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Internship Report MBA

Internship Report MBA

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07/24/2013

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Acknowledgment

List of contents Executive summary

List of Table

Figure 1 SSD Organizational Structure...............................................................................7 Figure 2 Structure of Human Resource Department...........................................................9 Figure 3 Recruitment and Selection Process.....................................................................15 Figure 4 Trainings for employees......................................................................................18 Figure 5 Performance Measurement tools.........................................................................23 Figure 5 Performance Measurement tools

Objective of studying the organization

Undergoing an internship program is an essential element of MBA AIOU program. This practical study does not only provides an overview of the current HR related issues but also helps internee to understand the dilemmas and solve them in supervision of experienced HR managers of the organization they are undergoing internship in. The main objectives of studying Society for Sustainable Development are: 1. To review the human resources department of SSD 2. Analyzing the functionalities and command and control system of human resources department 3. To find out the weakness and strengths of the human resources department 4. To review the practices of human resources department and comparing them with the standard human resources theories. 5. To review the human resources development program of the organization 6. To analyze the compensation management program of the organization keeping in view the compensation management as a critical part of human resources management.

Introduction to the organization

SSD is a Non-profit and Non-Governmental Organization, founded in 1999 and is registered with the NWFP Ministry of Commerce & Industry under Society’s Registration Act, 1860. SSD has been found to address issues of sustainable development through innovation, appropriate technology promotion and capacity building. SSD’s philosophy is not to duplicate the mandate of existing NGOs, rather carve a niche of its own to distinctly contribute to the sustainable development in general and NRM and water and environment sector in particular. Thus, SSD calls itself a knowledge based NGO, predominantly interested in promotion of Best Management Practices and appropriate technology in the sector. SSD seeks to achieve its development vision through promoting and practicing an integrated approach to sustainable development encompassing principles of: • • • • • Participatory and human rights based approach to development, Strengthening grass roots level organization to ensure local level services delivery following principles of subsidiary Behavioral change Communication to identify and target vulnerable practices for a sustained development Introduction and promotion of appropriate technologies to crystallize change in largely dormant societies Productively engage children as change agents through active learning methods/life skills based education/child to child communication for realization of behavioral changes for sustained development • • • Develop models of participatory civil and environmental planning, design, management and implementation; Capacity-building of municipalities, local government institutions and NGOs in specialized areas relating to environmental planning and design; Design and implementation of environmental impact assessments and participatory benefit monitoring systems.

Key Strengths Project cycle management of projects in areas of: • • • • • • • Water Supply, Sanitation & Hygiene; Livelihood; Local Governance; Community Infrastructure; Appropriate technology development and promotion; Participatory Development; and Emergency assessment, response and reconstruction.

SSD through its network partners is extensively represented in FATA specially Khyber and Mohmand Agencies through Tribal Reforms and Development Forum (TRDF) and in North and South Waziristan through local CBOs.

3) OVERVIEW OF THE ORGANIZATION

Offices & Infrastructure Head office of SSD is located in Peshawar while its 3 regional offices have been established in Mansehra/Abbottabad, Battagram & Muzaffarabad to fully attend to emergency program needs in the earthquake affected areas.

Address(s): Head Office: House # 223, K1, Phase III, Hayat Abad, Peshawar Tel: 091-5816876 Regional Office Mansehra Dab #2, Pakhwal Road, KKH, Mansehra Tel: 0997-236013, 249031 Regional Office Battagram Adjacent District Hospital Battagram, KKH, Battagram Tel: 0997-311723, 333434 Regional Office Muzaffarabad D-139, Upper Chattar, Muzaffarabad Tel: 058810-51070

3.1 Organizational Structure Mr. Abdul Wakeel is the Executive director of Society for Sustainable Development.
Figure 1 SSD Organizational Structure

4) ORGANIZATIONAL

STRUCTURE

OF

THE

HUMAN

RESOURCE

MANAGEMENT (HRM) DEPARTMENT Society for Sustainable Development SSD is basically a functional and project oriented organization. The management is decentralized. Due to its project oriented functionalities the number of staff and the work of human resources vary time to time. Human Resources Directorate is based at SSD head Office Peshawar while Human Resources Offices works in three SSD area offices- Peshawar, Muzaffarabad and Mansehra. The division of work between the Directorate and HR Area Office is as follows: HR Directorate: (Peshawar) Developing Standard Job Descriptions HR forecasting at a large Compensation Management Developing HR policies HR Area Offices: (Peshawar, Muzaffarabad, Mansehra) Recruitment for concerned area Offices Salary Processing and Leave Records

Implementing HR rules and compensation management as per HR directorate directions Labor Management Relations Currently Mr. Bilal Ahmad is acting as Area Manager SSD Muzaffarabad. He is responsible for the project undergoing in the area as well as the Human Resource Department. The HR department in Muzaffarabad works closely with Human Resources Department of the Organzarion and the Area Manager in based in Muzaffarabad. The Organization Structure of SSD Muzaffarabad is as follows:

Figure 2 Structure of Human Resource Department

5) HUMAN

RESOURCE

MANAGEMENT

PROCESS

IN

ORGANIZATION:

Red L

THE i rect Supervisor
in e s (D

)

Society for Sustainable Development (SSD) is a project oriented organization. Mr. Riaz Ahmad is the Director Human Resources. He has more then 20 years of experience in the field. In the beginning SSD was using traditional techniques for selection. But with the passage of time it is moving a bit forward. Now while selecting any candidate it uses short questionnaires, on computer problem solving techniques and interviews. The organization structure of SSD is more projectized. The Human Resource Process moves forward with close consultation of the concerned project manager and manager Add a chart of the followinng
B lu e L in e s (In d ire c t S

or ) uper vis

5.1 Human Resource Planning (HRP) and Forecasting The concerned project office is to provide general information on their future human resources requirement as per their plans. Human resources office is responsible for Human resource planning with strong consultation of the project office.

5.1.1

HRP process

Human Resource Planning Process (HRP) is the process of systematically reviewing human resource requirements to ensure that the required number of employees, with the required skills, is available when they are needed. After an organization’s strategic plans have been formulated, human resource planning can be undertaken. Human resource planning has two components: requirements and availability. Forecasting human resource requirements involves

determining the number and type of employees needed by skill level and location. In order to forecast availability, the human resource manager looks to both internal sources (presently employed employees) and external sources (the labor market). When employee requirements and availability have been analyzed, the firm can determine whether it will have a surplus or shortage of employees. Ways must be found to reduce the number of employees if a surplus is projected. Some of these methods include restricted hiring, reduced hours, early retirements, and layoffs. If a shortage is forecasted, the firm must obtain the proper quantity and quality of workers from outside the organization. In this case, external recruitment and selection is required. SSD is a project oriented organization. It does its HRP during formation of the proposal of the contract with any donor. SSD uses the following steps for HRP Planning.

Steps in HRP process Determine the impact of organizational objectives on specific organizational unit Define the skills required to meet objectives (demand for Human Resource) Determine additional human resource requirements in light of current HR (net HR requirements) Develop action plan to meet the anticipated HR needs

5.1.2

Forecasting HR requirements

A requirements forecast is an estimate of the numbers and kinds of employees the organization will need at future dates in order to realize its goals. Several techniques of forecasting human resource requirements and availability are currently being used by organizations. SSD mainly forecast its HR requirements at the time of making proposals. The Human resource manager and the manager project or the director is mainly responsible for forecasting HR requirements. No hard and fast rules are being observed in forecasting HR requirements; the requirements are being set as per the work schedule provided by the donor.

5.1.3

Methods to forecast HR needs

As I said earlier that no hard and fast rules are being observed in forecasting HR needs. Only managerial judgment is seen to be sufficient for forecasting Human resources needs for upcoming projects. For that purpose top management

conducts interviews with the executives to find out the need of HR for the coming year. The following methods can be used for forecasting HR needs: Statistical approaches a) Trend analysis b) Ratio analysis c) Regression analysis Judgmental methods a) Managerial judgment

5.2 EMPLOYEE RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION Once the forecast is developed and approved from the top management, the HR department starts Recruitment & Selection process to fill up the vacant positions. It is always thought to be better to get any existing employee of the organization promoted because it saves money on trainings and time on hiring new personnel. If the person not found from the organization’s internal sources then the positions are advertised and selection committees are to be made. The complete recruitment & selection process at SSD is as follows;

Figure 3 Recruitment and Selection Process

5.2.1

Sources of candidates:

There are various sources available for the recruitment of potential candidates, which are broadly divided in two categories. Internal Sources External Sources

5.2.1.1

Internal sources

The first choice of SSD is to utilize its internal sources. When some new post is created or some post is vacant due to termination, resigning and promotion of employee, The HR department scan internal organizational environment to locate the potential candidates. Whenever any position is available, HR Department advertises the position internally through management memo. Interested candidates submit their CVs along with the written permission from their respective managers for the new post. These information’s are then forwarded to top management and after there approval a formal notification is sent to interested candidates for interview. After interview, job is offered to successful candidates.

5.2.1.2

External sources

If not any suitable employee is available within the organization, HR department advertises the position for external candidates. For external recruitment, HR department uses internal and external resources and referrals. Existing candidates can recommend any outside personnel suitable for the job. If this is not possible then HR department advertises the position in

newspaper. The advertisement is published in at least one national and one local newspaper. 5.2.1.3 Employment selection process

The selection process typically begins with a test and then candidates complete the application for employment. They progress through a series of selection tests, the employment interview, and reference and background checks. Several external and internal factors impact the selection process, and the manager must take them into account in making selection decisions. Typically selection process consists of the following steps 1. Initial Screening 3. Pre-employment Testing General Intelligence Tests Personality and Interest Tests Honesty Tests 4. Interview Structured Interview Unstructured Interview Mixed Interview 5. Background Checks 6. Conditional job offer 8. Final Selection Decision

5.3 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Upgrading employees' performance and improving their skills through training is a necessity in today's competitive environment. It is becoming more and more important for the organizations to train their employees in order to get efficiency and effectiveness. Mainly SSD provides three type of trainings to its staff;

Figure 4 Trainings for employees

The HR department of SSD is responsible for Training and Development of its employees. There are series of trainings provided to the employees. Various internal and external sources are used for training the employees. Once a new employee inters into SSD culture, he receives orientation for his job. Orientation is basically a one to two hour activity in which the new employees are informed about the organizational structure, term & conditions of employment, the duties of incumbent, the ethical & behavioral requirement for the new employee and the so. Then he works on probation for at least 6 month that provides On-job training opportunity to the employee. The HR department also arranges various trainings and seminars, workshops and group sessions to build their employee’s skill up. 5.3.1 Training need assessment

HR department assess the need of training among their employees. training need is assessed through following three options;

Mainly

Organizational Analysis: It is an examination of the kinds of problems that an organization is experiencing and where they are located within organization. Task/Operational Analysis: An operational analysis identifies the kinds of the skills and behaviors required of the incumbents of a given job and the standards of performance that must be met. Personal Analysis: The objective of the personnel analysis is to examine how well individual employees are performing their jobs. Training should be given to those who need it. Assigning all employees to a training program, regardless of their skill levels, is a waste of organizational resources and create a unpleasant situation for employees who do not need training. Mostly when there is a performance gap i.e. the performance is not up to the specified standards training is required to improve the performance there are certain factors that are kept in mind before conducting training: • Number of employees experiencing skill deficiency: Number of employees supposed to be trained. • Importance of skill: How important is skill to be possessed by workforce. • Extent to which skill can be improved with Training: Would there be real difference in skill level in case the training program is conducted. Determining Training Needs: HR department is responsible for determining the needs of training. For that reason HR department works closely with the management and Project Managers. Normally through following sources training needs are assessed. ➢ Self-assessments ➢ Company records ➢ Customer complaints

➢ Interviews with managers ➢ Customer satisfaction surveys ➢ Observation

5.1.1

Employee development

For better results and effective and efficient performance of the employees, they should know exactly what is expected of them and what is required by the firm for advancement in the job. That is why SSD takes employee development very seriously. Various training sessions are conducted for the employees during various course of time. Employee Development is performed through orientations, on job Trainings, Professional Readings. For this purpose SSD holds a small library as well which consists of around about 500 books on various social, development and managerial issues.

5.2 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Management has always been core issue to be discussed within any organization. A performance management system consists of the processes used to identify, encourage, measure, evaluate, improve, and reward employee performance at work. Society for Sustainable Development encourages their employees to achieve high level of excellence i.e. in ➢ Quality of output ➢ Timeliness of output ➢ Presence at work ➢ Cooperativeness ➢ Efficiency ➢ Effectiveness These excellences are appreciated by the management at their monthly meetings with their employees and in the form of certificates, cash and shield awards. However all these activities are qualitative in nature. The activities of employees

are recorded on the basis of observation and performance appraisals made by the management every year and time to time. 5.1.1 Setting performance standards and expectations

Usually following determinants are considered for performance Management; 1) Willingness to perform: If employee is performing tasks and responsibilities in the organization with willingness level of the performance will be high and will be up to the standards. 2) Capacity to Perform: If the basic qualifications abilities and skills required performing specific tasks are possessed by the employees the level of performance will be in accordance with the set standards and vice versa. 3) Opportunity to Perform: Favorable circumstances and opportunities to perform the challenging tasks which are more contributory towards achievement of the organization’s mission and objective can be reasons to have more effective performance from employees.
Figure 5 Performance Measurement tools

5.1.1

How performance reports are written

Supervisors are responsible to submit performance appraisal report at the end of each year normally in December. All these reports must be submitted to HR department after having them signed by the employee and his direct supervisor.

However these performance reports are not very much helpful in increase of salary and promotions. That is why these reports are not considered seriously which makes this whole process useless. A typical performance report of Society for Sustainable Development contains information as ➢ Name of employee ➢ Designation of Employee ➢ Name of performance evaluator ➢ Department ➢ Date & Time ➢ Performance Standard (Arranged according to their priority) ○ Rating ○ Critical Incidents ○ Explanatory Notes ➢ Remarks ➢ Signature of Supervisor A sample of Performance appraisal is attached with the report as Annex II

5.1 EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS dual non equal no standrds

SSD have a different pay structure for different level of employees. HR department is responsible for pay and pay related issues. It was also found that salary determination in SSD is a matter of bargaining. i.e. SSD pays 10,000 to a social organizer while pay 15000 to another having qualifications. There are no specific rules and regulations for salary determination in Society for Sustainable Development thus this is a big disadvantage of compensation system. As a result a turn over rate is increasing day to day. However management positions are paid better then the supervisors or field workers and the policies for them are also better. Due to this dual and non standardized compensation system SSD has always been facing lack of experienced and skilled workers. To get the better results SSD needs to improve their pay structure and compensation plan and should change its HR strategy. The better result can only be achieved when the compensation plan is able to select, engage, develop, retain and attract new employees. That would not only help the organization to achieve better results but also to make a higher position in the local NGO competition. same experience and

HR Desired Results Strategy

Figure 6 HR Compensation Strategy

5.1.1

Types of compensation and benefits

There are only one type of pay structure is available for the lower level employees. i.e. basic pay. No other direct & indirect pay & benefits are provided to the employees. For the lower level employees Society for Sustainable Development is giving time base pay i.e. every employee have to work for 40 hours a week after which he has subject to receive his pay at the end of month. Not a single type of allowance is paid to lower level employeesNo portion of the pay is directly or indirectly associated with the performance. As a result motivations of the employees are low. The composition of salary of lower level employees consist of : ➢ ➢ Basic Salary Overtime

Managers are entitled to receive the following compensation: ➢ Basic Salary ➢ Bonus Pay ➢ Per diem ➢ Travel Allowance

Figure 7 SSD Compensation System

5.1 ORGANIZATIONAL CAREER MANAGEMENT

Career planning is an ongoing process through which an individual sets career goals and identifies the means to achieve them. The process by which individuals plan their life’s work is referred to as career planning. Through career planning, a person evaluates his or her own abilities and interests, considers alternative career opportunities, establishes career goals, and plans practical developmental activities. In Society for Sustainable Development employees are suggested according to their career goals and their skills and qualifications. Usually, career planning programs are expected to achieve one or more of the following objectives: ➢ More effective development of available talent. ➢ Self-appraisal opportunities for employees considering new or nontraditional career paths. ➢ More efficient development of human resources within and among divisions and/or geographic locations. ➢ Satisfaction of employees’ personal development needs. ➢ Improvement of performance through on-the-job training experiences provided by horizontal and vertical career moves.

➢ Increased employee loyalty and motivation, leading to decreased turnover. ➢ A method of determining training and development needs.

Employee Career Planning Society for Sustainable Development provides good career planning to its employees. The career counseling is provided through different means A. Discussions with Knowledgeable Individuals SSD has good very experienced and skilled management which provides excellent career development techniques and knowledge to their employees. This is not a formal type of discussion. Mr. Bilal Ahmad who is the in charge of HR has also got very good experience in career development and career counseling. He tries to share his experiences with the employees for their development. B. Company Material SSD has got very good career development material to study. For that reason SSD has a library which consists of more then 500 books on different topic especially related to social development. Every one can easily avail these books from management office. The library is free of cost but the number of books should be increased so that employees can have a good knowledge for their development available on one table. C. Performance Appraisal System As performance appraisal does not have direct link with promotions and salaries practically however it provides excellent opportunity to employees to

see where they are in terms of their performance. After having knowledge of performance appraisal they can set their targets and can work to achieve the best performance.

D. Workshops As SSD is pioneer of some very useful social development techniques, SSD believes in career development through workshops. Workshops are arranged on different topics by SSD management for their employees. Sometimes other organizations are also invited to participate in workshops which provide good opportunity for experience sharing and organizational motivation. 5.1.1 Employee job changes

Job changes in Society for Sustainable Development is a matter of routine. Turnover rate is very high in SSD even though SSD give its employees priority for selecting him for any new position within the organization. The reason for that is lack of employee’s confidence over management, dual salary system, no relation of performance with salary and promotions. However when any job is lying vacant or some new post is created because of expansion or addition of new project, SSD first priority is to select employees from the current pool. For this purpose SSD announces the vacancy internally and invite the current employees to submit their CVs along with required documents and then select the right candidate for the post. If right candidate are not available to fill out the vacancy then SSD search for candidates who have the required competency and are willingly to fill the post but not have proper knowledge and/or skill required for the post, then SSD arrange an up gradation program which best suit the employee requirement for the new post. As a result the employee’s response for the new position is always higher than expected.

5.2 JOB CHANGES WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION Job changes in SSD are managed by HR Department. When there is new post created in the company or some post became vacant because of layoff, dismissal, promotion or demotion etc, SSD first announce the post through their display board. Interested employees are informed to submit their CV’s along with required documents and with NOC from the head of their department. After receiving such documents, the HR Manager verify the information collected and match the current post requirement with that of competencies and capabilities of the employees. HR Department conducts a short interview with that of interested employees. HR department shortlists the employees after consultation of employees’ direct supervisor. Short listed candidates are called for interview. In interview the reasons of leaving the previous job and joining a new position remains core issues to be discussed. Normally following type of questions could be asked: ➢ Why he is applying for this specific job? ➢ What is the deficiency the employees feel in their current job? ➢ How he will manage the new job? ➢ What does employee expect from the new job? etc. In the light of interview conducted and the recommendation and NOC of the current head of employee department, HR department makes an initial recommendation to higher management (Chief Executive, General Manager). After approval from the top

management the employee, previous and new manager of the employee are informed and employee is given new position title. Employee signs a new contract agreement but mostly the terms and conditions remains the same as before. 5.1.1 Promotion

In case of promotion, the head of department inform the HR Manager through intercommunication form about the performance of an employee. After receiving the such information, for the HR department within

recommends

employee

possible

promotion

department to top management. The top management decides in the light of recommendation from the head of department & HR department to promote or not. The decisions of the top management were mostly verbally, and the HR department in the view of decision makes necessary documentation. Promotion policy of SSD is not very much clear as employees do not know when they will be promoted. It is a matter of top management decision. As a result of this, some employee promoted very early like after 6 to 7 month of employment while some are still waiting for promotion after 5 years of employment.

5.1.2

Transfer

Transfer policy of SSD is clearly mentioned in job description & in appointment letter. SSD transfer policy stated that when ever services of an employee are required in some other department and/or any section within the firm, the employee must assume the responsibility without any hesitation and any reasons. The employees’ job description clearly says that whenever suitable, in the favor of SSD, employee will be appointed in any section of the organization or any geographical location. However employees are consulted before their transfer to any other project or geographical area. As SSD is a project oriented organization and works on many projects at the same time which can totally be different in nature. SSD needs their skilled employees sometimes more then one project. So in that cases employee is assigned different activities from different projects. Employee some times also takes part in transfer process and willingly apply for transfer because the transfer gives them fresh life in the form of new knowledge and skill. This type of transfer is voluntarily one. While in involuntarily one top management decided which one is transfer and which one not. The employee has the right to ask the management to review their decision about transfer and the last decision remains with the employee but only on the basis of solid reasons.

5.1.3

Demotion

Demotions are mostly associated with failure of the employee but limited promotional opportunities in the future and the fast pace of technological change may make them more legitimate career options.

However there has not been a single issue of demotion occurred in SSD to date.

HR policy documents shows that when any employees does not show satisfactory performance within 1 year period and does not improve his performance after the recommended training from the concerned department manager, makes continuously same mistakes, does not oblige the order of department manager, supervisor and any other senior and after informally verbal, formal written and a formal show cause notice, does not satisfy the concern officials in show cause case hearings, theft, damage to company property, engage in any other activity other that assigned one and the same and leaking company critical or non critical information to outsiders include relatives, friend and competitors of the firm are subject to demotion, penalty equivalent to damage, withholding salary, and termination from the employment with or without notice. 5.1.4 Separations

One of the worst decisions an employer or employee made is the decision of separation from the firm. The employee turnover rate is very high in SSD. Almost 10 to 15 employees finds job elsewhere and decide to join other organization. Normally the employee leaves the job because of various reasons such as ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ Finding better job Less attractive current job No career growth in current job and/or current organization Unexpected new complex & lengthy assignment in the job

➢ ➢ ➢

Bad employment condition in current job Unacceptable supervisors, manager’s behaviors. Inequality in pay

While the employer removes an employee also have one of several reasons such as ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ Continuous low performance of an employee Cutting unnecessary overheads. Increase profit by reducing cost through cutting employees strength. Hire low wage workers by removing high paid workers. Layoff union workers because of strikes, lockout etc Due to inflationary or recession conditions Layoff old workers because of less or no knowledge of advance technology. ➢ ➢ ➢ Employee who leak out critical firm information to outsiders. Employees who damage company property. Continuous absence from the job

Unfortunately in SSD this decision were made frequently in the last 2-3 years. Almost more than 50% of employees were got separation due to several reasons such as ➢ Unacceptable behavior with that of supervisor and/or manager ➢ Lake of good compensation management

➢ Lake of good performance management ➢ Less career growth opportunities 5.1.1.1 Layoff

Layoffs occur when employees are put on unpaid leaves of absence for time period longer than approved one. Each employee is entitled to have 20 days annual leave along with 20 days annual vocational leave after completion of 5 years of service and onwards. Employee is also entitled to have 15 days sick leaves per annum but the employee has to provide medical certificate in case of two consecutive sick leaves. 3 months maternity leaves are provided to female workers while 5 days leaves are awarded to the male employees who got new baby to take care of his spouse and the baby. SSD have a strict policy on leaves. If an employee makes extra leaves without prior approval, a written show cause is issued to him within 7 days. If the employee does not provide reasonable reason to HR department, then he has a danger of layoff. Only 7 times this option is used. If employee does not respond to the show cause within 3 days of receiving, another show cause is issued and if he still not respond within 3 days of receiving, a layoff letter is send to him and thus in this way the employee is terminated. Employees can also apply for unpaid leave in case of emergency such as medical leave, maternity leave, educational leave etc. but prior permission from HR department is necessary. 5.1.1.2 Termination

According to SSD HR policies, an employee can be terminated due to following reasons

➢ Unacceptable behavior ➢ Damage to Firms property ➢ Does not obey Management orders ➢ Smoking and engage in activities prohibited by the management ➢ Leak information to outsiders In case of any of the above reason a show cause notice is issued to the employee, employee submit his answer to HR department which presented in the committee consisting of HR manager, Direct Manager of the employee and the Area Manager. The committee is responsible for making decision whether the employee should be terminated or not. 5.1.1.1 Resignation

Resignation in SSD is another big reason for brain drainage of valuable talent. SSD spend valuable and its precious time to reward a good experience but because of the weakness of the system, when the employee get some knowledge he resigns from his post and join new firm. The major causes behind this situation were found as under. ➢ Less opportunity for career growth due to less room for innovation and creativity because of standardized rules and procedures ➢ Lower salary ➢ Unsatisfactory work conditions. ➢ Unacceptable term and conditions. ➢ Tight supervisory control

➢ Lack of trust ➢ No benefits for most of employees. SSD does not so far make some sound homework to reduce this trend. As a result this situation persists. Because of bureaucratic style of management, opportunities for others becomes lower & lower down the hierarchy. The post leave after resignation was not filled immediately. Usually 3 to 4 months are required to fill the posts. It was also observed that resignation letter was given by employees to the management immediately without waiting period of 1 month. Because there is no benefit for employees thus resignation was given immediately. Another trend was observed that mostly resignation application was given 2nd date of new month when employee get there previous month complete salary thus the management have nothing to hold and forces the employee not to resign. Resignation is one of the worst ways which not only effect some department badly but some times the firm faces dangerous situation. 5.1.1.1 Retirement

There is no retirement plan for employees in SSD. This is also one of the reasons of turnover, separation and resignations as employee do not see any other benefit for carrying on their service with SSD after getting any suitable job in any other organization.

4) LABOR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS 5) SWOT ANALYSIS 6) WEAKNESSES OF THE ORGANIZATION

PART – 3: RECOMMENDATIONS PART – 4: CONCLUSIONS

(the recommendations should be specific. For example, if you want to recommend improvements, mention what, why, where, how, and when) 7) References & Sources used. 8) Annexes / Appendices.

www.ssd.org.pk www.citehr.com www.cbizlinks. Com http://www.pakstudents.com.pk/ www.shrm.org Online book resources http://www.pearsoned.co.uk/HigherEducation/Booksby/Torringtonetal/

1) Objectives of studying the organization 2) Introduction to the organization 3) Overview of the organization 3.1 Organizational structure 1) Organizational structure of the Human Resource Management (HRM) department 2) Human Resource Management Process in the organization: 5.1 Human Resource Planning (HRP) and Forecasting 5.1.1 HRP process 5.1.2 Forecasting HR requirements 5.1.2 Methods to forecast HR needs 5.2 Employee recruitment and selection (Annex Advertisement) 5.2.1 Sources of candidates: (more stress on external) 5.2.1 Internal sources 5.2.2 External sources 5.2.3 Employment selection process (more probation, less satisfaction) 5.3 Training and development 5.3.1 Training need assessment (No T N A) 5.3.2 Employee development 5.4 Performance Management (Annex Appraisal) (Not linked with promotion and salary) 5.4.1 Setting performance standards and expectations 5.4.2 How performance reports are written 5.5 Employee compensation and benefits (dual pay system, not related with performance) 5.5.1 Types of compensation and benefits 5.6 Organizational career management 5.6.1 Employee job changes (turn over rate is high) 5.7 Job changes within the organization 5.7.1 Promotion (no specific promotion policy) 5.7.2 Transfer 5.7.3 Demotion 5.7.4 Separations 5.7.4.1 Layoff 5.7.4.2 Termination 5.7.4.3 Resignation 5.7.4.4 Retirement (10 pages down) 1) Labor Management Relations 2) SWOT 3) Weakness 4) Conclusions. 5) Recommendations (the recommendations should be specific. For example, if you want to recommend improvements, mention what, why, where, how, and when) 6) References & Sources used. 7) Annexes / Appendices.

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