a eelin& o awe and deli&ht as i she e'perien%ed the presen%e o God himsel . )his dream made the deepest impression on her. the impression o whi%h never le t her in all her later $ears( she even imputed to it a m$sti% si&ni i%an%e and o ten re%alled it with reli&ious dread. 7he be&an b$ &oin& into raptures now over this and now over that %ler&$man. or did. In her diseased state she re used to have an$thin& to do with her husband and %hild( she ima&ined hersel pre&nant b$ another man. Iver$ neuroti% naturall$ strives a&ainst this relentless ormulation o the %ontent o his neurosis.neurosis is then dire%ted a&ainst the lover or the sweetheart or a&ainst the parents. In brie . the resistan%es a&ainst her husband whi%h hitherto had been laboriousl$ repressed %ame . )he mental trouble made itsel mani est a ter about a de%ade. )he love a air o that period proved to be one o little warmth and was soon &iven up. and he o ten re uses to re%o&ni=e it at an$ %ost. intended. )he histor$ o our patient reads as ollows: )he ather had a power ul personalit$. she %ould neither respe%t nor love him su i%ientl$( she was inwardl$ dissatis ied and unsatiated. *t that time she had twi%e the same dream. 7he &raduall$ evin%ed a ervent piet$./ >ur patient:s li e with her husband was not happ$. Later the patient married her present husband. but still it is alwa$s 5usti ied. )hou&h she loved her husband she was led %ontinuall$ to %ompare him with her de%eased ather( this %omparison alwa$s proved un avorable to her husband. was sub5e%ted to this standard and alwa$s with the same result: /K$ ather would have done all this better and di erentl$. )o be sure the %on li%t is not on the sur a%e but must &enerall$ be revealed throu&h a painsta"in& ps$%hanal$sis. Whatever the husband said. 7he was his avorite dau&hter and entertained or him a boundless veneration. *t the a&e o 1A she or the irst time ell in love with a $oun& man. and she was %onstrained to thin" o it a&ain and a&ain.
the solution o the problem how to ree the &rowin& individual rom his un%ons%ious atta%hments to the in luen%es o the in antile milieu. or she veri ied dail$ her belie that her husband was not e+ual to her ather. and +uite t$pi%al o man$ marria&es whi%h are %rippled throu&h the neurosis o the wi e. When the patient irst ell in love there also appeared a s$mptom in the orm o a ver$ impressive visionar$ dream. as it were at the moment o marria&e. For man$ reasons I ind it impossible to tell $ou an$thin& o &eneral validit$ %on%ernin& the brin&in& up o %hildren as it is a e%ted b$ this problem. 7he saw the man with the ver$ beauti ul white beard. in su%h a manner that he ma$ retain whatever there is in it that is suitable and re5e%t whatever is unsuitable. It was o %ourse her ather. )o solve this di i%ult +uestion on the part o the %hild seems to me impossible at present. What is the %ounter-ar&ument3 )he %ounter-ar&ument is the ather o the patient. In this %ase we see how a neurosis appeared. )he o sprin& remains in the in antile relations. be so &reat on the part o the parents. It is the anal$sis o a ive-$ear-old bo$ published b$ Freud. )hus ever$ time the patient mer&ed into a love a air the pi%ture o the ather inopportunel$ appeared and prevented her rom ad5ustin& hersel ps$%holo&i%all$ to her husband. and amon& other thin&s mani ested themselves in insults o the &ravest "ind dire%ted a&ainst her husband. )he$ should not.out +uite openl$. )he di i%ulties on the part o the %hild are ver$ &reat. )he irst and onl$ real %ontribution to the literature on this sub5e%t has in a%t appeared durin& the present $ear. We %an ind here one o the most important tas"s o peda&o&$. however. We "now as $et too little about the %hild:s emotional pro%esses. namel$. In man$ wa$s the parents %ould mana&e more %are ull$ and more indul&entl$ the love o %hildren. i(e(. obvious. )he unhappiness alwa$s lies in a too irm atta%hment to the parents. this neurosis e"presses the counter*argument against the husband. I purposel$ %hose this %ase as an illustration be%ause it is simple. We are . )he sins %ommitted a&ainst avorite %hildren b$ the undue love o the parents %ould perhaps be avoided throu&h a wider "nowled&e o the %hild:s mind. Who was this man3 >n dire%tin& her attention to the beauti ul white beard she immediatel$ re%o&ni=ed the phantom.
in the %hild. 7u%h %omprehensive and pro ound observations should a%t as a stron& indu%ement to all tea%hers to o%%up$ themselves with Freud:s ps$%holo&$. >nl$ ps$%hanal$ses o the "ind that <ro essor Freud has published in our Jahrbuch. whether in the parents. . 19?9.as $et ver$ ar rom &eneral pres%riptions and rules( are still in the realm o %asuistr$. )his ps$%holo&$ o ers more or pra%ti%al peda&o&$ than the ph$siolo&i%al ps$%holo&$ o the present. or in the %on%eption o the milieu. will help us out o this di i%ult$. #n ortunatel$ our "nowled&e o the iner mental pro%esses in the %hild is so mea&re that we are a ter all not in an$ position to sa$ where the &reater trouble lies.
un ortunatel$. as all human bein&s err.e%ause the Freudian investi&ations apparentl$ involve an indeli%ate dis%ussion o the most intimate se%rets o se'ualit$ man$ people have had a eelin& o repulsion and have there ore re5e%ted ever$thin& as a matter o %ourse without an$ real proo . and to observe the mar"ed. Without a "nowled&e o the undamental anal$sis o Freud. but also the unpre5udi%ed attention o his audien%e. in%omprehensible. however. similarit$ between the un%ons%ious %reations o the two %hildren. or su%h pioneer wor" in vir&in soil re+uires not onl$ the &reatest patien%e on the part o the investi&ator. We should pre er to see wherein we err.perhaps the$ are worse than mista"es. It is mu%h to be re&retted that there are doubtless ew amon& $ou who have had opportunit$ to read the anal$sis o /Little 9ohn/ 0+leiner &ans1. whi%h has been published b$ Freud durin& the %urrent $ear. however. I be& $ou. has almost alwa$s been the ate o Freud:s do%trines until now..I should properl$ be&in b$ &ivin& $ou the %ontent o that anal$sis. else it ma$ easil$ %ome to pass that or the pre5udi%ed the$ reall$ do not e'ist. >ne must not %ome to the %onsideration o these matters with the irm %onvi%tion that the$ do not e'ist. )his. . We ma$ err.LECTURE E#$eriences concerning the $s%chic li&e o& the child Ladies and Gentlemen: In the last le%ture we have seen how important or later li e are the emotional pro%esses o %hildhood. . so that $ou mi&ht be in a position to %ompare or $ourselves the results o Freud with those obtained b$ me. >ne should perhaps or the moment assume the author:s point o view and investi&ate these phenomena under his &uidan%e. no one has su%%eeded in meetin& us on our own &round.does not help us to see thin&s more distin%tl$. mu%h in the report o the ollowin& %ase will appear to $ou stran&e. and perhaps una%%eptable.4. even astonishin&. In to-da$:s le%ture I should li"e to &ive $ou some insi&ht into the ps$%hi% li e o the %hild throu&h the anal$sis o a 4-$ear-old &irl.ut the %ontinual holdin& up to us o our mista"es. to de er inal 5ud&ment and to enter upon the %onsideration o these new sub5e%ts with a "indl$ disposition. and in &ivin& us a di erent %on%eption o the thin&s whi%h we ourselves see. . In this wa$ onl$ %an the %orre%tness or in%orre%tness o our observations be a irmed. We must still %omplain that . . )hus ar. )hat should be shown to us in our own sphere o e'perien%e.
our %riti%s are persistin& in %omplete i&noran%e and without the sli&htest notion about the matters in +uestion. a little %hild. and never. *s su%h +uestions appeared onl$ spontaneousl$ . or we are still ar rom bein& able in all %ases to separate with unerrin& %ertaint$ the %urious rom the t$pi%al. and then I shall die. wh$ have $ou su%h withered e$es3/ Grandma: /. )his naturall$ in%luded the +uestion as to the ori&in o %hildren. )he little &irl to whose sa&a%it$ and intelle%tual viva%it$ we are indebted or the ollowin& observations is a health$. and then3/ G. a little brother. /)hen I shall be%ome an an&el. When the little dau&hter. /Eo. )his manner o des%ription we %annot as $et dispense with in our anal$ti% ps$%holo&$./ G. /Well. had there been observed an$ s$mptoms prior to this investi&ation./ *. she on%e had the ollowin& %onversation with her &randmother: *nna: /Grandma. I shall be%ome older and older. /*nd then will $ou a&ain be%ome a little %hild3/ )he %hild ound here a wel%ome opportunit$ or the provisional solution o a problem. whom we will %all *nna. was about 8 $ears old. do $ou "now.ut $ou will be%ome $oun& a&ain. and whi%h %annot. be arran&ed s%ienti i%all$ and s$stemati%all$.e%ause I am old3/ *. but must rather be des%ribed somewhat in the orm o a stor$. )he onl$ reason or this is that our %riti%s have never ta"en the trouble to be%ome thorou&hl$ a%+uainted with our method( had the$ done this the$ would have understood us. or it is made up o ane%dotes whi%h treat o one out o a whole %$%le o similar e'perien%es. For some time be ore she had been in the habit o as"in& her mother whether she would ever have a livin& doll./ *. livel$ %hild o emotional temperament. 7he has never been seriousl$ ill. In the report whi%h will now ollow we shall have to waive a %onne%ted des%ription. /. even in the realm o the nervous s$stem. there ore.
)hus she on%e re%eived rom her ather the amusin& in ormation that %hildren are brou&ht b$ the stor". the ather entered the room where the little one slept. )he %hildbirth o%%urred earl$ in the mornin& in the presen%e o a ph$si%ian and a midwi e. )his theor$ seems to have be%ome the startin& point or the investi&atin& a%tivit$ o the little one. the parents atta%hed no si&ni i%an%e to them. as has alread$ been pointed out a number o times b$ Freud. )he pre&nan%$ o the mother apparentl$ remained unnoti%ed( i(e(% the %hild never e'pressed hersel on this sub5e%t. worth while to note this tenden%$ 0see the anal$sis o +leiner &ans . 2e too" her on his "nee and said. whi%h happened when *nna had rea%hed the a&e o 4 $ears. *nna had alread$ heard somewhere a more serious version. 9ust as was the birth o a little sister the turnin& point in the histor$ o /little 9ohn. the %hild was in her ather:s room. what would $ou sa$ i $ou should &et a little brother to-ni&ht3/ /I would "ill it. or /to "ill/ and /to die/ in %hild lan&ua&e si&ni $ onl$ to remove either in the a%tive or in the passive sense. nevertheless. that %hildren are little an&els livin& in heaven and are brou&ht rom heaven b$ the stor". et%. espe%iall$ so when we "now that the %hild uses the word /"ill/ +uite promis%uousl$ or all possible "inds o destru%tion./ was the prompt answer. >n the evenin& be ore the %hildbirth when the labor pains be&an to mani est themselves in the mother. but in realit$ it is +uite harmless. namel$. 7u%h solutions whi%h "ill at least two birds with one stone were ormerl$ tena%iousl$ adhered to in s%ien%e. /)o "ill/ as used b$ the %hild is a harmless word. it not onl$ solved in a %om ortin& manner the pain ul idea o partin& and d$in&. in%ludin& some blood tra%es. but at the same time it solved satis a%toril$ the riddle o the ori&in o %hildren. 7he awo"e as he entered. but re%eived them as li&htl$ and in appearan%e as a%etiousl$ as the %hild seemed to as" them. were %leaned up. )he ather too" her in his arms and %arried her into the . When all remnants o the birth. )he e'pression /to "ill/ loo"s ver$ serious. removal.and indire%tl$. namel$. B1. It is. 2e imparted to her the news o the advent o a little brother whi%h she too" with surprise and strained a%ial e'pression./ so it was in this %ase the birth o a brother. p. and even in the %hild the$ %annot be made retro&rade without some sho%". /)ell me. From the %onversation with the &randmother it %ould be seen that this theor$ was %apable o wide appli%ation. demolition.
6urin& her absen%e a nurse had %ome into the house who. From the &randmother:s report we learned that the stor" theor$ was o ten dis%ussed. *%%ordin&l$ the mother. the re-birth theor$ sustained a severe sho%". however. 6urin& the orenoon she "ept ver$ noti%eabl$ awa$ rom her mother( this was the more stri"in& as she was usuall$ mu%h atta%hed to her mother. %ause her pleasure3 It was or this reason that she had to as%ertain in a avorable moment whether the mother was to die. she a%%epted the ruit ul re-birth h$pothesis. thou&h never e'pressl$ re5e%ted. )he impression. )hou&h the stor" theor$ was never reall$ ta"en seriousl$. and it was naturall$ re-en or%ed b$ the %on%urren%e o those about her. had been impli%itl$ waived throu&h the assumption o the re-birth theor$.ut on%e when her mother was alone she ran into the room. the . must die( wh$. . on a%%ount o her uni orm made a deep impression on *nna( to be sure.1 7he displa$ed hardl$ an$ pleasure at the si&ht o the new arrival. thou&h ine'pli%able. /Well. then. so that the %ool re%eption she &ave it %aused &eneral disappointment. /Eow what else is &oin& to happen3 0Father:s impression. 2er behavior towards the bab$ was ver$ ni%e. With this happ$ issue.%on inement %hamber. When *nna returned to her parents she a&ain on meetin& her mother evin%ed the same mi'ture o despair and suspi%ion whi%h she had displa$ed a ter the birth. too. aren:t $ou &oin& to die now3/ )his e'plains a part o the %on li%t in the %hild:s ps$%he. was +uite unmista"able to both parents. should the newborn %hild. )he e'planations ne't attempted un ortunatel$ remained hidden rom the parents as the %hild sta$ed a ew wee"s with her &randmother. or rather was moved to e'press the hope that she would not die. embra%ed her and said. 2ow was it possible now to e'plain the birth o her little brother and the ori&in o %hildren in &eneral3 )here still remained the stor" theor$ whi%h. a&ainst whom she alread$ elt %hildish 5ealous$. 7he irst threw a rapid &lan%e at her somewhat pale mother and then displa$ed somethin& li"e a mi'ture o despair and suspi%ion as i thin"in&. a%%ordin& to whi%h a person b$ d$in& assisted a %hild into li e.
)he ele&ia% reveries e'press the a%t that a part o that love whi%h ormerl$ belon&ed and should belon& to a real ob5e%t is now intro. however. )o appro'imate the ps$%holo&$ o a our-$ear-old %hild to that o the a&e o pubert$ will at irst si&ht seem parado'i%al. pain ul eelin& o homesi%"ness and the warmth o the parental hearth. 2ere we meet with a new and important eature in the little one:s li e. but is still held ba%" b$ an inward. she be%ame re%on%iled to the nurse and be&an to pla$ nurse hersel . 7he o ten sat or a lon& time under the table sin&in& and rh$min& stories whi%h were partiall$ in%omprehensible but sometimes %ontained the /nurse/ theme 0/I am a nurse o the &reen %ross/1. When%e this resistan%e ori&inated was soon shown in an an&r$ s%ene near the %radle o the little brother in whi%h *nna shouted at the nurse. What is the ori&in o this intro. or does it owe its ori&in to a %on li%t3 . that is. the relationship lies.erted. not in the a&e but rather in the me%hanism. *t that time the $outh be&ins to repla%e his lon&in& with poeti% an%ies in order to %ompensate or the de i%ien%$. we meet with reveries. distin%tl$ showed a pain ul eelin& strivin& or e'pression. /)his is not $our little brother. however. )hus nothin& %ould indu%e her to allow hersel to be undressed and put to sleep b$ this nurse. that is. she had to have her white %ap and apron and /nursed/ now her little brother and now her doll. 7ome o the stories.ersion3 Is it a ps$%holo&i%al mani estation pe%uliar to this a&e. In %ontrast to her ormer mood she be%ame unmista"abl$ mourn ul and dream$. tenden%ies towards the %omposition o poetr$.impression at irst was +uite un avorable as she evin%ed the &reatest hostilit$ to her. it is mineP/ Graduall$. at a time when the $outh ul person is preparin& to sever the amil$ tie and to enter independentl$ upon li e. *ll these thin&s whi%h we are wont irst to en%ounter at a later period o li e. however. it is turned inward into the sub5e%t and there produ%es an in%reased ima&inative a%tivit$. and melan%holi% atta%"s.
is that true3 Is that reall$ true3 *re $ou not l$in&3/ 7%enes o this "ind were repeated a number o times. but $ou have the little brother. she was insolent. 7u%h a tone i unmista"able./ *. sa$in&. &ive no %reden%e to this little tri%"ster./ Kother: /. /Jou will soon see that I am tellin& the truth( we are &oin& into the &arden now.ut I shall be sad when $ou leave me. whether her little brother had not %rowded her out altoðer rom her mother:s avor. Eot lon& a ter the previousl$ reported %onversation the ollowin& s%ene too" pla%e: Kother: /!ome. >ne must./ /What are $ou thin"in& o 3 I alwa$s tell the truth./ K. >ne usuall$ pa$s little heed to . to see what attitude her mother would a%tuall$ assume to her. )his time the tone was more rude and more penetratin&. )he reproa%h as su%h must also not have been ta"en seriousl$ b$ the mother or it was onl$ the orerunner o other and this time more serious resistan%es. /Indeed./ )he e e%t whi%h this produ%ed on the mother shows what the little one was reall$ aimin& at with her threats to &o awa$ a&ain( she apparentl$ wished to hear what her mother would sa$ to her proposal. and at the same time the a%%ent on the word /lie/ betra$ed somethin& spe%ial whi%h the parents did not understand( indeed./ *nna: />h. $ou are not tellin& the truth. at irst the$ attributed too little si&ni i%an%e to the spontaneous utteran%es o the %hild.)his is e'plained in the ollowin& o%%urren%e. )he reproa%h to whi%h she sub5e%ts her mother is there ore un5usti ied and to the trained ear this is betra$ed b$ a sli&htl$ a e%ted tone. shows that it does not e'pe%t to be ta"en seriousl$ and hen%e it obtrudes itsel re-en or%ed. ta"e %are i $ou are not tellin& the truth. For the %hild %ould readil$ see and eel that despite the e'isten%e o the little brother there was nothin& essentiall$ la%"in& or her in her mother:s love. we are &oin& into the &arden nowP/ *nna: /Jou are l$in&. that is. In this the$ merel$ did what edu%ation usuall$ does with o i%ial san%tion. however. It o ten happened that *nna was disobedient to her mother. /I am &oin& ba%" to &randma. /Eo./ *.
#nder resistan%es there alwa$s lies a +uestion. or e'ample. shall I be a di erent woman rom $ou. the$ are treated as not responsible. %ould &et a %hild. *nna. .ut usuall$ one or&ets to %onne%t the thin& heard with the resistan%es. too. and shall I still spea" to $ou3/ )he mother:s answer a&ain shows whither the %hild:s +uestion was reall$ dire%ted./ *. how did she &et a %hild i not in the same wa$ as the nurse3 Li"e the nurse. From this resulted the thou&ht ul +uestion. and evidentl$ %orresponds with the %hild:s ha=$ &rasp o the problem. We shall later ind an illustration o this possibilit$. the$ are trained with an automati% pre%ision. too. . that is to sa$. %ould &et a %hild in the same wa$ i she were bi&. as. the nurse &ot hers. *nna as"s: /Wh$ did $ou not be%ome a nurse3/ namel$. too. o whi%h we hear at later times and on other o%%asions. would li"e to have a %hild to /nurse/ 5ust as the nurse has. and in all unessential matters. *pparentl$ *nna. the d$in& theor$ met a similar ate( hen%e she now thin"s one ma$ &et a %hild in the same wa$. unless we assume a %ertain diplomati% un%ertaint$ prompted b$ a desire to evade dire%t +uestionin&. a %on li%t. /wh$ have $ou not &ot $our %hild in the natural wa$3/ )his pe%uliar indire%t manner o +uestionin& is t$pi%al. Wh$ did not the mother be%ome su%h a plain nurse. too. %ould &et one in this natural wa$. )hus. Where the nurse &ot the little %hild is +uite %lear.wh$ did $ou not be%ome a nurse3/ Kother: /Wh$. but how that a%t mi&ht be %han&ed in the uture or how she mi&ht %ome to resemble her mother in respe%t to &ettin& %hildren is not %lear to her.%hildren in ever$ sta&e o li e( in all essential matters. *nna is evidentl$ %on ronted with the +uestion /where does the %hild %ome rom3/ )he stor" did not brin& . on another o%%asion *nna put to her mother the ollowin& di i%ult +uestions: *nna: /I should li"e to be%ome a nurse when I &row bi&. as I have be%ome a mother I have %hildren to nurse an$wa$. *nna. but how about the mother who is no nurse and still has %hildren3 Loo"in& at the matter at this point o view. /Indeed. 0Me le%tin&1 /Indeed. shall I be a di erent woman rom $ou3 7hall I be di erent in ever$ respe%t3/ )he stor" theor$ evidentl$ had %ome to nau&ht. 7he.
how the houses were demolished and man$ people lost their lives. her mother was or%ed to &o to her and sta$ with her( otherwise she eared that an earth+ua"e would appear. it resorts to one o the relin+uished in antile devi%es or se%urin& love b$ or%e. et%. It is evident that the %apa%it$ or sublimation in a 4-$ear-old %hild is still too sli&htl$ developed to be %apable o per ormin& more than s$mptomati% servi%es. the ele&ia% reveries whi%h we have attributed to a partial introversion. While wal"in& with her mother she anno$ed her with su%h +uestions as. there ore. )his readil$ e'plains her suspi%ion at the %hildbirth and her dis%reditin& o her mother.earth+ua"e. namel$. depends on another %ompensation. It now returns and %orrespondin& to the period o li e it has be%ome well determined and e+uipped with re%ent impressions. *ttempts to ma"e her tal" and to draw out the truth b$ means o 0insidious1 +uestions were utile. * ter this she had no%turnal ears. as"ed this +uestion be ore and re%eived the in ormation rom her ather that the stor" brin&s %hildren( this is positivel$ untrue. *nna was e'tremel$ interested in ever$thin&. )his has been dili&entl$ pra%tised and e'hausted durin& her irst $ear. 7he has. and the answer was: Ividentl$ this must be somethin& to be %on%ealed. We "now now rom what real ob5e%t love had to be ta"en and introverted to no purpose. It was 5ust a ter the earth+ua"es in Kessina.p. however. 2B@. namel$. the most pre erred is that o %r$in& and %allin& the mother at ni&ht.it( mother did not die( nor did mother &et it in the same wa$ as the nurse. she was mu%h o%%upied with su%h thou&hts. . it had to be ta"en from the parents who de%eived her and re used to tell her the truth. she repeatedl$ as"ed her &randma to relate to her how the earth shoo". she e'erted resistance against resistance% and the introversion o love be&an. 6urin& the da$. *%%ordin&l$. that the house would all and "ill her. /Will the house be standin& when we return home3 *re $ou sure there is no earth+ua"e at home3 Will papa still be livin&3 *bout ever$ stone l$in& in the road she as"ed whether it was rom an . she %ould not remain alone. she %an never be de%eived on this point. 7he inall$ even %ried out re+uentl$ at ni&ht that the earth+ua"e was %omin& and that . perhaps somethin& dan&erous. namel$. * new buildin& was a house destro$ed b$ the earth+ua"e.ut is also e'plains another point. and this event was dis%ussed at the table. 0What must this be whi%h %annot be uttered3 What else is &oin& on here31 7u%h were the parentheti% +uestions o the %hild. too. )he mind. papa and mama and all the others lie.
7he listened attentivel$ without the sli&htest surprise. We are here %on ronted b$ an ener&eti% e ort to sublimate the ear into an ea&er desire or learnin&. as in man$ a &i ted %hild whi%h su ers rom pre%isel$ the same di i%ult$. man$ e e%ts o this immature sublimation were surel$ not to her advanta&e.erted libido. and then he be%ame bi&&er and bi&&er 5ust li"e a plant. whi%h mani ested itsel in her re+uirin& that all the &eolo&i%al atlases and te't-boo"s should be brou&ht her rom her ather:s librar$. but that Fredd$ &rew up in his mother li"e the lowers in a plant. thus she was told. wh$ not be ore3 )his state o a airs indu%ed the ather to de%ide that the mother should tell the %hild when o%%asion o ered the truth concerning the origin of the little brother. Whither this ea&er desire or learnin& was ultimatel$ dire%ted is e'plained b$ a series o +uestions whi%h arose almost dail$. whi%h at this a&e is neither ne%essar$ nor avorable or the development o the %hild. For. . it is the e'pression o an intro. and then as"ed. )he root o the ea&er desire or learnin& is the fear and the fear is the e"pression of a con. /Wh$ is 7ophie 0a $oun&er sister1 $oun&er that I3/ /Where was Fredd$ 0the little brother1 be ore3 Was he in heaven3 What was he doin& there3 Wh$ did he %ome down 5ust now. )his havin& been done *nna soon therea ter as"ed about the stor".ersion which henceforth becomes neurotic. b$ avorin& sublimation at this a&e one merel$ en or%es a ra&ment o neurosis.ut then she had to be satis ied that the mountains surroundin& the %it$ were not vol%anoes. 2er mother told her that the stor$ o the stor" was not true. In the evenin& she had to be solemnl$ assured that there was no earth+ua"e %omin&.she heard the thunder. and as"in& +uestions %ontinuall$. Kan$ means o %almin& her were tried.ut did he %ome out all b$ himsel 3/ . stron& but +uite unnatural or her a&e. /. For hours she rumma&ed throu&h these wor"s loo"in& or pi%tures o vol%anoes and earth+ua"es. or e'ample. )his reasonin& &raduall$ %aused in the %hild an ea&er desire or learnin&. that earth+ua"es onl$ e'ist where there are vol%anoes.that is. *t irst he was ver$ little. whi%h at this a&e made a de%idedl$ premature e'a%tion( but.
must not be re erred to. whi%h in later li e have brou&ht the . )hen or the irst time she be%ame a%+uainted with the e'%eptional laws o these bodil$ re&ions and. )he in%orre%t theories substituted or %orre%t laws persisted or $ears until brus+ue e'planations %ame rom . . as we are alwa$s dealin& in su%h %ases with in antile se'ual a%tivities.ut he %annot wal"P/ 7ophie: /)hen he %rawled out. the stor" brou&ht little brother down rom heaven. #ne'pe%ted perspe%tives were opened( she rapidl$ approa%hed the main problem. there ore. no. whi%h mani ested themselves in %ertain +uestions. *nna had simpl$ shown hersel do%ile and had so ad5usted hersel to the %ultural demands that she thou&ht 0at least spo"e1 o the simplest thin&s last.ias naturales into ill repute. #as it from a hole in the breast or from the mouth/ .Kother: /Jes. . )his re&ion.oth suppositions are entirel$ +uali ied to orm a%%eptable theories. or that the birth ta"es pla%e throu&h the mouth. overhearin& her little sister:s answer./ *nna: /. bein& a sensitive %hild.#here did the child come out/. our little one had invited some edu%ational %riti%ism on her mother:s part b$ a hei&htened interest in both abdominal openin&s with their remar"able produ%ts. We even meet with re%entl$ married women who still entertain the theor$ o the hole in the abdominal wall or o the !aesarean se%tion( this is supposed to betra$ a ver$ %urious orm o inno%en%e. ./ *nna./ 7he soon le t the sub5e%t and a&ain wished to see pi%tures o vol%anoes. . Ler$ shortl$ be ore.ut as a matter o a%t it is not inno%en%e. It ma$ be as"ed where the %hild &ot the absurd idea that there is a hole in the breast. )he sudden e'planation produ%ed in the %hild a whole series o ideas. /Eo./Is there a hole here3 0pointin& to the breast1 or did he %ome out o the mouth3 Who %ame out o the nurse3/ 7he then interrupted hersel and e'%laimed.an interest not alwa$s in a%%ord with the re+uirements o %leanliness and de%orum. the +uestion. she soon learned that there was somethin& here to be tabooed. 6urin& the evenin& ollowin& this %onversation she was %alm. Wh$ did she not sele%t one o the natural openin&s e'istin& in the abdomen rom whi%h thin&s %ome out dail$3 )he e'planation is simple. namel$.
/Eo. too.without. the stor" brou&ht down the little brother rom heaven./ What is there pe%uliar about the a%t that nobod$ %ame out o the nurse3 We re%all that *nna identi ied hersel with the nurse and planned to be%ome a nurse later.ut even be ore this +uestion.ut now when it is "nown that the little brother &rew in mama. the ormin& o and adheren%e to whi%h are avored even b$ parents and edu%ators should later be%ome determinants o important s$mptoms in a neurosis. the %hildren %ome out o the mother. . but it does not tumble down. or o delusions in a ps$%hosis. a %onsiderabl$ more di i%ult one. >n the da$ ollowin& the e'planation while at dinner. *nna spontaneousl$ remar"ed: /K$ brother is in Ital$. It is. .she./ )his brother "nows .what has e'isted in the mind or $ears alwa$s remains somewhere. and has a house o %loth and &lass. no wonder that su%h theories. there ore. no. )he irst reads as ollows: Where does the %hild %ome out3 )he se%ond. a new problem obtruded itsel ( vi=. remain in the air.B. ./ In this %ase as in the others it was impossible to as" or an e'planation( the resistan%es were too &reat and *nna %ould not be drawn into %onversation. )wo +uestions.. reads: 2ow does it happen that mama has %hildren while the nurse and the servants do not3 *ll these +uestions did not at irst mani est themselves. For some three months the two sisters had been buildin& a stereot$ped an%i ul %on%eption o a /bi& brother. )his ormer. how is it now3 )his dis+uietin& +uestion is averted b$ a +ui%" return to the stor"-an&el theor$ whi%h has never been reall$ believed and whi%h a ter a ew trials is at last de initel$ abandoned. was settled. however. thou&h it ma$ be hidden under %ompensations seemin&l$ o a di erent "ind. or. but how is it with the nurse3 6id some one %ome out also in this %ase3 )his +uestion was ollowed b$ the remar". 5ust as I have shown that in dementia prae%o'. and she %ould have one as well as the nurse. when%e the %hild reall$ %omes out. would li"e to have a %hild. o i%ious and prett$ e'planation is ver$ si&ni i%ant.
she now be%ame ver$ a e%tionate and be&&ed him ever$ ni&ht to "iss her. *bout a wee" a ter the e'planation the ather was ta"en si%" with in luen=a and %onse+uentl$ had to remain in bed durin& the orenoon.$ re+uent +uestions she tested the true basis o her "nowled&e. too./ )his brother is ver$ brave( he is at present in dan&erous Ital$ and inhabits an impossible ra&ile house. do&s( ever$thin& is his. 261the da$s ollowin& the e'planation *nna had +uite important matters to o%%up$ hersel with( she disseminated her newl$ a%+uired "nowled&e amon& those about her in the ollowin& manner: 7he be&an b$ a&ain %ir%umstantiall$ a irmin& what had been told her. For the %hild this reali=es an important wish. )he %hildren. vi=.ever$thin&. or her suspi%ion was aroused in no small measure. he has been and is in ever$ pla%e where the %hildren are not( he is owner o &reat %ows. and it does not tumble down. that papa and mama &rew in their mothers. and that the servants li"ewise &rew in their respe%tive mothers. that Fredd$. 7he a&ain too" on a pe%uliar surprised e'pression( she . and *nna %omin& into the parents: bedroom saw what was +uite unusual. >n one o%%asion the trustworthiness o the theor$ threatened to &o to pie%es. that her ather was remainin& in bed. she. *s a %onse+uen%e o this the %hild:s ear disappeared and stayed away. )he %hildren "new nothin& about this. o'en. 6urin& . and her $oun&er sister had &rown in her mother. /)hese people are dead( I have alread$ seen that +uite o ten. . The earth0uake is no longer to be dangerous. horses. )he ear o earth+ua"es now entirel$ vanished. he %an do and has ever$thin&. et%. have their similar power ul /brother. remar"in&./ )he pi%ture o a vol%ani% eruption no lon&er had an$ attra%tion or her. Ia%h sister has su%h a /bi& brother. )hus all her s%ienti i% interest %ollapsed and vanished as suddenl$ as it %ame. Instead o %allin& her ather to her bed to %on5ure awa$ the ear. In order to test this new state o a airs the ather showed her pi%tures illustratin& vol%anoes and earth+ua"e devastations./ We must not loo" ar or the ori&in o this an%$( the model or it is the father who seems to %orrespond to this %on%eption: he seems to be li"e a brother to mama. namel$. so that it needed man$ %on irmations to remove all her un%ertainties. *nna remained una e%ted. she e'amined the pi%tures with indi eren%e.p..
6.. the house had be&un to sha"e./ 2er mother went to her and %almed her b$ . . that onl$ women %an have %hildren and not men( thereupon the %hild a&ain be%ame riendl$.remained at a distan%e rom the bed and would not %ome nearer( she was apparentl$ a&ain reserved and suspi%ious. have $ou a plant in $our bell$. /)he earth+ua"e was %omin&. . /Wh$ are $ou in bed. /I dreamed last ni&ht about Eoah:s ar".* ew da$s later *nna had a terri $in& dream rom whi%h she awo"e %r$in&.ut thou&h the sur a%e was %alm the problems %ontinued to wor" in the dar". * ew minutes later she said to her mother. and there were a lot o little animals in it. b$ assurin& her that %hildren never &row in the ather. a lid./ >n the a%e o this we ind a wish o the %hildren. /) dreamed last night about 1oah's ark% and there were a lot of little animals in it% and underneath there was a lid and that opened and all the little animals fell out(/ )he %hildren reall$ had a Eoah:s ar". >n one o%%asion she related the ollowin& dream: /I dreamed about papa and mama( the$ had been sittin& late in the stud$ and we %hildren were there too. I the %hildren were there the$ would ind out. 2e %almed her.ut suddenl$ she burst out with the +uestion. and that she had some in"lin& where the %hildren %ame out. )his wish is here reali=ed or rather it is utili=ed to e'press a more important wish. when%e the little brother %ame. to be allowed to sit up as lon& as the parents. to be present in the e. * ew da$s later while at dinner *nna related the ollowin& dream: /I dreamed last ni&ht o Eoah:s ar". however. but its openin&. namel$. but *nna:s answer was sheer nonsense.ening when the parents are alone( o %ourse +uite inno%entl$ it was in the study where she has seen all the interestin& boo"s and where she has satiated her thirst or "nowled&e( i(e(% she was reall$ see"in& an answer to the burnin& +uestion. too3/ )he ather was naturall$ or%ed to lau&h. * ew wee"s then passed without an$ noteworth$ o%%urren%es./ *nother pause. 7he then be&an her stor$ or the third time. was on the roo and not underneath./ )he ather then as"ed her what she had dreamed about it. In this wa$ she deli%atel$ intimated that the stor$ o the birth rom mouth or breast is in%orre%t. In su%h %ases it is ne%essar$ onl$ to wait and pa$ attention.
to ./ . that is. In the mornin& her mother as"ed her what she had dreamed. she would li"e to see how the little lowers %ome out o the earth in the sprin&. /2e is asleep and isn:t sa$in& an$thin& now. )he last senten%e was not meant seriousl$.p. It reads: What does papa reall$ do i he does not bear %hildren3 )he little one is ver$ an'ious to have a solution or all these problems. 7he did not at irst re%all an$thin&. ea%h s%ene ordinaril$ represents a parti%ular variation o the %omple' elaboration./ )his te't should be read ba%"wards. 2ere a%%ordin&l$ ./1 Little *nna then remar"ed with a sar%asti% smile: /&e will surely be sick again in the morning.) would like to see 2reddy% he has such a dear little face . We have here an analo&$ to the /Lump theor$/ o little 9ohn. as it was uttered in a mo%"in& tone. )t is 'ust like this that the children% too% come out. and then said: / ) dreamed that ) could make the summer% and then some one threw a Punch. * ter this interme==o *nna slept +uietl$ until mornin&. When the ather was si%" the last time *nna suspe%ted that he had a /plant in his bell$. 268.. <apa is not &oin& to have a %hild( mama alone has %hildren( perhaps she will have another %hild tomorrow( but where rom3 /What does papa do3/ )he ormulation o the di i%ult problem seems here to %ome to the sur a%e.have a mas%uline doll 5ust as the mother has a little bo$.down into the closet. Whereupon *nna said: /) would like to see the spring% when all the little flowers are coming out and the whole lawn is full of flowers ./ )his pe%uliar dream apparentl$ has two di erent s%enes whi%h are separated b$ /then. 7ome one threw <un%h down into the %loset( one o ten lets other thin&s all down into the water %loset. and these wishes are hidden behind the ear o earth+ua"es.#hat is papa doing/ #hat is he saying/ 0)he mother said.sa$in& that the earth+ua"e was not %omin&. and that ever$bod$ was asleep./ )he se%ond part draws its material rom the re%ent wish to possess a <un%h.A. she would li"e to "now how Fredd$ %ame into the world./ )he sar%asm si&ni ies: /)o-morrow papa is surel$ &oin& to have a %hild.ut this also is not meant seriousl$.@. that ever$thin& was +uiet.Whenever several s%enes are ound in one dream.
whi%h un%tioned as an espe%iall$ lovin& doll. the rose is &ettin& a bab$. she said to her &randma. * ew da$s later the mother was visited b$ a lad$ who e'pe%ted soon to be%ome a mother.ear. and the latter an&ril$ e'%laimed./ *s her &randma did not +uite understand her she pointed to the enlar&ed %al$' and said./ *nna on%e +uarrelled with her $oun&er sister. 7he hersel %an ma"e a little %hild.$ this means *nna tells her mother. )hus she repeated the same pla$ a ew da$s later with her )edd$ .ery big belly. as we shall see later./ Whereupon *nna answered. >ne da$. 6urin& the ni&ht little *nna had another dream: /) dreamed about a woman in the city% she had a . this %on%eption had to be o i%iall$ %on irmed. 2ere we ind the e&otisti% wish whi%h is behind the seemin&l$ ob5e%tive interest o the no%turnal %onversation. or. Eot lon& therea ter *nna surprised her mother with the ollowin& per orman%e: 7he stru%" her doll under her %lothes. )hat rumination on this problem b$ no means ended here is shown b$ the o%%asional ideas %on%eived durin& the ollowin& wee"s. loo"in& at a rose. so that the intention o the imitation was +uite plain. )he meanin& o /to see the sprin&/ or /to see the little lowers %ome out/ we have alread$ seen. *nna now dreams that she can make the summer. thus I apprehend the problem o birth. What do $ou thin" o it3 Is that ri&ht3/ )he pla$ is reall$ meant to be a +uestion./ . )he %hildren seemed to ta"e no interest in the matter./ )he %hie a%tor in the dream is alwa$s the dreamer himsel under some de inite aspe%t( thus the %hildish pla$ o the da$ be ore is ull$ solved. and at the same time remar"ed. /Jou see. but the ne't da$ the$ amused themselves with the ollowin& pla$ whi%h was dire%ted b$ the older one: the$ too" all the newspapers the$ %ould ind in their ather:s paperbas"et and stu ed them under their %lothes. that is she %an brin& it about that the little lowers shall %ome out.the irst part is onl$ a variation o the theme ound in the se%ond part. /I will "ill $ou. /When I am dead $ou will be all alone( then $ou will have to pra$ to the dear Lord or a live bab$. /3ook% the little child is coming out% it is now all out./ .ut the s%ene soon %han&ed: *nna was . then pulled it out slowl$ head downwards. /Jou see she is +uite thi%" here. and the se%ond part o the dream represents this 5ust li"e a passa&e o the bowels. /7ee.
*s the onl$ wa$ o ta"in& thin&s into the bod$ is throu&h the mouth.the an&el. *nna impatientl$ as"ed or one and said. namel$. )he problem how the %hild &ets into the mother was di i%ult to solve. 7he thus enters into an e'amination whi%h hitherto has not been ormulated with so mu%h sharpness. Fair$ tales seem to be the m$ths o the %hild.)hus *nna attempts to solve the problem how the children actually come into the mother../ Who will not thin" here o the air$ tales in whi%h %hildless women inall$ be%ome pre&nant b$ swallowin& ruit. too. / ) am going to take an orange and swallow it all down into my belly% and then ) shall get a little child. and the $oun&er sister was or%ed to "neel be ore her and pra$ to her that she should present to her a livin& %hild. >ran&es were on%e served on the table.9. In this wa$ *nna be%ame the presentin& mother. )he spell o the air$ tale poetr$. it %ould evidentl$ be assumed that the mother eats somethin& li"e a ruit whi%h then &rows in her bell$. >ne mornin& she ran into the parents: bedroom while the$ were dressin&. whi%h is elt even b$ the adult. is e'plained b$ the a%t that some o the old theories are still alive in our un%ons%ious minds. )he solution ollows in the orm o an analogy. What does the ather do3 *nna now o%%upied hersel e'%lusivel$ with this +uestion. We e'perien%e a stran&e.1 In German as well as in numerous orei&n air$ tales one re+uentl$ inds su%h %hara%teristi% %hildish %omparisons. . 6reams brin& the analo&ies to the sur a%e( the same ma$ be observed also in dementia prae%o'. and %alled at the . she la$ down on her bell$ and "i%"ed with her le&s. Without be%omin& %ons%ious it merel$ sends into %ons%iousness a eeble %op$ o its ori&inal emotional stren&th. it is %lear enou&h what the mother produ%es but it is not $et %lear what the ather is &ood or. she 5umped into her ather:s bed. ish. and similar thin&s.ut then %omes another di i%ult$. there is a "ind o thin"in& b$ analo&$ whi%h belon&s to the stratum l$in& immediatel$ below %ons%iousness. whi%h is +uite %hara%teristi% o the ar%hai% thin"in& o the %hild. and there ore %ontain amon& other thin&s the m$tholo&$ whi%h the %hild weaves %on%ernin& the se'ual pro%esses. pe%uliar and amiliar eelin& when a %on%eption o our remotest $outh is a&ain stimulated. 0In the adult.
/ )hese in%idents showed %learl$ enou&h that there was a&ain ear in the air. so that she elt the worst mi&ht be e'pe%ted rom . but would never let an$thin& out.p.. who she was sure must "now the se%ret.that// )he analo&$ to the horse o /little 9ohn/ whi%h raised su%h disturban%e with its le&s.same time. her ather on%e put her into the water. *s *nna eared to wade arther into the water than "needeep. )o inish up with. and that there ore a lar&er part o the love was %onverted into ear. whi%h still la%"s must irremissible "nowled&e without whi%h the problem %annot be solved. whi%h led to an outburst o %r$in&. )his standstill lasted about ive months durin& whi%h no phobias or other si&ns o %omple' elaboration appeared. at least the parents ound no opportunit$ to ma"e an$ pertinent observations. 26B. *nna awo"e durin& the ni&ht with ear ul %r$in&. *nna dreamed that /a train passed and then ell in a heap. * ter the lapse o this time there appeared premonitor$ si&ns o some new in%idents. i(e. *nna %ried bitterl$ and a terwards maintained that the &ardener wished to bur$ her. What %ould the ather be se%retin& or doin&3 )o the %hild this se%ret appeared as somethin& dan&erous. 7he %ontinued to stand in the &ardener:s wa$ until he inall$ pla%ed her in a newl$ du& hole. that there a&ain had arisen a resistan%e a&ainst the transposition on the parents./ We have here repeated the /sta&e %oa%h/ o /little 9ohn. )he problem is almost too di i%ult or the %hildish reason. or this is reall$ its most di i%ult part.3ook4 does papa do . )hat the problem should %ome to a standstill 5ust here is not at all surprisin&. . but a&ainst the ather. is ver$ surprisin&. 2er mother went to her in the ad5oinin& room and +uieted her. With this last per orman%e the solvin& o the problem seemed to rest entirel$. )his time suspi%ion was dire%ted not a&ainst the mother. /6o $ou not believe that ather wanted to drown me3/ * ew da$s later there was another outburst o %r$in&. *nna:s amil$ lived at that time in the %ountr$ near a la"e where the mother and %hildren %ould bathe. In the evenin& while &oin& to bed *nna as"ed her mother. Koreover we "now rom e'perien%e that not ver$ man$ %hildren &o be$ond these limits durin& the period o %hildhood.
*nna on%e too" mar"ed deli&ht in assistin& the &ardener while he was sowin& &rass. too3/ F. /*nd the hair. /)ell me. Where was the hair be ore3 Were there no seeds added3/ .ut the mousies %ame into the world na"ed. and a ter ever$thin& was over the &uests departed. 0)his eelin& o %hildish an'iet$ with the ather as ob5e%t we see a&ain most distin%tl$ in adult./ *.the ather. *nna meanwhile &rew up a little and her interest or her ather too" on a spe%ial %olorin& whi%h is hard to des%ribe. without apparentl$ divinin& the pro ound si&ni i%an%e o the %hild:s pla$. Lan&ua&e possesses no words to des%ribe the ver$ spe%ial "ind o a e%tionate %uriosit$ whi%h radiated rom the %hild:s e$es.1 It was or this reason that *nna apparentl$ %ame to the ver$ absurd %on%lusion that her ather wanted to drown her. %ontinued to as" whether the Lord or her papa %ould tell this3 )he mother then re erred her to the ather. who mi&ht tell her how the e$es &rew into the head. >n one o these o%%asions she as"ed her mother the ollowin& +uestion: /)ell me. too3 . )he ather remained at the table readin& the paper and *nna also remained. how did the e$es &row into the head3/ Father: /)he$ did not &row into the head( the$ were there rom the be&innin& and &rew with the head./ *. how did the e$es &row into the head3/ )he mother told her that she did not "now./ *. espe%iall$ in dementia prae%o'. /6id the mouth and the ears &row in the same wa$3 and the hair. whi%h li ts the veil o obs%urit$ rom man$ un%ons%ious pro%esses. *nna. the$ all &rew in the same wa$. /Jes. *bout a ortni&ht later she be&an to observe with &reat pleasure the sproutin& $oun& &rass. * ew da$s later there was a amil$ reunion at a tea. 7uddenl$ approa%hin& her ather she said. however. *t the same time her ear %ontained the thou&ht that the ob'ect of the father had some relation to a dangerous action . /Were not the e$es planted3/ F. /Eo. )his stream o thou&ht is no arbitrar$ interpretation. the$ &rew in the head li"e the nose. as thou&h it were ollowin& ps$%hoanal$ti% prin%iples.
/ )he ather was now &ettin& %on%erned( he "new whither the little one:s thou&hts were dire%ted. mama. $ou "now well enou&h that Fredd$ is a bo$( bo$s be%ome men and &irls women.F. /<apa has told me ever$thin&. )he new "nowled&e was. or the sa"e o a ormer alse appli%ation./ )he mother was naturall$ surprised and said. however. $ou %ertaint$ must have thou&ht o this be ore3/ *. )his answer &ave e'traordinar$ satis a%tion( she immediatel$ ran to her mother and said. 0Lau&hs 5o$ ull$ and points to her &enitals1: /6id he %ome out here3/ Father: /Jes. however. /Eo. but these were alread$ in the s"in lon& be ore and nobod$ sowed them. *nna 0evidentl$ disappointed. where %ould Fredd$ %ome out rom3/ *. now I "now it all. and with a distressed tone1: /. the opportunel$ established seed-theor$ whi%h she had most ortunatel$ &athered rom nature( but the %hild spo"e with an unwonted seriousness whi%h demanded %onsideration. put into pla$ the ollowin& da$. /Eo. o %ourse. 2e e'plained to the %hild. and thus &ives ori&in to a bab$. who listened with the &reatest attention./ 7he did not.ut how did Fredd$ &et into mama3 6id an$bod$ plant him3 Was the seed planted3/ )his ver$ pre%ise +uestion %ould no lon&er be evaded b$ the ather. papa told me how Fredd$ was a little an&el and was brou&ht rom heaven b$ a stor". $ou see. $ou .ut how did Fredd$ &et into mama3 Who stu%" him in3 and who stu%" $ou into $our mama3 Where did he %ome out rom3 From this sudden storm o +uestions the ather %hose the last or his irst answer. >nl$ women and not men %an have %hildren( now 5ust thin". the hair reall$ %ame out o little &rains whi%h are li"e seeds. *nna went to her mother and said. but he did not wish to overthrow. tell what she "new. 0>verloo"in& the +uestion1: /. that the mother is li"e the soil and the ather li"e the &ardener( that the ather provides the seed whi%h &rows in the mother. /9ust thin". /)hin".
/I %an absolutel$ assure $ou that the %hild "nows nothin& about se'ual matters. in the present %ase. their parents. In the learned ps$%holo&i%al dis%ussions on the %hild:s ps$%he we hear nothin& about those parts whi%h are so important or the health and naturalness o our %hildren. and thereb$ develop an unnatural blas5 state and a pre%o%iousness mas"in& a neurosis. hen%e she did not "now how Fredd$ &ot into her. )hus on indul&entl$ remar"in& to an intelli&ent ather. 2ow eas$ and temptin& it would have been. >n the other hand a %hild evin%in& a neuroti% talent e'a&&erated b$ neurosis ma$ be ur&ed on b$ soli%itous parents. )he idea should be dismissed on%e or all that %hildren are held in bonda&e b$. It was or this reason that she a&ain tempted her with the old stor$. I re%eived the ollowin& indi&nant repl$. nor do we hear more about the %hild:s emotions and their %on li%ts( and $et the$ pla$ a most important r. )his was apparentl$ a mode o reven&e.le. In su%h %ases the parents must loo" a ter their own %omple'es and %omple' tenden%ies and not ma"e %apital out o them at the e'pense o the %hild. whose 4-$earold dau&hter masturbated e'%essivel$. papa surel$ never told $ou su%h a thin&P/ whereupon the little one lau&hed and ran awa$. or that the$ are the to$s o . )he$ are %hara%teristi% and new bein&s.are mista"en. e'%ite. that %are should be e'er%ised in the presen%e o the %hild whi%h slept in the same room with the parents./ )his would re%all that distin&uished old neurolo&ist who wished to ab5udi%ate the attribute /se'ual/ rom a %hildbirth phantas$ whi%h was represented in a dream$ state. In the matter o enli&htenment on thin&s se'ual it %an be a irmed the$ su er rom the pre%on%eived . to admire. I wish to impress irml$ upon parents and edu%ators this instru%tive e'ample o %hild ps$%holo&$. and develop prematurel$ the %hild:s ea&er desire or learnin&. e(g(. It ver$ o ten happens that %hildren are erroneousl$ treated as +uite imprudent and irrational bein&s. 2er mother did not wish or was not able to tell her how the e$es &rew into the head.
)he sele%tion o these stimulus words was naturall$ made or the German lan&ua&e onl$. . . whether ph$si%ians or deep-thin"in& parents. >nl$ the a%%umulation o su%h observations and a more ar-rea%hin& penetration into the problem thus broa%hed will &ive us a %omplete insi&ht into the laws o the ps$%hi% development. Kan$ neurolo&ists are o the opinion that even in &rownups enli&htenment on their own ps$%hose'ual pro%esses is harm ul and even immoral.opinion that the truth is harm ul.ut I %on identl$ hope that edu%ators and pra%ti%al ps$%holo&ists. #n ortunatel$. the$ should be de%eived no more than adults. whi%h ma$ turn out as oolish as it is disa&reeable. will not leave us too lon& unassisted in this immensel$ important and interestin& ield. that I have shown $ou what %ompli%ated ps$%hi% pro%esses the ps$%hoanal$ti% investi&ation reveals in the %hild. *.8.rill.2. &o rom this e'treme o prudishness to the opposite one. and would probabl$ have to be %onsiderabl$ %han&ed or the In&lish lan&ua&e. !ootnotes . What I have been unable to show $ou is the universal validit$ o these observations. ladies and &entlemen. *.Mea%tion times are alwa$s &iven in i ths o a se%ond. however. I am not in a position to show this or I do not "now m$sel how mu%h o it is universall$ valid. 7eptember. and how &reat is the si&ni i%an%e o these pro%esses or the mental well-bein& as well as or the &eneral ps$%hi% development o the %hild.1. It is to be re&retted that we are at present still ar rom this &oal. I hope. namel$ that o enli&htenment Q tout pri". .Le%tures delivered at the %elebration o the twentieth anniversar$ o the openin& o !lar" #niversit$. 19?9( translated rom the German b$ 6r. Would not the same persons perhaps re use to admit the e'isten%e o the &enitals themselves3 >ne should not. . o Eew Jor". . In this respe%t I believe the use o some dis%retion to be de%idedl$ the wiser plan( still i %hildren %ome upon an$ idea.
Ann5e Psychologi0ue. 8.rill. Eo. 8. Freud.)his wish to sit up with the ather and mother until late at ni&ht o ten pla$s a &reat part later in a neurosis. 6ie .es de Psychologie. 2reud's 9chriften :ur angewandten 9eelenkunde. 2alle. 7ammlun& "leiner 7%hri ten =ur Eeurosenlehre. . Wien. translated b$ <eterson and .-----. 2.-----.and I R II. !arl Karhold.-----. L:*nal$se des MTves.A. 19?9.-----. Freud. 6euti%"e.arth.B. 6ia&nostis%he *sso%iationsstudien. Journal of 6ental and 1er. ----.-----.* doll rom <un%h and 9ud$. I. 6ie )raumdeutun&.9un&: )he <s$%holo&$ o 6ementia <rae%o'. *sso%iations d:idUes Familiales. . 9un&. 19?@. 19?@. 11. 6euti%"e. 6.ista de Psicologia Jahrbuch f8r Psychoanalytische u( Psychopathologische 2orschungen% . Eo. Leip=i&.Fran= Mi"lin. Applicata. 26. 4. Le Euove Ledute della <si%olo&ia !riminale. . Eo.6. 6euti%"e.and I. ----. @. . )ome HL.ous and 6ental 7iseases. 6euti%"e. ----. 19?6. Eo. 19?@. ----. translated b$ <eterson and . Archi. Literature 1. 2. *nal$se der <hobie eines B 5ahri&en Snaben. Wien.9ahrbu%h . 19?9. A. ----. ----. Wien. 6euti%"e.@7ee anal$sis o a B-$ear old bo$. Kono&raph 7eries. )he <s$%holo&$ o 6ementia <rae%o'.and I. . 4.edeutun& des Laters Dr das 7%hi%"sal des Iin=elnen. 6euti%"e. ----. II *u la&e. Wien. . Kono&raph 7eries. 19?6. 6ie <s$%holo&is%he 6ia&nose des )hatbestandes. Lol.and I.-----.. . B. . 6er Inhalt der <s$%hose. i. 19?@. LII. ----.-----.ous 7iseases. 9. Its ob5e%t is to prevent the parental %oitus. Journal of 1er.-----. <s$%hoanal$tis%he und <s$%hopatholo&is%he Fors%hun&en. Wien.4. ).9. 1?.rill. . Jahrbuch f( Psychoanalytische u( Psychopathologische 2orschungen. .
14. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.-----. ----.12. *sso%. LHLI.eitra& der 6ia&nost.rill. American Journal of )nsanity. H . 18. Eo. Eo. FDrst. <s$%holo&i%al Fa%tors in 6ementia <rae%o'. . Lol. Lol. 7tatistis%he #ntersu%hun&en Dber Wortasso%iationen and Dber amiliVre Wbereinstimmun& im Mea%tionst$pus bei #n&ebildeten. I. 4. 7tudien 0will appear in Lol. II1. * %ase o 7%hi=ophrenia. . III.
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