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Terry Hall ID # 94033128 Post Graduate Diploma in Instructional Design March 26, 2014

Work Environment Summary

My work environment surrounds a firm that provides accounting and consulting services, short term financial management support, computerized accounting software implementation and training services to small and medium sized companies and individuals, and the provision of tutorial services for individuals.

Accounting accounting services are provided for firms outsourcing the functions of their accounts department which includes the preparation and analysis of financial statements and budget reports; maintenance of the general ledger, receivables, payables, inventory systems; payroll maintenance, preparation of bank reconciliations, taxation returns; periodic reviews of financial statements, preparation of schedules required for external audits and internal audit reviews.

Consulting the firm conducts investigations into irregularities resulting from breakdowns in internal control systems; develops and implements recommendations to improve internal controls; conducts feasibility studies, and prepares business plans and cash flow forecasts for organisations and individuals seeking to raise funds.

Short term financial management support the firm agrees to act as bursars of educational institutions, chief accountants and financial controllers for short term period until the positions are filled or the existing employees return to work from sick or vacation leave.

Implementation of computerized accounting systems here the firm supervises the installation, implementation and training required for the use of the QuickBooks Accounting Software for schools, service industry, retail organizations, construction and design companies and private individuals.

Tutorials tutorial services are provided for students at the secondary, tertiary and professional levels in accounts based subjects in preparation for standardized exams relevant to each level.

In this work environment, I am both a receiver and provider of instruction. As a member of a professional accounting body I am required to be an active participant in the continued professional education forum. For the purpose of this assignment, focus will be on the provision of instruction and will therefore include the training in the use of the computerized accounting software (henceforth referred to as the consulting arm of the work environment) and the provision of tutorial services.

Instructional Model best suited to my work environment The instructional model that are best suits with my work environment is The Gerlach and Ely Design Model.

The Gerlach and Ely Design Model This model is the result of an effort by its designers to develop a systematic approach to teaching that required inexpensive resources, but would lead to the development of effective teaching and learning strategies. The model has three distinct stages: analysis of learner with specification of content and objectives, strategy development and feedback analysis (Gabrowski, 2003). Systems theory and pragmatism formed the theoretical base of the Gerlach and Ely Model (Chen, 2004). The systems theory stipulates that real systems continue to evolve while interacting with their environments. The theory regards content, students, teachers etc. as elements of the instructional event and presumes that with proper arrangement the result will be effective learning and teaching (Chen, 2004). In addition, pragmatism emphasises the learner and identifies the roles of the teacher as the coordinator and guide in the learning environment (Chen, 2004).

The Gerlach and Ely Model A Diagrammatic Representation

Instructional Strategies in Work Environment

The instructional strategy common to both the consulting and tutoring arms of the work environment is that of the learner-centred instruction strategy. Special attention is placed on ascertaining as much information as is possible about the learner that is regarded as being relevant to the learning experience. This information provides the basis on which the instruction is to be designed: the learners backgrounds, capabilities, skills, interests, needs, learning styles and attitudes toward learning. Most times the need to address learners motivation and thereby incorporate instructional methods that will have a positive effect on learners motivation is highlighted after such an exercise.

The tutorial arm of the work environment endorses the individualized instructional strategy, where the design of instruction is responsive to the needs of the individual learner (Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009). Although the content for this learning experience is usually predetermined, learners may request instruction for subject areas within the content by identifying areas for improvement and/or areas needing clarification. The predetermined nature of the content (the subject curriculum prepared by the pertinent examination bodies) facilitates the direct instructional strategy. The curriculums are written in such a way as to afford structure and sequence to the learning experience. The curriculums also allow for reviews to be carried out to assess the status of the learning experience. Independent practicing of assigned questions is also encouraged in the tutorial arm the aim being to master the concepts being learned.

For the consulting arm, learning takes place in an authentic learning environment. The training in the use of the computerized accounting software involves the use of real data associated with the operations of the organization receiving the training. Hands-on learning plays an important role in this environment. The learners learn by processing the real data in accordance with the requirements of the accounting software program.

The accounting software has embedded in the program, control procedures that act as assessments while learning. These control procedures verify the completeness and accuracy of the real data being processed. This assessment activity however, is usually activated by the supervisory and/or senior officials within the organization.

The New Instructional Model


Feedback Analysis

Content Specification Analyse and Assess Learner (i.e. attitudes, skills, needs and styles) Goal Specification Determine Strategy

Set Performance Objectives

Performance Evaluation

[Learner is central to instructional design] The L-Central Instructional Model is so named as the learner is regarded as being central to the instructional design function. It is only after the analysis and assessment of the learner that the instructional design function springs into action. At this stage of analysis and assessment, focus is placed on ascertaining the learners entry level and required skills, learning styles and needs. Of utmost importance is the learners attitude towards the learning environment. Is it a positive one or negative one? For the consulting arm of the work environment, is the learning environment a welcome exercise? Are there present any fears or insecurities directed at the new learning experience? For the tutoring arm of the work environment, is there self-interest or is the learning experience being enforced upon the learner? Is there a feeling of frustration as the prior learning experience was not making any sense to the learner?

The L-Central Model allows for the simultaneous determination of the content specifications and the goal definition in conjunction with the learners analysis and assessment. It is typical for the content to be predetermined (Gabrowski, 2003); for the consulting arm, it is the accounting software with the goal being the implementation completion date. For the tutoring arm, the content refers to the accounting course or subject with the goal being the successful completion of the standardized examination at the secondary, tertiary or professional level.

The determination of the instructional strategies and instructional methods to be employed follows and leads systematically to the development of the performance objectives (to include time allocation), the performance evaluation and the resulting feedback analysis. It is presumed that this evaluation will be an ongoing activity throughout the learning experience and will

incorporate self-assessment, review and reflection procedures. If from the feedback analysis it is shown that the instructional methods in employment and/or the performance objectives developed are not providing the desired learning outcomes, The L-Central Model guides the instruction designer to make modifications to these methods and performance objectives accordingly.

Instructional Strategies afforded by The L-Central Instructional Model In addition to the current instructional strategies being used in the work environment, The LCentral Model will include for evaluation and assessment, strategies for self-assessment and appraisal, review and reflection.

Self-assessment - Periodic self-tests for the learners being tutored will be embedded in the instruction and can promote feelings of self-efficacy (Driscoll, 2005). Guiding said learners as to how to monitor their progress: from what is known and has been done to what is to be completed should lead to a shift in the learners organizational efforts toward the achievement of the desired learning outcomes (Driscoll, 2005).

Review The Review effort will make use of summarisation exercises, the aim being to ensure that there is a full understanding of the key concepts in the learning experience (Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009).

Reflection The computerised accounting software makes available reports as an output that can be used by learners for comparison. This provides opportunities for learners to reflect on their learning experiences and to put what is learned into perspective. Similarities and Differences between the work experiences current model and The LCentral Instructional Model

Similarities The entry level skills of the learners are analysed by all three (3) models. It is after and from what has been garnered from the analysis of the learners, in both the Gerlach and Ely Design Model and the L-Central Instructional Model, that the instructional strategies are determined. Both models systematically display clearly defined procedures for the process of instructional design.

Differences Whereas the entry level skills, abilities, learning styles and needs of learners are analysed by the current model, the L-Central Model further addresses the attitudes of the learners. The new model separates the performance objectives from the overall goal of the learning environment and displays it as a separate and distinct step in the instructional design process. The L-Central Model allows for ongoing modifications arising out of the feedback analysis, to the instructional strategies and the performance objectives. In contrast, the Gerlach and Ely Model, directs modifications to the Specification of Objectives only.

Support The L-Central Instructional Model provides a systematic approach for instructional design that is applicable to both arms of the work environment: consulting and tutoring. It supports the work environments approach to the learner as being central to the instructional design function and includes the attitude of the learner as an integral part of the analysis of the learner. The L-Central Model provides also a guide for ongoing evaluation and feedback to be carried out effectively throughout the learning experience.



Chen, Kuan-Chung (2004). Classroom Instructional Development Model The Gerlach and Ely Model. Retrieved March 24, 2014 from HUNG_CHEN.pdf

Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction. Third edition. USA: Pearson.

Gerlach & Ely Design Model. (2012).

[Graphic illustration of the Gerlach &

Ely Design Model 1980]. Gerlach & Ely Teaching Media: A Systematic Approach. Retrieved from

Grabowski, S. (2003). Teaching and Media: A Systematic Approach The Gerlach & Ely Model [Critique]. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from

Reigeluth, C.M., & Carr-Chellman, A.A. (2009). Instructional-design theories and models: Vol.111. Building a common knowledge base. New York: Routledge.