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OBJECTIVES/RATIONALE Background research is a vital component of the scientific research process. The students will be able to locate, identify and critique key elements of scientific literature to discover what is known and what remains to be learned about a topic. TEKS: 121.12 4A, 5A, 5B, 5C, 5D TAKS ELA 1, 3, 4, 6 Science 1
KEY POINTS Literature review refers to an extensive, exhaustive, and systematic examination of publications relevant to the stated research problem. It acknowledges the strengths and weaknesses of the articles. The literature review is an important component of every research project for the following reasons: (1) to determine the extent of the theory and research that have been developed in the field of study (2) to identify the definition of concepts and variables which have already been established in the literature and examine the research designs, methods, scales, instruments, measures, and techniques of data analysis used by (3) to discover what is known and what remains to be learned in the field. Many times a study can be identified that can be replicated or whose findings mat be compared or contrasted with the proposed research study. (4) to become aware of difficulties experienced by others which may save time, money, and error or identify ethical issues (5) to find a well-written article to use as a guide in writing the research paper
To do an effective literature review: (1) locate all current (within the last 2-3 years) pertinent publications (2) summarize and record the content of each (3) perform a critical review of the major works to identify the merits and weaknesses of each element – theoretical perspective, definitions, research designs, methods, instruments, data analysis, and conclusions LOCATING PUBLICATIONS The most rapid access to current journals is obtained by a computer search of the literature. MEDLARS – medical literature analysis and retrieval system – is designed to achieve rapid access via computer to thousands of journals in the National Library of Medicine. MEDLINE , CATLINE, CANCERLINE, SCISEARCH, and ERIC are others. Confer with a librarian for the most efficient use of time. Books and articles are categorized as either primary or secondary sources.
CATLINE refers to specific subject areas in journals. research reports. It is always more desirable to use primary sources whenever possible. The researcher then makes records of the sources studied and summarizes the pertinent information found in each. a search is needed to locate and scrutinize each of them. Read the conclusion and summary. Read the preface to determine the author’s purpose. If the book is promising. For books. examine the title page and scan the author’s credentials. These can be located most efficiently by a computer search in health science libraries. These include: histories. Use the orange for quotes from literature – use quotes for specific hypotheses or direct quotes. and information collected by interviews and questionnaires. professional journals. One method is to use colored 3X5 index cards (orange. textbooks. The most common and useful method for recording bibliographical information is to write the complete information for each publication on a separate 3X5 card. autobiographies. The most recent publications are found in professional journals. The most rapid access to journal citations is MEDLARS or MEDLINE. scan the table of contents. and focus on the methods of research used (how the sample was selected and the data was analyzed). patient charts. It is important to summarize an article or book using the same format each time. keep it for a more critical review. and the third stage is a critical review of the major works concerning the research topic to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each. These cards are kept in alphabetical order in a file to be a ready source to cite relevant works in the body of the research paper. Retain sound and pertinent articles. Then. Use blue to summarize information from the book or article. The second stage is to summarize and record relevant contents. The first stage is to identify what has been published on the topic. Once a list of useful books and articles is composed. and materials that give secondary analysis of the data found in primary records. Today. The researcher must develop an orderly and systematic approach to coding their index cards. and green to record insights or ideas. and by whom. Publications that do meet high standards are discarded. the bibliography. blue and green). The competent researcher never relies solely on secondary sources and always reviews the primary source as a check against possible errors.PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES The first stage of the literature review is a general attempt to locate all pertinent publications. letters. such as diaries. Primary sources are first-hand accounts of events. biographies. charts. when. and tables. examine the author’s credentials. researchers tend to include the most recent works – those that have been published within the last three years. These will often summarize and critique earlier works and provide bibliographies for further searches. For an article. eyewitness accounts. . scan the hypothesis. This will enable quick comparisons later. Secondary sources are second-hand accounts. the index.
record: 1) problem statement 2) definition of concepts 3) hypotheses 4) theories and assumptions 5) research methods 6) data collection instruments 7) research design 8) methods and findings of data analysis 9) interpretation of data – did it support or reject hypothesis? 10) recommendations for further research 11) also. specific. For information from a research paper.To summarize and record the information. note author. and year of publication. consider different instruments for data collection and discover instruments already developed. The researcher can compare the different approaches from different scientists to the same problem. treatment. analytical methods) WHAT did you find?(past tense) Results Discussion WHAT do the results mean?(present tense) References/Bibliography Appendices . clear Abstract overview of article to stimulate reader interest WHY did you start this research?(Present tense) Introduction Literature Review What information already exists on this subject? Materials & Methods HOW was the research carried out?(Past tense) (design. This comparison will allow the student to consider whether a survey. indexes. or an experiment will be most suitable for the proposed project. abstracts. ELEMENTS OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Title short. target population. note missing data and limitations of research Manual searches to identify relevant publications may be done at a library by examining the card catalog. The student may also find a study that is appropriate to replicate in order to add depth to research also performed or a well-written study to use as a guide. Community professionals in the field of interest are also a good source of information and referrals for relevant professional publications and information. and various reference sources. consider various research designs. Comparisons will help the researcher to: contrast concepts. uncover competing theories to explain the same phenomenon. title.
date in detail. and theoretical perspectives *Is it a primary or secondary source? *Is the research design appropriate for the study? *Does the method of sampling allow the author to generalize findings? *Was the method of data collection ethical and proper? *Did the author completely discuss the data. variables. operational definitions. tested hypotheses. use consultants where necessary. Record (1) problem statement (2) definition of concepts (3) hypothesis (4) theories (5) methods of research including sample selection (6) instruments used (7) type of research design (8) methods and data analysis (9) interpretation of data – whether he hypothesis supported or rejected (10) recommendations and suggestions for further research. Information should include: 1) the surname of the author(s) followed by the complete given name 2) the complete title and subtle 3) the date. present data in tables and graphs. CRITICAL REVIEW A critical review of the literature includes the following: *qualification of the author to undertake the research *the structure of the research report *the extent to which the introduction informs the reader of what the author has studied – the problem. and pages of the article 5) bibliography or index 6) call number of the local library – a time saver if needed Keep these cards in alphabetical order. in a permanent file box. publisher. etc. A systematic procedure for recording the information is vital. Also note any limitations such as data that was missing. and explain how missing data was handled? *How did the author compare the findings to those of others in the literature? *How did the author generalize the findings to target populations? *Did the author examine their own strengths and weaknesses.SUMMARIZING AND RECORDING Make a record of the sources studies and summarize the pertinent information found in each. threats to validity. The most common and useful method for recording bibliographical information is to write the complete information for each source on a separate 3X5 card. report limitations. and make recommendations for further research? * Were all works cited included in the bibliography? *Was the abstract clear and concise? *Was the writing style organized and objective? . objectives. and edition 4) the journal in which the article appeared. assumptions. place of publication. definition of concepts. hypothesis.
identify and critique components of a scientific paper found in a professional journal and report to the class using the suggested format. In groups of four.ACTIVITIES Participate in a weekly Research Forum. MATERIALS NEEDED Research Forum Suggested Format Research Forum Summary Format ASSESSMENT Research Forum Critique Form .
author. conclusions. methods. students will analyze a selected journal article according to the following format: STUDENT #1 will introduce the article stating the: title. as stated in the hypothesis. and statistical methods (~ 6 minutes) will explain results. research site. and hypothesis (~ 4 minutes) will explain the materials. . and identify whether the question. was answered (~ 5 minutes) will summarize the article and critique it – stating possible limitations and suggestions for improvement (~ 5 minutes) STUDENT #2 STUDENT #3 STUDENT #4 NOTE: Limit the time allowed for each student to present their component and assign students to a different component each week.Research Forum Suggested Format Working in groups of four.
The body of the literature review must be no more than two pages in length.Research Forum Summary Format Each research literature review will closely follow this format (written reviews as well as oral reports). Identification: Title: Author(s): Location: Source: Introduction: Problem: Purpose: Significance: Information necessary to locate the source of this study What is the title of the research? Who conducted the research? Where did the research take place? Where is this research published? What is the significance of the research? What needs to be investigated? What would be accomplished by investigating this problem? Why and to whom would this research be important? What have other researchers found on this topic? _____(5) _____(5) _____(5) _____(5) (Possible points) _____(5) _____(5) _____(5) _____(5) Background Literature: Method: Subjects: Treatment: Assessment: How was the research carried out? Who participated in the study? How were the conditions changed during the experiment? What investigative tools were used to determine the results? _____(5) _____(9) _____(6) Results: What was found during the treatment or investigation? _____(5) Conclusions: Findings: Interpretation: Limitations: Further research: What does the research claim the results of the study indicate? What discoveries did the researcher make? What new understandings have resulted from this study? What are the possible limitations of this study? What questions arise as a result of this research? TOTAL _____(10) _____(10) _____(10) _____(5) _____(100) Name of Evaluator: _______________________________Date: ________________________ . A cover page and bibliography will also be included.
statistics 3. hypothesis 2. conclusions 4. author. results.Research Forum Critique Form Student Presenter’s Name: __________________________________________________ Reported on: (circle one) 1. materials. summary. title. critique of article. methods. suggestions for improvement Rate this presentation on the following scale (circle one) Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 High Most outstanding quality of this presentation: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Suggestions for improvement __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ .
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