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Bo Embedded Elements ‘The temperature of the heat-generating conductor in an embedded element consists of two components: the temperature drop between the element surface and the environment, which depends on the element surface load and the heat-dissipating conditions outside the element, and the tempera- ture difference between the heat-generating conductor and the element sur- face, which depends on the geometry (dimensions and shape) of the con- ductor and the insulation, the thermal conductivity of the insulation, and the surface load of the element. ‘The temperature may vary along the heat-generating conductor. The highest temperature determines its life. When, for instance, the heat- ‘generating conductor is a coil of resistance wire, its temperature often 235 236 Chapter 6 varies along the circumference of each wire tum. The part of the wire which is situated closest to the element surface will reach a lower tempera- ture than the part that is farthest away. The biggest imaginable tempera- ture difference along one tum of wire is presented in Equation (6.38) of Section 6.10. In embedded heating elements the heat-generating conductor is en- closed in insulating materials and not easily available for temperature mea~ surements. In Section 3.10 it has been explained how such a measurement can be performed. The temperature of this conductor should not exceed a certain limit in order to secure a long element life and satisfactory electrical insulation. Equation (3.100) in Section 3.10 shows the connection between the temperature of the heat-generating conductor, the element surface load, and the element surface temperature, which is often easy to measure. It follows from this equation that for embedded elements the maximum per- missible element surface load and the maximum permissible element sur- face temperature cannot be applied simultaneously. When the element sur- face load is close to the permissible maximum the element surface temperature has to be low, and when the surface temperature is close to its permissible maximum the surface load has to be low. Tin the embedded elements the resistance heating conductor is locked and can in most elements not elongate permanently as it does for at least Fe-Cr-Al alloys above 700°C in suspended and supported elements. This implies that the rating remains more constant in embedded elements op- crating above 700°C. 6.1. METAL-SHEATHED TUBULAR ELEMENT 6.1.1. General Description ‘A metal-sheathed tubular element usually consists of a coil of a resistance heating alloy that is connected at each end to a terminal pin and is elec- trically insulated from a concentric metallic tube. The construction shown in Figure 6.1. The insulation between coil and tube normally con- sists of ceramic material, often fused MgO powder. The tube ends are frequently equipped with beads of insulating material such as ceramic or silicone rubber. The aim is to increase the creepage distance (see Section 3.8.2.) between the tube and the terminal pin. If a ceramic bead is applied there may in addition be a seal between the bead and the insulation in ‘order to avoid penetration of moisture into the element. Metal-sheathed tubular elements with both or all terminals at the same tube end may be classified as cartridge elements. A cartridge element in this book is, however, a metal-sheathed tubular element that has all Embedded Elements 237 ininal pln /End plug Sealing Insulation powder Coll femeten pcan ne Ps ‘\ Metal tube Ficune 61 Metal-sheathed tubular element with one coil having one ter- minal at each tube end. terminals at the same tube end, a straight tube, and a round cross section. Powder-filled cartridge elements are treated in Section 6.2. ‘The cross section of the tubular element is usually round but may instead be oval, rectangular, triangular, or square. If the cross section de- viates from the round shape it may become more difficult to achieve a high powder density and a high thermal conductivity of the embedding powder. When it is important to keep a small temperature drop between wire and tube, for instance when the tube surface load is very high and the heat dissipation conditions at the tube surface are very good, the round cross section may be best. ‘In some cases, however, the temperature difference between tube and fluid outside the tube becomes more important for the element design than the temperature drop between coil and tube, and in such cases it may sometimes be better to choose an oval or flat cross section than a round fone. At free convection, for instance, a horizontal tubular element with an oval or flat cross section and with its width pointing in vertical direction has, for the same tube surface load and the same circumference, a lower tube temperature than a round tube, The tubular element may be equipped with two or three parallel coils instead of only one. These coils may have one terminal in each tube end, or all the terminals may be at the same tube end. In the latter case the other tube end is closed by welding. The cross section of such an element ‘may be flat, oval, triangular, or round. There may, for instance, be three parallel coils joined together at the closed tube end, or there may be two parallel coils and one terminal running all along the two coils. The terminal is joined to the two coils at the closed tube end. In Figure 6.2 the two alternatives are shown for a tubular elements with a flat or oval cross