Metodologías de Diseño

Semestre Enero-Mayo 2008

Ing. Eduardo González Mendívil
Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing. Eduardo González Mendívil

Metodologías de Diseño M00843

Ing. Eduardo González Mendívil

Eduardo González Mendívil .Ponderación del Curso: Primer parcial 20% Segundo parcial 20% Tercer parcial 20% Proyecto Final 20% Examen Final 20% -----------------------------------------Total 100% Trabajos y Tareas son para puntos extras y a criterio del Profesor Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing.

Eduardo González Mendívil .INTRODUCTION .and understanding lets me do by choice what others do by constraint of fear.” Aristotle Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing.DESIGNING "It is through knowledge that I gain understanding -.

Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing. Eduardo González Mendívil .

The demands must include the wishes of the customers. a cathedral. requirements and constraints (including the demanded functions) into the description of a structure which is capable of fulfilling these demands. demands. a mill. According to our view. information from the condition of needs. Eduardo González Mendívil . Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing.What Do We Understand by Desig ning? We stated that an idea about an object (product or process) which should be created must have been preconceived and developed. etc. Somebody must think ahead. the "somebody with an idea" is the designer of: a house. but also all stages and requirements of the life cycle and all intermediate states that the product must pass through. their interior Designing is defined as the transformation of fittings. before it can be built or realized.

Eduardo González Mendívil .Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing.

Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing. particularly those which can be met by the technology factors of our culture.it involves bringing into being something new and useful that has not existed previously. Asimow (1962): Engineering design is a purposeful activity directed towards the goal of fulfilling human needs.) Decision making. machine or system to perform pre-specified functions with the maximum economy and efficiency. Booker (1964): Simulating what we want to make (or do) before we make (or do) it as many times as may be necessary to feel confident in the final result. economically favorable and esthetically satisfactory solution for a given task.Taylor (1959): Engineering design is the process of applying various techniques and scientific principles for the purpose of defining a device. Archer (1964): A goal-directed problem-solving activity. Alexander (1963): Finding the right physical components of a physical structure. with high penalty for error. or a system in sufficient detail to permit its physical realization. Feilden (1963): Mechanical engineering design is the use of scientific principles. a process. Reswick (1965): A creative activity -. Kesselring (1964): Designing means to find a technically perfect. And: (ibid. Hansen (1966): Developing a technical construct is determined through prior visual thinking out. The designer's responsibility covers the whole process from conception to the issue of detailed instructions for production and his interest continues throughout the designed life of the product in service. technical information and imagination in the definition of a mechanical structure. in the face of uncertainty. Eduardo González Mendívil .

Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing. Eduardo González Mendívil .

we normally think of design as the activity involved with actually constructing the system. selection of the . a regional housing plan.. Katz (1984): ...Jones Page (1966): The performing of a very complicated act of faith. a computer program. Alexander (1979): Design is the process of inventing physical things which display new physical order. an information system.g. The design task. in response to function. All one can say with certainty is that society or the world is not the same as it was before the new design appeared. form. through properIng. a physical plant or airplane). processes or systems that satisfy perceived needs through mapping between the functional requirements (FRs) in the functional domain and the de Diseño M00843 Eduardo González Mendívil design Metodologías parameters (DPs) of the physical domain. a corporate plan. Nadler (1967): Planning and design (P & D) is a process to create or restructure a situation-specific solution. manufacturers.almost anything. an integrated circuit chip.. Suh (1989): . a course outline. legislation. an appropriate technology transfer. however. from the initial commitment to build a new system to its final full scale production.. organization. the chain of events that begins with the sponsor's wish and moves through the actions of designers. The result may be a house. Farr (1966): The conditioning factor for those parts of the product which come into contact with people. a product design... we map that specification into its physical realization (e. i. Gregory (1966): Relating product with situation to give satisfaction. Jones (1980): . given a specification of the system. distributors and consumers to the ultimate effects of a newly designed thing upon the world. Matchett (1966): The optimum solution to the sum of the true needs of a particular set of circumstances. a factory layout -.. extends throughout a system life cycle. the creation of a synthesized solution in the form of products.e. (1966): The imaginative jump from present facts to future possibilities.

Eduardo González Mendívil .Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing.

etc. collecting and processing data. evolution. satisfying needs. ethical and professional conduct. optimizing. organizing. Eduardo González Mendívil . assembly. applying science.The nature of designing is reflected in many other statements which at best capture only parts of the truth. accepting adequate solutions. directing. learning. satisfying the customer. leading. negotiating to achieve a satisfactory solution. transferring and transforming knowledge. dealing with people. Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing. drawing and calculating. team-building. heuristic search. creativity and imagination. satisficing. considering the "bottom line" of costs and profit. problems solving. Typical for such statements (each made with the personal conviction of its author to have fully explained designing with one simplistic phrase) are. decision making. that "design is …": * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * an art. testing and other processes. selecting suitable patterns and adjusting. not a science. foresight towards production.

Black Box Design Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing. Eduardo González Mendívil .

and the overall construction of large plant.the object to be constructed is usually a large to medium industrial plant. * project engineering -. * organizing -. particular terms have become traditional.the Eduardo González Mendívil composed of generating goals.The design process is modified in its breadth according to the object to be designed and/or the stages in the design process. To designate such cases.emphasizes the temporal dimension of the problems (mostly of longer duration) and the scale of the solution suggestions (mostly larger) which result in a large number of smaller problems for other more specialized areas. this expression is used especially in connection with the planning of regions.the object consists mostly of humans (and technical means to support human activities). etc. cities. newly built (realized) system (e. * developing -.the object should be a new. unknown system (at that time) -. Some examples are: * planning -. and giving the instructions .g. a prototype) to achieve satisfactory operational parameters. "Designing" is often described as "part the planning process. task is Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing.." but the relationship is reciprocal.caution is needed in this connection. where many of the elements are selected as independent machines from suitable manufacturers' catalogs or are produced by manufacturers to special order ("one-of-a-kind" or small series). the same word is also used for the different process of testing and modifying an existing.

normally by producing drawings (similarly to an assembly drawing) in which only the main dimensions (and connecting dimensions between the elements) are indicated and which deliver the information for producing detail drawings (or their analogs on data carriers -.producing the individual drawings (or their computer analogs) for the components which should be manufactured. A concept can be a sketched interpretation of a proposed solution.e. computer media).representing and deciding about the possible arrangements of physical elements and their functionally conditioned sizes and forms.. but they can be considered under some circumstances as equivalent to designing: * conceptualizing -. * detailing -.g. requirements and constraints. Eduardo González Mendívil . but also an intellectual abstraction with relationships for a class of objects or phenomena. Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing. * laying out -. demands.Other activity words refer to partial areas of designing.conceiving one or several possible structures which could fulfill the given needs. * form-giving -.establishing the possible and necessary forms (and sizes) for the complete assembly and the components.

(If you wish to know WHERE you are going. Eduardo González Mendívil . Klagenfurt (Vice-Mayor of Klagenfurt) Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing. WOHER man kommt.KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS (SCIENCE) AND DESIGNING "Knowledge is power" Francis Bacon "Wenn man wissen will. WOHIN man geht. you should first establish FROM WHERE you came)" Vizebürgermeister Franz Jochum. sollte man zuerst feststellen.

An accepted model for scientific procedure is: (a) ask an appropriate question. This includes finding relationships. structuring. Eduardo González Mendívil . and systematizing. (c) collect data. (f) accept the new knowledge and revert Metodologías de Diseño to M00843 (a). Ing. (d) analyze the data. (e) formulate an answer. (b) propose a model and a hypothesis. categorizing and classifying knowledge.Science and Designing One important role for science is collecting. defining.

Technical (Branch. Eduardo González Mendívil . Domain) Knowledge Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing.

Otherwise the terms "technical object" or "technical work" would also be useful. The technical system is the object of study for the technological (engineering) sciences. Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing.For the area of designing in engineering. Eduardo González Mendívil . namely belonging to a system. We can therefore define "technical systems" as artificial (implemented or manufactured by humans) process objects and material (real) objects. the term technical system (TS) was introduced to emphasize the most important characteristic (property) of technical objects.

Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing. Eduardo González Mendívil .

Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing. Eduardo González Mendívil .

Eduardo González Mendívil .Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing.

It is especially useful for problem identification. e. To balance and increase participation and reduce errors in group decisions.NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUE (NGT) Purpose: To organize more productive meetings especially for problem identification. Its purpose is to balance and increase participation. although the silent generation and balloting of ideas can be used strategically in a wide variety of situations. problem-solving.. Eduardo González Mendívil . Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing. problem-solving and program planning. Most managers feel that much of their time which is taken up in meetings is not well spent. Nominal group Technique is a way of organizing a meeting to enhance its productivity.g. larger groups can work in subgroups on the same topic or on different topics dending on the situation. Numbers 6 . Summary: Meetings within organizations are not always productive. for quick agenda setting. Process: Small group meeting process. Time 2 .12. The results can later be shared. taking relatively little time. to use different processes for different phases of creative problem solving and to reduce the errors in aggregating individual judgments into group decisions. and program planning.3 hours for the full step-by-step process.

planning programs. Eduardo González Mendívil . and very few people taking the time to actually think about the issue at hand. describes how the process works. nominal group) when they are using the technique. This helps to overcome these common problems often encountered in small group meetings organized for the purpose of generating ideas. It is a process for a group of people who become a group in name in only (hence the name. Nominal Group Technique. and problem solving Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing. the rest listening.The name. The purpose of NGT is to eliminate social and psychological dynamics of group behavior which tend to inhibit individual creativity and participation in group decisions. Individuals can be more creative and everyone is given a structured opportunity to participate. For the time that the group uses the technique they avoid the normal problems of a few individuals doing all the talking.

Eduardo González Mendívil . This listing will help to clarify how and why NGT works.The following outline lists each step of NGT along with ways in which that step contributes to better meetings and decisions. -Silent Generation of Ideas in Writing Provides time to think Provides a creative setting Provides focus and uninterrupted thought Encourages each member to search for ideas Avoids competition and status differences Avoids conformity pressures Avoids evaluation and closure Avoids polarizing on ideas -Recorded Round-Robin Listing of Ideas on Chart Structures equal sharing and participation Encourages problem Encourages each member to build on other member's ideas Depersonalized ideas Tolerates conflicting ideas Reinforces concentration: hear and see ideas Provides written permanence Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing.

-Discussion and Clarification of Each Idea on Chart Each idea is as important as another Equal time to each idea Clarifies ideas -Preliminary Vote on Priorities Provides focus on important issues Structures equality in choices Allows a "trial run" Avoids a premature decision Avoids dominance by strong members -Discussion of Preliminary Vote Clarifies misunderstandings Encourages minority opinions Promotes "criticizing" ideas on wall . Eduardo González Mendívil .not people Provides preparation for decision Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing.

Eduardo González Mendívil .-Final Vote on Priorities Structures an independent judgment from each member Provides closure Promotes sense of accomplishment Motivates involvement in future phases of planning and problem-solving Provides a written record of the ideas generated Metodologías de Diseño M00843 Ing.

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