Wireless Communication

Lecture 1 Wireless Fundamentals
Ammar Karim

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Course Division
1.
   

Fundamentals
Evolution of wireless systems, various impairments in wireless channels. Spreading: FHSS, DSSS, Spreading sequences Understanding of FDMA-TDD/FDD, TDMA-FDD/TDD and CDMA-FDD/TDD Systems. Equalization

1.
   

Wireless Data Networks
Data networks, IEEE 802.11 WLANS their design and operation, Random Access Methods. Mobile IP. WLLs: MMDS/LMDS, Wi-MAX Bluetooth

1.

Cellular System
Cellular Fundamentals: Cellular systems, cellular operations, Handoffs & Cluster size Relationship between C/I and Cluster Size, Derivation of expressions to link the Re-Use ratio (D/R) to the Cluster Size (N) , Power control, cellular hierarchy, AMPS and AMPS architecture, Call establishment and control Frequency planning & re-use, Radio Propagation effects, Adjecent Interference, Cell splitting Tele traffic engineering GSM: architecture, entities, channels, signal processing, handoff, call control, roaming, security CDMA GPRS

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Overview of Cutting-edge Technologies: 3G and Beyond

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Recommended Books

David Parsons, The Mobile Radio Propagation Channel, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons; ISBN: 047198857 T. S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications, 2nd Edition, 2002, Pearson Education; ISBN: 817808-648-4 Simon Haykin, Communication Systems, 4th edition, May 2000, John Wiley & Sons; ISBN: 0471178691 Lecture Notes

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Evaluation Criterion
Assignments = 5%  Quizzes = 10%  Mids = 30% (15% each)  Final Exam = 55%

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Age of Information Communications

Blackberry 8705g

Nokia DVB-H phone

Mobile MM

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Evolving Communication Networks

Core and Access Networks
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Wireless communication
 

Early wireless communication: in the 400-900 TeraHertz Band!
 

150 BC smoke signals (Greece) 1794, optical telegraph Any form of communication that does not require a transmitter and receiver to be in physical contact Electromagnetic waves propagate through free space

What is wireless communication:

Radar, RF, Microwave, IR, Optical

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Types of Communication

Simplex
 

one-way communication radio, TV, etc two-way communication but not simultaneous push-to-talk radios, etc two-way communication cellular phones Frequency-division duplex (FDD) Time-division duplex (TDD): simulated full-duplex

Half-duplex:
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Full-duplex:
   

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Forms of Communication
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Analogue & Digital Which one is Better? Digital? Why?
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Digital Data has inherited frequency reuse property Lesser noise and interference as compared to analogue communication Lower transmit power is required 1/0’s can transmit anything : sound, picture, video etc.

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Types of Media/Environments used for Communication
 

Wireless & Wired Why Wireless is better than Wired ?
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User Mobility Reduced Cost (cheap infrastructure)
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Cabling very critical Developing nations utilize cellular telephony rather than laying twisted-pair wires to each home Can easily set-up temporary LANs Disaster situations Office moves

Flexibility
  

Only use resources when sending or receiving a signal
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Wired Vs. Wireless Communication

Wired
Each cable is a different channel Signal attenuation is low No interference

Wireless
One media (cable) shared by all High signal attenuation High interference
noise; co-channel interference; adjacent channel interference

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Why wireless different than wired?

Noisy, time-varying channel
 

BER varies by orders of magnitude Environmental conditions affect transmission Other users create interference Must develop ways to share the channel spectrum allocated by state rules

Shared medium
 

Bandwidth is limited

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Classification of Wireless Systems

Mobile Wireless Systems
 

GSM, TDMA, CDMA WLAN, Ad-hoc, Bluetooth, Home RF MMDS, LMDS, Satellite WiMax(IEEE 802.16a)

Fixed Wireless Systems
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Infrastructure Dependent Wireless Systems
 

Cellular, WLAN, WLL, WiMAX, Satellite Packet Radios Sensor dust, mesh
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Ad Hoc Wireless Systems
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Wireless Networks Infrastructure
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Satellite – Wide coverage and high mobility Cellular networks – High mobility Wireless LANs, Wireless Local Loop, etc – Low/None mobility

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Wireless Networks - Ad Hoc

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Evolution of Wireless Networks

1st generation: analog - voice
  

AMPS with manual roaming Cordless phones Packet radio Cellular & PCS with seamless roaming and integrated paging (IS-95, IS-136, GSM) Multizone digital cordless wireless LANs (IEEE 802.11), MANs (Metricom), and WANs (CDPD)
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2nd generation: digital - voice, data

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The 3nd Generation

Wide-area mobile voice/data
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2.5G: GPRS, EDGE 3G standards: UMTS,/IMT2000, Wideband CDMA, CDMA2000 LMDS (local multipoint distribution) 24-28GHz MMDS below 5 GHz WiMAX 802.11b (2.4GHz, 11 Mbps), IEEE 802.11a (5GHz, 54 Mbps & higher) HyperLAN Bluetooth, 802.15 Sensor networks, wirelessly networked robots
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Wireless Local Loop (IEEE 802.16)
  

Higher-speed WLAN
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Personal area networks

Wireless device networks

Evolution Path

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Attributes of Wireless Access

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New Paradigm in Wireless Design

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Wireless Channel

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Wireless Channel

Pr ~ 1/r2

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Multi-path Propagation
Received signal is made up of several paths which can be classified as:
1. 2. 3. 4.

Direct Path Reflected Path Scattered Path Diffracted Path

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4 1

3

Line Of Sight (LOS)

Non Line Of Sight (NLOS)

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Other Basic Propagation Mechanisms

Reflection:

It occurs when a propagating electromagnetic wave intrudes upon an object which has very large dimensions when compared to the wavelength of the propagating wave. Reflection occurs from the surface of the earth and from buildings and walls.

Diffraction:

It occurs when the radio path between the transmitter and receiver is obstructed by a surface that has sharp irregularities (edges). The secondary waves resulting from the obstructing surface are present throughout the space and even behind the obstacle, giving rise to a bending of waves around the obstacle, even if the line of sight path does not exist between the transmitter and the receiver.

Scattering:

It occurs when the medium through which the wave travels consists of objects with dimensions that are small compared to the wavelength, and where the number of obstacles per unit volume is large. Scattered waves are produced by rough surfaces, small objects, or by other irregularities in the channel.

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LOS & NLOS Scenarios

LOS (Line of Sight):

The equations shown below hold only for LOS scenarios, where direct paths of electromagnetic rays exist. Since, the received signal is directly received at the receiver the effects such as reflection, diffraction and scattering doesn’t affect the signal reception that much.

NLOS (Non Line of Sight):

When the direct LOS between transmitter and receiver is lost the effects such as reflection, diffraction and scattering become very important as in the absence of direct path they become the main contributors to the received signal at the receiver.

2 4 1

3

Line Of Sight (LOS)

Non Line Of Sight (NLOS)

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Shadowing – Slow Fading

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Slow Fading (Shadowing)

Shadowing: It is the term given to the slow variations in received signal power as the user moves through the environment, especially behind large buildings or near by hills. These variations occur approx. 1 -2 times per second, that’s why Slow Fading!
  

Reflected Scattered Path Diffracted Path

4

3

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Shadowing: Behavior Prediction and Mathematical Modeling

Behavior of the Constraint P & 1/d4

Equipment Developed Receiver and transmit Antennas Amplifier (at the transmitter to increase the power)

Factors affecting this behavior PT GT GR (Transmit power) (Transmit Antenna Gain) (Receiver Antenna Gain)

Effective Area of Antenna

Note: This effect can be mitigated by increasing the power using Amp.
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Slow Fading (Shadowing)
4

3

Non Line Of Sight (NLOS)

PR= PT GT GR (λ / 4 π) 2 x 1/d4 PT = Transmit power (Watts) PR = Received Power (watts) GT = Transmit Antenna Gain – relative to isotropic source (no unit) GR = Receiver Antenna Gain – relative to isotropic source (no unit) λ = Carrier’s Wavelength (λ = c / f) (meters) d = Distance between transmitter and receiver (meters)

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The Effects of Multipath Propagation

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Types of Fading

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Fast Fading in Mobile terrestrial Channel
This can be attributed to the phasor addition of various multi-path signals.100-200 times/sec, that’s why Fast Fading! 90o

180o

200

o

300o

0o

2

270o
4 1

3

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Fast Fading in Mobile terrestrial Channel
Constructive interference takes place when two or more rays arrive in-phase (or almost in-phase) with each other  Destructive interference takes place when two or more rays arrive anti-phase (or almost out-of-phase) with each other. This also means rays arriving 180o apart from each other  Semi-constructive/destructive

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Rayleigh Fading

Non-line-of-sight case (k=0)
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Rician Fading

Line-of-sight case (k>1)
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K-Factor

K-Factor is the ratio of power of a dominant (LOS) path to the power of the random components (/scatter)  For cases where LOS component is week (Rayleigh), the K-factor will be small (in some cases negative). However, if the line of sight dominates (Rician), the K-factor will normally take positive values between 5 and 10 dB.

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BER for Various Fading Conditions

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Types of Small-scale Fading

Fading Effects Due to Multipath Time Delay Spread-Flat fading
 

It is the most common type of fading described in the technical literature. The spectral characteristics of the transmitted signals are preserved at the receiver, however the strength of the received signal changes with time. Flat fading channels are known as amplitude varying channels or narrow-band channels.

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Types of Small-scale Fading

Fading Effects Due to Multipath Time Delay Spread- Frequency Selective Fading

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Frequency selective fading is due to time dispersion of the transmitted symbols within the channel. Thus the channel brings on inter-symbol-interference. Computer generated impulse responses are used for analyzing frequency selective small-scale fading. Frequency selective fading channels are known as wideband channels since the BW of the signal is wider than the BW of the channel impulse response.

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Types of Small-scale Fading
s(t)

h( t ,τ )
h( t , τ )

r(t)

s(t)

r(t)

0

Ts

t

t

0

t Ts+τ τ<<Ts

S(f)

H(f) f f

R(f)

fc

fc

fc

f

Flat fading channel characteristics
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Types of Small-scale Fading
s(t)

h( t ,τ )
h( t ,τ )

r(t)

s(t)

r(t)

0 Ts

t

0

τ

t

0 Ts

t Ts+τ τ<<Ts

S(f)

H(f) f f

R(f)

fc

fc

fc

f

Frequenecy selective fading channel characteristics.

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Doppler Effect/Shift

  

The Doppler effect, named after Christian Doppler, is the change in frequency and wavelength of a wave that is perceived by an observer moving relative to the source of the waves. For waves, such as sound waves, that propagate in a wave medium, the velocity of the observer and of the source are reckoned relative to the medium in which the waves are transmitted. The total Doppler effect may therefore result from either motion of the source or motion of the observer. Example: As the train approaches the station sound pitch is increased and as it leaves pitch starts decreasing. This Phenomenon of sound waves was discovered by the Dutch scientist Christoph Hendrik Diederik Buys Ballot in 1845. Later Hippolyte Fizeau discovered independently the same phenomenon on electromagnetic waves in 1848.

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Doppler Effect/Shift

For waves that travel at the speed of light, the mathematical model of this phenomenon is as follows: fdoppler = fv/c cos θ f’= f + fdoppler Where f’ = observed frequency (Hz) fdoppler = Doppler Frequency (Hz) V = the velocity of the transmitter relative to the receiver (meters/second) θ = Arrival angle (degrees) c = speed of light = 3 x 108 (meters/second)
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Doppler Effect

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Error Compensation Mechanisms in Wireless Channels

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Adaptive Equalization

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ARQ & FEC

Error detection codes

Detects the presence of an error Block of data with error is discarded Transmitter retransmits that block of data ACK and NACK Retransmissions --> excessive delay Retransmission implemented strategy not conveniently

Automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocols
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Error correction codes, or forward correction codes (FEC)

Designed to detect and correct errors
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Error Detection Process

Transmitter

For a given frame, an error-detecting code (check bits) is calculated from data bits Check bits are appended to the data bits Separates incoming frame into data bits and check bits Calculates check bits from received data bits Compares calculated check bits against received check bits Detected error occurs if mismatch is found
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Receiver

 

Error Detection Process

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Code Rate and Redundancy

In case of block codes, encoder transforms each k-bit data block into a larger block of nbits called code bits or channel symbol The (n-k) bits added to each data block are called redundant bits, parity bits or check bits They carry no new information Ratio of redundant bits to data bits: (n-k)/k is called redundancy of code Ratio of data bits to total bits, k/n is called code rate

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Block Error Correction Codes

Transmitter

Forward error correction (FEC) encoder maps each k-bit block into an n-bit block codeword Codeword is transmitted Incoming signal is demodulated Block passed through an FEC decoder

Receiver
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Forward Error Correction Process

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FEC Decoder Outcomes

No errors present

Codeword produced by decoder matches original codeword

 

Decoder detects and corrects bit errors Decoder detects but cannot correct bit errors; reports un-correctable error Decoder detects no bit errors, though errors are present

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