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Angat Watershed Reservation Part 1

Angat Watershed Reservation Part 1

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Angat watershed reservation
Angat watershed reservation

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Published by: Aldwin Arcilla Camance on Mar 28, 2014
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National Power Corporation





Protection & Rehabilitation Division

Resources Development Division




i. Introduction
All areas whose drained waters from rain converge to a river or stream constitute the

watershed for that given river. The watershed may be viewed as a land-based ecosystem

with adefined area of land, with its own characteristic climate, water resources, and sustaining
a given population of plants, animals, and people. The area may be considered as a whole

unit with interacting factors whereby modifications (either natural or man-made) could be introduced. From the human point of view, the main fjnction of awatershed is the production

of acontinuous water supply that would maintain the life forms within it and in the area fed by
its stream.


Notwithstanding the number of dams, both large and small, and reservoirs constructed in many
parts of the country, the Philippines still suffers from worsening droughts, water shortages and
floods. Hydrologist?, foresters, ecologists, and even government planners attribute these
conditions to forest destruction, or what we call as deforestation and forest denudation.

In response to the present day watershed problems in the country, sound watershed management techniques are very necessary. Watershed management planning is therefore,


imperative in the development stage of a particular project. Watershed management is the
process of guiding and organizing land and other resource uses on a watershed to provide


« desired goods and services without adversely affecting soil, water, and other natural
resources. Watershed management involves multiple natural resources and requires

understanding of the relationships among land use, soil, and water, and the linkages between

i [ i n

uplands and downstream areas. Hence, the development of a watershed management plan needs to integrate the biophysical, social, and economic factors to ensure that the project will

1. Technically sound, i.e., the practices that are being recommended will achieve the physical
and biological outcomes that are desired;

2. Accepted socially, i.e., watershed inhabitants and agencies involved see the project as

3. Economically feasible, both from the standpoint of" society as i vthole, and from the


standpoint of individuals and agencies involved, and;

4. Environmentally sound, i.e., there are no unwanted impacts on the environment, such as reduction in biological diversity, destruction of downstream aquatic systems and other changes that may come about indirectly as a result of project implementation. This watershed management plan covers the Angat Watershed Reservation which was established by virtue of Proclamation No. 71 issued by then Governor General Leonard Wood



on March 10, 1927. The Watershed was tapped as the major source of potable water for
Metro Manila through the Ipo Dam constructed at the Angat River in San Lorenzo, Bulacan. Proclamation No. 505 signed by then President Diosdado Macapagal on December 4, 1965, amended the above Proclamation which reserved for watershed purposes a certain parcel of



Approximately rinety percent (55.^^Aed^m^^z^^^^^a^J^^ land of the public domain situated in the municipalities of Montalban. cultivation and villages) account for ten percent (10%). by transferring the administration thereof to the National Power Corporation.800 hectares (568 square kilometers). Island of Luzon signed by Carlos P. San Juan del Monte. mossy forest about five percent (5%) and sub-marginal forest six percent (6%). Proclamation No. Dipterocarp old growth forest covers about fifty-eight percent (58%) of the catchment. The Angat Watershed Reservation has a total area of 62. Province of Bulacan. the water from which drains into Ipo Dam. i WMD-NPC i i .095 hectares which drains into I I I the Angat Dam. NueVa Ecija and Quezon. dipterocarp residual forest eighteen percent (18%). Peharanda and Infanta. The effective drainage area of the Reservation is 56. and Angat Watershed Metropolitan Water District with an area of 55. Provinces of Rizal.910 ha) of the total area is vegetated. Garcia on June 23. ! covering an area of 6. San Rafael.309 hectares in two sub-catchment areas: the Angat Watershed Pilot Reserve on Forest Range and Watershed Management. The landscape is mountainous. Norzagaray. water surface. Angat.709. plantation and brushland amount to three percent (3%) and other categories from (open areas. covering the north-south trending volcanic ranges in the eastern portion of Bulacan Province. In addition.600 hectares. and partly in the municipality of San Jose. Bulacan. 599 reserves for the Angat River Project of the National Power Corporation a certain parcel of the public domain situated partly in the Municipality of Norzagaray.1959.

000.300 hectares is at normal maximum pool. The dam has a viable storage volume of 850. poles and piles were selectively cut and not concentrated in a single area. However. only a few settled in the area.^a/mA/i€^J(a»a^m^ti'&fo*^»*.M<P The area is relatively undisturbed by human exploitation except on the southern and southwestern boundaries of the watershed.isLpa/. though this number varies during certain seasons according to the availability of rattan and also according to their cycle of nomadism. form part of the understory of dominant dipterocarps. The predominant ethnic group in the area is the Dumagat. The Angat Dam. Macua. Although a fiftyhectare resettlement site was reserved for the Dumagats. A1997 survey results showed that there are 215 families in the area. Moreover. Extraction of poles and piles has occurred within l 50 to 100 meters of the banks of the waterbody and the Ipo. is located approximately fifty kilometers (50 kms. 0 R Natural clearings and the villages of the native Aeta and Dumagat peonle pre confined to small I n areas and narrow valleys along the main rivers (Pinag-anakan.) northeast of Cubao. and Matulid). WMD-NPC ! I i . Wawa. Most I of these were inter-married with non-Dumagat. The reservoir created by the dam is 35 kilometers long when the water surface of 2.000 cubic meters. Quezon City. which was completed in 1967. this exploitation was minimal since the trees cut. and three I ! I kilometers wide at its widest point. Macua and Matulid Rivers.

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