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transportation system, fans, robots, pumps, machine tools, etc. Prime movers are required in drive systems to provide the movement or motion and energy that is used to provide the motion can come from various sources: diesel engines, petrol engines, hydraulic motors, electric motors etc. Drives that use electric motors as the prime movers are known as electrical drives There are several advantages of electrical drives: a. Flexible control characteristic – This is particularly true when power electronic converters are employed where the dynamic and steady state characteristics of the motor can be controlled by controlling the applied voltage or current. b. Available in wide range of speed, torque and power c. High efficiency, lower noise, low maintenance requirements and cleaner operation d. Electric energy is easy to be transported. A typical conventional electric drive system for variable speed application employing multimachine system is shown in Figure 1. The system is obviously bulky, expensive, inflexible and require regular maintenance. In the past, induction and synchronous machines were used for constant speed applications – this was mainly because of the unavailability of variable frequency supply.
variable DC If
variable speed DC motor Load
Figure 1 Conventional variable speed electrical drive system
With the advancement of power electronics, microprocessors and digital electronics, typical electric drive systems nowadays are becoming more compact, efficient, cheaper and versatile – this is shown in Figure 2. The voltage and current applied to the motor can be changed at will by employing power electronic converters. AC motor is no longer limited to application where only AC source is available, however, it can also be used when the power source available is DC or vice versa Power Processor
(Power electronic Converters)
feedback Control Control Unit
Figure 2 Modern Electric drive system employing power electronic converters
wound rotor Synchronous motors – wound field. environmental factors and also the type of sources available. for example. it is also possible for the power to be fed back to the sources rather than dissipated as heat. • Utility interface • Renewable energy • Machine design • Speed sensorless • Machine theory • • • • • • Non-linear control Real-time control DSP application PFC Speed sensorless Power electronic converters Figure 3 Multi-disciplinary nature of electric drive system Components of Electrical Drives The main components of a modern electrical drive are the motors. With controllable sources. to shape the voltage or current that is supplied to the motor – these methods however are inflexible and inefficient. There are several types of motors used in electric drives – choice of type used depends on applications.Electric drives is multi-disciplinary field. brake or can be operated with variable speed. the flow of power is reversed. In other words. the motor can be reversed. Conventional methods used. cost. power processor. Broadly. the characteristic 2 . They convert energy from electrical to mechanical . control unit and electrical source. Depending upon the type of power converters used. variable impedance or relays. In braking mode. permanent magnet Brushless DC motor – require power electronic converters Stepper motors – require power electronic converters Synchronous reluctance motors or switched reluctance motor – require power electronic converters b) Power processor or power modulator Since the electrical sources are normally uncontrollable.therefore can be regarded as energy converters. Modern electric drives normally used power electronic converters to shape the desired voltage or current supplied to the motor. Various research areas can be sub-divided from electric drives as shown in Figure 3. it is therefore necessary to be able to control the flow of power to the motor – this is achieved using power processor or power modulator. a) Motors Motors obtain power from electrical sources. they can be classified as either DC or AC motors: DC motors (wound or permanent magnet) AC motors Induction motors – squirrel cage.. These are briefly discussed below.
These converters are efficient because the switches operate in either cut-off or saturation modes Several conversion are possible: AC to DC Diode rectifier DC-DC converter control Controlled rectifier control DC to AC Inverter (PWM) DC-DC converter control Inverter (six-step) control control DC to DC DC-DC Converter control AC to AC Controlled Rectifier control Inverter (six-step) control Diode Rectifier Inverter (PWM) control Matrix Converter control 3 . compact and higher ratings solid–state power electronic devices are continuously being developed – the prices are getting cheaper. Converters are used to convert and possibly regulate (i.of the motors can be changed at will. using closed-loop control) the available sources to suit the load i.e. motors. Power electronic converters have several advantages over classical methods of power conversion. such as : • More efficient – since ideally no losses occur in power electronic converters • Flexible – voltage and current can be shaped by simply controlling switching functions of the power converter • Compact – smaller.e.
Fast torque and decouple control between flux and torque components can be achieved easily. DSPs perform faster operation than microprocessors (multiplication in single cycle). • AC drives. b) Capital and running cost – Drive systems will vary in terms of start-up cost and running cost. their magnitudes or frequencies are fixed or depend on the sources of energy such as solar or wind. A controller can be as simple as few op-amps and/or a few digital ICs. expensive. With DSP/microp. For high efficiency operation.e. magnetic coupling between phases and between stator and rotor windings makes the modeling and torque control difficult and complex. However analog circuit ideally has infinite bandwidth. complex estimations and observers can be easily implemented. lower bandwidth compared to above. c) Space and weight restrictions – d) Environment and location Comparison between DC and AC drives Motors : • DC require maintenance.c) Control Unit The complexity of the control unit depends on the desired drive performance and the type of motors used. cheaper. 3-phase sources are normally for high power applications There can be several factors that affect the selection of different configuration of electrical drive system such as: a) Torque and speed profile . The torque is controlled via the armature current while maintaining the field component constant. e. speed limited by mechanical construction • AC less maintenance. in particular the induction machines. or it can be as complex as the combinations of several ASICs and digital signal processors (DSPs). flux and torque components are always perpendicular to one another thanks to the mechanical commutator and brushes.which is noisy. The types of the main controllers can be: • analog . heavy. cost increases with performance. • In AC machines. Control of the steady state operating conditions is accomplished by controlling the magnitude and the frequency of the applied voltage. maintenance. Scalar control drives technique does not require fast processor/DSP whereas in FOC or DTC drives.g. high speed (esp. robust. squirrel–cage type) Control unit: • DC drives: Simple control – decoupling torque and flux by mechanical commutator – the controller can be implemented using simple analog circuit even for high performance torque control –cheaper. • digital – immune to noise. the types of controllers to be used depend on the required drive performance – obviously. which is known 4 . The bandwidth is obviously smaller than the analog controller’s – depends on sampling frequency • DSP/microprocessor – flexible. AC source can be either three-phase or single-phase. inflexible. Performance: • In DC motors. light. i.determine the ratings of converters and the quadrant of operation required. d) Source Electrical sources or power supplies provide the energy to the electrical motors. the power obtained from the electrical sources need to be regulated using power electronic converters Power sources can be of AC or DC in nature and normally are uncontrollable. DSPs or fast processors are normally employed.. configurable.
Blashke published his approach of AC motor control. This is satisfactory in some applications. Implementation of this control technique is complex thus requires fast processors such as Digital Signal Processors (DSPs). Applications which were previously possible only with DC drives were gradually being replaced with FOC of AC drives. increasing number of applications utilizing FOC control could be found in industries. Prof. Overview of AC and DC drives The advancement in electric drive system is very much related to the development in the power semiconductor devices technology. After semiconductor devices were introduced in 1980s In 1972. Nevertheless. Generating an AC voltage with variable frequency was only possible by using rotary converters. the improvement in the fabrication of BJT along with the introduction of pulse width modulation (PWM) control technique has significantly contributed to the improvement in the AC motor drives. Applications requiring precise and fast torque control were still dominated by DC drives. FOC control basically transformed the control of AC motors to the one similar to DC motor control. 5 . square wave inverters were mainly used in AC drive system. On the other hand. Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR) was introduced in 1957. In early 1960s. DC drives are widely used for variable speed operation. has made it possible for it to be used in static frequency converters or inverters. to what is now known as Field Oriented Control (FOC) or vector control. However. the high performance torque control can be achieved using AC motors. the efficiency of the drive system will be very poor especially at low speeds. The true high performance torque control similar to DC drives was still not achievable due to the complex magnetic coupling between phases in the stator and rotor of the AC machines. In other words. the algorithm used for FOC was not practically realizable. whereas AC machines were used mainly for fixed speed applications. variable DC supply can be produced using multi-machine configuration and hence could be used to control the armature voltage of the DC motors. since the switching frequency of an SCR was low which require commutation circuit in order to turn off. The development of the electrical drives systems can be divided into three stages Before power semiconductor devices were introduced: AC drives were used for fixed speed operation. In 1980s. Although it is possible to use variable voltage with fixed frequency sources to control the speed of AC motors. The transient states or the dynamics of the machine can only be controlled by applying the vector control technique whereby the decoupling between the torque and flux components is achieved through frame transformations. This is possible through complex frame transformations and algorithm. was nearly achieved to the expense of a very complex algorithm with numerous approximations. which are bulky and inflexible. where faster microprocessors were available. The introduction of the Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR) in 1957 has initiated the application of solid state devices in power converters. The higher ratings of SCR compared to the solid state transistor at that time. It was predicted that the AC drives will eventually replace the DC drives in the near future.as the scalar control technique. Consequently. Speed control with AC motor can be performed because variable frequency AC supply can be generated using inverters. However not until in the early 80s. DC drives were gradually being replaced with AC drives in medium performance variable speed applications. After power semiconductor devices were introduced in 1950s Although self turnoff devices (Bipolar Junction Transistor – BJT) were available in the 1950s their voltage ratings were too low which make them inappropriate to be used in power circuit. Transient torque control to some extend.
x v Fp M Ff Figure 4 Translational motion With constant mass. the moment of inertia and the angular velocity. " !. Te TL J Figure 5 Rotational motion For most of the cases. the net force acting on a body of mass M equals to the rate of change of its mechanical momentum. the force. which is the product of its mass and its velocity in the direction of the net force. this is given by (1) where F is the net force acting on the body. this can be written as 6 . The rotational system which is analogous to the translational system of Figure 4 is shown in Figure 5. J is the moment of inertia and ! is the angular velocity. In the equation form.Torque Equations For Rotating Systems The Newton’s Law states that. respectively. M is the mass of the body and v is its velocity. This is illustrated by Figure 4. the mass and the linear velocity is equivalent to the torque. ". J is constant thus reducing (3) to (4) In terms of the angular position. (1) can be written as For rotational motion (which is the case for rotating electrical machines). Equation (1) can therefore be written as (3) where T is the net torque.
In order to accelerate in forward direction.e. we obtain an equation describing the power balance. a square wave torque is applied. T is also known as the dynamic torque and it only exists during the transient (i. step change in speed) theoretically will require an infinite torque. the net torque is given by (6) where Te is the internal electrical torque produced by the motor.(5) For rotating electrical machines. If the load torque comprise of only the frictional torque which is proportional to the speed. For a given electrical torque profile. This is analogous to the voltage and current across a capacitor in which discontinuity in capacitor voltage is not allowed as it correspond to an infinite capacitor current. the speed profile of the drive system can be determined. Tl is the load torque and/or the internal friction of the motor. Equation (4) relates the torque and the mechanical speed (or position) of the machine. Figure 6 Dynamic simulation of mechanical system Usually in a cascaded closed-loop control system in which the speed is to be controlled. acceleration and deceleration). T is the available torque at the shaft and is responsible for accelerating the inertia of the motor. In order to decelerate. the speed is governed by the load. In the simulation. Note that the speed is always continuous. Te –Tl must be positive. (8) 7 position speed torque .e. which means that the applied electrical torque must be larger than the load torque. In a torque-controlled drive system. (4) can be written as (7) Equation (7) can be easily simulated using SIMULINK as shown in Figure 6. If we multiply (7) with the angular speed. the reference torque will be generated by the speed controller. the net torque must be negative. A discontinuity in speed (i. In such cases. with the known moment of inertia and the load torque. the electrical torque must be made smaller than the load torque and the motor operates in braking mode – more on this later. the torque will be governed by the speed.
we can write # (10) Equation (10) states that the equivalent moment of inertia of the translational motion referred to the axis of the pulley is given by Jequ = Mr2 8 . An example of a typical system is shown in Figure 7. an angular velocity ! must be continuous. It is analogous to the energy stored in a capacitor or an inductor . Tl = rFl. Relation between translational and rotational motions In most applications of the drive systems. Tm = rFm . ! Tl r Fl M Fm r Tm v Figure 7 Translational and rotational motions The relation between the torques and the linear forces are given by Also. pL = !mTl is the load power and is the change in kinetic energy.Where pD = !mTe is the driving power. we obtain the following: (9) The last term of (9) is the stored kinetic energy of the system. Similar to a capacitor voltage or an inductor current. Integrating the equation with time and setting the initial speed !(0) = 0. V = r! If the mass M is constant. the translational and rotational motions are related. An abrupt (discontinuous) change in ! will results in an infinite power.
It is the intersection between the motor and the load T-! characteristics that determines the steady state speed. high speed operations are normally preferred. we need to obtain the equivalent moment of inertia and load torque. are commonly employed. Synchronous motor Separately excited DC motor Induction motor Series DC motor The loads on the other hand will have their own T-! characteristics. in some applications. An example of the hoist drive employing gears is shown in Figure 8. gears which reduce speed but amplify the torque. However. with all other variables. it can be shown that the torque equation for the equivalent system is given by (11) where Steady state operating speed The characteristics of the motor and load are normally described based on their torque versus speed graph or T-! characteristics. with the negligible frictional torque. The T-! characteristic of a motor corresponds to the variation of its torque versus its speed. T m Loss-free gear !2 J2 J3 2r3 J1 !3 M3 Figure 8 Hoist drive with gears The hoist drive system shown in Figure 8 can be represented by an equivalent system similar to Figure 5. This can be seen from (6) where at steady state d!/dt = 0 and Te = Tl. 9 . In order to avoid the unnecessary large size machines. slow motion with high torque is required. including the voltage (or current) and frequency (for AC motor) are kept constant. Consequently for such applications. If the mass M3 is considered being moved upwards. In order to do that. ! 1.System with gears It was found out that machines designed to operate at low speeds are large in size compared to the ones which are designed to operate at high speeds. Typical shape of T-! characteristics of different motors are shown in Figure 9.
whereas in paper mill and machine tools. in most of the cases. Frictional torque Moving parts of the motor and load constitute the frictional torque. Windage friction – occurs due the turbulent flow of air or liquid. by changing the point of intersections between the motor and load torque-speed curves. It is directly proportional to the speed.The steady state torque-speed characteristic of the motor depends on the applied voltage or current. coupling and brakes. is independent of the direction of motion. Active load torque on the other hand. Tl !1 Different motor speeds !2 !3 speed Figure 9 Different steady state speeds (Tl = Te) for different motor’s T-! characteristics It should be noted that the graph in Figure 9 only displayed the steady state characteristics of the load and motor. Tl In general. For instance. only one or two components are dominating. the dominating one could be the viscous friction. the load torque Tl can be classified into two types: the passive load torque (frictional torque) and the active load torque. Different steady-state torque-speed characteristics of the motor. However. Hence. all components of friction described above exist simultaneously. There are several types of frictional as described in Figure 4 and explained below: • • • Coulomb friction – exists in bearings. It is directly proportional to the square of speed In practical drive system consisting of load and motor. Components of Load Torque. Viscous friction – exist in lubricated bearings due to the laminar flow of the lubricant. Te Torque Torque-speed characteristic of the load. The transient responses before these steady state speeds are reached have to be dealt with using the dynamic characteristics of the load and motor. Frictional toque exists only when there is motion and it always opposes the driving torque. It is almost independent of speed. 10 . different steady-state speeds can be achieved. gears. a fan or a propeller will typically have the windage friction dominating.
The various parts of the machine have different temperature limits. If the temperature goes beyond the allowable temperature. This type of torque is capable of driving the motor under equilibrium and is said to be an active torque. The classes of the insulator used for the winding in electrical machines are shown in Table 1. Allowable power losses are higher for materials which can withstand higher temperature which translates to higher costs. Particularly important is the insulation used for the windings which give rise to the different classes of machines.Coulomb ! Windage Viscous Figure 10 torque Frictional T Constant torque The direction of constant load torque is independent of speed – it retains the direction even when the direction of rotation reverses or changes. gravity. 11 . tension or compression undergone by elastic body. Speed Gravitational torque Te TL = rFL = r g M sin $ TL Torque $ gM FL Figure 11 Constant load torque: gravitational force Thermal considerations The losses in the machines contribute to the temperature increase in the machine. e.g. it will cause an immediate breakdown (short circuit in the winding) or it will deteriorate the quality and hence reduces the lifetime of the insulation material.
ventilation losses The constructions of the machines are very complex. Based on the assumptions that the temperature limits of all parts does not exceed the temperature limits under certain operating conditions. this is when the steady state temperature is reached. To p1 INPUT POWER (losses) p2 OUTPUT POWER (convection) Figure 12 Homogeneous body Let us assume that a homogeneous body shown in Figure 12 represents a motor which has a thermal capacity C. Max safe temp. which is the losses incurred in the motor. normally built from various types of materials (heterogeneous) with complex geometrical shapes. brushes. oC 90 105 120 130 155 180 >180 Thermal capacity. the input power equals the output power. C (Ws/oC) Surface A.Table 1 Classification of the insulators Class V A E B F H C Three main cause of power losses are: Conductor losses (i2R) Exist in the windings. Obviously. The output power due to radiation is assumed negligible because of the low operating temperature and back radiation. T (oC) Ambient temperature. brushes. is represented by p1 whereas the output power. Under a steady state condition. The input power. To exactly predict the heat flow and hence the temperature distribution is extremely difficult. is represented by p2. commutator. which is the power released as heat by convection. The equation describing the power balance is given by (12) 12 . this assumption cannot determine the specific internal thermal conditions for the motors. (m2) Surface temperature. cables. Core losses Mainly due to eddy current and hysteresis losses Friction and windage losses Mainly due to ball bearings. slip rings. and etc. the motors can therefore adequately modeled as homogeneous bodies.
the temperature of the body decays to the ambient temperature. &T(() = ph/($A) During cooling. With &T(0)=0 and a step change in the power input p1 from 0 to ph at t=0. when heat is removed at t=0.The heat dissipated by convection is given by p2= $A (T % To) where $ is the coefficient of heat transfer.e. equation (12) can be written as (13) or (14) where 'T = C/($A) is the thermal time constant. (16) Heating transient t Cooling transient ' 13 t . i. the solution for &T is (15) At steady state. If we let &T = T % To .
It should be noted that the thermal time constant of electrical machines are typically much larger than their mechanical or electrical time constants. (iii) Periodic intermittent duty The load cycle is repeated periodically. a temporary overload is therefore possible without exceeding the temperature limits. Machines which are self-ventilated will have larger cooling time constants compared to their heating (assumed moving) time constants. The machine can be overloaded and amount of overloading depends on the duty cycle of the load. If the thermal time constant is large. this is limited by its pull-out torque. For DC machine this is limited due the sparking between the brushes and the commutator. The heating and cooling time constant may be different depending whether the machine is self-cooled or forced-cooled. 14 . The motor is allowed to cool to ambient temperature before the new load cycle is applied.Continuous duty . The motor is allowed to be overloaded provided that the maximum temperature is not exceeded. In induction machine. It may vary from few minutes few hours.Periodic intermittent duty (i) Continuous duty The motor is loaded continuously. (ii) Short time intermittent duty The time of operation is considerably less than the thermal time constant. The temperature will fluctuate and the mean value will eventually settle to a steady state value.Short time intermittent duty . the application of much higher power than the rated power is subject to the available torque of the machine. Normally.Figure 13 Heating and cooling transients The thermal time constant depends on the coefficient of heat transfer $ which in turn depends on the velocity of the cooling air. Three typical modes of operation are: . However. On the other hand machines with forced ventilation system will have a cooling and heating time constants of more or less equal. The machine is not allowed to cool to ambient when the next load cycle is applied. Obviously the rating of the motor must at least equal the continuous loading of the machine. motor with next higher power rating from commercial available rating is selected.
II. This mode of operation is known as reverse motoring. which is in the same direction as the motor torque. The plane is divided into 4 quadrants . Energy is converted from electrical form to mechanical form. Quadrant III The speed and the torque of the motor are in the same direction but are both negative. The mode of operation is known as forward braking. as shown above. thus 4 modes of operation. The torque produced by the motor is used to ‘brake’ the forward rotation of the motor. which is used to rotate the motor.Four-quadrant operation of a drive system The !–T plane with motor’s shaft cross sectional area is shown: ! Te ! II I T Te ! III IV ! Te Te ! Figure 14 Four-quadrant operation of a drive system The positive or forward speed is arbitrarily chosen in counterclockwise direction (it can also be chosen as clockwise). The mechanical energy during the braking. 15 . The quadrants are marked as I. III and IV Quadrant I Both torque and speed are positive – the motor rotates in forward direction. The mode of operation is known as forward motoring. The product of the torque and speed is negative thus the power is negative. Quadrant II The speed is in forward direction but the motor torque is in opposite direction or negative value. implying that the motor operates in braking mode. the product of the torque and speed. The energy is converted from electrical form to mechanical form. The power. The power of the motor is the product of the speed and torque (P = Te!). i. is converted to electrical energy – thus the flow of energy is from the mechanical system to the electrical system.e. therefore the power of the motor is positive. The reverse electrical torque is used to rotate the motor in reverse direction. is positive implying that the motor operates in motoring mode. The positive torque is in the direction that will produce acceleration in forward speed.
the current cannot be higher than its rated value even for a short time. Ratings of converters and motors In order to accelerate to a given reference value. This momentary high torque is possible due to the large thermal capacity of the motor with suitable insulators used for the winding. The converter. According to (1). the toque is limited by the maximum allowable power. which depends on whether the transient or continuous torque limit is considered. the faster is the speed gets to its reference. However since the thermal capacity of a switching device is small. the motor torque has to be larger than the load torque. The speed limit basically depends on the mechanical limitation of the motor. it can be as high as 8 to 10 times the rated value.Quadrant IV The speed is in reverse direction but the torque is positive. 16 . the torque during this transient condition can be up to 3 times the rated torque of the motor and for servo motor. Above the base speed. The product of the speed and torque is negative implying that the motor operates in braking mode. The converter is normally protected from the overcurrent condition by the current limiter mechanism within the converter system. The motor torque is used to ‘brake’ the reverse rotation of the motor. Consequently. The operating area of a 4-quadrant motor drive is shown in Figure 8. This mode of operation is known as reverse braking. The higher the torque during the speed transient. which means that sustained overloads on the motor has to be protected by an additional thermal protection mechanism. The mechanical energy gained during the braking is converted to electrical form – thus power flow from the mechanical system to the electrical system. the speed and torque responses for a closed-loop speed control DC drive with two different torque limit setting (10 Nm and 15 Nm) is shown in Figure 7. !b. The maximum allowable torque during transient of a drive system is determined by the current rating of the converter used whereas the continuous torque limit depends on the current rating of the motor. the current rating of the converter is normally set to equal the maximum allowable motor current and this can be as high as the 3 times the motor rated current. must be able to sustain this condition. Figure 7 Speed response with different torque limit settings In most cases. the difference between Tl and Te determines how fast the angular acceleration is. For example. which conducts the motor current.
It can be shown mathematically that the condition for stable equilibrium is: (17) Torque Torque Te Tl Tl Te &! &! speed Motor will decelerate back to equilibrium since Tl > Te Figure 9 Steady state stability speed Motor will accelerate away from equilibrium since Te > Tl 17 . A disturbance in any part of the drive will result in a speed to depart from the steady state speed. speed and power for drive system .!b !b Speed Steady-state stability The motor will operate at the steady-state speed (point where Tl = Te) provided that the speed is of stable equilibrium. The stable equilibrium speed is investigated using steady-state torquespeed characteristics of the load and motor.Torque Transient torque limit Continuous torque limit Power limit for transient torque Power limit for continuous torque Maximum speed limit Figure 8 Limits for torque. However. if the speed is not of the stable equilibrium. if the steady-state speed is of stable equilibrium. the speed will return to the stable equilibrium speed. On the other hand. the disturbance will results in the speed to drift away from the equilibrium speed.
Springer-Verlag. 2001 18 . Leonhard. “Fundamental of Electrical Drives”.K. 1994. “Control of Electrical Drives”.References G. Dubey. Narosa. W.
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