Mac OS X Lion
Pockct Guidc
Chris Scibold
Beijing • Cambridge • Farnham • Köln • Sebastopol • Tokyo
Mac OS X Lion Pocket Guide
Ly Chiis SeiLolu
Copyiight © 2011 Chiis SeiLolu. All iights ieseiveu.
Piinteu in Canaua.
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Editor: Dawn Mann
Production Editor: Teiesa Elsey
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Indexer: Newgen Noith Ameiica, Inc.
Cover Designer: Kaien Montgomeiy
Interior Designer: Daviu Futato
Illustrator: RoLeit Romano
Printing History:
August 2011: Fiist Euition.
Nutshell HanuLook, the Nutshell HanuLook logo, anu the O`Reilly logo aie
iegisteieu tiauemaiks ol O`Reilly Meuia, Inc. Mac OS X Lion Poc|ct Guidc,
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ISBN: 97S-1-++9-3105S-5
Preface v
Chapter 1: What’s New in Lion? 1
Getting Your Hands on Lion 2
A Brand-New Look 3
Full-Screen Applications 5
Mission Control 6
Launchpad 8
All My Files 10
Gestures 11
AirDrop 11
Auto Save and Versions 12
Resume 14
Mail 14
What Lion Can’t Do 16
Chapter 2: Installing Lion and Migrating Data 19
What You Need to Run Lion 19
Preparing for the Install 21
Installing Lion 22
Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion 35
What You Need to Know About Mac OS X 35
Using Lion 42
Lion Basics 46
Standard Window Controls 82
Files and Folders 83
Nonessential (but Useful) Mac OS X Features 87
Chapter 4: Troubleshooting Mac OS X 99
Common Problems 99
Chapter 5: System Preferences 115
Preference Pane Rundown 117
Non-Apple Preference Panes 155
Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities 157
Applications Installed with Lion 157
Utilities Included with Lion 177
Chapter 7: Managing Passwords in Lion 189
Password Management 190
Chapter 8: Keyboard Commands and Special Characters 195
Key Commands 195
Typing Special Characters in Mac OS X 202
Index 207
iv | Table of Contents
OS X was liist ieleaseu to the puLlic ovei a uecaue ago as Mac
OS X Beta (coue-nameu Kouiak). The uecaue altei that intio-
uuction saw Mac OS X go liom an inteiesting ouuity unsuiteu
to uaily woik to a usaLle opeiating system (OS) with little thiiu-
paity suppoit to eveiything most people want out ol an opei-
ating system anu a little moie.
Lion is the latest veision ol OS X, anu it olleis a stunning num-
Lei ol new leatuies. It incluues changes as seemingly munuane
as iesizing winuows liom any euge anu those as ievolutionaiy
as installing Lion without using physical meuia.
Like youi iPhone? Love youi iPau? Then you`ie going to ieally
enjoy Lion. Many leatuies in Lion weie liist lounu in iOS, the
opeiating system that poweis the iPhone anu iPau. You`ll uis-
covei Launchpau, a methou ol opening applications veiy sim-
ilai to the way you uo on an iPhone. Anu the similaiities uon`t
stop with launching applications: Launchpau also lets you cie-
ate lolueis Ly uiagging apps on top ol each othei, just as you
can on youi iOS uevice.
But theie`s a lot moie to Lion than just some iOS-inspiieu lea-
tuies. Many applications have new leatuies oi, as in the case
ol Mail, ieceiveu a complete oveihaul ol the inteilace anu ue-
sign. You`ll also Le tieateu to the immeisive expeiience ol a
Levy ol lull-scieen applications.
The geeky siue ol Mac useis hasn`t Leen loigotten, eithei.
Theie`s a new lull-scieen veision ol Teiminal, Lettei secuiity
options, anu the aLility to iemotely contiol anothei Mac in lull-
scieen so it leels exactly like you`ie sitting in liont ol the lai-
away Mac.
You`ll also Le ielieveu to know that the cost ol all the impiove-
ments anu new leatuies that compiise Lion is unchangeu liom
the piice ol Snow Leopaiu: $29. Bettei yet, you uon`t have to
leave youi Mac to get it. Insteau ol hitting the Apple Stoie anu
picking up a DVD oi waiting loi a copy to Le shippeu to you,
you can get Lion uiiectly liom the Mac App Stoie. Yup, Apple`s
most amLitious OS upgiaue since Mac OS changeu to OS X is
just a uownloau away.
This Look locuses on what you`u see on scieen il you
Lought a Lianu-new Mac with Lion on it. Il you upgiaue
liom Snow Leopaiu to Lion, some things you see may
Le slightly uilleient, Lecause some settings will get tians-
leiieu ovei liom Snow Leopaiu. This Look tiies to point
out such instances whenevei applicaLle, Lut you may
spot uilleiences not noteu heie.
Conventions Used in This Book
This Look uses the lollowing typogiaphical conventions:
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anu lile extensions.
Constant width bold
Shows commanus oi othei text that shoulu Le typeu lit-
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vi | Preface
Menu Symbols
Vith this Pocket Guiue, you`ll always know which Lutton to
piess. The key laLeleu ¨option¨ is calleu Option thioughout
this Look. The key with the clovei symLol (ollicially calleu the
Place ol Inteiest symLol) is iepiesenteu Ly , which looks pie-
cisely like the symLol on the keyLoaiu.
Apple itsell uses some symLols loi these keys that you won`t
see on youi keyLoaiu. Il you click the menu Lai, you`ll see
symLols next to some commanus that inuicate theii keyLoaiu
shoitcuts. Foi example, il you click the Euit menu while iun-
ning TextEuit, you`ll see a long seguence ol symLols loi the
¨Paste anu Match Style¨ shoitcut, as shown in Figuie P-1.
Iigurc P-1. Kcyboard shortcuts in TcxtEdit`s Edit ncnu
Fiom lelt to iight, the symLols to the iight ol ¨Paste anu Match
Style¨ aie Option ( ), Shilt ( ), anu Commanu (the uescii-
Leu eailiei). This inuicates that you neeu to holu uown the
Option, Shilt, anu keys while piessing V. In this Look, you`ll
see this wiitten as ¨Option-Shilt--V¨ insteau.
A less commonly useu mouiliei is the Contiol key, which Apple
inuicates with the symLol. This Look spells it out as ¨Con-
tiol.¨ You may also encountei , which inuicates the Esc key.
Preface | vii
The symLol loi the Eject Lutton ( ) is the same as the symLol
that is silk-scieeneu onto most Apple keyLoaius. The Delete
key is symLolizeu with .
Attribution and Permissions
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Poc|ct Guidc, Ly Chiis SeiLolu (O`Reilly). Copyiight 2011
Chiis SeiLolu, 97S-1-++9-3105S-5.¨
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viii | Preface
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Preface | ix
What’s New in Lion?
Suiely theie aie some people who pine loi the uays ol the
Apple II anu the commanu-line inteilace. Foi those who have
moveu on liom the eia ol loauing piogiams liom cassette tapes
anu lloppy uisks, Lion is the latest veision ol Apple`s OS X,
anu it`s a laige step loiwaiu liom Snow Leopaiu, which came
out in 2009. Il you ask someone what has changeu with Lion,
they might tell you ¨]ust aLout eveiything,¨ anu they`u Le
iight. But uon`t let the changes in Lion scaie you÷even though
uilleiences aLounu, il you want to keep using youi Mac the
same way you useu it with an eailiei veision ol OS X, you`ll
still Le aLle to use Lion without any pioLlems.
Once you`ve useu Lion loi a lew minutes, you`ll note that a lot
ol the leatuies that you linu uilleient in Lion seem a lot like
iOS, the opeiating system that poweis youi iPhone anu iPau.
Lion isn`t a nakeu copy ol iOS÷what woiks in a lingei-uiiven
OS uoesn`t always woik in a keyLoaiu- anu mouse-uiiven
enviionment÷Lut the success ol the iOS uevices has cleaily
hau an impact on the Mac siue ol Apple. Like the iPhone anu
iPau, Lion gives you access to an App Stoie (uevoteu to Macs).
You also get the option ol using a scieen similai to iOS loi
launching applications, anu Mail has Lecome a lot moie like
the iPhone Mail app.
Those aie just a lew oLvious changes, Lut theie aie plenty
moie. As you`u expect, many ol the applications anu utilities
that get installeu along with OS X have Leen upuateu loi Lion`s
coming-out paity. Theie aie too many enhancements to list
guickly, so the iest ol this chaptei locuses on the majoi uillei-
ences Letween Lion anu pievious veisions ol OS X. See
Chaptei 6 to leain aLout changes to specilic applications, anu
Chaptei 3 to linu out aLout changes specilic to the Finuei anu
how you contiol OS X. Foi now, it`s time to see what all the
luss is aLout!
Getting Your Hands on Lion
The liist Lig uilleience you`ll notice Letween Lion anu pievious
veisions ol OS X is how you acguiie a copy. Insteau ol waiting
loi a DVD in the mail oi heauing uown to youi local Apple
Stoie to Luy it, you uownloau Lion stiaight liom the Mac App
Stoie. Apple calls this ¨electionic uistiiLution,¨ Lut it amounts
to a moie convenient way ol getting Lion onto youi Mac. Foi
inlo on uownloauing anu installing Lion, see Chaptei 2.
Actually, you have a couple ol othei ways ol getting Lion,
though uownloauing it is the cheapest anu lastest
methou (assuming you have a goou Inteinet connec-
tion). To leain aLout youi othei options, check out the
Note unuei ¨Installing Lion¨ on page 22.
The lack ol physical installation meuia might Le uistuiLing to
some. Vhat il you have pioLlems anu neeu to ieinstall the OS?
Vhat il youi haiu uiive neeus iepaii? Vith no physical meuia,
how can you stait youi Mac liom a sepaiate uisk? Happily,
Apple pioviues a solution to all those pioLlems. Vhen you
install Lion, you also install an emeigency staitup uisk that you
can use to ieinstall Lion, launch the utilities lounu in OS X to
tiy to iepaii any pioLlems you`ie having, anu Liowse the In-
teinet to look loi a solution. (Il you linu youisell in a tough
2 | Chapter 1: What’s New in Lion?
spot, see Chaptei + loi some Lasic Lion tiouLleshooting
Anu theie`s even Lettei news aLout getting Lion liom the Mac
App Stoie: you can install it on any authoiizeu Mac that meets
the haiuwaie ieguiiements! That means you can loiget aLout
paying loi the lamily pack÷paying loi Lion once lets you in-
stall it on up to live Macs.
A Brand-New Look
Snow Leopaiu lookeu a lot like Leopaiu, which lookeu a lot
like Tigei. Each majoi ievision ol OS X Liought some visual
changes, Lut they tenueu to not Le all that noticeaLle. The look
ol Lion is the most amLitious change in appeaiance since Apple
went liom OS 9 to OS X. Vhen you see Lion in action, you`ll
still iecognize it as OS X, Lut you`ie liaLle to imagine you`ie
looking at some lutuiistic veision ol OS X availaLle live yeais
liom now insteau ol the cuiient veision. A pictuie`s woith a
thousanu woius, so check out Figuies 1-1 anu 1-2.
Iigurc 1-1. A Mac running Snow Lcopard
A Brand-New Look | 3
Iigurc 1-2. Thc ncw |oo| oj Lion
Some things jump out at you iight away: The Luttons look
uilleient anu you seemingly can`t scioll aiounu in a page any-
moie, Lecause the scioll Lais aie gone. Actually, the scioll Lais
aie still aiounu, Lut they only show up when you neeu them
(il you uon`t like this Lehavioi, you can change it; see
Chaptei 5).
Those aie the most oLvious visual uilleiences, Lut you`ll linu
othei changes as you acguaint youisell with Lion. Don`t Le
oveily conceineu with the uilleiences÷as new as eveiything
looks, il you`ve useu a pievious veision ol OS X, you`ll Le aLle
to get aiounu in Lion with minimal elloit.
Resize from Any Edge
In pievious veisions ol OS X, winuows usually hau iesize han-
ules in theii lowei-iight coineis. In Lion, those hanules aie
gone anu you can change a winuow`s size liom any euge. To
pull this tiick oll, hovei youi cuisoi ovei the euge ol a winuow
anu the cuisoi will change to a uouLle-heaueu aiiow; simply
uiag to iesize the winuow.
4 | Chapter 1: What’s New in Lion?
You`ll still see the occasional iesize hanule in piogiams
like Miciosolt Voiu, loi example. Don`t woiiy: you can
still iesize such piogiam winuows Ly uiagging any euge,
though the iesize hanule woiks, too.
Il you`ie useu to moving winuows Ly giaLLing an euge anu
uiagging, that won`t woik in Lion÷you`ll simply iesize the
winuow. You`ll have to aujust youi haLits anu click insiue the
winuow to uiag it.
Full-Screen Applications
Evei longeu loi a moie immeisive VeL-Liowsing expeiience,
oi wisheu that iCal woulu take ovei eveiy pixel ol scieen space?
At liist, such longings may sounu silly, Lut having Salaii lill
youi scieen when you`ie ieauing a longish Vikipeuia entiy
is gieat, anu woiking in iCal using the entiie scieen is lantastic
when you aie using its new heat map leatuie (see the section
on ¨iCal¨ on page 16+).
Not eveiy application has a Full Scieen moue, Lut it`s easy to
liguie out which ones can suck up all youi scieen ieal estate:
look loi the uouLle aiiows in the uppei-iight coinei ol the
piogiam`s winuow (Figuie 1-3).
Iigurc 1-3. C|ic|ing thc doub|c arrows tc||s thc app to ta|c ovcr your
Once the application is in Full Scieen moue, you can uo what-
evei you wish, liee liom the uistiactions ol youi uesktop anu
othei piogiams. Vhen you`ie using that application, move
youi cuisoi to the top ol the scieen anu the menu Lai will
Full-Screen Applications | 5
ieappeai. Click the Llue aiiows on the iight enu ol the menu
Lai to ietuin the piogiam to a iegulai winuow.
You may Le thinking that lull-scieen applications sccn like a
gieat iuea, Lut that they might Le a little too much woik when
you neeu to use anothei piogiam oi get Lack to the uesktop.
Don`t woiiy, theie aie plenty ol easy ways to get out ol a lull-
scieen application. You can switch piogiams with the Option-
TaL key comLo, hit the Esc key to exit Full Scieen moue, oi
invoke the new anu veiy cool Mission Contiol.
Il you use multiple monitois, you might Le hoping loi a
woilu wheie you can iun one application in Full Scieen
moue while uoing something else on the othei monitoi.
Sauly, you`ie out ol luck: launching a lull-scieen appli-
cation in Lion ienueis the seconu monitoi useless÷
unless youi goal is to look at a static, giay linen scieen.
Mission Control
Mission Contiol ieplaces Exposé, anu you`ie going to love it.
In a nutshell, Mission Contiol is a winuow-management ap-
plication. But that uesciiption, while accuiate, is lai too teise.
OS X Lion leatuies Spaces (viitual uesktops loi youi uilleient
woikllow neeus; ¨Spaces¨ on page 9S has uetails), Dash-
Loaiu loi the inloimation that you want guick access to (see
¨The DashLoaiu¨ on page S7), lull-scieen applications, anu
the iegulai winuoweu applications you know anu love. That`s
loui uistinctly uilleient ways ol inteiacting with youi Mac.
Switching Letween a lull-scieen application anu the uesktop
woulu Le cumLeisome. Mission Contiol takes caie ol that: in-
steau ol loicing you to click anu hunt loi minimizeu winuows,
Mission Contiol puts eveiything going on on youi Mac into
one easy-to-navigate winuow. Foi example, il you happen to
Le wiiting a Look, launching Mission Contiol might ieveal a
monitoi that looks like Figuie 1-+.
6 | Chapter 1: What’s New in Lion?
You use Mission Contiol Ly eithei piessing F3 (on most key-
Loaius) oi swiping up with thiee lingeis on youi tiackpau (you
can aujust this in the Mission Contiol pieleience pane; see
¨Mission Contiol¨ on page 122). Vhen you invoke Mission
Contiol, you see DashLoaiu, youi uesktop, Spaces, anu any
open lull-scieen apps acioss the top. Noimal application win-
uows appeai in the centei ol the scieen (gioupeu Ly applica-
tion), anu the Dock is wheievei you lelt it.
Once Mission Contiol is active, you can auu uesktop spaces
Ly uiagging a winuow to the uppei-iight coinei ol youi scieen
(a - sign will appeai). Il you want to auu an empty uesktop
space, move youi cuisoi to that same coinei anu click the -.
To uelete a space, put youi cuisoi ovei it anu click the × that
Once you ueciue wheie you want to go (that pesky game ol
Angiy Biius oi the Look you`ie wiiting, say), just click the
winuow you want to jump to. Swipes also woik il you`ie using
a tiackpau: a guick swipe to the lelt oi iight will switch Letween
Iigurc 1-1. |t`s a|| right in jront oj you!
Mission Control | 7
Got an iOS uevice? Il so, Launchpau will seem veiy lamiliai; it
Lehaves just like the scieen on youi iPhone oi iPau. Foi the
uninitiateu, heie`s how it woiks: when you launch Launchpau
(Ly clicking the iocket ship icon in youi Dock), youi scieen
laues away anu all youi applications appeai in icon loim (Fig-
uie 1-5). Launch any one with a single click.
Iigurc 1-5. |t`s |i|c you`rc staring at a giant iPhonc
Il the only thing you have installeu on youi Mac is Lion, all
youi applications` icons will lit on a single scieen. Il you`ve
auueu applications, you`ll neeu moie than a single scieen to
holu them all. Navigating Letween scieens is easy: just two-
lingei swipe lelt oi iight on the tiackpau oi with a capaLle
mouse to move liom page to page.
The application icons aie gioupeu automatically. Il you aien`t
happy with the iesults, just click an icon, holu youi mouse
Lutton until all the icons stait wiggling, anu then uiag the icon
wheie you want it to live. (Click any empty spot on the scieen
to make the icons stop wiggling.) Too many pages ol icons?
You can cieate lolueis in Launchpau. Simply uiag one icon on
top ol anothei anu Launchpau cieates a loluei containing those
8 | Chapter 1: What’s New in Lion?
applications anu gives it a name (Figuie 1-6). Il Lion chooses
a pooi name loi youi loluei oi you just want a snappiei one,
click the loluei to open it anu then click the name ol the loluei.
Lion will highlight the name anu you`ll Le aLle to change it to
one ol youi choosing. To uelete a loluei, open it anu then uiag
the piogiam icons out ol it; once theie`s only a single icon in
the loluei, the loluei uisappeais.
Iigurc 1-ó. A jo|dcr in Launchpad
Any lolueis you cieate anu any application ieoiueiing
you uo in Launchpau is only iellecteu in Launchpau; the
lolueis anu applications iemain in the same place you
lelt them when vieweu with the Finuei.
Suipiisingly, you can Lanish applications liom youi Mac with
Launchpau, though only ones you`ve puichaseu liom the Mac
App Stoie. To uelete applications with Launchpau, piess anu
holu the Option key so all the icons stait jiggling. Icons loi
applications you can uelete will have a white × in theii top-lelt
coineis. Click the × anu you`ll Le waineu aLout ueleting the
application; conliim youi choice anu the piogiam is gone.
(Deleting an application isn`t as peimanent as it sounus: since
you puichaseu it liom the Mac App Stoie, you can uownloau
it again loi liee il you evei want it Lack.)
Launchpad | 9
All My Files
Theie aie a ton ol liles iunning aiounu youi Mac, Lut
you pioLaLly uon`t caie aLout the ianuom ones like
inagc-vicwport.htn|÷you caie aLout the liles you`vc cieateu.
All My Files lilteis out all the cluttei anu lets you get to the
impoitant liles on youi Mac.
Vhen you click All My Files in the Finuei`s siueLai, you`ie
piesenteu with (you guesseu it) all youi liles (Figuie 1-7). That
uoesn`t sounu too exciting, Lut it is.
Iigurc 1-7. Thc nost uscju| itcn in thc sidcbar
Youi liles will Le gioupeu Ly type anu you can ieoiuei them as
you wish. You can guickly soit thiough youi liles using a
vaiiety ol ciiteiia (uate mouilieu, size, etc.) anu linu exactly
what you want. Once you`ve useu All My Files a lew times,
you`ll wonuei how you evei got along without it.
10 | Chapter 1: What’s New in Lion?
To make getting aiounu youi Mac easiei, Apple has auueu new
gestuies. Gestuies aie laiily intuitive multilingei swipes,
pinches, anu taps that make jumping liom uesktop space to
space (to cite one example) much easiei. You can use gestuies
with a Magic Mouse oi tiackpau, though the gestuies loi each
uevice uillei anu you get many moie options with a tiackpau.
Foi a complete list ol gestuies, see ¨Multitouch tiack-
paus¨ on page 139.
The goou news: Lion leatuies a Lianu-new, veiy easy, zeio-
conliguiation way to tianslei liles Letween Macs; it`s calleu
AiiDiop. The Lau news: il youi Mac is moie than a lew yeais
olu, this methou pioLaLly won`t woik.
How can you tell whethei youi Mac can use AiiDiop? Simply
open a Finuei winuow; il you see the AiiDiop icon in the siue-
Lai (see Figuie 1-S), youi Mac is AiiDiop capaLle.
Iigurc 1-8. This Mac is rcady jor an AirDrop
AirDrop | 11
Vhen you click the AiiDiop icon, youi Mac staits looking loi
neaiLy Macs. Vhen it linus one, just uiag the lile you want to
senu onto the icon loi that usei in the AiiDiop winuow (Fig-
uie 1-S). The iecipient will get a notice that you want to tianslei
the lile, anu, once he giants the ieguest, the lile will speeuily
move to his Mac. It`s a slick system that uoesn`t iely on youi
ViFi netwoik connection (AiiDiop uses the ViFi Luilt into
youi Mac insteau), so you can shaie liles with someone neaiLy
even when you`ie not connecteu to a netwoik.
Auto Save and Versions
Two ol the coolest new leatuies in Lion aie Auto Save anu the
associateu Veisions. Auto Save uoes exactly what its name im-
plies: as you woik on a uocument, song, movie, oi whatevei,
Auto Save automatically saves youi piogiess inciementally so
you uon`t have to. Voiking in TextEuit anu just want to guit?
You uon`t neeu to save Leloie guitting÷Auto Save will save
youi woik without Leing tolu to. Veisions aie the iesult ol all
those saves. Vith Veisions, il theie`s a change you want to
unuo, you aien`t stuck with the most iecent veision ol youi lile.
Ve`ll use TextEuit as an example. Once you cieate a uocu-
ment, save it, anu then make a change to it, the woiu ¨Euiteu¨
will appeai in the title Lai to let you know that Auto Save is
woiking. Click ¨Euiteu¨ to ieveal a uiop-uown menu that gives
you loui options:
This option allows you to lock the uocument. Once it`s
lockeu, you won`t Le aLle to euit the uocument, Lut you
can use it as a template loi a new uocument. Think ol this
as way ol Leing suie you uon`t make any Loneheaueu
changes to something you woikeu long anu haiu
to cieate.
Choosing this option lets you cieate a copy ol eithei the
cuiient veision ol the lile you`ie woiking on oi the most
12 | Chapter 1: What’s New in Lion?
iecent veision ol it (without youi latest changes) that you
explicitly saveu with the Save commanu.
Rcvcrt to Last Savcd \crsion
This allows you to ieveit to the last veision you explicitly
saveu with the Save commanu (not the latest veision that
Auto Save cieateu).
Browsc A|| \crsions
This is wheie Veisions comes in. Il you`ve maue some
changes to youi lile that you like anu some that you hate,
you can use Veisions to pick out the moment in time when
youi lile was at its Lest. Select this option liom the uiop-
uown menu anu you`ll see a scieen (shown in Figuie 1-9)
ieminiscent ol Time Machine. You can then llip thiough
the inciemental changes Lion has Leen tiacking anu pick
out the veision you like the most.
Iigurc 1-9. I|ip through a|| thc savcd vcrsions to jind thc onc you want
Not eveiy application woiks with Auto Save. Since it`s a
new leatuie, uevelopeis have to tweak theii piogiams to
make them woik with Auto Save, so uon`t uepenu on
Auto Save to Lack up youi woik unless you`ie surc the
piogiam you`ie using suppoits it.
Auto Save and Versions | 13
Vhen you use an app on an iOS uevice, the app staits up iight
wheie you lelt oll the last time you ian it. Lion has this leatuie
as well: il you guit Salaii with ten winuows open, those same
winuows will pop open when you iestait Salaii. Resume also
woiks when you shut uown oi log out: uo eithei ol those things
anu, when you iestait oi log Lack in, all the apps you weie
using automatically ielaunch anu open all the winuows you
hau open Leloie.
This is a nice leatuie, Lut it can also Le something you uon`t
want. Luckily, you can tuin Resume oll. Heau to System
PieleiencesGeneial, anu then uncheck the Lox next to ¨Re-
stoie winuows when guitting anu ie-opening apps.¨ This will
stop Lion liom opening winuows when you launch an appli-
cation, Lut it won`t allect how Resume woiks when you iestait
youi machine. To tuin Resume oll when you log out oi iestait,
uncheck the Lox next to ¨Reopen winuows when logging
Lack in.¨
A lot ol applications have Leen upuateu in Lion; the most ex-
tensive changes aie in Mail. To leain how to set up accounts
anu uo othei munuane choies, see ¨Mail¨ on page 166. To
leain aLout the Lig changes in Mail, keep ieauing.
Vhen you liist open Lion`s Mail you`ll Le shockeu÷it looks
nothing like the Mail you`ve Leen using. The coloilul iounueu
Luttons aie gone; they`ve Leen ieplaceu Ly new, less visually
intense Luttons. Anu the changes uon`t stop theie÷
Figuie 1-10 shows just how much Mail has changeu.
By uelault, you get a two-column view anu the lamiliai siueLai
is nowheie to Le lounu (howevei, il you upgiaue liom Snow
Leopaiu, the siueLai will still Le theie). Il you`ie wonueiing
how you`ie going to get aiounu without the siueLai (wheie
youi mailLoxes anu lolueis weie loimeily stoieu), uon`t liet.
14 | Chapter 1: What’s New in Lion?
You can get the olu siueLai Lack Ly clicking Show in the Lianu-
new Favoiites Lai neai the top ol the winuow. But chances aie
you won`t want to auu the siueLai, as all youi mailLoxes anu
lolueis aie also listeu in the Favoiites Lai; just click an item in
the Lai to navigate to youi uestination. Anu you aien`t limiteu
to the lolueis Luilt into the Favoiites Lai; you can auu any
loluei to the Lai Ly uiagging it theie liom the siueLai.
Messages in Mail aie now gioupeu into conveisations. That
means the tête-a-tête you`ve got going with someone won`t Le
a long list ol uisciete messages; insteau, eveiy message in it will
Le gioupeu togethei, ieuucing cluttei anu stieamlining youi
Mail expeiience. You`ll see a numLei with a tiiangle next to it
on each conveisation; click the aiiow to ieveal the inuiviuual
messages, as shown in Figuie 1-11.
Il you give the new Mail a chance, you`ll pioLaLly love it. But
il you linu it intoleiaLle, heau to MailPieleiencesViewing
anu tuin on ¨Use classic layout¨ to switch to a veision ol Mail
that leels a lot moie like the olu one.
Iigurc 1-10. |s that cvcn thc sanc app|ication?
Mail | 15
Iigurc 1-11. A c|osc-up vicw oj Mai|`s ncw convcrsation |ayout. Whcn
you c|ic| on a ncssagc hcrc, it appcars in a|| its g|ory on thc right sidc
oj thc Mai| window.
What Lion Can’t Do
Lion uoes a lot that pievious veisions ol OS X coulun`t, Lut
theie aie also some things that pievious veisions uiu that Lion
Likely youi Liggest liustiation will Le piogiams you have that
Lion won`t iun. The two pievious veisions ol OS X (Leopaiu
anu Snow Leopaiu) coulu iun applications Luilt eithei loi
PoweiPC-Laseu Macs oi Intel-Laseu Macs. Snow Leopaiu
pulleu this tiick oll Ly using Rosetta, coue that uynamically
tianslateu PoweiPC coue into instiuctions that youi Intel-
Laseu Mac coulu use. Lion uoesn`t incluue Rosetta, so it won`t
iun any applications except those Luilt with Intel-poweieu
Macs in minu.
Il you want to check whethei an application will iun in Lion
Leloie you install Lion, iight-click oi Contiol-click the Finuei
icon ol the application in guestion anu select Get Inlo liom the
pop-up menu that appeais. Il you look at the Kinu list item anu
see eithei ¨Univeisal¨ oi ¨Intel,¨ the app will iun in Lion; il
you see ¨PoweiPC¨ insteau, loiget it. Once you`ve installeu
16 | Chapter 1: What’s New in Lion?
Lion, it`s easy to spot piogiams that won`t iun: they`ll have Lig,
white No symLols on `em (Figuie 1-12).
Iigurc 1-12. Not nuch oj a |oss in this casc
Vhat else is gone? Il you`ie one ol the people who ieally enjoys
the animation that tiauitionally accompanies a new OS install
(you know, the peppy music with ¨Hello¨ zipping Ly in lilty
languages), you`ie in loi a uisappointment: the opening ani-
mation is gone. Vhen Lion gets uone installing, it`s time to get
uown to the Lusiness ol setting up youi Mac.
Also missing liom the eguation is Fiont Row, Lut that isn`t as
a Lig ol a loss as it sounus like. DVD Playei can go lull scieen,
so you can get that immeisive movie expeiience when watching
DVDs, anu sites like Hulu can also take ovei youi entiie scieen
il you wish. iSync is also MIA; one suimises that the uemanu
loi this application has uwinuleu steauily since the intiouuc-
tion ol the iPhone anu othei smaitphones. Finally, the Appli-
cations loluei uoesn`t appeai in the Dock Ly uelault (though
it will still Le theie il you upgiaueu liom Snow Leopaiu). You
can always auu the Applications loluei to youi Dock (see ¨The
Dock¨ on page 72), Lut Launchpau ieplicates its lunctional-
ity nicely.
Asiue liom the loss ol Rosetta, the lunctionality losses in Lion
aie minoi anu aie lai outweigheu Ly the Lenelits you get liom
auopting the latest veision ol OS X.
What Lion Can’t Do | 17
Installing Lion and
Migrating Data
New Macs come with Lion (10.7) pieinstalleu, Lut that uoesn`t
mean Luying a new Mac with Lion on it is the only way to get
Apple`s latest anu gieatest opeiating system. A much moie
economical way to enjoy Lion is to upgiaue youi cuiient Mac,
something you can uo loi a liaction ol the cost ol a new ma-
chine. This chaptei teaches you how.
Il you`ie lucky enough to have a Mac with Lion pieinstalleu,
you likely want to move all oi some ol the uata oll youi olu
computei onto youi new, Lion-poweieu Mac. In that case, see
¨Moving Data anu Applications liom Anothei Com-
putei¨ on page 26 to leain how.
What You Need to Run Lion
Snow Leopaiu coulu iun on any Intel-Laseu Mac, Lut Lion is
slightly choosiei, jettisoning some mouels ol Intel-Laseu Macs
liom the lineup. To iun Lion, you`ll neeu an xS6-6+ piocessoi
oi Lettei. Il ¨xS6-6+¨ uoesn`t mean much to you, you`ie not
alone. To help claiily, heie aie the actual names ol chips that
meet that ciiteiion:
º Intel Coie 2 Duo
º Intel Coie i3
º Intel Coie i5
º Intel Coie i7
º Xeon
Since most people uon`t Lothei committing the names ol theii
piocessois to memoiy, theie`s an easy way to linu out what
kinu ol chip you have: Go to the Apple menu ( ) anu select
ALout This Mac. The winuow that appeais incluues the name
ol youi piocessoi. Il it`s on the list aLove, youi Mac is
Thanks to a weiiu naming convention, theie`s Leen
some conlusion ovei whethei ceitain Macs can iun Lion.
Ones with Intel Coie Duo chips can`t iun it, Lut Intel
Coie 2 Duo chips can.
You also neeu 2 GB ol RAM (which some otheiwise compatiLle
MacBooks anu Minis might not have) anu 5 GB ol uisk space.
Il you linu checking chip compatiLility anu memoiy ieguiie-
ments too teuious, you can opt to let Apple check them insteau:
launch the Mac App Stoie anu tiy to puichase Mac OS X Lion;
il youi Mac comes up shoit in any uepaitment, you won`t Le
alloweu to Luy it.
In auuition to the haiuwaie ieguiiements, youi Mac must
Le iunning OS X 10.6.7 oi latei. Vhy not, say, 10.6.3? Vell,
you`ll Le getting Lion liom the Mac App Stoie, anu the Mac
App Stoie uiun`t exist until 10.6.7 was ieleaseu. Il you`ie iun-
ning Snow Leopaiu, just heau to Soltwaie Upuate. Il you`ie
iunning Leopaiu, you`ll neeu to linu a copy ol Snow Leopaiu
anu install that Leloie you woiiy aLout anything else.
20 | Chapter 2: Installing Lion and Migrating Data
Preparing for the Install
Beloie ueciuing whethei you actually want Lion, you shoulu
uo a little uetective woik. Since Lion won`t suppoit PoweiPC
apps, il you aie uepenuent on one ol those loi uay-to-uay woik,
you`ll likely want to avoiu Lion oi upgiaue to new apps Leloie
you install Lion. But how uo you know?
Luckily, theie`s a guick way to get at this inloimation in Snow
Leopaiu: Heau to ALout This Mac, anu then click the Moie
Inlo to uisplay a two-column winuow. The lelt column con-
tains a long list ol entiies that ieveal specilic inloimation when
you select them. Click Applications (in the Soltwaie section)
anu, in the iight column, youi Mac will tell you aLout all the
apps you have installeu. The list is soitaLle, so il you click Kinu
(as shown in Figuie 2-1), the list will oiganize the applications
into loui categoiies: Intel, Univeisal, PoweiPC, anu Classic. Il
the application you neeu to have says ¨PoweiPC¨ next to it, it
won`t iun in Lion. Il you uon`t neeu any ol those clunky
PoweiPC apps oi il you upgiaue to latei veisions ol them,
you`ie ieauy loi Lion.
Iigurc 2-1. Nonc oj thcsc wi|| run whcn you`rc using Lion
Preparing for the Install | 21
Installing Lion
Beloie Lion, you hau to ciam a DVD into youi computei to
upgiaue OS X. Vith Lion, things have Lecome slightly easiei.
No moie iestaiting youi machine liom the compaiatively slow
DVD; insteau, you simply uownloau the installei liom the Mac
App Stoie.
You uon`t havc to uownloau Lion liom the Mac App
Stoie. Apple will stait selling thumL uiives (small mem-
oiy sticks that plug into a USB poit) with the Lion in-
stallei on them in August 2011. Il you`ie thinking the
thumL uiive is a no-Liainei, since you get a liee uiive
anu all, uon`t get too exciteu: it comes at a piemium.
Insteau ol paying $29 to uownloau Lion, you pay $69
loi the uiive. You can oiuei it liom|c
Don`t want to pay the piemium or uownloau the instal-
lei ovei a slow Inteinet connection? Then you can visit
an Apple Stoie anu uownloau Lion while you Liowse all
the cool Apple haiuwaie.
Vhethei you plan on uownloauing the installei oi using a USB
thumL uiive with the installei on it, the piocess is ueau simple.
Fiist, make suie you'ie iunning the latest veision ol Snow
Leopaiu (il not, heau to Soltwaie Upuate). Then, il you`ie
going the uownloau ioute, open the Mac App Stoie (click its
icon in youi Dock), puichase Lion, anu wait loi it to uownloau.
Il you`ie using a thumL uiive, plug it into one ol the USB slots
on youi Mac. (Il you`ie just altei a physical installei loi Lion,
the lollowing Note has youi solution.)
22 | Chapter 2: Installing Lion and Migrating Data
Be waineu: the Lion installei is close to + GB. Vith a 5
MLps Inteinet connection (close to the aveiage speeu loi
the Uniteu States), that will take ioughly two houis to
Il you have a pokey Inteinet connection oi a Lanuwiuth
cap, you pioLaLly won`t want to uownloau a copy loi
each computei you have. In that case, you`ll linu the
Lion installei in youi Applications loluei. This lile gets
ueleteu altei you install Lion, so you`ll want to make a
Lackup to a USB uiive, exteinal haiu uiive, oi DVD
bcjorc you install Lion. Once you make a copy, you can
tianslei it to any othei authoiizeu Mac you want Lion
on anu iun it without the hassle ol a new uownloau.
(You`ll still have to Le connecteu to the Inteinet when
you install Lion, Lut you won`t have to uownloau + GB
ol uata again.)
Once the uownloau is complete oi you plug in the thumL uiive,
the Lion installei shoulu launch automatically. (Il it uoesn`t,
you`ll likely linu an alias loi it in youi Dock anu the oiiginal
application in youi Applications loluei il you uownloaueu it.
Il you Lought a thumL uiive, you`ll linu Lion stoieu on the
uiive.) All you have to uo to get things ieally moving is click
the Continue Lutton (Figuie 2-2).
Once you take the plunge, you`ll Le piesenteu with a page ie-
guiiing you to agiee to the soltwaie license. To install Lion,
you`ll have to click Agiee twice: once in the Install Mac OS X
winuow anu once on a uiop-uown menu that asks il you
rca||y meant that liist click. Altei that, Lion will toss up a mes-
sage telling you that it`s piepaiing to install. A lew minutes
latei, you`ll Le notilieu that you can eithei iestait youi Mac to
pioceeu with the install oi wait thiity seconus anu let Lion ie-
stait loi you.
Il youi Mac opeiates oll ol a single uiive, the installation will
pioceeu without any input liom you. Il you have multiple
Installing Lion | 23
uiives oi multiple paititions on a single uiive, you`ll Le aLle to
choose exactly wheie you want to install Lion.
Lion can Le installeu on any uiive (inteinal oi exteinal)
that`s loimatteu with Apple`s Mac OS Extenueu (]oui-
naleu) lilesystem. You can iun Disk Utility liom the in-
stallei`s Utilities menu to loimat oi inspect the uiives on
youi system.
After the Install
Altei Lion is uone installing, youi Mac will iestait using
the new opeiating system. Il the Mac has alieauy Leen
conliguieu÷that is, il it hau an eailiei veision ol Mac OS X
installeu÷you`ll Le piompteu to iegistei youi copy ol Lion (hit
-Q to skip iegistiation; uoing so is no Lig ueal). Auuitionally,
you might see a message that says youi mail neeus to Le up-
giaueu to woik with the new veision ol Mail. Othei than that,
Iigurc 2-2. You`vc got onc option: Continuc
24 | Chapter 2: Installing Lion and Migrating Data
you can get Lack to using youi Mac just like you uiu Leloie you
installeu Lion (with some cool new leatuies, ol couise).
Il you installeu Lion on a Llank uiive oi paitition, it`ll neeu
some moie inloimation to get you up anu iunning. You`ll have
to select youi countiy keyLoaiu layout anu time zone (Lion can
uo this loi you; you`ll see a checkLox laLeleu ¨Set time zone
automatically using cuiient location¨).
Then you`ll Le olleieu the oppoitunity to tianslei uata liom
anothei Mac. Il you chose not to, click Continue. Next, Lion
will tiy to connect to the Inteinet. It`ll automatically choose a
netwoik option, Lut il you`ie not happy with Lion`s choice,
click the Dilleient Netwoik Setup Lutton in the lowei lelt ol
the winuow anu choose youi pieleiieu netwoik.
Once you`ie hookeu up to the netwoik, you`ll Le askeu loi youi
Apple ID. You can skip this step, Lut il you have a MoLileMe
oi iClouu account, using that as youi Apple ID will let youi
Mac use the associateu seivices without you having to uo any
moie conliguiing. Altei you entei (oi cieate) youi Apple ID,
you`ll Le olleieu the oppoitunity to iegistei. The inloimation
you type into the iegistiation loim will Le useu not just to gai-
nei you a spot in Apple`s uataLase, Lut also to geneiate an
auuiess caiu loi you in Auuiess Book anu to set up youi email
auuiess loi use with Mail.
Lion will then ask you loi some inlo on how anu wheie you
intenu to use youi Mac. Once the uata collection is out ol the
way, you`ll Le piompteu to set up a usei account. Lion will
geneiate a lull name anu account name loi you. Il you uon`t
want to use its suggestions, you can type in youi own names.
You`ll also have to entei a passwoiu anu, il you wish, a hint in
case you loiget the passwoiu.
Vith youi account cieateu, Lion will give you the chance to
snap a pictuie loi the account with a weLcam oi choose one
liom youi pictuie liLiaiy. Once that`s uone, Lion will conliguie
youi Mac using youi MoLileMe oi iClouu inloimation (il you
use those seivices). Il you`ie not a MoLileMe oi iClouu suL-
sciiLei, uon`t woiiy÷youi Mac is ieauy to go. You just won`t
Installing Lion | 25
have the things that MoLileMe anu iClouu conliguie (like Mail,
loi example) automatically set up loi you.
Il you`ie tight on uisk space, theie`s no compelling iea-
son to keep the installei aiounu altei you`ie uone instal-
ling Lion. Il you neeu the installei latei, you can always
uownloau it again loi liee. Anu il the woist happens anu
you have to use Recoveiy Moue anu ieinstall Lion, hav-
ing the installei on youi Mac won`t Le ol any help, since
ieinstalling with Recoveiy Moue means uownloauing
Lion again.
Moving Data and Applications from Another
Not eveiyone will install Lion liom the Mac App Stoie; some
lolks will have a new Mac with Lion pieinstalleu. Il you`ie one
ol these lucky ones, you aien`t inteiesteu in how to install Lion.
But il you`ie upgiauing liom an oluei Mac oi liom a Vinuows-
Laseu PC (getting uata liom a Vinuows PC onto youi Mac is
a new, veiy nilty leatuie ol Lion), you`ll ceitainly Le inteiesteu
in getting that mountain ol uata liom youi olu machine onto
youi new computei. Apple has an app loi that: Migiation
Assistant can tianslei liles, settings, anu pieleiences liom youi
olu computei to youi new one. Altei iunning Migiation As-
sistant, youi new Mac will seem a lot like youi olu Mac. Il
you`ie tiansleiiing uata liom a PC, youi new Mac won`t seem
like youi olu PC, Lut it wi|| have the PC`s uata on it.
You might not want to migiate youi uata liom an olu
computei iight away: playing with a lactoiy-liesh sys-
tem is lun, anu migiating uata isn`t a once-in-a-liletime
oppoitunity. Toy with youi new Mac now, anu then
migiate youi uata latei using Migiation Assistant.
26 | Chapter 2: Installing Lion and Migrating Data
Vhen you iun Migiation Assistant, it can tianslei the lollow-
ing things to youi new machine:
All youi usei accounts will Le moveu to youi new Mac.
Accounts ietain the same piivileges (oi iestiictions) that
they hau Leloie. Il you tiy to move ovei a usei that alieauy
exists on youi Mac, you`ll have the option to change the
account`s name oi ieplace the existing usei (as long as you
aien`t loggeu in as that usei; il you want to impoit settings
into youi account, liist use System PieleiencesAccounts
to cieate a new usei, log in as that usei, anu then iun Mi-
giation Assistant again). See the section ¨Usei Ac-
counts¨ on page 35 loi moie inloimation.
All the applications in the Applications loluei aie tians-
leiieu. You won`t have to ieinstall youi applications, anu
most shoulu ietain all theii settings (incluuing any iegis-
tiation oi activation neeueu to iun them).
Have a Lunch ol saveu netwoiks anu passwoius in youi
Netwoik Pieleiences? They all come along loi the iiue.
So, il you`ie useu to automatically jumping on at the local
ViFi hotspot, you`ll get on without any extia elloit. Il
youi scieensavei ieguiies a passwoiu to get Lack to the
uesktop, it still will. Theie aie thiee suLoptions unuei
Settings: Time Zone, Machine (computei settings othei
than netwoik oi time zone), anu Netwoik. Pick anu
choose the ones you want to move to youi new machine.
Othcr ji|cs and jo|dcrs
Il youi Mac has liles stiewn eveiywheie, even il they aien`t
wheie Mac OS X expects them to Le (the Documents ui-
iectoiy), they`ll Le tiansleiieu.
Installing Lion | 27
Il you stasheu any liles in the System loluei, they won`t
get tiansleiieu. But you shoulun`t evei stash anything in
the System loluei anyway, as it can get mouilieu at any
time (even Ly secuiity upuates anu the like).
Migiation Assistant uoesn`t move the lollowing items:
Thc Systcn jo|dcr
You`ie installing a new system, so you uon`t neeu the olu
System loluei to come along.
App|c app|ications and uti|itics
Migiation Assistant assumes that eveiy Apple application
(like FaceTime anu iCal) on youi Lion machine is newei
oi the same as the coiiesponuing item on the Mac you`ie
tiansleiiing uata liom, so those applications won`t get
moveu. Insteau, youi Migiation Assistant will keep the
pieleiences the same anu let you use the newei veision.
This is only a pioLlem when you hate the latest veision ol
iMovie (to cite one example). Il you want to use the oluei
veision, you`ll have to manually move it ovei.
As you`u pioLaLly guess, you neeu to Le loggeu in as an au-
ministiative usei (oi Le aLle to supply the useiname anu pass-
woiu ol an auministiative usei) to iun Migiation Assistant.
Then go to ApplicationsUtilitiesMigiation Assistant to get
Foi Migiation Assistant to woik, all othei applications
have to Le closeu. So save all youi woik anu guit eveiy-
thing Leloie you launch Migiation Assistant.
Il you haven`t migiateu uata since the MacBook Aii came out,
the piocess has changeu a little Lit. In the uays Leloie the Aii,
Migiation Assistant useu FiieViie Taiget Disk Moue: you`u
28 | Chapter 2: Installing Lion and Migrating Data
stait the computei you wanteu to tianslei uata liom in this
moue (Ly holuing uown -T while Looting oi choosing ¨Stait
in Taiget Disk Moue¨ liom the Staitup Disk pieleience pane),
plug it into the uestination Mac, anu then Migiation Assistant
woulu take caie ol the iest. The goou news is that this methou
still woiks il you have two computeis with FiieViie; the Lettei
news is that il you uon`t have two Macs with FiieViie, you can
still use Migiation Assistant. In lact, Migiation Assistant olleis
two ways to get youi olu uata on youi new Mac (shown in
Figuie 2-3):
Iron anothcr Mac, PC, Tinc Machinc bac|up, or othcr dis|
Choosing this option allows you to tianslei uata liom a
Mac oi PC that`s eithei wiieu to oi on the same netwoik
(wiieu oi wiieless) as youi new Lion-poweieu Mac.
To anothcr Mac
This option is the counteipait ol the ¨Fiom anothei Mac
oi PC¨ option÷you select this one on youi souice ma-
chine, anu the othei on youi uestination machine.
Iigurc 2-3. Starting thc nigration proccss
Installing Lion | 29
Il you chose the liist option, you`ll get two norc options to
choose Letween:
Iron anothcr Mac or PC
This is the option you`ll use il you want to tianslei uata,
well, liom anothei Mac oi PC. Vhen you select this op-
tion anu click the Continue Lutton, the next scieen will
wain you that all youi applications must Le closeu. Save
anything you`ve Leen woiking on anu click Continue, anu
youi Mac will stait looking loi othei computeis to tianslei
uata liom. Unless you`ve useu the ¨To anothei Mac¨ op-
tion (uiscusseu aLove) on the computei you want to tians-
lei uata liom, it won`t linu any. No pioLlem: Migiation
Assistant will keep looking while you liie up Migiation
Assistant on the othei machine anu select ¨To anothei
Mac¨ on that computei. Once Loth computeis aie on the
same page, you`ll see something like Figuie 2-+.
Click Continue anu you`ll see a passcoue. You uon`t have
to wiite it uown oi iememLei it, you just neeu to make
suie it`s the same as the one uisplayeu on the machine you
aie tiansleiiing uata liom. (The passcoue won`t show up
on the uata-uonating machine until the exchange has Leen
initiateu Ly the Mac you aie moving the uata to.) Veiily
that the numLeis match anu then click continue. Next,
you get a chance to ueciue what you want to tianslei (see
¨Fine-Tuning Data Migiation¨ on page 33). Click Con-
tinue anu youi uata will Le tiansleiieu.
Iron a Tinc Machinc bac|up or othcr dis|
Il you choose this option, youi new Mac will scan all at-
tacheu uiives anu then piesent you with a list ol uiives you
can migiate uata liom. Click the one you wish to use anu
then click Continue. By uelault, Lion will tianslei all youi
ielevant inlo, Lut you can change that Lehavioi (see ¨Fine-
Tuning Data Migiation¨ on page 33).
30 | Chapter 2: Installing Lion and Migrating Data
Il Loth Macs have FiieViie, choose ¨Fiom a Time Ma-
chine Lackup oi othei uisk¨ anu then iestait the Mac
you want to get uata jron in FiieViie Taiget Disk Moue
Ly holuing uown the T key while the computei Loots,
until you see a FiieViie symLol uancing on the scieen.
Networking Options When Migrating Data
Beloie Migiation Assistant came along, getting youi uata onto
youi new Mac coulu Le a ieal pain. Vhile Migiation Assistant
is a lantastic tool, it has one uiawLack: it uoesn`t uilleientiate
Letween uilleient types ol netwoiks.
As you alieauy know, not eveiy netwoik connection is egual.
Il you`ie tiansleiiing small Lits ol inloimation (like email oi
text messages), a cellphone piotocol is plenty ol Lanuwiuth.
But when you`ie tiansleiiing laigei chunks ol uata, the type ol
connection is moie impoitant. Il you`ie using Migiation As-
sistant, theie`s a goou chance that you`ie planning to senu a
Lunch ol uata liom youi olu computei to youi new Mac, so
Iigurc 2-1. Gctting data jron an o|dcr Mac
Installing Lion | 31
the speeu ol the tianslei ieally matteis÷especially since you`ll
Le lockeu out ol Loth machines loi the uuiation ol the tianslei.
Heie aie youi uata-tianslei options liom lastest to slowest:
Etheinet is youi lastest option. Il youi Mac has an Ethei-
net poit (all Macs except the MacBook Aii uo), you can
stiing an Etheinet caLle Letween youi olu computei anu
youi new Mac anu tianslei uata at up to a gigaLit
(1,000 ML) pei seconu.
IircWirc 800
FiieViie S00 is youi seconu-lastest option. Not eveiy Mac
that can iun Lion has a FiieViie S00 poit, so il you`ie
unsuie, check out youi System Inloimation (see ¨System
Inloimation¨ on page 1S6) anu select FiieViie. Il Loth
youi computeis aie FiieViie S00 eguippeu, you`ll Le
swapping uata at a peppy S00 MLps.
A lot ol Mac owneis will have FiieViie 100 on theii
olu machine anu FiieViie 800 on theii new one
(no new Macs have FiieViie +00). In that case, you
can get a FiieViie +00 to S00 caLle (tiy Amazon)
anu then tianslei youi liles using a +00 MLps
ViFi is the slowest option. Its speeu vaiies uepenuing on
the netwoik, Lut il you`ie using the S02.11n, youi net-
woik coulu Le iunning up to 300 MLps.
32 | Chapter 2: Installing Lion and Migrating Data
You might Le wonueiing why ThunueiLolt, Apple`s
newest 10 GLps uual-channel netwoiking option) isn`t
listeu. As ol this wiiting, ThunueiLolt isn`t suppoiteu Ly
Migiation Assistant, though this coulu change as Thun-
ueiLolt Lecomes moie common.
The speeus listeu aLove aie Lest-case scenaiios, so youi ieal-
lile expeiience may not match those numLeis. But even with
that caveat noteu, you`ll save a signilicant amount ol time il
you use one ol the wiieu options insteau ol ViFi.
Youi Mac is kinu ol lazy. It uoesn`t caie which tianslei methou
is the lastest; it`ll automatically opt loi the netwoik connection
you`ie cuiiently using. So il you uon`t want to sling liles ovei
youi ViFi connection (which coulu take loievei), you can
stiing an Etheinet caLle Letween youi Macs anu then switch
to that connection in the Netwoik pieleience pane to get youi
uata moving at Lieakneck speeu.
Fine-Tuning Data Migration
Il you`ie migiating uata, chances aie you have a new Mac. Il
you`ie like most people, you`ve accumulateu a lot ol ciult ovei
time, anu you might not want to tianslei cvcrything liom youi
olu Mac. Ol couise you`ll want to save that loluei ol LOLcat
pictuies, Lut that loluei with youi mastei`s thesis is just taking
up space.
Migiation Assistant lets you ueciue what to take anu what to
leave Lehinu in teims ol useis anu settings. (Don`t woiiy: this
is a nonuestiuctive piocess, so the uata you shun on youi new
Mac will still Le on the olu Mac.) Simply lollow the uata-
migiation piocess uesciiLeu eailiei in this chaptei, Lut when
you get to the ¨Select Items to Migiate¨ scieen (Figuie 2-5),
uncheck the items you want to leave Lehinu. Click the uisclo-
suie tiiangle to uisplay all youi options.
Installing Lion | 33
Altei you make youi selections, click Continue anu youi uata
will Le tiansleiieu. Give it some time anu youi uata will mag-
ically appeai on youi new Mac.
Don`t get conluseu Ly the loluei names. Foi example,
Movies uoesn`t mean that Migiation Assistant will im-
poit all youi movie liles, just that it will impoit the Mov-
ies jo|dcr. Il you have movies stoieu elsewheie anu you
want them to come along uuiing the tianslei, make suie
the ¨All othei liles anu lolueis¨ option is checkeu.
Once Migiation Assistant linishes migiating youi uata, Setup
Assistant will pop up anu ollei to upgiaue youi email (il you`ie
migiating liom an oluei veision ol Mac OS X). This takes a lew
moments, Lut once it`s linisheu, you`ie liee to use youi new
Mac anu pick up wheie you lelt oll with the olu one!
Iigurc 2-5. Dcciding what you want on your ncw Mac
34 | Chapter 2: Installing Lion and Migrating Data
A Quick Guide to Lion
What You Need to Know About Mac OS X
Finuing youi way aiounu Lion loi the liist time is exciting, Lut
it`s also easy to miss out on many cool new leatuies, especially
il you`ie new to Mac OS X oi you`ve Leen using an oluei veision
ol the opeiating system. This chaptei will get you up to speeu
on the Lasics ol Mac OS X, with a special locus on what`s new
in Lion. It`ll lamiliaiize you with the most impoitant aspects
ol Mac OS X so you can get the most out ol Apple`s Lest op-
eiating system to uate. The logical place to stait is with the liist
thing you cieateu when you installeu oi ian Mac OS X loi the
liist time÷youi account.
User Accounts
Lion is the latest anu gieatest liom Apple, Lut the opeiating
system`s ioots go all the way to Unix, a multiusei woikstation
anu seivei opeiating system. Because Mac OS X is Laseu on
Unix, it`s also multiusei to its coie. Even il no one Lut you evei
touches youi Mac, it`s still helplul to unueistanu usei ac-
counts, Lecause you may neeu to ueal with them someuay.
Consiuei these situations:
º As you`ll leain shoitly, you may want to set up an unpii-
vilegeu account loi uay-to-uay use to limit youi vulneia-
Lility to mistakes anu malicious soltwaie.
º Il you evei neeu to iun a uemonstiation on youi Mac,
you`ll pioLaLly want to cieate a sepaiate account to iun
the uemo to pievent inteiiuptions liom chat Luuuies, cal-
enuai ieminueis, anu the like.
º Even the most solitaiy Mac usei eventually neeus to let
someone else use hei Mac (a houseguest, lamily memLei,
oi TSA agent), anu it`s so easy to set up a new usei account
that you may as well uo it÷then even youi most ieckless
liienu can use youi Mac without much thieat ol majoi
Theie aie live types ol usei accounts in Mac OS X, anu you can
also cieate gioups ol useis:
Vhen you cieate youi liist account in Mac OS X, it`ll au-
tomatically Le an Auministiatoi account. This is the most
poweilul account Lecause an auministiatoi can make
g|oba| changes that allect the computei anu all othei usei
accounts, like auuing anu iemoving piogiams. Because ol
this aLility to change things (sometimes inauveitently),
most savvy Mac useis aigue that you shoulun`t use Au-
ministiatoi accounts loi uay-to-uay computing; insteau,
they iecommenu using a Stanuaiu account most ol the
You might uetest the iuea ol jettisoning the powei
ol the Auministiatoi account loi uay-to-uay use.
But even il you`ie using a Stanuaiu account, you
can still make gloLal changes Ly typing in youi Au-
ministiatoi account name anu passwoiu.
36 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
Stanuaiu accounts aie the sweet spot: you can`t mess up
youi Mac oi anyone else`s account while using a Stanuaiu
account, Lut you still have plenty ol contiol ovei how youi
Mac woiks. You can auu anu uelete piogiams loi just youi
account, Lut not to the entiie system, anu you can uelete
liles you own (those you`ve cieateu oi installeu), Lut not
liles owneu Ly otheis.
Managcd with Parcnta| Contro|s
Accounts manageu with Paiental Contiols aie limiteu in
what they can uo. These useis can`t make changes to the
system at all. Il you tiieu to use a manageu account, you`u
likely linu it liustiating anu unacceptaLle. But to a live-
yeai-olu, a manageu account is niivana. You can aujust
the settings with the Paiental Contiols pieleience pane
(see ¨Paiental Contiols¨ on page 1+9).
Sharing On|y
Shaiing Only accounts aie uesigneu to let people connect
to youi machine liom anothei computei to shaie liles.
People assigneu this type ol account can`t log into youi
Mac via the login scieen; only iemote connections aie
In Snow Leopaiu you hau to specilically enaLle this type
ol account, Lut in Lion it`s automatically availaLle. This
type ol account is lantastic il you want to let someone use
youi Mac without Leing aLle to make any peimanent
changes. Log someone in as a Guest anu he`ll Le aLle to
seaich the VeL, check his email online, anu much moie.
But the moment he logs out, eveiything he uiu÷any uata
he uownloaueu, loi example÷is gone. You can even en-
aLle Paiental Contiols loi a Guest account il you`ie woi-
iieu aLout guests uoing things you`u iathei they uiun`t.
You can use Gioup accounts to cieate a collection ol mul-
tiple useis. You can use these types ol accounts to exeicise
line-giaineu contiol ovei piivileges loi shaieu uocuments.
What You Need to Know About Mac OS X | 37
Lion will also allow one moie type ol access loi youi Mac: once
iClouu comes out (it wasn`t out when this Look went to piess),
you`ll have the option to enaLle the Finu My Mac seivice. Il
you uo, not only will you Le aLle to locate youi lost Mac ovei
the VeL, Lut anyone who linus it will only Le aLle to stait the
computei in Salaii-only moue. So all that peison will Le aLle
to uo is Liowse the VeL with Salaii, anu while they`ie using
youi Mac, location inloimation will Le sent to the VeL to help
you linu youi computei.
Setting up accounts
Now that you know the uilleient types ol accounts in Lion,
you`ll likely want to set up a lew accounts. Click System
PieleiencesUseis e Gioups (locateu in the System section).
Beloie you can make any changes, you have to click the lock
icon at the Lottom lelt ol the pieleience pane, anu then entei
an auministiatoi useiname anu passwoiu. The extia level ol
secuiity is theie Lecause this pieleience pane lets you aujust
the level ol access loi othei accounts, so you woulun`t want an
unauthoiizeu peison making changes heie.
To auu a new account, click the - Lutton aLove the lock icon.
This opens a uiop-uown winuow wheie you can select the type
ol account to cieate, type in the iuentilying inlo (lull name,
account name), anu set up a passwoiu. Il you want to choose
a pictuie loi the new usei, altei you cieate the account, select
it in the list on the pieleience pane`s lelt anu then, in the miuule
ol the pane, click the account`s pictuie anu choose Euit Pictuie.
You`ll get the option ol using a saveu pictuie (click Choose) oi
taking one with youi Mac`s Luilt-in iSight cameia oi an at-
tacheu weLcam.
To uisaLle the Guest account, click it in the list ol accounts,
anu then uncheck the Lox maikeu ¨Allow guests to log in to
this computei.¨ This will pievent guests liom using youi com-
putei without a passwoiu.
38 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
The Home Folder
The Home loluei is what makes youi Mac seem like your Mac.
Foi example, il you cieate a uocument anu save it in Docu-
ments, the uocument uoesn`t show up in some centializeu
uocuments loluei loi the entiie system, it shows up in the loluei
calleu Documents that lives insiue youi Home loluei.
This pattein extenus to othei lolueis, too (Music, Movies, Pic-
tuies, anu moie). Each account you cieate gets its own Home
loluei with a suLset ol lolueis insiue it. This is wheie all youi
liles anu peisonal pieleiences (like youi selecteu uesktop Lack-
giounu) aie stoieu.
Theie`s one loluei in Useis that uoesn`t coiiesponu to
any usei: the Shaieu loluei. You can use it to stoie liles
anu lolueis you neeu to shaie Letween useis on the same
You can access youi Home loluei Ly opening a Finuei winuow
anu then eithei clicking the house icon in the siueLai oi choos-
ing GoHome (Shilt--H). In eveiy Home loluei, you`ll linu
the lollowing suLlolueis:
This is wheie all the liles sitting on youi uesktop aie
stoieu. (Theie aie a lew othei types ol items that can ap-
peai on the uesktop÷haiu uisks, CDs, DVDs, iPous, anu
seiveis÷Lut you won`t see them in this loluei.) Il you
uiag a uocument liom this loluei to the Tiash, it`ll uisap-
peai liom youi uesktop.
This is the uelault location wheie youi Mac saves uocu-
ments. Using this loluei isn`t manuatoiy, Lut it uoes ollei
a level ol convenience to have a cential iepositoiy loi all
youi uocuments. You can auu suLlolueis loi even moie
What You Need to Know About Mac OS X | 39
oiganization: just open the Documents loluei anu then
choose FileNew Foluei (Shilt--N).
The Downloaus loluei seives uouLle uuty: it`s a loluei in
youi Home uiiectoiy anu it has a spot in youi Dock. Any-
thing you uownloau liom the VeL via a Liowsei shows
up heie (unless you change the uelault uownloau location
in youi Liowsei`s pieleiences, that is) and in youi Dock
in the Downloaus stack (the stack Lounces when a new
item linishes uownloauing). Il you click the Save Lutton
next to an attachment in Mail, it`s also saveu heie. You
can get youi uownloaueu items eithei Ly opening this
loluei oi Ly going to the Downloaus stack in the Dock.
This loluei is much like the Documents loluei, only it
stoies all the movies you make with iMovie anu scieen-
casts you make with QuickTime Playei. ]ust as with the
Documents loluei, theie`s no ieason to stoie youi movies
heie othei than convenience.
The Music loluei, not suipiisingly, is wheie you can stoie
music liles. It`s also wheie iTunes stoies its music liLiaiy
anu any iTunes puichases you make, incluuing iPhone/
iPou apps anu viueos.
Toss all youi .jpg, .png, anu .gij liles iight in heie. iPhoto
also uses this loluei to stoie images you auu to iPhoto.
The PuLlic loluei is a iepositoiy loi liles you want to shaie
with othei useis who can log into youi Mac. You can get
to anothei usei`s PuLlic loluei Ly opening a Finuei win-
uow anu choosing GoComputei. You`ll see a winuow
showing all the uiives anu netwoiks coupleu to the Mac
you`ie using. Selecting the staitup uiive will ieveal a loluei
calleu Useis. Open that loluei anu you`ll see all the othei
useis` Home lolueis (they`ie laLeleu with the iespective
usei`s names, as shown in Figuie 3-1). Open the
40 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
appiopiiate peison`s loluei anu you`ll see hei PuLlic
loluei. You can giaL any liles stoieu in anothei usei`s
PuLlic loluei anu use them as you wish. Likewise, any liles
you toss into youi PuLlic loluei can Le giaLLeu Ly anyone
using the same Mac. (Note that, while you can shaie any
liles you linu in the PuLlic loluei, you can`t actually
change the contents ol someone else`s PuLlic loluei.) Il
you want to shaie liles in this loluei with people on
othcr computeis, you`ll have to go to the Shaiing pielei-
ence pane (see ¨Shaiing¨ on page 1+5).
Iigurc 3-1. A|| your Mac`s accounts in onc p|acc
To ieceive liles liom otheis, have them put the liles in youi
Diop Box, a loluei insiue the PuLlic loluei. Diop Box is a
shaieu loluei, Lut the shaiing only goes one way: people
can put things into youi Diop Box, Lut they can`t take
anything out. In lact, they can`t even see what`s in this
loluei. To use Diop Box, enaLle File Shaiing (see ¨Shai-
ing¨ on page 1+5).
You`ll only see this loluei il you`ie using an Auministiatoi
account. Il you want youi Mac to host a weLsite (it`s cei-
tainly capaLle), this is wheie you put the liles loi the site.
You`ll neeu to uo moie than auu an HTML lile to this
What You Need to Know About Mac OS X | 41
loluei to get youi site woiking, though. See ¨Shai-
ing¨ on page 1+5 to stait shaiing sites stoieu in this loluei
ovei youi local netwoik.
Where’s My Library Folder?
In pievious euitions ol OS X, theie was one auuitional loluei
in youi Home loluei: LiLiaiy. This is wheie youi pieleiences
anu settings (among othei things) aie stoieu. Il you`ie useu to
manually contiolling aspects ol youi LiLiaiy loluei, you`ll
likely miss having easy access to it.
It tuins out the LiLiaiy loluei isn`t ieally gone; it`s just invisi-
Lle. The easiest way to make it appeai is to heau to the Finuei
anu click the Go menu; with the menu open, piess the Option
key, anu the LiLiaiy loluei will magically appeai as a menu
item. Now you can get Lack to manually messing aLout with
youi LiLiaiy loluei il you`ie so inclineu (Lut Le waineu that
tweaking items in the LiLiaiy loluei can have unintenueu con-
Using Lion
Once you have Lion iunning anu youi system set up, what uo
you neeu to know to use it? This section teaches you the Lasics
ol staiting up youi Mac, getting aiounu altei you`ve Looteu,
anu shutting the machine uown.
Starting Up
Chaptei 2 coveieu what happens when you tuin on a liesh,
out-ol-the-Lox Mac (oi a new install ol Lion). Each time you
Loot up youi Mac altei that, the staitup expeiience is usually
seamless. As you`u expect, youi Mac will Loot into Lion (unless
you tell it otheiwise).
42 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
Il you`ve installeu Boot Camp (see ¨Boot Camp Assis-
tant¨ on page 179) oi anothei opeiating system, you can
set the uelault staitup uisk with the Staitup Disk piel-
eience pane (see ¨Staitup Disk¨ on page 155).
The liist thing you`ll see when you stait youi Mac is the giay
Apple logo ( ), lolloweu Ly the spinning wheel that iesemLles
a ciicle ol peipetually lalling uominoes. Once youi Mac lin-
ishes Looting, you`ll Le loggeu in. (Il you`ve uisaLleu automatic
login, you`ll insteau Le piesenteu with a list ol useis oi a usei-
name/passwoiu piompt, uepenuing on youi settings; see
¨Logging In¨ on page ++ loi moie uetails. Log in anu you`ll
Le tianspoiteu to Mac OS X.)
Thanks to Resume, all the apps that weie iunning when you
last tuineu oll youi Mac will automatically open with all the
winuows you hau Leloie. But you uon`t have to use Resume il
you uon`t want to. Vhen you shut uown oi log out ol youi
Mac, the uialog Lox that appeais incluues a ¨Reopen winuows
when logging Lack in¨ checkLox (Figuie 3-2). Uncheck the Lox
anu you`ll enu up at youi uesktop, with no winuows in sight.
Iigurc 3-2. Unchcc| this box to |ccp thosc pcs|y windows jron
Using Lion | 43
Startup key commands
Beloie you stait Looting up youi Mac, you can piess anu holu
one ol these keys/key comLinations to change how it staits
(uselul when tiouLleshooting).
Key command Action
Hold mouse
button while
powering on
Ejects any media in the optical drive
C Forces your Mac to start up from a CD or DVD in the optical drive
R Resets display for Macs with built-in displays (MacBooks and iMacs)
back to the factory settings
T If the Mac has a FireWire port, boots the Mac in FireWire Target Disk
Mode; to get out of this mode, restart the Mac
-S Boots in Single User Mode, which starts your Mac with a text-only
console where you can perform some expert-level system
-V Boots in verbose mode, which shows all the kernel and startup mes-
sages while your Mac is booting
Shift Boots in Safe Mode, a reduced functionality mode that forces your Mac
to check your startup disk, load only the most important kernel ex-
tensions, disable fonts not in the /System/Library/Fonts folder, and
Option Invokes Startup Manager and allows you to select which OS to boot
into; useful if you have multiple copies of Mac OS X installed or use
Boot Camp to run other operating systems
Logging In
By uelault, youi Mac is set up to automatically log in as the
usei you cieateu when you liist set up youi machine. This is
something ol a secuiity iisk, since it means that anyone can get
into youi Auministiatoi account simply Ly poweiing up youi
Mac. Il multiple people use youi machine, you`ll likely want
to tuin this option oll. To uo that, click System Pieleien-
cesUseis e Gioups. Click the lock icon in the pieleience
44 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
pane`s Lottom lelt, entei youi passwoiu, anu then click Login
Options anu change the ¨Automatic login¨ setting to Oll.
The Login Options aie also wheie you can contiol last usei
switching. This leatuie lets you switch useis without having to
log oll, so the applications that you have iunning keep going
while anothei usei logs into hei account. Howevei, having
moie than one usei loggeu in can use up guite a Lit ol memoiy,
so il you have less than 2 GB ol RAM, you might want to tuin
this leatuie oll.
Il you leave last usei switching on, look loi an icon oi useiname
on the iight siue ol the menu Lai. Click this name oi icon anu
use the uiop-uown menu to select anothei usei to log in as. Il
you tuin last usei switching oll, you`ll have to log out ( Log
Out) Leloie you can log in as a uilleient usei.
Logging Out, Sleeping, and Shutting Down
Using the Mac is gieat, Lut at some point you`ll want to stop
using it. Vhen you ieach that point, you`ve got options:
Shut Down
To shut uown youi Mac, click Shut Down. Click Shut
Down in the uialog Lox that appeais (oi uo nothing loi
one minute), anu youi Mac will powei oll. It shoulu only
take a lew seconus to uo so. The next time you want to
use youi Mac, hit the powei Lutton anu wait loi the
machine to Loot.
Log Out
To close youi cuiient woik session anu guit all iunning
piogiams Lut leave youi Mac iunning, log out Ly clicking
Log Out oi Ly piessing Shilt--Q. Then click Log Out
in the uialog Lox that appeais. Piessing Shilt-Option--
Q insteau logs you out immeuiately÷theie`s no conlii-
mation uialog Lox. To use youi Mac again, you (oi
anothei usei) will neeu to log in.
Using Lion | 45
You uon`t have to shut youi Mac uown eveiy uay; you can
just let it sleep. To put a MacBook to sleep, all you have
to uo is close the liu. On uesktop Macs, select Sleep oi
piess Option-- (these methous woik on MacBooks,
too). A sleeping Mac uses veiy little electiicity, anu it`ll
wake up in seconus. (Foi moie on saving eneigy, see
¨Eneigy Savei¨ on page 132.) Vonueiing il youi Mac is
sleeping oi simply oll? On MacBooks, you`ll see an inui-
catoi light that pulses to let you know it`s only sleeping.
Shut down and log out shortcuts
No one wants to spenu lots ol time logging out oi shutting
uown. Heie aie some shoitcuts that make the piocess lastei.
Key command Action
Shift--Q Logs you out
Shift-Option--Q Logs you out without a confirmation dialog box
Shut Down Shuts your Mac down; hold Option when selecting this menu
item (or press Control-Option-- instead) to shut down
Restart Restarts your Mac; hold Option when selecting this menu
item (or press Control-- instead) to restart immediately
Control- Displays a window that lets you restart, put to sleep, or shut
down your Mac
Control--Power Button Forces your Mac to shut down (use this only as a last resort)
Option-- Puts your Mac to sleep
Lion Basics
A lot happens Letween when you stait up youi Mac anu when
you shut it uown. The time you spenu in Mac OS X will Le
moie pleasant anu piouuctive il you leain wheie eveiything is.
The logical place to stait the toui is iight at the top ol youi
scieen, with the menu Lai.
46 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
In oluei veisions ol OS X, the menu Lai was always theie
(except when you weie using Fiont Row). In Lion, the
menu Lai hiues when you`ie using lull-scieen applica-
tions. To access it while using a lull-scieen piogiam,
simply move youi cuisoi all the way to the top ol the
The Menu Bar
The menu Lai spans the top ol youi monitoi (il you use mul-
tiple monitois, you can choose which one the menu Lai shows
up on with the Displays pieleience pane). The lelt siue ol the
Lai pioviues access to commonly useu commanus anu the iight
siue is ieseiveu loi menu extias (see ¨Menu ex-
tias¨ on page 55) anu Spotlight (the magnilying glass icon).
Eveiy Mac usei`s menu Lai is likely to look a little uilleient,
uepenuing on what`s installeu anu how the Mac is conliguieu.
A typical menu Lai is shown in Figuie 3-3.
Iigurc 3-3. A typica| ncnu bar
Heie`s what you`ll linu in the menu Lai, liom lelt to iight:
1. The Apple menu ( )
2. The Application menu
3. A set ol application-ielateu menus
+. Menu extias
5. Spotlight
Lion Basics | 47
Hate the tianslucency ol the menu Lai? You can tuin the
menu Lai soliu giay Ly selecting System Pieleien-
cesDesktop e Scieen SaveiDesktop, anu then un-
checking the ¨Tianslucent menu Lai¨ Lox.
The Apple menu
No mattei which application you`ie using, the options in the
menu aie always the same (see Figuie 3-+).
Iigurc 3-1. Lion`s App|c ncnu
Heie`s what each menu item uoes:
About This Mac
Pops up a winuow giving you a guick oveiview ol youi
Mac: the veision ol Mac OS X it`s iunning, the piocessoi
it has, anu the amount ol RAM that`s installeu. Theie aie
thiee things you can click in this winuow:
48 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
º Click the veision numLei (such as 10.7) to cycle
thiough the Luilu numLei ol Mac OS X anu the seiial
numLei ol youi Mac. (It`s not unusual to neeu this inlo
when getting suppoit ovei the phone.)
º Click Soltwaie Upuate to see whethei you have all the
latest anu gieatest upuates installeu.
º Click Moie Inlo to open System Inloimation. This op-
tion has Leen impioveu in Lion. Vhen you select it,
you`ll see taLs that give you an oveiview ol youi Mac,
anu ones that tell you (in a cool giaphic lashion) aLout
Displays, Stoiage (uiives attacheu to youi Mac), anu
Memoiy (how much you have installeu anu in which
slot). You`ll also linu taLs loi Suppoit (this is a goou
staiting point when you`ie pioLlem solving) anu Seiv-
ice, which lets you check youi waiianty status anu
gives you a chance to Luy AppleCaie (Apple`s exten-
ueu waiianty seivice).
Sojtwarc Updatc
Launches Soltwaie Upuate anu checks loi changes to
Apple-supplieu soltwaie (it uoesn`t check loi upuates to
thiiu-paity soltwaie).
App Storc
Launches the Mac App Stoie, wheie you can look loi new
applications, check loi upuates to ones you alieauy have,
anu so on.
Systcn Prcjcrcnccs
Launches System Pieleiences, which is coveieu in uetail
in Chaptei 5.
Opens a menu that lets you guickly conliguie youi Dock:
Tuin Hiuing On, Tuin Magnilication On, anu thiee Dock
positioning options (you can put it anywheie Lut the top
ol youi scieen). The Dock Pieleiences option, not sui-
piisingly, opens the Dock pieleience pane. Foi moie inlo,
see ¨Dock¨ on page 121.
Lion Basics | 49
Rcccnt |tcns
Displays a menu showing youi 10 most iecently useu ap-
plications, 10 most iecently openeu uocuments, anu 10
most iecently useu seiveis. You can change the numLei
ol items that aie uisplayeu heie Ly going to System
PieleiencesGeneial, anu then aujusting the ¨NumLei ol
iecent items¨ settings.
Iorcc Quit
Foices stuLLoin applications to guit. Foi moie on this
commanu, see the section ¨MisLehaving Applica-
tions¨ on page 100.
Puts youi Mac into sleep moue, a low-powei moue that
pieseives what you weie uoing Leloie you put youi ma-
chine to sleep. Vhen you wake youi Mac up, eveiything
will Le just as you lelt it. To wake a sleeping Mac, just
piess a key oi move the mouse.
You can set youi Mac to automatically sleep altei a peiiou
ol inactivity Ly using the Eneigy Savei pieleience pane
(see ¨Eneigy Savei¨ on page 132).
Makes youi Mac shut uown anu then immeuiately ieLoot
anu go thiough the entiie staitup piocess. You`ll Le askeu
to conliim that you ieally want to iestait youi Mac. Il you
uon`t click Cancel, youi Mac will iestait one minute altei
you select this menu option.
Shut Down
Poweis youi Mac uown. It`ll stay shut uown until you
piess the powei Lutton, unless you`ve set a time loi youi
Mac to auto-stait in the Eneigy Savei pieleience pane (see
¨Eneigy Savei¨ on page 132).
Log Out
Logs you out ol youi usei account. The next time someone
uses youi Mac, he oi she will have to log in.
50 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
Many items in the menu have ellipses (.) altei them.
These inuicate that a conliimation uialog Lox will ap-
peai il you select that option. Il you want to iestait, shut
uown, oi log out without seeing the uialog Lox, holu the
Option key while selecting the action ol youi choice
liom the menu.
The Application menu
Next to the menu is the Application menu. The name anu
contents ol this menu uepenu on what application you`ie cui-
iently using. Figuie 3-5 shows the Finuei`s Application menu.
Iigurc 3-5. Thc Iindcr`s App|ication ncnu
Theie ieally isn`t a stanuaiu Application menu, Lut most have
some commonalities. In a typical Application menu you`ll linu:
About jApp|ication Nancj
Opens a winuow with the application`s veision numLei,
copyiight inlo, anu whatevei else the piogiam`s uevelopei
thinks shoulu Le theie.
Lion Basics | 51
Opens the application`s pieleiences winuow. Vhat you
can contiol liom this winuow vaiies liom application to
application÷it coulu Le veiy little oi a lot. Foi inlo
on the Finuei`s pieleiences, see the section ¨Masteiing the
Finuei¨ on page 59.
All the seivices the cuiient app can use appeai in a list
when you highlight this option. Check out ¨The Seivices
Menu¨ on page 53 loi uetails.
Hidc jApp|ication Nancj
Hiues all ol the cuiient application`s winuows. Il you have
50 Salaii winuows open anu uon`t want to manually min-
imize each one to see what lies Leneath, choose this op-
tion. To get the winuows Lack, just click the application`s
Dock icon.
Hidc Othcrs
Hiues eveiy application except the one you`ie using.
Show A||
This is the antiuote to the Hiue commanu. Il you`ve hiu-
uen a single application oi eveiy application, Show All will
ietuin all the hiuuen application winuows to lull
Quit jApp|ication Nancj
Quits the cuiient application. (You can also invoke this
commanu Ly piessing -Q.) Most people`s inclination is
to guit any application they aien`t using, Lut that olten
isn`t necessaiy. Mac OS X is veiy goou at allocating ie-
souices, so leaving an application iuling will geneially
have veiy little impact on the system.
52 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
The Services Menu
The Seivices menu is the most complex option in the Appli-
cation menu. It olleis you guick access to lunctions pioviueu
Ly othei piogiams, which aie calleu seivices. The seivices
availaLle to you uepenu on the applications installeu on youi
Mac anu the piogiam you`ie using. TextEuit (which you can
linu in the Applications loluei) pioviues a nice example ol what
the Seivices menu can uo. Figuie 3-6 shows the options avail-
aLle when you`ve selecteu some text in TextEuit. Il you want
to senu the selecteu text as a Mail message, loi example, all
you neeu to uo is choose New Email Vith Selection, anu Mail
will pop open a new message with the text alieauy inseiteu.
In some applications, the Seivices menu won`t have anything
to ollei (the menu will ieau ¨No Seivices Apply¨).
Clicking the Seivices Pieleiences option opens the KeyLoaiu
pieleience pane to its Seivices section, wheie you can custom-
ize the Seivices menu. You can also cieate youi own seivices
with Automatoi (see ¨Automatoi¨ on page 160).
Iigurc 3-ó. Scrviccs avai|ab|c with TcxtEdit whcn tcxt is sc|cctcd
Lion Basics | 53
Standard Application menus
Altei the Application menu come moie menus. How many?
That uepenus on the application. Foi example, Mail has eight
anu Salaii has seven. You`ll linu at least loui menus in the menu
Lai Lesiues the Application menu. Vhat`s in these loui menus
a|so uepenus on the application, Lut theie aie some stanuaiu
options to expect:
This menu typically contains options loi saving, opening,
cieating, anu piinting liles.
Heie you`ll linu the olu Mac stanuLys: Cut (-X), Copy
(-C), Paste (-V), anu Unuo (-Z).
This menu lists all the open winuows loi the cuiient
Depenuing on the application anu its uevelopei, this
menu can eithei Le veiy uselul oi a waste ol space. Vhen
you open the Help menu (eithei Ly clicking it oi Ly piess-
ing Shilt--?), you`ll see a seaich Lox anu a lew othei op-
tions. One ol the ieally nice things aLout the Help menu
in Mac OS X is that it won`t just ieguigitate an entiy in a
uataLase÷insteau, il possiLle, it shows you how to uo
what you want to uo. Foi example, suppose you want to
cieate a new loluei while using the Finuei. Open the
Finuei`s Help menu, type new folder in the seaich Lox,
anu then hovei youi cuisoi ovei the New Foluei entiy in
the list that appeais. The Help system will then show you
which menu contains the New Foluei option anu high-
light it with a lloating Llue aiiow, as shown in Figuie 3-7.
54 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
Iigurc 3-7. Hc|p can jind thc ncnu itcn you nccd.
Menu extras
The iight siue ol the menu Lai is wheie you`ll linu the menu
extias, a.k.a. menulets. (Spotlight is on the Lai`s jar iight anu
isn`t technically a menu extia.) Menu extias give you easy ac-
cess to lunctions you use olten. The menu extia`s icon usually
iellects what it uoes. A uselul example is the Keychain menu
extia (Figuie 3-S), which you can auu Ly launching the Key-
chain Access utility in /App|ications/Uti|itics anu then choosing
¨Show keychain status in menu Lai¨ liom its pieleiences. It
gives you guick access to youi passwoius anu secuie notes
without having to make a tiip to the Utilities loluei.
Iigurc 3-8. Thc Kcychain ncnu cxtra
Lion Basics | 55
Not eveiy menu extia is a shoitcut to a piogiam; some contiol
settings (such as the Volume menu extia) anu some aie theie
to show the status ol ceitain aspects ol youi Mac (such as the
Batteiy menu extia). Vhat menu extias you linu uselul ue-
penus on how you use youi Mac.
Unlike menus, whose options change uepenuing on the appli-
cation you`ie using, menu extias iemain constant: each one
always uoes the same thing, no mattei which piogiam is
The menu extias you see Ly uelault uepenu on how youi Mac
is conliguieu. You can Lanish unwanteu menu extias Ly -
uiagging them oll the menu Lai; the menu extia will uisappeai
with a satislying pool sounu anu an accompanying animation.
To ieoiuei youi menu extias, -uiag them into any oiuei you
want. Note that you can`t move the Spotlight icon÷it looks
like a menu extia, Lut as lai as Mac OS X is conceineu, it`s
immovaLle anu peimanent.
The Accounts menu
Il you`ve enaLleu last usei switching (see ¨Useis e
Gioups¨ on page 1+S), you`ll see the name oi icon ol the cui-
ient usei heie. Click it to select anothei usei to log in as.
Clicking this magnilying glass icon Liings up the Spotlight
seaich Lox. Foi moie inloimation, see ¨Seaiching with Spot-
light¨ on page 91.
Use the menu bar less
Il you ieally want to Le piouuctive, it`s much guickei to use
keyLoaiu shoitcuts loi most commanus than to go hunting loi
them in the menu Lai. Heie`s a list ol some ol the most com-
monly useu keyLoaiu shoitcuts loi items in the menu Lai.
56 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
Key command Action
-C Copies selected information to the clipboard
-V Pastes the contents of the clipboard into the current document
-X Cuts the current selection and copies it to the clipboard
-A Selects everything (the entire document, all items in a folder, etc.)
-S Saves the current file (you can’t use this one too often)
-O Opens a new file
-W Closes the current window
-Z Undoes your most recent action (some programs offer multiple levels
of undo)
-H Hides the current application and its windows
-, Opens the current application’s Preferences window
-Q Quits the current program (not available in Finder)
Theie aie many moie key commanus at youi uisposal (see
Chaptei S), Lut these aie likely to Le the ones you use most
olten. (As well, each application has its own keyLoaiu shoit-
cuts that can stieamline youi woikllow, so leaining the key
commanus loi the piogiams you use lieguently is woith youi
The Desktop
As you pioLaLly know, the Lig aiea unuei the menu Lai is
calleu the uesktop. Open application winuows lloat ovei the
uesktop. Depenuing on how you have it conliguieu, the uesk-
top will also show you all the attacheu anu inteinal uiives
(iPous, llash uiives, anu so on), any optical uisks (CDs, DVDs),
anu any liles you`ve stoieu heie loi easy access. You can change
youi uesktop`s Lackgiounu eithei Ly Contiol-clicking oi iight-
clicking the uesktop anu then choosing Change Desktop
Backgiounu, oi Ly heauing to the Desktop e Scieen Savei
pieleience pane (see ¨Desktop e Scieen Savei¨ on page 11S).
Lion Basics | 57
To contiol how items aie uisplayeu on the uesktop, choose
Show View Options liom the Finuei`s View menu, oi piess
-]. The winuow shown in Figuie 3-9 appeais.
Iigurc 3-9. Thc dcs|top`s vicw options
The Desktop view options winuow lets you contiol the size ol
uesktop icons (liom 16×16 pixels all the way to 12S×12S pix-
els), how they`ie spaceu (theie`s an invisiLle giiu that Mac
OS X uses when aiianging uesktop icons), anu the size anu
location ol theii laLels.
Il you check the ¨Show item inlo¨ Lox, you`ll see extia inloi-
mation when looking at items on youi uesktop. Diives show
the name ol the uiive anu the amount ol liee space lelt, lolueis
list the name ol the loluei anu the numLei ol items containeu,
anu DVDs show the amount ol uata stoieu on them. The extia
inloimation uisplayeu loi liles uepenus on theii type. Images,
loi example, uisplay the size ol the image.
The ¨Show icon pieview¨ Lox lets you toggle Letween geneiic
icons anu icons that uisplay the lile`s contents. The ¨Soit Ly¨
menu lets you choose how uesktop icons aie aiiangeu. You can
have them snap to the (invisiLle) giiu oi Le aiiangeu accoiuing
to some ciiteiia (name, uate cieateu, anu so on).
To navigate on the uesktop without using the mouse, you can
use the aiiow keys. Anothei option is to stait typing an item`s
name; the item will automatically get highlighteu anu you can
58 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
open it Ly piessing -O. Hitting the Retuin key insteau allows
you to iename the item.
To contiol what kinu ol items appeai on the uesktop, you use
the Finuei`s pieleiences (switch to the Finuei anu then choose
FinueiPieleiences oi hit -,). Unuei the Geneial taL, you`ll
linu options to uisplay (oi hiue) haiu uisks; exteinal uisks;
CDs, DVDs, anu iPous; anu connecteu seiveis.
Mastering the Finder
Unueistanuing the Finuei is key to successlully getting aiounu
in Mac OS X. It lets you move liles, copy liles, anu launch ap-
plications, among othei things. The most common way useis
inteiact with the Finuei is thiough a Finuei winuow.
The Finder window
The Finuei winuow has unueigone some suLstantial changes
in Lion: gone aie the seaich options in the siueLai anu the Lai
at the Lottom that useu to incluue a summaiy ol the cuiient
loluei anu a sliuei to aujust icon size. Also missing aie the col-
oilul siueLai icons; now, as in Mail, eveiything is muteu.
Finally, though you pioLaLly won`t miss it, the ¨Hiue/Show
toolLai anu siueLai¨ Lutton is gone.
To Liing the Finuei to the liont, click some empty space on the
uesktop, click the Finuei`s Dock icon, oi hit -TaL until you
select its icon. Once the Finuei is liontmost, hit -N to open
a Finuei winuow. Figuie 3-10 shows a typical one.
Il you upgiaueu to Lion liom Snow Leopaiu, youi Finuei
winuow will look slightly uilleient. Exactly what you`ll
see uepenus on how you conliguieu the winuow in Snow
Leopaiu, Lut some ol the Luttons may Le in uilleient
spots. You`ll also see the Quick Look Lutton, which has
an eye icon anu lets you peek at the selecteu lile (see
¨Common Finuei tasks¨ on page 6S loi uetails).
Lion Basics | 59
Iigurc 3-10. A standard Iindcr window
The Finuei winuow is maue up ol seveial components:
1. Bac| and Iorward buttons
These Luttons cycle you thiough uiiectoiies you`ve Leen
using. Foi example, say you stait in youi Home uiiectoiy
anu then uiill uown into youi Documents loluei. Altei
you linu the uocument you weie looking loi, clicking the
Lack Lutton ietuins you to youi Home uiiectoiy.
2. \icw contro|s
These Luttons contiol how the Finuei uisplays inloima-
tion. You have loui options: Icon View (the uelault), List
View, Column View, anu Covei Flow; see ¨Finuei
views¨ on page 65.
3. Action ncnu
Clicking this Lutton ieveals a uiop-uown menu that vaiies
uepenuing on the item selecteu. Geneially, it contains the
same options you`u get il you iight-clickeu oi Contiol-
clickeu that item.
1. Arrangc ncnu
This Lutton lets you change the oiuei in which the items
in a loluei aie uisplayeu. Clicking it gives you nine uillei-
ent soiting options (plus the option to not soit at all).
60 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
5. Proxy icon
This item is a giaphical iepiesentation ol youi cuiient lo-
cation (loi example, the uiawei icon in Figuie 3-10 shows
that you`ie in All My Files). Right-click oi Contiol-click it
to Liing up a list ol common uestinations; select one to
hop to that spot oi uiag a loluei onto the list to cieate a
copy ol it in that location.
ó. Scarch box
Entei text in this Lox anu hit Retuin to tell the Finuei to
seaich loi matching items. New in Lion, when you stait
typing a seaich teim, it uisplays a uiop-uown menu with
suggestions to help ieline youi seaich. The seaich is pow-
eieu Ly Spotlight, Lut unlike a Spotlight seaich, it won`t
ietuin Mail messages oi weL pages.
Customizing the Finder toolbar
To iemove items liom the Finuei`s toolLai, simply -uiag
them oll ol the toolLai. Doing this tiuies things up, Lut it
uoesn`t give you what most people want: norc options. To auu
things to the toolLai, eithei iight-click oi Contiol-click on a
Llank space in the toolLai anu select Customize ToolLai, oi go
to ViewCustomize ToolLai. The uialog Lox in Figuie 3-11
opens, showing all the items you can auu.
Iigurc 3-11. That`s a |ot oj options!
Lion Basics | 61
The Show menu, shown in Figuie 3-11, allows you to
change how items in the Finuei`s toolLai aie uisplayeu.
You get thiee options: Icon Only (the uelault), Icon anu
Text, anu Text Only.
Most ol the items you can auu aie sell-explanatoiy, Lut a lew
aie woithy ol a closei look:
This Lutton gives you a menu that shows the path up liom
the cuiient uiiectoiy to the top-level ol youi computei.
Foi example, suppose you have the Finuei open to youi
Pictuies loluei. Clicking this Lutton will ieveal the lol-
lowing list:
º Pictuies
º ¦Youi Home loluei¦
º Useis
º ¦Youi Boot Diive¦
º ¦Youi Computei¦
You can choose any item in the list to jump to that
Buin a lot ol uisks? This Lutton can save you a lot ol time.
Select an item (oi loluei) anu then click this Lutton, anu
the Finuei will tell you to inseit a uisk to Luin to.
Gct |njo
This Liings up the Inlo winuow loi the selecteu item÷
veiy uselul il you aujust peimissions olten.
The sidebar
The siueLai occupies the lelt-hanu siue ol a Finuei winuow anu
is ieminiscent ol iTunes`s siueLai. The Finuei uiviues the siue-
Lai into thiee sections:
62 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
This section lists the most common things you`ll use: All
My Files, AiiDiop, Applications, Desktop, Documents,
Downloaus, Movies, Music, anu Pictuies. Some ol these
items point to actual lolueis (like Applications, loi exam-
ple), Lut not all ol them uo. All My Files points to all the
liles you`ve cieateu; it`s a Smait loluei (see ¨Smait Folu-
eis¨ on page S5). AiiDiop is a guick way to shaie liles
Letween Macs; see ¨AiiDiop¨ on page 11 loi uetails on
using it.
This section lists any shaieu uevices availaLle to youi Mac.
Computeis shaieu via Bonjoui, shaieu uiives, Time Cap-
sule, Back to My Mac, anu the like will show up heie.
This is wheie you will linu the uevices connecteu to youi
Mac, incluuing inteinal uiives, youi iDisk (il you have
one), exteinal uiives, USB sticks, iPous, CDs, anu DVDs.
The siueLai is moie than just a speeuy way to hop to these
locations. Vant to install an application you just uownloaueu?
Insteau ol opening a Finuei winuow to the Applications loluei,
just uiag the application to the Applications loluei in the siue-
Lai. To ieoiuei items in the siueLai, simply uiag them aiounu;
to iemove items, just uiag them oll ol the siueLai. (Diagging
an item out ol the siueLai uoesn`t uelete the item, it only ueletes
the ieleience to it liom the siueLai.) You can uo even moie Ly
iight-clicking oi Contiol-clicking an entiy in the siueLai÷a
menu will pop allowing you to uo some common anu uselul
tasks tailoieu to the item you clickeu. Finally, il you want guick
access to a loluei, application, oi uocument, you can uiag it to
the siueLai anu an alias will Le cieateu pointing to the item.
Finder preferences
Like eveiy application, the Finuei has a set ol pieleiences you
can customize. To access them, go to FinueiPieleiences, oi
type -, while the Finuei is the active application. The winuow
that appeais has loui taLs:
Lion Basics | 63
Heie`s wheie you ueteimine what items show up on youi
uesktop. Youi options aie haiu uisks; exteinal uisks; CDs,
DVDs, anu iPous; anu connecteu seiveis. You can also
specily what uiiectoiy a new Finuei winuow opens to. The
uelault is All My Files (see ¨All My Files¨ on page 10), Lut
you can change that to any loluei with the ¨New Finuei
winuows show¨ menu. You also get a checkLox (that`s
uncheckeu Ly uelault) wheie you can choose to open
lolueis in a new winuow. Finally, you can line-tune (oi
tuin oll) spiing-loaueu lolueis, which automatically pop
open il you uiag an item ovei them, allowing you to
guickly access nesteu lolueis while uiagging an item.
Il you`ie Lig on oiganization, you can laLel items with
colois. By uelault, the laLels` names match theii colois÷
loi example, il you laLel something with the coloi ieu, the
text laLel is Reu. That isn`t veiy uesciiptive, so il you want
to have the ieu laLel ieau ¨En Fuego¨ insteau, this is wheie
you can change the laLel name. (Note that changing a
laLel`s name won`t impact how laLeleu lolueis aie uis-
playeu.) To auu a laLel to a loluei, iight-click oi Contiol-
click the loluei anu then choose the laLel you want to use
liom the menu that pops up.
This taL allows you to specily which items aie uisplayeu
in the siueLai. Il you`ve ueleteu a Luilt-in item liom the
siueLai, a tiip to this taL can iestoie it. Il you uncheck all
the items in a categoiy, that categoiy will no longei appeai
in the siueLai. (Il you`ve auueu any items to a section ol
the siueLai, that categoiy won`t vanish until you also ie-
move those items Ly uiagging them out ol the siueLai.)
The Auvanceu taL gives you checkLoxes to contiol
whethei lilename extensions aie uisplayeu (il you check
this Lox, Salaii will Le uisplayeu as, loi exam-
ple), whethei the Finuei shoulu wain you Leloie changing
64 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
an extension, whethei you shoulu Le waineu Leloie emp-
tying the Tiash, anu whethei the Tiash shoulu Le emptieu
secuiely. (See ¨Tiash¨ on page 79 loi moie inlo.)
Finder views
You can change how items aie uisplayeu in the Finuei Ly click-
ing the toolLai Luttons (see ¨Customizing the Finuei tool-
Lai¨ on page 61) oi using the keyLoaiu shoitcuts listeu Lelow.
Heie aie youi options:
|con \icw (-1)
This is the uelault view in Lion. Items aie uisplayeu as lile
icons, application icons, oi loluei icons (Figuie 3-12).
Single-clicking an item in Icon View selects it; uouLle-
clicking launches the application, opens the lile (insiue its
associateu application), oi opens the loluei. You can use
the aiiow keys to move liom item to item. Holuing the
Shilt key while using the aiiow keys selects multiple items.
Iigurc 3-12. |con vicw oj thc App|ications jo|dcr
List \icw (-2)
This view piesents the contents ol a loluei as a list. You
can open suLlolueis Ly clicking theii uisclosuie tiiangles
(see Figuie 3-13). List View olleis moie inloimation than
Icon View, Lut leels moie clutteieu. As with Icon View,
you can navigate thiough List View using the aiiow keys:
Lion Basics | 65
anu change what`s selecteu; → anu ← open anu close
(iespectively) a suLloluei`s uisclosuie tiiangle. To open all
suLlolueis unuei the one that`s selecteu, use Option-; to
close all suLlolueis altei you`ve openeu them, use Option-
←. To soit liles, click a iow heauing; the tiiangle in the
heauing inuicates the oiuei ol the soit.
Iigurc 3-13. List \icw oj thc App|ications jo|dcr
Co|unn \icw (-3)
Column View (Figuie 3-1+) is the lavoiite ol a lot ol useis.
Vhile it looks a little like List View, it uoesn`t incluue any
uisclosuie tiiangles. Clicking a loluei in this view ieveals
the contents ol that loluei. Il you continue all the way to
a lile, the last column will show a Quick Look pieview ol
the lile anu some key inloimation aLout the lile. Foi ex-
ample, il you uiill uown to a movie, the lilm`s pieview will
appeai in the last column, anu you can even stait playing
it. Il you select an application, the last column will uisplay
a huge veision ol the piogiam`s icon anu inloimation
aLout the application.
In Column View, the aiiow keys woik exactly as you`u
expect, moving the selection eithei up, uown, lelt, oi iight.
Holuing Shilt while piessing oi allows you to select
multiple items in the same uiiectoiy.
66 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
You can change the wiuth ol the columns Ly uiagging the
two tiny veitical lines at the Lottom ol the uiviueis Le-
tween columns. Holu Option as you uiag to iesize all the
columns at once.
Iigurc 3-11. Co|unn vicw oj thc App|ications jo|dcr
Covcr I|ow \icw (-1)
Covei Flow View liist appeaieu in Leopaiu, anu it`s veiy
slick. Il you use iTunes, an iPou Touch, oi an iPhone,
you`ie lamiliai with this view, shown in Figuie 3-15. It
uisplays the items in a uiiectoiy as laige icons. You can
aujust the size ol the Covei Flow aiea Ly uiagging the thiee
tiny hoiizontal Lais Lelow the pieviews; Lion will iesize
the icons accoiuingly.
In this view, the anu ← keys move the selection up in
the list Lelow the Covei Flow aiea, wheieas the anu
keys move youi selection uown that list.
Lion Basics | 67
Iigurc 3-15. Covcr I|ow \icw
Common Finder tasks
You`ll enu up using the Finuei loi many Lasic tasks. Vant to
iename a loluei? Copy oi move liles? The Finuei is youi Lest
liienu. Heie aie some common tasks you`ll likely use the Finuei
Rcnanc a ji|c, jo|dcr, or drivc
In the Finuei, simply click the icon ol whatevei you want
to iename anu then piess Retuin. Lion highlights the
name so you can type a new one. Hit Retuin again to make
the name stick.
Crcatc a jo|dcr
To cieate a new loluei, you can eithei choose FileNew
Foluei liom the Finuei`s menu Lai, oi piess Shilt--N.
The new loluei appeais as a suLloluei ol whatevei loluei
you`ie cuiiently using. New lolueis aie cieatively nameu
¨untitleu loluei.¨
Quic||y |oo| insidc a ji|c
You can get a pop-up pieview ol a lile`s contents Ly using
Quick Look. In the Finuei, select a lile, anu then piess
Space oi -Y (il theie`s a Lutton with an eye icon in youi
Finuei toolLai, you can also click that). An easy-on-the-
eyes winuow (like the one in Figuie 3-16) pops up, uis-
playing the contents ol the lile.
68 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
Quick Look is lile savvy; look at a Voiu uocument anu
you`ll see what`s wiitten on the page, look at a spieausheet
anu you`ll see iows anu columns, look at a movie anu it
will stait playing. All this without having to open the pio-
giam associateu with that lile.
Vhile Quick Look is visiLle, click a uilleient lile anu
Quick Look will uisplay that lile insteau. Switch Finuei
winuows (you can have a gazillion Finuei winuows open
at a time) anu Quick Look will uisplay the item in the
cuiient winuow. You can even pieview moie than one lile
at a time with Quick Look: select multiple liles anu aiiows
will appeai at the top ol the Quick Look winuow that you
can use to llip thiough pieviews ol all the liles you
Iigurc 3-1ó. Using Quic| Loo| to watch Brian jcpson`s javoritc
Lion Basics | 69
Ma|c an a|ias
Theie aie times you want access to a lile oi loluei without
having to Luiiow thiough uiiectoiies to get at it. Some
people`s liist inclination is to move the item to a moie
accessiLle location, Lut the Lest solution is to make an
alias. An alias acts just like the iegulai lile oi loluei Lut it
points to the oiiginal: put something in a loluei alias anu
it enus up in the oiiginal (taiget) loluei. Delete the alias
anu the item it ieleis to is unallecteu.
You can spot an alias Ly a cuiveu aiiow in the lowei-lelt
coinei ol its icon. To cieate an alias, select a lile in the
Finuei anu then choose FileMake Alias (oi piess -L).
Then simply uiag the alias to wheie you want it to Le.
Dup|icatc ji|cs and jo|dcrs
Il you want a copy ol a lile oi loluei, click the item in the
Finuei anu then select FileDuplicate (oi piess -D), anu
Lion will geneiate a Lianu-new copy ol that item with the
woiu ¨copy¨ appenueu to its name. Youi oiiginal item will
iemain untoucheu while you hack away at the copy.
Copy ji|cs to a ncw |ocation on thc sanc dis|
Vhen you uiag liles liom one spot to anothei on the same
uisk, Mac OS X moves those liles to the new location
without making a copy. To copy liles to anothei location
on the same uisk insteau, holu Option while you uiag the
liles to the new location. Once you ielease the mouse Lut-
ton, the oiiginal lile(s) stay put, anu you get a copy in the
uestination location.
Conveisely, when you uiag liles liom one uisk to anothei,
Mac OS X copics them. To make it move them insteau,
you have to holu uown the key while you uiag.
Ejcct a drivc or dis|
Il you`ve got exteinal uiives hookeu to youi Mac, at some
point you`ll want to eject them. ]ust yanking the uiive out
is a Lau iuea; il uata is still Leing wiitten to the uiive, you
might lose it.
70 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
You have a lew ways ol ejecting uiives anu uisks. The
classic way ol ejecting a uiive on a Mac is to uiag it to the
Tiash (when you uo, the Tiash`s icon changes to an Eject
icon). Il you`ve got a Finuei winuow open, you can also
eject it uiiectly liom the siueLai÷simply click the next
to the uiive`s icon. Il a uiive won`t eject, Lion will tell you
which application is using liles on that uiive (anu pie-
venting you liom ejecting it).
Il you want to iemount a uiive (use the uiive altei you`ve
ejecteu it) that you lelt pluggeu in, you can eithei iemount
it with Disk Utility (/App|ications/Uti|itics/Dis| Uti|ity) oi
simply uisconnect the uiive liom youi Mac anu then ie-
connect it.
Rcjornat a dis|
Il you`ve got a new uisk, it might not Le in the iight loimat.
Most llash uiives anu many pocket uiives come loimatteu
as FAT32 uisks, Lut some aiiive unloimatteu. Youi Mac
pieleis the Mac OS Extenueu (]ouinaleu) lilesystem, anu
il you uon`t neeu to shaie liles with anothei opeiating
system (such as Vinuows), this loimat is youi Lest choice.
To eiase the uiive anu loimat it as Mac OS Extenueu
(]ouinaleu), heau to /App|ications/Uti|itics/Dis| Uti|ity.
Select the uisk you want to ieloimat liom the list on the
lelt siue ol Disk Utility, click the Eiase taL anu select the
loimat you want, anu then click Eiase. RememLei: loi-
matting eiases all the inloimation on the uisk.
Conprcss ji|cs and jo|dcrs
Il you`ie going to Luin a Lunch ol uata to a uisk oi il you
want to minimize uploau times, you can compiess liles
anu lolueis. Lion gives you an easy way to pull this oll:
iight-click oi Contiol-click a lile, anu then select Com-
piess liom the pop-up menu, anu Lion will cieate a copy
ol that item with the same name, Lut with the sullix .zip
appenueu. The amount ol space this saves uepenus on the
type ol lile: compiessing a QuickTime movie (.nov)
uoesn`t save as much space as compiessing a loluei lull ol
text liles uoes, loi example.
Lion Basics | 71
Duplicating Optical Disks
DVDs anu CDs aie getting less populai loi shaiing liles Le-
cause ol the availaLility ol cheap llash uiives, Lut they`ie still
common enough that you might neeu to make Lackup copies
ol impoitant uata stoieu on a CD oi DVD. Il you have a uesk-
top Mac, you coulu install two DVD uiives anu copy DVDs
anu CDs uisk-to-uisk, Lut that option`s only availaLle on high-
enu Macs (although you coulu use an exteinal USB uiive with
othei Macs). No woiiies, though; with Disk Utility, you can
easily uuplicate that DVD oi CD anu Luin it to a uilleient uisk.
Fiie up Disk Utility (/App|ications/Uti|itics/Dis| Uti|ity) anu
then select the CD oi DVD you want to copy liom the list ol
availaLle uisks. Next, click the New Image Lutton at the top
ol the winuow, choose ¨DVD/CD mastei¨ liom the Image
Foimat pop-up menu, anu choose a location with sullicient
uisk space liom the Vheie pop-up menu. Click Save anu Lion
makes an image (a special type ol copy) ol the DVD.
Once the copying opeiation is complete, you`ll have a peilect
copy ol the DVD oi CD on youi uiive. To Luin that copy onto
a Llank CD oi DVD, select the uisk image liom the list on the
lelt siue ol Disk Utility (il it`s not theie, uiag the uisk image
liom the Finuei into the list), then click the Buin Lutton anu
inseit a Llank uisk when piompteu. (Alas, this appioach won`t
woik loi copy-piotecteu soltwaie oi movies.)
The Dock
The Dock is a key aspect ol Mac OS X. It contains shoitcuts to
lieguently useu applications, lolueis, anu uocuments, anu it
shows you which applications aie iunning Ly placing a Llue
uot unuei each one. (A lot ol people uetest the Llue uots, anu
in Lion you get the option to tuin them oll: just heau to System
PieleiencesDock anu then uncheck the Lox next to ¨Show
inuicatoi lights loi open applications.¨) A typical Dock is
shown in Figuie 3-17.
72 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
Iigurc 3-17. A typica| Doc|
You can use the Dock to switch Letween active applications;
just click the Dock icon ol the one you want to switch to anu
that will Lecome the liontmost application. Vhen an applica-
tion is staiting up, its Dock icon will Lounce so you can tell
that it`s loauing. Il an alieauy-iunning application`s icon Le-
gins Louncing, that`s the Dock`s way ol telling you the appli-
cation wants youi attention.
The Finuei is on the lai lelt siue ol the Dock anu is always
iunning. To the iight ol that, you`ll see application icons, a
uiviuei, the Documents stack, the Downloaus stack, any mini-
mizeu winuows, anu the Tiash.
In Snow Leopaiu, the Dock leatuieu an Applications
stack, too. (Il you upuateu liom Snow Leopaiu to Lion,
you`ll still see this stack in the Dock.) But with the au-
uition ol Launchpau, the Applications stack has Lecome
ieuunuant. Il you want that stack Lack, just uiag youi
Applications loluei onto the Dock.
Since the Dock is conveniently locateu, it is a natuial way ol
opening youi most-useu applications anu uocuments. The oL-
vious guestion is how uo you auu items to the Dock? The
piocess is simple: just locate the application oi uocument you
want to auu anu uiag it onto the Dock. Keep in minu, though,
that you can only put applications on the lelt siue ol the Dock`s
uiviuei anu you can only put uocuments on the iight siue ol
the uiviuei. (Even il you haven`t placeu an application oi uocu-
ment in the Dock, it will appeai theie as long as it`s iunning oi
open.) Note that auuing items to the Dock uoesn`t move oi
Lion Basics | 73
change the oiiginal item, anu iemoving items liom the Dock
uoesn`t uelete them liom youi Mac.
You can aiiange items in the Dock Ly uiagging them into the
oiuei you want. (Diagging a iunning application that`s not al-
ieauy in the Dock will auu it.)
Il you want to tiy to loice a paiticulai uocument to open
in a specilic application, uiag the lile onto the uesiieu
application`s icon in the Finuei oi Dock, anu that ap-
plication will geneially tiy to open the lile. Howevei,
some applications iesponu uilleiently: uiagging some-
thing onto the Mail icon, loi example, attaches it to a
new message.
Once youi Dock is lully loaueu with applications anu uocu-
ments, it can get a little oveiwhelming. Il you loiget what that
minimizeu winuow is loi oi what application will stait il you
click a ceitain icon, the Dock can help you out. Simply hovei
youi cuisoi ovei the Dock item in guestion anu a text LuLLle
will pop up with inlo aLout that item, as shown in Figuie 3-1S.
Iigurc 3-18. Iorgct what app|ication an icon is jor? Thc Doc| has
your answcr!
Removing items liom the Dock is easy. You can uiag the un-
wanteu item oll ol the Dock, uiag it onto the Tiash icon, oi
iight-click oi Contiol-click the item in guestion anu, in the
pop-up menu that appeais, select ¨Remove liom Dock.¨
74 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
The Dock is geneially customizaLle, Lut theie aie two
things aLout it that you can`t change: the Finuei is al-
ways on the lelt enu ol the Dock anu the Tiash is always
on the iight enu. You can`t move them anu you can`t put
anything on the lai siues ol them. Think ol the Finuei
anu the Tiash as two Lookenus that expanu to accom-
mouate all the items in Letween.
Dock Exposé
Lion has ieplaceu Exposé with Mission Contiol, Lut you can
still use Exposé loi applications. The way you uo this is ieally
slick: pick any iunning application, click anu holu its icon in
the Dock, anu then select Show All Vinuows in the pop-up
menu that appeais. You then see something like Figuie 3-19.
Iigurc 3-19. Sajari`s opcn and nininizcd windows disp|aycd in Doc|
Vhen you invoke Dock Exposé, you`ll see all the selecteu ap-
plication`s open winuows. Any minimizeu winuows show up
as small veisions Lelow a suLtle uiviuing line. Click any win-
uow to Liing it to the liont.
Lion Basics | 75
The pop-up menu that appeais when you click anu holu an
application`s Dock icon also lets you guit oi hiue the selecteu
application. The menu also incluues an Options suLmenu to
let you keep the application in the Dock, set it to open each
time you log into the computei, oi show it in the Finuei.
Dock menus
Eveiy item in the Dock also has a Dock menu. To access this
menu, iight-click oi Contiol-click the icon. Vhat shows up in
the menu uepenus on what you click anu, in the case ol appli-
cations, whethei it`s iunning anu what it`s uoing. Application
Dock menus typically incluue ielevant commanus. Foi exam-
ple, il you`ie cuiiently playing a song, iTunes`s Dock menu lets
you mute youi computei, skip anu iate songs, anu so loith. All
applications` Dock menus incluue these options:
º OptionsKeep in Dock oi Remove liom Dock, uepenuing
on cuiient setting
º OptionsOpen at Login (saves you a tiip to the Useis e
Gioups pieleience pane)
º OptionsShow in Finuei (ieveals wheie the application
iesiues on youi Mac)
º Hiue (hiues all the application`s winuows; eguivalent to
piessing -H)
º Quit (closes the application; you`ll Le waineu il theie aie
any unsaveu changes)
The Dock menus loi stacks (such as the Documents oi Down-
loaus stack) ollei a uilleient set ol choices:
º Soit Ly options (Name, Date Auueu, Date Mouilieu, Date
Cieateu, Kinu)
º Display as (Foluei oi Stack)
º View content as (Fan, Giiu, List, Automatic)
º Options (Remove liom Dock oi Show in Finuei)
º Open ¦stack name¦
76 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
Stack view options
Those lolueis oi jumLleu icons (uepenuing on how youi piel-
eiences aie set÷jumLleu icons is the uelault) on the iight siue
ol youi Dock aie calleu stacks. You can choose which view to
use loi each stack Ly opening its Dock menu (the pievious
section explains how). Heie aie youi options:
Ian \icw
This is the uelault view ol a stack. Il you click a stack that`s
set to this view, it`ll lan out, making it easy to choose the
item you`ie looking loi, as shown in Figuie 3-20. Fan View
is nice when theie aien`t a lot ol items in a stack; it`s less
helplul when theie aie moie than a uozen oi so items. Il
you use the aiiow keys to select items in the stack, a Llue
highlight appeais Lehinu the cuiient item; hit Retuin to
open it.
Iigurc 3-20. Exp|oring thc contcnts oj a stac| in Ian \icw
Grid \icw
In Giiu View (Figuie 3-21), you get to Liowse Ly icon, anu
you can use the aiiow keys to highlight an item. Il that
Lion Basics | 77
item is an application oi uocument, hitting the Retuin key
staits the application oi opens the uocument. Il the selec-
teu item is a loluei, hitting Retuin opens anothcr Giiu
View winuow that uisplays the loluei`s contents.
List \icw
List View (Figuie 3-22) got a Lit ol an upgiaue in Lion.
Insteau ol the Loiing list on a white Lackgiounu, youi op-
tions aie now uisplayeu as a list on the same Lackgiounu
useu Ly Giiu View. Even with the new Lackgiounu, List
View is a Lit peuestiian compaieu to Fan View oi Giiu
View, Lut that uoesn`t mean it is useless. You can scioll
thiough the list using the anu keys, anu when you
iun acioss a loluei, piessing the key opens a suLmenu
with the encloseu items.
Autonatic \icw
Il you uon`t leel like line-tuning the way a stack is uis-
playeu, you can let Lion pick a view loi you Laseu on the
stack`s contents. To get Lion to make this uillicult
Iigurc 3-21. Thc cxcc||cnt Grid \icw
78 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
uecision loi you, iight-click oi Contiol-click the stack anu
then choose Automatic liom the ¨View content as¨ sec-
tion ol the pop-up menu.
It uoesn`t mattei il you`ve got a ielatively tiny SSD uiive in a
MacBook Aii oi + teiaLytes ol haiu uisk space in a lully tiickeu-
out Mac Pio. Soonei oi latei, you`ie going to want to get iiu ol
some liles eithei Lecause youi uiive(s) aie leeling ciampeu oi
Lecause you just uon`t want the uata aiounu anymoie. To get
iiu ol something that`s on youi Mac, you`ll neeu to use the
The Tiash is locateu on the iight enu ol the Dock (oi, il you`ve
moveu the Dock to the lelt oi iight ol youi scieen, it`s on the
Lottom). To Lanish liles liom youi Mac, select them anu then
uiag them liom the Finuei to the Tiash (oi piess -Delete).
Vhen the Tiash has something in it (whethei it`s one item oi
a million), its icon changes liom an empty mesh tiash can to a
can stulleu with papei. This lets you know that the liles you`ve
Iigurc 3-22. List \icw-boring but uscju|
Lion Basics | 79
moveu to the Tiash aie still theie, anu that you can ietiieve
them (until you empty the Tiash).
Open the Tiash Ly clicking its Dock icon. (You can view the
items in the Tiash with the Finuei, Lut you won`t Le aLle to
actually open a lile that`s in the Tiash; attempting to uo so will
iesult in an eiioi message.) Il you linu something in the Tiash
that shoulun`t Le theie, you can eithei uiag it out ol the Tiash
oi click FilePut Back to senu it Lack to wheie it was oiiginally.
To pcrnancnt|y uelete items in the Tiash, iight-click oi
Contiol-click the Tiash`s Dock icon anu choose Empty Tiash,
oi open the Finuei anu eithei choose FinueiEmpty Tiash oi
piess Shilt--Delete.
Note that emptying the Tiash uoesn`t completely iemove all
tiaces ol the liles you ueleteu. Those liles can Le iecoveieu with
thiiu-paity uiive-iecoveiy utilities, at least until the uisk space
they pieviously occupieu has Leen wiitten ovei with new uata.
To make it haiuei loi people to iecovei ueleteu uata, in the
Finuei, choose FinueiSecuie Empty Tiash. This commanu
oveiwiites the ueleteu liles multiple times.
Il you woik with a lot ol sensitive liles, you can tell the Tiash
to a|ways wiite ovei liles you uelete Ly going to the Finuei`s
pieleiences (FinueiPieleiences oi -, while in the Finuei)
anu, on the Auvanceu taL, checking the Lox next to ¨Empty
Tiash secuiely.¨ You pioLaLly want to leave the ¨Show wain-
ing Leloie emptying the Tiash¨ option checkeu Lecause, once
you secuiely empty the Tiash, you`ie not getting that uata
Dock preferences
Heie aie a lew guick anu easy changes you can make without
invoking the Dock`s pieleience pane. Il you iight-click oi Con-
tiol-click the uiviuei Letween the two paits ol the Dock (it
looks like a uasheu line), you`ll get the pop-up menu shown in
Figuie 3-23. This menu lets you choose whethei to automati-
cally hiue the Dock when you`ie not using it, change the mag-
nilication ol icons in the Dock, change the Dock`s location,
80 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
change the animation OS X uses when you minimize winuows,
anu open the Dock`s pieleiences.
Iigurc 3-23. A quic| way to na|c Doc| adjustncnts
You can change the size ol the Dock Ly uiagging up oi uown
ovei the uasheu uiviuing line to inciease oi ueciease the size ol
the Dock, iespectively.
The Application Switcher
The Dock is the most oLvious way to switch Letween applica-
tions while they`ie iunning, anu Mission Contiol is pioLaLly
the niltiest way, Lut Lion gives you a thiiu way to llip Letween
youi open apps. The aptly nameu Application Switchei
(Figuie 3-2+) lets you switch applications without taking youi
hanus oll the keyLoaiu, a huge timesavei il you linu youisell
change piogiams olten. To use it, just hit -TaL.
Iigurc 3-21. Hands on thc |cyboard and you`rc sti|| switching
Lion Basics | 81
Holuing the key while iepeateuly hitting the TaL key cycles
thiough the open applications liom lelt to iight (use Shilt-TaL
insteau to go liom iight to lelt), anu then wiaps aiounu to the
liist application on the lelt again. Alteinatively, you can piess
-TaL anu then, while still holuing uown , use the ← anu →
keys to move Letween applications. Vhen the application you
want to switch to has a white Loiuei aiounu it, ielease the keys
anu that piogiam will come to the liont.
Standard Window Controls
All winuows in Mac OS X shaie some chaiacteiistics, shown
in Figuie 3-25. Knowing what they uo will help you Le much
moie piouuctive when using Lion.
Iigurc 3-25. Lion`s standard window contro|s, which |ivc on thc tit|c
Heie`s what these contiols uo:
1. The ieu Lutton closes the winuow. Il you hovei youi cui-
soi ovei this uot, you`ll see an × oi÷il theie aie unsaveu
changes to the cuiient uocument÷a uaik-ieu uot insiue
it. The yellow Lutton minimizes a winuow; put youi cui-
soi ovei this uot anu you see a -. The gieen Lutton max-
imizes the winuow, anu uisplays a - when you point to it.
2. This is calleu the pioxy icon. Diag it to cieate an alias ol
the cuiient lile, oi Option-uiag it to copy the cuiient lile.
82 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
3. The name ol the cuiient lile.
+. Il the application you`ie using can go lull scieen, you`ll see
these aiiows. See the section ¨Full-Scieen Applica-
tions¨ on page 5 loi uetails.
The lollowing taLle lists some keyLoaiu shoitcuts that aie use-
lul loi woiking with winuows.
Action Key command
Open a new window -O
Close the active window -W
Minimize the active window -M
Minimize all windows for the frontmost application Option--M
Cycle through an application’s windows -`
Not eveiy key comLination is univeisal. Foi example,
some applications use -M loi something othei than
minimizing the active winuow.
Files and Folders
As you alieauy know, lolueis aie wheie you keep liles. But Mac
OS X also incluues two special kinus ol lolueis: the Buin loluei
anu the Smait loluei.
Regular Folders
Youi Mac comes pieloaueu with some lolueis that aie appio-
piiate loi commonly saveu liles (uocuments, pictuies, music,
anu so on), Lut you`ll also want to make youi own lolueis. Foi
example, you might make a suLloluei loi spieausheets within
the Documents loluei, oi put a loluei on youi uesktop wheie
you can toss liles that enu up on the uesktop. To cieate a iegulai
loluei in the Finuei, you can eithei choose FileNew Foluei
Files and Folders | 83
(Shilt--N), oi iight-click oi Contiol-click a Llank spot in a
loluei anu then choose New Foluei liom the Context menu
shown in Figuie 3-26.
Iigurc 3-2ó. Crcating a ncw jo|dcr via thc Contcxt ncnu
Mac OS X names new lolueis ¨untitleu loluei,¨ anu it iteiates
this name il you cieate a seiies ol lolueis without ienaming
them altei you cieate each one, so you enu up with untitleu
loluei, untitleu loluei 1, untitleu loluei 2, anu so on. To change
a loluei`s name, click the loluei once anu then piess Retuin oi
click the loluei`s title. The aiea suiiounuing the title gets high-
lighteu anu you can type the new name. Vhen you`ie uone,
hit Retuin to make the name stick (until you change it again).
Burn Folders
Cieating a Buin loluei is the easiest way to get liles oi lolueis
liom youi Mac onto an optical uisk (a CD oi DVD). To uo so,
go to the Finuei anu select FileNew Buin Foluei. A new loluei
with a iauiation symLol in it will show up in the cuiient loluei.
(Il you`ve maue lilename extensions visiLle÷see ¨Finuei piel-
eiences¨ on page 63÷you`ll notice that loluei`s sullix is .jpbj.)
84 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
Be suie to give this loluei a nice, uesciiptive name like discoin-
jcrno. Then you can stait tossing any liles you want Luineu
onto the uisk into that loluei.
The liles aien`t actually Leing moveu to the Buin loluei; Lion
is just cieating aliases that point to them. Vhen the time comes
to Luin the uata, Mac OS X will Luin the oiiginal lile(s). Since
the liles aie aliaseu, il you ueciue you want to get iiu ol the
Buin loluei without Luining the uata, you can toss the loluei
into the Tiash. The oiiginal items will iemain untoucheu.
Once you`ie ieauy to Luin the uata, open the Buin loluei anu
then click the Buin Lutton in its uppei-iight coinei. Inseit a
uisk when piompteu, anu Lion takes caie ol the iest.
Smart Folders
Theie aie Smait lolueis all ovei youi Mac: in iTunes, Mail, anu
lots ol othei places. Smait lolueis aie actually Spotlight seaich
iesults, Lut you can Liowse them just like iegulai lolueis.
To cieate youi own Smait lolueis, heau to the Finuei anu
choose FileNew Smait Foluei oi piess Option--N. In the
Seaich Lox ol the new winuow that appeais, type in text ue-
sciiLing what you want to linu anu Lion will lill the loluei with
items that meet youi ciiteiia.
Lion is smaitei aLout cieating Smait lolueis than its pieueces-
sois. As you type, Lion uisplays suggestions loi ielining youi
seaich. Say you want an easy way to manage all youi Voiu
liles. Stait typing ¨.uoc¨ in the Seaich Lox, anu Lion will make
hanuy suggestions like the ones shown in Figuie 3-27. Select
¨Voiu Document¨ unuei Kinus anu all youi Voiu uocuments
will appeai in the Smait loluei.
Files and Folders | 85
Iigurc 3-27. Lion |nows what you`rc |oo|ing jor
Il the iesults aien`t guite what you want, you can luithei ieline
youi seaich Ly clicking the - Lutton Lelow the Seaich Lox. You
can aujust the seaich Ly hitting the - Lutton. Vhen you uo,
you`ll see a new set ol ciiteiia anu anothei - Lutton that you
can click to auu anothei set ol ciiteiia. You can keep auuing
moie ciiteiia until youi seaich is just the way you want it
(Figuie 3-2S).
Iigurc 3-28. A scarch so rcjincd it rcturns no rcsu|ts
Vant to save youi seaich? No pioLlem÷click the Save Lutton
to save youi seaich as a Smait loluei. You`ll get to name it,
choose wheie to save it, anu, il you wish, auu it to the siueLai.
86 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
Theie aie moie gieat things aLout Smait lolueis. The iesults
ol youi seaich uon`t change wheie anything is actually stoieu
on youi Mac, Lut you can act as il all the liles iesiue in the Smait
loluei you just cieateu. That means that, even though the liles
in it coulu Le scatteieu acioss a hunuieu lolueis on youi Mac,
you can move, copy, anu uelete them just as il they all iesiueu
in the Smait loluei. (Il you uelete a lile liom a Smait loluei,
you`ll also uelete that lile liom youi Mac.)
Don`t woiiy aLout youi Smait lolueis slowing uown youi Mac
oi not uisplaying changes immeuiately. Smait lolueis aie con-
stantly upuateu, so when you auu a new lile that lits the Smait
loluei`s ciiteiia, the lile will show up in the Smait loluei iight
Nonessential (but Useful) Mac OS X Features
Some leatuies ol Lion aie ieally uselul Lut not stiictly ieguiieu
loi uay-to-uay use. Foi example, some people nevei use Dash-
Loaiu, while otheis can`t get Ly without it. Spotlight is lantastic
loi seaiching youi Mac, Lut some lolks nevei seaich theii Macs
Lecause they have insanely goou oiganizational skills. Spaces
can make that 13-inch laptop scieen seem much Liggei. Anu
Mission Contiol lets you see eveiything on youi uesktop (anu
moie) at the same time÷a lilesavei loi those who woik with
multiple winuows. Il you`ie inteiesteu in one oi moie ol these
leatuies, this is the place to look.
The Dashboard
That speeuometei-like icon in youi Dock launches DashLoaiu,
an enviionment wheie mini-applications (calleu wiugets) iun.
Click the icon, use a gestuie, oi use the keyLoaiu shoitcut (it`s
F+ on most Macs that can iun Lion). Il you uon`t have the F+
shoitcut on youi keyLoaiu, you can use the KeyLoaiu pielei-
ence pane to auu a shoitcut oi see what the shoitcut is. Once
you invoke DashLoaiu, youi Desktop will sliue away. In Snow
Leopaiu, DashLoaiu lloateu ovei youi uesktop with a
Nonessential (but Useful) Mac OS X Features | 87
tianslucent Lackgiounu, Lut in Lion, DashLoaiu gets a soliu
Lackgiounu to make the uesktop less uistiacting.
Once DashLoaiu is up anu iunning, the wiugets on it will go
aLout uoing whatevei they`ie supposeu to uo (iepoiting on the
weathei, uisplaying a calenuai, anu so on). To get Lack to youi
uesktop, click the aiiow in the Lottom iight ol the DashLoaiu
oi piess the DashLoaiu key again.
Lion comes with seveial wiugets Luilt in, Lut only a lew will
alieauy Le in the DashLoaiu Ly uelault: calculatoi, weathei,
calenuai, anu clock wiugets. Click the - Lutton at the Dash-
Loaiu`s lowei lelt to auu any ol these:
Addrcss Boo|
Lets you seaich youi Auuiess Book liom the DashLoaiu.
This is just a Lasic calculatoi; it`s much less poweilul than
the Calculatoi application Luilt into Mac OS X. Il you
want a moie poweilul wiugetilieu calculatoi, you can linu
one at Apple`s wiuget iepositoiy.
This gives you the same inloimation as the Mac OS X
Dictionaiy application (though without the Vikipeuia
Liowsing capaLilities). You can use this wiuget as a uic-
tionaiy, a thesauius, oi an Apple help inteilace.
Fetches scoies anu news aLout youi lavoiite teams.
I|ight Trac|cr
Lets you tiack llights in ieal time. Il youi spouse oi ioom-
mate is ietuining liom a tiip, you can see how long you
have lelt to clean up the house.
Lets you view iCal events in convenient wiuget loim.
Keeps you up to uate on the movies playing in youi aiea.
Initially, it just cycles thiough the posteis ol cuiiently
88 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
playing movies, Lut when you click on it, it`ll uisplay
showtimes anu theateis.
S|i Rcport
Like to ski? This wiuget keeps you upuateu on the conui-
tions at youi lavoiite slopes.
This is the DashLoaiu veision ol Stickies (see ¨Stick-
ies¨ on page 175).
Got some stocks? Tiack the iollei-coastei iiue ol investing
in the maiket with this wiuget.
Ti|c Ganc
Il you hau a pie÷OS X Mac, you might iememLei the game
Tile that came as a uesk accessoiy. This is a wiugetizeu
veision ol it. Insteau ol a pictuie ol the Apple logo, you
get to unsciamLle a pictuie ol a Lig cat. The tile-
sciamLling animation is woith watching, even il you nevei
actually play with this wiuget.
Tianslate a woiu oi phiase liom one language to anothei.
The shoitei the phiase, the moie accuiate the tianslation.
Unit Convcrtcr
Shoulun`t eveiyone Le using SI units Ly now? Vell, pioL-
aLly, Lut they uon`t. Vith this wiuget, you can uiscovei
how many liteis theie aie in an impeiial gallon.
Tiack the upcoming weathei with this wiuget. You only
get to choose one city to tiack, so il you want to know the
weathei in moie than one place when using DashLoaiu,
you`ll neeu to have multiple Veathei wiugets iunning.
Wcb C|ip
VeL Clip lets you cieate youi own wiugets! See ¨Making
youi own wiugets¨ on page 91 to leain how.
Nonessential (but Useful) Mac OS X Features | 89
Wor|d C|oc|
Il you`ie using DashLoaiu all the time anu you uon`t have
a watch oi you want to know the time in Geneva while
you`ie in San Fiancisco, this wiuget has you coveieu.
Personalizing widgets
You can`t peisonalize eveiy wiuget, Lut you have to peisonalize
some (like the Veathei wiuget) to make them uselul. To set a
wiuget`s pieleiences, look loi an i somewheie on the wiuget
(usually, Lut not always, in the lowei-iight coinei ol the
wiuget; you may have to put youi cuisoi ovei the wiuget to
make it appeai).
Adding and removing widgets
In the lowei-lelt coinei ol the DashLoaiu, you`ll see a - insiue
a ciicle. Clicking this ieveals a line ol availaLle wiugets at the
Lottom ol the scieen. Il you see a wiuget you want to auu, just
uiag it to the location wheie you want it to live on the Dash-
Loaiu. You can oveilap wiugets anu have multiple instances ol
the same wiuget, so il you`ie not caielul, it can guickly get
The easiest way to uelete a wiuget liom youi DashLoaiu (Lut
not liom youi Mac) is to holu the Option key, hovei youi cui-
soi ovei the wiuget, anu then click the × that appeais in the
wiuget`s uppei-lelt coinei. Il you change youi minu, you can
simply auu that wiuget again latei. Il you want to get iiu ol a
wiuget loievei, use Viuget Managei.
Viuget Managei lets you exeit moie contiol ovei wiugets. To
use it, click the - in the lowei lelt ol the DashLoaiu, anu then
click the Manage Viugets Lutton that appeais. A wiuget (ol
couise) pops up, giving you the chance to uisaLle inuiviuual
wiugets Ly unchecking the Loxes next to them. A uisaLleu
wiuget won`t Le availaLle liom the wiuget Lai until you ie-
enaLle it with Viuget Managei. Thiiu-paity wiugets (uis-
cusseu next) get a ueletion ciicle next to them; il you click
90 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
the -, you`ll Le askeu il you want to move the wiuget to the
Getting more widgets
The wiugets Apple incluues aie gieat, Lut theie`s a whole woilu
ol othei wiugets out theie. To linu moie, the Lest place to go
is Apple`s inuex ol wiugets:|c.con/down|oads/
dashboard. (Il you have Viuget Managei up, you can click the
Moie Viugets Lutton to zip stiaight to this site.) You`ll Le
amazeu at the numLei ol availaLle wiugets. Most aie liee, Lut
some will set you Lack a lew Lucks.
Making your own widgets
Theie aie a ton ol wiugets availaLle loi uownloau, Lut theie`s
still a chance that the wiuget you uesiie uoesn`t exist. You
coulu wiite youi own wiuget to iectily the situation÷altei all,
wiugets aie just snippets ol coue÷oi you coulu take the easy
way out anu cieate one using a VeL Clip. Foi example, imagine
you wiote a Look anu want to keep taLs on its sales ianking at
Amazon. You coulu go to Amazon eveiy uay anu scioll uown
to the ianking, Lut that takes too much elloit. Vhy not cieate
youi own VeL Clip wiuget to take caie ol the uata ietiieval loi
Heie`s how: Open Salaii anu linu the inloimation you want
youi VeL Clip to ietiieve. Then choose File¨Open in Dash-
Loaiu¨ anu a white Lox will appeai. Diag this Lox so that it
suiiounus the inloimation you want to keep constantly upua-
teu with. Then click the Auu Lutton oi hit Retuin anu youi
new wiuget will show up in DashLoaiu. (Some pages woik
Lettei than otheis, so you might neeu to expeiiment a Lit.)
Searching with Spotlight
Using Spotlight is easy: Simply click the magnilying glass icon
in the uppei-iight coinei ol youi scieen anu stait typing the
name ol the item you`ie looking loi.
Nonessential (but Useful) Mac OS X Features | 91
In Snow Leopaiu, Spotlight only let you seaich thiough the
liles on youi computei. But in Lion, you can also use the new
anu impioveu veision ol Spotlight to seaich the weL oi Viki-
peuia, as shown in Figuie 3-29. (The iesults will open with
OS X`s Dictionaiy application.).
Seaiching the Inteinet anu Vikipeuia aien`t the only upgiaues
to Spotlight in Lion. You also get Quick Look pieviews: just
highlight the most piomising-looking iesult anu Quick Look
will give you a uetaileu look at the lile oi weL page. Plus, you
can uiag anu uiop things uiiectly liom Spotlight. Founu that
GaiageBanu lile you want to senu to youi pal? Diag it iight to
AiiDiop (see ¨AiiDiop¨ on page 11) to make the piocess guick
anu painless.
Vhen it`s seaiching youi computei, Spotlight woiks Ly inuex-
ing (making a list ol) all the liles on youi Mac accoiuing to the
liles` nctadata anu contents. So il you type ¨Lake Monsteis
Stole My Thuisuay¨ into a uocument, that Lit ol uata will Le
availaLle to Spotlight. The moment you type ¨lake monsteis
stole¨ into Spotlight`s seaich lielu, you`ll see a list ol matching
liles. By the time you`ve typeu the entiie stiing into Spotlight,
the uocument you typeu it into will Le the top iesult.
Iigurc 3-29. Choosc whcrc you want your rcsu|ts to conc jron
92 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
About Metadata
Metauata is inloimation aLout a lile. This incluues oLvious
things like the uate it was cieateu anu its lile type, as well as a
lot ol unexpecteu inloimation. An image`s metauata, loi ex-
ample, contains inloimation aLout its size, pixel count, anu so
on. Spotlight is smait enough to iealize that when you`ie
seaiching, you`ie most likely seaiching loi a paiticulai lile`s
name oi contents, as opposeu to moie esoteiic metauata. So,
while Spotlight inuexes eveiything (unless you tell it not to÷
see ¨Contiolling what Spotlight inuexes¨ on page 9+), it puts
iesults like uocuments anu lolueis highei on its lists ol iesults
than moie oLscuie matches (unless you change the oiuei ol its
iesults÷see ¨Contiolling the iesults Spotlight uis-
plays¨ on page 93). That way, you won`t Le Luiueneu Ly
inloimation oveiloau when peiloiming a Spotlight seaich.
Changing the order of Spotlight’s results
You can aujust how Spotlight aiianges its iesults eithei Ly
choosing System PieleiencesSpotlightSeaich Results oi
clicking Spotlight Pieleiences at the Lottom ol any list ol Spot-
light seaich iesults. In the winuow that appeais, uiag the cat-
egoiies into youi pieleiieu oiuei.
Controlling the results Spotlight displays
Il you uon`t want youi Spotlight seaich iesults clutteieu with
stull you`ie not inteiesteu in, go to System Pieleien-
cesSpotlightSeaich Results anu uncheck the Loxes next to
any categoiies you linu less than compelling. Be awaie that not
ietuining iesults liom ceitain categoiies uoesn`t mean those
liles aien`t inuexeu; ieau on to leain how to contiol what Spot-
light inuexes.
Nonessential (but Useful) Mac OS X Features | 93
Controlling what Spotlight indexes
Theie aie some things you just uon`t want inuexeu: youi plans
loi woilu uomination, youi Pog value spieausheet, anu so
loith. To keep the things you want piivate out ol Spotlight`s
inuex, go to System PieleiencesSpotlightPiivacy. Clicking
the - Lutton Liings up a lile-Liowsing winuow wheie you can
select things you want to keep Spotlight liom inuexing. You
can excluue lolueis oi entiie uisks. Unloitunately, you can`t
excluue a single lile, so il you`ie tiying to keep just one lile out
ol the inuex, you eithei have to excluue the loluei it`s in (along
with all ol the loluei`s othei contents) oi move it into its own
loluei anu excluue that.
Managing File Info
As you leaineu aLove, Spotlight woiks Ly inuexing metauata.
Vhat il you want to auu some metauata so Spotlight can linu
liles oi lolueis with gieatei piecision? The Inlo winuow is youi
key to auuing metauata (anu changing othei things, too). To
open an item`s Inlo winuow, select the item in the Finuei anu
then eithei select FileGet Inlo oi piess -I. The winuow that
appeais will look something like Figuie 3-30.
This winuow has seveial suLsections.
Spotlight comments
Heie`s wheie you can auu teims loi Spotlight to use. Anything
you type heie will Le inuexeu Ly Spotlight anu useu when it
This section incluues peitinent uata aLout the lile (il this
section is collapseu, click the uisclosuie tiiangle next to ¨Gen-
eial¨). Il you check the ¨Stationeiy pau¨ Lox (which only ap-
peais when applicaLle), the lile tuins into a ieau-only lile,
meaning you can look at it anu save it as a new lile, Lut you
can`t save it with the same name as the Stationeiy pau; this
94 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
ellectively tuins the lile into a template. Checking the Lock Lox
locks the lile. A lockeu lile is much like a Stationeiy pau, except
you can`t easily thiow it away. You`ll get wainings when you
Iigurc 3-30. Gct |njo is a vcry uscju| window
Nonessential (but Useful) Mac OS X Features | 95
move a lockeu lile to the Tiash, anu again when you go to
empty the Tiash.
More Info
Clicking the Moie Inlo uisclosuie tiiangle ieveals wheie the lile
oiiginateu il it wasn`t cieateu on youi Mac. (The lile shown in
Figuie 3-30 happens to Le the chaptei you`ie ieauing.)
Name & Extension
This section lets you iename the item anu hiue its extension
(Ly checking the Lox). You can also change the extension, Lut
that will (likely) change which piogiam opens the lile. Il you
change the extension, you`ll get a waining liom Mac OS X.
Open with
This section is suipiisingly poweilul. You can choose the ap-
plication you want to open this paiticulai lile with, oi you can
change what piogiams open any lile with the same extension
Ly clicking Change All. Clicking the pop-up menu will ieveal
suggesteu choices, Lut il you uon`t want to tiust Mac OS X`s
auvice, you can select Othei to loice a uilleient application to
open that lile.
This section shows the same pieview ol the lile that you`u see
when using the Finuei.
Sharing & Permissions
This is wheie you can line-tune access to the lile. The options
you`ie liist piesenteu with uillei uepenuing on the lile, Lut
geneially concein youi account, an aumin, anu eveiyone.
Those aie usually enough, Lut il you rca||y want to contiol who
can anu can`t mess with a paiticulai lile, click the - Lutton to
Liing up even moie options, as shown in Figuie 3-31.
96 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
Iigurc 3-31. Iinc-tuning who can sharc a ji|c
In the winuow that appeais, you can giant access to specilic
inuiviuuals. Note that auuing someone new (liom youi Au-
uiess Book, loi instance) will Liing up a uialog Lox wheie you
can set a passwoiu loi the item, anu will auu a Shaiing account
to youi Mac loi that peison. Auuing a new gioup ol people will
auu a new Gioup account.
Finally, il you`ve maue a Lunch ol changes to shaiing anu then
thought Lettei ol it, you can click the geai icon anu then unuo
what you have wiought Ly selecting ¨Reveit changes.¨
The Shaiing e Peimissions section also incluues a lock
icon. Il you`ie loggeu in as a Stanuaiu usei, you can click
it to unlock iestiicteu leatuies, such as the Change All
Lutton in the ¨Open with¨ section. Howevei, you`ll neeu
the useiname anu passwoiu ol an auministiative usei to
make changes.
Nonessential (but Useful) Mac OS X Features | 97
Duiing a typical uay, youi Mac`s uesktop can get clutteieu.
You might have a NeoOllice winuow open, an iTunes winuow
lloating aLout, a Salaii winuow loi Liowsing the VeL, anu an
iMovie winuow open while you make some last minute euits
to youi vacation movie. You`ie thinking, ¨Thank goouness loi
the Application Switchei,¨ Lut theie`s a Lettei (anu comple-
mentaiy) solution: Spaces.
Spaces allow you to cieate auuitional uesktops uevoteu to ap-
plication winuows. Sounu gieat? Get staiteu Ly heauing to
Mission Contiol (see ¨Mission Contiol¨ on page 6) anu auuing
uesktop spaces loi all youi uilleient woikllows (up to 16).
98 | Chapter 3: A Quick Guide to Lion
Troubleshooting Mac OS X
Mac OS X is a ioLust opeiating system; while pioLlems aie
iaie, they uo show up liom time to time. Since these pioLlems
always seem to piesent themselves at the woist possiLle mo-
ment, it helps il you know the Lest ways to tiouLleshoot them.
TiouLleshooting is what this chaptei is aLout, anu it`s a gieat
ieason to keep this Look in youi pocket!
Common Problems
Theie aie a lot ol things that can go wiong with youi Mac:
Haiuwaie pioLlems, soltwaie glitches, anu conliguiation is-
sues can happen at any moment. Most ol the pioLlems you`ll
encountei can Le easily auuiesseu oi uiagnoseu Ly lollowing
the steps in this chaptei. Il the inloimation heie uoesn`t iesolve
things, you coulu have a unigue issue, in which case a tiip to
the Apple Stoie oi a call to Apple is in oiuei.
You can linu a complete list ol technical suppoit num-
Leis loi Apple at|c.con/support/contact/
phonc_contacts.htn|. In the Uniteu States, the numLei
is 1-S00-275-2273.
Misbehaving Applications
One ol the most common pioLlems on a Mac is an application
that isn`t Lehaving as expecteu. This pioLlem comes in many
loims: an application that unexpecteuly guits iepeateuly, sim-
ply stops iesponuing, oi just uoesn`t peiloim the way it noi-
mally uoes. This section suggests ways to iesolve all these
issues anu moie.
An application stops responding
Occasionally, an application will simply stop ieacting to any-
thing. Youi mouse oi tiackpau will still woik, anu othei pio-
giams will Le line, Lut il you want to use the tiouLlesome
piogiam all you`ll get is a spinning Leach-Lall cuisoi (insteau
ol the mouse pointei) anu you`ll have no way to input anything.
Don`t panic÷theie`s an easy lix. Simply iight-click oi Contiol-
click the stalleu application`s icon in the Dock to Liing up its
Dock menu (Figuie +-1). Il you see ¨Application Not Responu-
ing¨ in laint text at the top ol the menu, you`ll also see a Foice
Quit option. Select Foice Quit anu Mac OS X will kill the
You may also neeu anothei way to kill applications, Lecause
occasionally a piogiam can Lecome uniesponsive without Mac
OS X iealizing that the piogiam is in peiil. Foi these times,
launch the Foice Quit Applications uialog Lox eithei Ly se-
lecting Foice Quit oi using the key comLo Option--Esc.
You can also tiy holuing uown Shilt as you click the menu,
then select Foice Quit ¦application name¦ to kill the liontmost
Theie`s some goou news when it comes to loice-guitting ap-
plications in Lion. In pievious veisions ol OS X, any changes
you maue Letween the last time you saveu a uocument anu the
moment the application staiteu misLehaving weie gone loi-
evei. But Lion incluues Auto Save, a new leatuie that auto-
matically saves youi woik as you go. So il you`ie loiceu to guit
100 | Chapter 4: Troubleshooting Mac OS X
an application, Lion pieseives the woik you`ve uone since the
last time you saveu.
Foi the time Leing, ¨Save eaily, save olten¨ is still goou
auvice, since Lion`s Auto Save leatuie only woiks with
applications specilically Luilt with Auto Save in minu.
That means that woik you uo in apps uesigneu loi Lion
will Le saveu, Lut applications that haven`t Leen upuateu
loi Lion won`t automatically save youi woik.
The Finder stops responding
The Finuei is just anothei piogiam, so it can get hung up, too.
Il that happens, eithei heau to Foice Quit oi use the key
comLination -Option-Esc. Il nothing happens, tiy clicking
the Dock oi some othei application liist, anu thcn use the
menu oi -Option-Esc to invoke the Foice Quit uialog Lox.
Iigurc 1-1. Whcn an app|ication isn`t p|aying nicc|y, Iorcc Quit is
your bcst option
Common Problems | 101
Vhen you select an application in the Foice Quit uialog
Lox, the uialog Lox`s Lutton ieaus ¨Foice Quit.¨ How-
evei, il you select the Finuei, the Lutton ieaus
¨Relaunch¨ insteau. Vhy the change in nomenclatuie?
Unlike eveiy othei application, the Finuei will Le iestai-
teu immeuiately altei it`s loiceu to guit.
Force quitting greedy processes
Il you suspect something is eating up too much piocessoi time
oi too many system iesouices (Lecause youi Mac is iunning
ieally slowly, say, oi the lans aie iunning at lull speeu loi no
oLvious ieason), Foice Quit won`t help you liguie out which
application is hogging all the iesouices. Insteau, open Activity
Monitoi (ApplicationsUtilitiesActivity Monitoi), click its
CPU taL, anu then look loi any piocesses that aie using a lot
ol CPU iesouices loi moie than a lew seconus. (Salaii anu its
helpei applications occasionally uo this, paiticulaily with iun-
away Flash oi ]avaSciipt coue.) Vhen you iuentily a suspect,
single-click the ienegaue piocess`s name anu then click the Lig
ieu Quit Piocess Lutton in the uppei-lelt coinei ol the Activity
Monitoi winuow (you can`t miss it÷it`s shapeu like a stop
Be caielul which applications you guit in this way. Theie
aie some piogiams that youi Mac iuns in the Lack-
giounu, anu many ol these aie impoitant in helping youi
computei opeiate noimally. Heie`s a iule ol thumL: il
you uon`t iecognize the name ol the piogiam as an ap-
plication that you launcheu, uon`t kill it. Insteau, uo a
Google seaich on its name (loi goou measuie, incluue
the teims ¨Mac OS X¨ anu ¨cpu,¨ too). Chances aie
goou you`ll linu a solution loi whatevei is causing that
piocess to use up so much CPU time.
102 | Chapter 4: Troubleshooting Mac OS X
USB device problems
It seems like computeis nevei have enough USB poits, so most
ol us enu up using USB huLs (oi keyLoaius that have extia USB
poits). Then we plug some lantastic new USB uevice into the
huL÷anu it uoesn`t woik. In lact, il you uig thiough System
Inloimation (it`s in the /App|ications/Uti|itics loluei) anu look
at the USB Device Tiee (click USB in the list on the lelt), the
huL shows up, Lut not the uevice.
Olten the pioLlem is that the uevice ieguiies a powcrcd USB
poit anu you`ie using an unpoweieu huL (oi you`ve maxeu out
the powei capaLilities ol the huL oi poit). Switching to a pow-
eieu huL might lix the pioLlem, Lut it isn`t guaianteeu. Vhat
woiks most olten is plugging the uevice uiiectly into youi Mac,
which means you`ll neeu to shullle youi vaiious USB uevices
aiounu. Il any ol them can iun oll ol theii own exteinal powei
supply iathei than taking powei liom the USB poit, that may
help as well (sometimes these powei supplies aie solu sepa-
iately; check with the uevice`s manulactuiei).
The seconu methou ol attacking USB uevice pioLlems is a little
moie involveu. Fiist, shut uown youi Mac anu unplug all the
USB uevices (even the ones that use exteinal powei supplies).
ReLoot youi Mac, anu then plug them Lack in one at a time
while watching at the USB Device Tiee (it`s upuateu guickly
so you`ll see each uevice appeai as it`s pluggeu in) to see which
uevice isn`t playing nicely with otheis.
Sometimes going thiough this piocess iesults in all ol the ue-
vices suuuenly woiking. But il you liguie out that only a ceitain
uevice isn`t woiking, the lix may Le to install a new uiivei loi
it. Check the manulactuiei`s weLsite loi upuates.
Common Problems | 103
Some USB uevices, such as a GPS unit oi othei gauget
that Lehaves like a seiial poit, iely on a chipset liom a
uilleient manulactuiei than the one that makes the ue-
vice. Two common souices ol USB-seiial uevices aie
Piolilic anu FTDI.
Battery problems
MacBook useis aie laceu with a pioLlem that uesktop useis
uon`t have to woiiy aLout: the Latteiy. The goal ol most Apple
Latteiies is to still pioviue S0º ol the oiiginal chaige capacity
altei a ceitain numLei ol cycles (chaiges anu uischaiges). The
numLei ol cycles vaiies uepenuing on youi machine. Foi Lion-
capaLle MacBooks, the cycle count is eithei 750 oi 1000 cycles
(uepenuing on the mouel). Il you notice youi Latteiy isn`t
holuing a chaige loi as long as it useu to, the liist thing to uo
is launch System Inloimation (ApplicationsUtilitiesSystem
Inloimation) anu then click Powei in the list on the lelt; see
Figuie +-2.
The Batteiy Inloimation list incluues youi Latteiy`s lull chaige
capacity, how many cycles it`s Leen thiough, anu its conuition.
Il the conuition is listeu as Replace Soon oi something egually
ominous, it`s likely time to think aLout getting a new Latteiy.
Il the cycle count is low Lut the Latteiy is sti|| iunning out ol
juice piematuiely, heie aie a couple ol things you can tiy:
Ca|ibratc thc battcry
Insiue eveiy MacBook Latteiy is a miciocontiollei that
tells youi computei how long the Latteiy is going to last
until it iuns out ol juice. Ovei time, this estimation can
get laithei anu laithei liom ieal-woilu peiloimance. To
get the computei anu the miciocontiollei on the same
page, you neeu to iecaliLiate the Latteiy liom time to time.
To uo so, lully chaige the Latteiy anu then keep youi
computei pluggeu into the powei auaptei loi two moie
houis. Next, unplug the powei auaptei anu lully uiain the
104 | Chapter 4: Troubleshooting Mac OS X
Latteiy. Vhen a waining pops up aleiting you that the
Latteiy is iunning uangeiously low, save youi woik anu
keep on tiucking until youi computei automatically goes
to sleep. Then let the computei sleep loi moie than live
houis to make suie eveiy uiop ol powei is gone. Finally,
plug in the powei auaptei anu let youi computei lully
chaige. The Latteiy inuicatoi shoulu now Le successlully
Il youi MacBook has an inteinal Latteiy, Apple
iecommenus not caliLiating the Latteiy Lecause
these inteinal Latteiies shoulu only Le seiviceu Ly
an authoiizeu iepaii centei.
Rcsct thc SMC
SMC is shoit loi the System Management Contiollei, a
chip that`s iesponsiLle loi haiu uiive spin-uown, sleep
anu wake, anu Lacklighting. A mallunctioning SMC can
Iigurc 1-2. Thc Powcr scction oj Systcn |njornation tc||s you a||
about your battcry
Common Problems | 105
pievent the Latteiy liom chaiging, so you neeu to ieset the
SMC. How you uo that uepenus on whethei youi Mac-
Book has an inteinal oi exteinal Latteiy. Il it has an ex-
teinal Latteiy, shut it uown, unplug the powei auaptei
liom the wall anu the computei, anu then iemove the
Latteiy. Next, piess the powei Lutton loi live seconus.
Altei that, ieplace the Latteiy, plug in the powei auaptei,
anu then iestait the computei. Il youi MacBook has an
inteinal Latteiy, shut the computei uown anu plug it into
an auaptei that is getting powei. On the lelt siue ol the
keyLoaiu, holu uown Lelt Shilt-Contiol-Option anu then
piess the powei Lutton. Keep these Luttons uepiesseu
(incluuing the powei Lutton) loi live seconus anu then
ielease them all simultaneously. Pat youisell on the Lack
loi pulling oll an impiessive leat ol manual uexteiity anu
then piess the powei Lutton to iestait the computei.
Il those iemeuies uon`t iestoie youi Latteiy, it`s likely time loi
a tiip to youi local Apple Stoie oi authoiizeu iepaii centei. Il
youi computei is unuei waiianty anu youi cycle count is low,
Apple will pioLaLly ieplace the Latteiy. Il youi cycle count is
ovei the iecommenueu numLei anu the peiloimance uegia-
uation is within expectations, you`ll pioLaLly neeu to have the
Latteiy ieplaceu oi live with the ieuuceu (anu evei-shiinking)
Latteiy capacity.
Like many computei makeis, Apple has hau its shaie ol
Latteiy iecalls, Loth loi salety anu peiloimance ieasons.
So check with Apple to see il youi Latteiy is unuei iecall.
Il so, it`s likely that Apple will ieplace the Latteiy even
il youi computei is out ol waiianty.
106 | Chapter 4: Troubleshooting Mac OS X
Display problems
Most Macs come with a Luilt-in uisplay that uoesn`t ieguiie
special conliguiation, so uisplay pioLlems aie uncommon.
Vhen they uo happen, they`ie olten causeu Ly usei eiioi. The
lix, while usually easy, isn`t ieauily appaient. Heie aie some
things to tiy:
Iuzzy/tiny disp|ay
Il youi uisplay is luzzy oi eveiything is suuuenly Liggei
than you iememLei, it`s possiLle that someone changeu
the uisplay`s iesolution (on some systems, this may also
manilest itsell as a small scieen with Llack Lais aiounu its
euges). Heau to ApplicationsSystem Pieleien-
cesDisplays anu look loi the monitoi`s native iesolution
(on Macs with Luilt-in uisplays, this is usually the highest
iesolution availaLle at the top ol the list). Once you select
the optimal iesolution, things shoulu look noimal again.
Your disp|ay novcs with your nousc
I`ve ieceiveu seveial panickeu calls anu emails aLout this
issue. The weiiu thing is that it always happens when
chiluien unuei live aie on youi lap while you`ie using youi
computei. Is theie some kinu ol kiu uetectoi in youi Mac
that causes this? Ol couise not. Youi kiu just piesseu some
keys while you weie woiking. (Il you uon`t have kius oi
lap cats, then it was pioLaLly you.)
Theie aie a couple ol key comLinations that will cause
youi Mac to zoom the scieen. The most common is holu-
ing uown Contiol while you zoom in oi out with youi
mouse oi tiackpau. Once you`ie zoomeu in, youi mouse
will suuuenly stait uiagging the scieen aiounu, which is
uisconceiting il you aie not expecting it. To tuin it oll,
holu uown Contiol anu zoom out with youi tiackpau oi
mouse wheel. Theie aie a couple ol othei key seguences
that can Le invokeu acciuentally: Option--S toggles key-
Loaiu zooming on anu oll, anu holuing uown = oi - while
piessing Option- zooms in oi out, iespectively.
Common Problems | 107
Startup Problems
A misLehaving application is Lau enough, Lut a Mac that won`t
stait piopeily is tiuly uisconceiting. The goou news is that
most such pioLlems aie iepaiiaLle. The geneial methou ol at-
tack in this case is to get youi Mac to a state wheie you can iun
Disk Utility anu iepaii the uiive. Howevei, theie aie some sit-
uations wheie you can`t even get to that point.
Your Mac beeps at you instead of starting
Il youi Mac just Leeps when you tiy to stait it up, it`s tiying to
tell you something: one Leep means theie`s no memoiy (RAM)
installeu, anu thiee Leeps means youi RAM uoesn`t pass in-
tegiity check. (This goes loi Intel Macs only; Powei PC Macs
have slightly uilleient Leeps, Lut they can`t iun Lion.) The
pioLlem coulu Le a Lau RAM mouule, so you`ll neeu to open
up youi Mac anu ieplace the mouule.
Tiy installing some memoiy that you`ie ceitain is lully lunc-
tional to see il that iesolves the pioLlem. Il you uon`t have any
spaie memoiy lying aiounu, tiy iemoving each RAM mouule
anu ieplacing them one Ly one until you`ve isolateu the Lau
Il you uon`t know how to ieplace memoiy in youi Mac,
check the usei guiue that came with it. Oi il youi Mac
is still unuei waiianty, just take it into an Apple Stoie
loi seivice.
Your hard drive is making noises
Il you suspect you`ve got a physical haiu uiive pioLlem, you
neeu to check things out guickly Leloie they get much, much
woise. Il you heai a stiange noise coming liom youi machine,
that`s an oLvious sign ol a haiu uiive pioLlem; Lut these
pioLlems can also Le inuicateu Ly the computei stalling loi
108 | Chapter 4: Troubleshooting Mac OS X
seveial seconus at a time (oi making a clicking sounu when
]ust as with a cai, when a Lau sounu is emanating liom youi
haiu uiive, it`s usually a Lau thing. Il you`ve evei listeneu to
the National PuLlic Rauio show Car Ta||, you know that one
ol the highlights is when calleis tiy to imitate the sounus theii
cais aie making. Il you`ie inclineu to tiy iuentilying youi haiu
uiive`s sounu Ly eai, heau ovei to http://dataccnt.con/hard
_drivc_sounds.php anu take a listen to the sounus ol uying
uiives, soiteu Ly manulactuiei.
Il youi haiu uiive is lailing, you`ie likely to lose moie
uata eveiy moment it`s iunning. Il you uon`t have cui-
ient Lackups, youi Lest Let is to ieplace the uiive
immeuiately, anu eithei seek a uata iecoveiy piolessio-
nal oi, il you uon`t have the money loi that, install the
uamageu uiive in an exteinal uiive enclosuie anu use
the GNU uuiescue utility (
ddrcscuc) to iecovei the uata on the uamageu uiive.
Il you aien`t heaiing any oLviously unusual sounus Lut still
suspect youi haiu uiive is causing youi pioLlems, heau to Disk
Utility (ApplicationsUtilitiesDisk Utility) anu check the
S.M.A.R.T. status ol the uiive.
Using a computei means loving acionyms, anu this time the
acionym is clevei, il a little loiceu: S.M.A.R.T. stanus loi Sell-
Monitoiing Analysis anu Repoiting Technology. The iuea Le-
hinu S.M.A.R.T. is that many haiu uisk lailuies aie pieuictaLle
anu computei useis, il given a heaus-up that theii haiu uiive
is on the veige ol lailing, will Le aLle to iecovei uata bcjorc the
lailuie actually happens. You can uiscovei youi uiive`s
S.M.A.R.T. status Ly opening Disk Utility anu selecting the
uisk you`ie woiiieu aLout in the list on the lelt. In the lowei-
iight pait ol the Disk Utility winuow, you`ll see the S.M.A.R.T.
Status (Figuie +-3): eithei Veiilieu (eveiything is line) oi
Common Problems | 109
¨ALout to Fail.¨ Il you get the ¨ALout to Fail¨ notice, uon`t
waste any time: il youi Mac is unuei waiianty, take it into an
Apple Stoie; otheiwise, Lack up youi uata as soon as possiLle
anu stait piicing out a new uiive.
S.M.A.R.T. isn`t peilect (that`s no suipiise÷nothing is).
You can have a pioLlematic uiive that S.M.A.R.T. won`t
iecognize. So il you`ie having consistent pioLlems anu
S.M.A.R.T. keeps telling you eveiything is line, uon`t
uiscount the uiive as the souice ol the pioLlems altei
you`ve exhausteu othei lixes.
Startup troubleshooting
Thanklully, the haiuwaie lailuies just uesciiLeu aie ielatively
iaie. Much moie common aie soltwaie lailuies. Coiiupt liles,
wonky login items, anu even lont pioLlems can cause a staitup
lailuie. These issues aie geneially iepaiiaLle, hopelully without
Iigurc 1-3. This drivc is jinc
110 | Chapter 4: Troubleshooting Mac OS X
uata loss. Unloitunately, when you have one ol these pioL-
lems, the cause isn`t immeuiately oLvious. Vhen laceu with a
Mac that won`t Loot, theie aie a lew things you can tiy to get
youi computei Lack to a usaLle state:
Rcstart your Mac
A lot happens when Mac OS X staits up: it checks youi
Mac`s haiuwaie, piepaies the system soltwaie, anu moie.
Duiing the staitup piocess, theie aie ample oppoitunities
loi something to go wiong, especially iight altei you in-
stall an upuate to Mac OS X oi even an application. Il youi
Mac won`t complete the staitup seguence, uon`t panic;
simply iestait the machine Ly holuing uown the powei
Lutton until you heai a chime; chances aie eveiything will
Le line.
Il you see a llashing guestion maik when you tiy to
stait youi Mac, it means that youi machine can`t
linu its staitup uisk. In that case, skip aheau to
¨Restait in Recoveiy Moue,¨ Lelow.
Sajc Boot
Il a simple iestait uoesn`t uo the tiick, it means you have
pioLlems that peisist acioss iestaits, so the next step is a
Sale Boot. In Sale Moue, all youi Mac`s staitup items aie
uisaLleu, lont caches aie cleaieu, anu some othei possiLly
pioLlematic items aie avoiueu. Moie impoitant, Sale Boot
gives you a chance to iun Disk Utility, uninstall any solt-
waie that may Le misLehaving, oi Lack up youi uata Le-
loie whatevei is causing the pioLlem gets woise. To get
youi Mac to Loot into Sale Moue, holu uown the Shilt key
altei you heai the staitup chime anu ielease the key when
you see the spinning wheel appeai. Once the Mac is
Looteu, iun Disk Utility (ApplicationsUtilitiesDisk
Common Problems | 111
Vhen you`ie Looting in Sale Moue, the Login win-
uow automatically appeais even il you usually use
Automatic Login on youi Mac. Don`t Le alaimeu
Ly the change÷it`s a sign that Sale Moue is woik-
ing as expecteu.
Rcstart in Rccovcry Modc
Beloie Lion, one iemeuy to tiy when youi Mac went Lau
was to Loot liom the DVD you eithei got with youi Mac
oi puichaseu when you upgiaueu to Snow Leopaiu. But
since you uon`t use any physical meuia÷DVD oi othei-
wise÷when you install Lion, this tiick won`t woik any-
moie. Foitunately, Apple iealizes that, when pioLlems
occui, you might neeu to Loot youi Mac liom a uilleient
souice than usual, so Lion incluues Recoveiy Moue.
You neeu to Le connecteu to the Inteinet to use
Recoveiy Moue to ieinstall Lion. The Reinstall
Lion option will uownloau eveiy Lyte ol the Lion
installei, so you might want to tiy othei lixes Leloie
going thiough with the entiie piocess.
Recoveiy Moue allows you to Loot liom a viitual paitition
calleu Recoveiy HD. Vhen you Loot into Recoveiy Moue,
you`ll linu youisell iunning a special system that lets you
iestoie youi Mac liom a Time Machine Lackup, ieinstall
Lion, use Salaii to look loi solutions to youi pioLlem on-
line, oi iun Disk Utility. (Don`t Le aliaiu to launch Salaii
even il you`ie not connecteu to the Inteinet; theie`s a static
weL page with Lasic instiuctions that automatically opens
when you launch Salaii.)
112 | Chapter 4: Troubleshooting Mac OS X
You can only iun one application at a time in Re-
coveiy Moue, so il you`ie iunning Disk Utility, say,
you can`t also launch Salaii. Being awaie ol this
limitation can save you some liustiation anu enu-
less iestaits.
In auuition to Recoveiy Moue`s oLvious choices, you can
also iun Fiimwaie Passwoiu Utility, Netwoik Utility, anu
Teiminal Ly visiting the Utilities uiop-uown menu at the
top ol the scieen. Vith all ol these options, most useis will
linu the choices piesenteu in the Mac OS X Utilities win-
uow sullicient to lix theii Mac woes.
Heie`s how to Loot youi Mac in Recoveiy Moue (the
piocess shoulu Le lamiliai il you`ve Looteu Macs liom al-
teinative uisks Leloie): holu uown the Option key while
staiting youi Mac. You`ll Le piesenteu with a scieen that
shows all the viaLle staitup paititions availaLle. Choose
Recoveiy HD anu you`ll Le well on youi way to uiagnosing
(anu hopelully lixing) whatevei pioLlem is cuiiently pla-
guing youi Mac.
Il you have a Lianu-new Mac (one that came with Lion
installeu), you have one moie tiick you can use: Inteinet
Recoveiy. Il something teiiiLle happens to youi machine
(a massive haiu uiive lailuie, say) oi you want to install
Lion onto a completely Llank haiu uiive, holu uown the
Option key while staiting youi Mac, anu then choose
Inteinet Recoveiy. Once you tell youi computei which
netwoik to use, it will Loot liom Apple`s seiveis. Once
Looteu, youi Mac will uownloau the Recoveiy HD im-
age liom Apple. Altei that, the piocess is the same as loi
a stanuaiu Lion ieinstall.
Common Problems | 113
This section emphasizeu tools that come with Lion Lecause,
well, il you`ve installeu Lion, you have access to these tools.
But you shoulu Le awaie that these tools aien`t the only ones
availaLle when things go wiong. Theie aie seveial uisk iepaii
piogiams availaLle (many ol which aie moie poweilul than
Disk Utility) liom thiiu paities, such as DiskVaiiioi (http://
www.a|sojt.con/Dis|Warrior) anu TechTool Pio (http://www
Reset your PRAM
This maneuvei gets its own section only Lecause it`s one ol the
oluest tiouLleshooting technigues in Mac histoiy.
PRAM (paiametei ianuom access memoiy) is wheie youi Mac
stoies many ol its haiuwaie settings. Resetting the PRAM al-
most nevei iesolves a staitup issue, Lut it`s something Apple
suppoit usually asks you to uo when tiouLleshooting a pioL-
lem (anu it uoes, in some iaie cases, help). To ieset the PRAM,
tuin on youi Mac, inncdiatc|y piess anu holu Option--P-R,
anu continue to holu the keys until youi Mac iestaits anu you
heai the staitup chime a total ol thiee times. Altei you uo this,
you may have to ieconliguie some ol the system settings (like
uate, time, anu possiLly keyLoaiu/mouse settings il you`ve
customizeu them).
114 | Chapter 4: Troubleshooting Mac OS X
System Preferences
Out ol the Lox, the Mac is a lantastic machine. Its giaphical
inteilace is clean anu unclutteieu, you can use it to accomplish
tasks with a minimum ol liustiation, anu eveiything peiloims
exactly how you expect it to. That honeymoon lasts loi some-
wheie Letween 10 seconus anu a week. Vhile eveiything is
gieat at liist, you`ll soon linu youisell saying, ¨Man, it suie
woulu Le Lettei il..¨ Vhen this happens, youi liist stop
shoulu Le System Pieleiences.
Apple knows that uilleient people want uilleient Lehaviois
liom theii Macs. Vhile Lion can`t possiLly accommouate ev-
eiything that eveiyone might want to uo, most ol the changes
you aie likely to want to make aie Luilt iight into Lion.
System Pieleiences, which you can get to Ly clicking the silvei-
liameu geais icon in the Dock (unless you`ve iemoveu it liom
the Dock, in which case you can linu it in the Applications
loluei oi the menu), is the place to make youi Mac uniguely
youis. But as you`ll see latei in this chaptei, you can make some
tweaks Ly going Leyonu System Pieleiences.
One thing that will inevitaLly happen while you`ie aujusting
youi System Pieleiences is that you`ll make a change anu latei
ueciue that it was a mistake. Foi example, say you aujust the
time it takes loi youi Mac to go to sleep anu latei ueciue that
Apple hau it iight out ol the Lox. Foitunately, many pieleience
panes leatuie a Restoie Delaults Lutton that iesets the settings
in that paiticulai pane to the lactoiy uelaults.
Lion comes with 2S pieleience panes, each ol which contiols
a Levy ol ielateu pieleiences. Vith all those options, how will
you iememLei wheie to linu eveiy setting? Foi example, aie
the settings loi uisplay sleep unuei Eneigy Savei oi Displays?
Lion makes it easy to linu the iight pieleience pane Ly incluu-
ing a seaich Lox in the System Pieleiences winuow (Mac OS X
is Lig on seaich Loxes). Type in what you`ie looking loi anu
the likely choices get highlighteu, anu you`ll see a list ol sug-
gesteu seaiches (Figuie 5-1).
Iigurc 5-1. Scarching jor ¨a|crts¨ in Systcn Prcjcrcnccs. Lion
high|ights thc bcst candidatcs and suggcsts othcr scarchcs.
116 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
Tiy seaiching loi one teim at a time. Foi example, il you
can`t linu the settings loi putting youi uisplay to sleep
Ly seaiching loi ¨uisplay sleep,¨ tiy seaiching loi ¨uis-
play¨ oi ¨sleep¨ insteau.
Preference Pane Rundown
Vith so many pieleience panes, it`s haiu to keep tiack ol what
they all uo. This section uesciiLes each one.
The System Pieleiences winuow is uiviueu into live categoiies:
Peisonal, Haiuwaie, Inteinet e Viieless, System, anu Othei.
Othei is ieseiveu loi non-Apple pieleience panes anu uoesn`t
appeai until you`ve installeu at least one thiiu-paity pieleience
pane (which usually, Lut not always, is pait ol a thiiu-paity
Some pieleiences, such as those that allect all useis ol the
computei, neeu to Le unlockeu Leloie you can use them. (Il a
pieleience pane is lockeu, theie will Le a lock icon in its lowei
lelt.) These can only Le unlockeu Ly a usei who has auminis-
tiative access. On most Macs, the liist usei you cieate has those
piivileges. Il you uon`t have auministiative piivileges, you`ll
neeu to linu the peison who docs anu have him oi hei type in
the useiname anu passwoiu Leloie you can make changes.
This pieleience pane useu to Le calleu Appeaiance. It lets you
tweak the look anu leel ol Mac OS X. The liist two options
contiol colois. The Appeaiance setting contiols the oveiall
look ol Luttons, menus, anu winuows anu has two choices:
Llue oi giay. The Highlight setting contiols the coloi useu loi
text you`ve selecteu anu olleis moie choices, incluuing select-
ing youi own coloi (choose Othei).
Preference Pane Rundown | 117
The seconu section ol this pane lets you ueciue when you want
the scioll Lai to show up. ¨Automatically Laseu on input ue-
vice¨ leaves the uecision up to youi Mac; ¨Vhen sciolling¨
means the Lais only show up when you`ie actively sciolling;
anu, loi those who long loi the uays ol Snow Leopaiu, ¨Al-
ways¨ keeps them visiLle all the time. No mattei which option
you choose you`ie stuck with giay scioll Lais÷no moie col-
oilul sciolling.
You`ll also linu options to mouily what happens when you
click a scioll Lai. You can set it to automatically jump to the
next page oi to the spot that you clickeu. The uilleience Le-
tween these options is not tiivial: il you`ie looking at a lengthy
weL page oi a thousanu-page uocument, opting loi ¨]ump to
next page¨ means it`ll take a lot ol clicks to ieach the enu,
wheieas ¨]ump to the spot that`s clickeu¨ coulu shoot all the
way to the enu in a llash.
You`ll also linu settings that contiol smooth sciolling, whethei
uouLle-clicking a winuow`s title Lai minimizes the winuow,
anu the size ol the icons in Mac OS X`s vaiious siueLais. (The
most oLvious siueLai is in the Finuei, Lut il you aujust the
¨SiueLai icon size¨ setting, othei siueLais÷like Mail`s÷will
also change.)
By uelault, Lion shows youi 10 most iecent applications, uocu-
ments, anu seiveis in the menu`s Recent Items suLmenu, Lut
you can change that numLei heie. Anu new in Lion, you`ll also
linu a ¨Restoie winuows when guitting anu ie-opening apps¨
checkLox. This is enaLleu Ly uelault, so il you linu youisell
annoyeu that, say, Salaii is ieopening all the winuows you hau
open when you iestait the app, this is wheie you can kill that
Desktop & Screen Saver
The Desktop e Scieen Savei pieleience pane has two taLs. The
Desktop taL lets you change the uesktop Lackgiounu (also
known as wallpapei). You can use the Apple-supplieu images,
soliu colois, oi pictuies liom youi iPhoto LiLiaiy. You can even
118 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
specily a whole loluei ol images Ly clicking the - Lutton in the
lowei-lelt coinei.
Il you pick an image ol youi own, you can contiol how the
image is uisplayeu Ly selecting Fill Scieen, Fit to Scieen, Stietch
to Fill Scieen, Centei, oi Tile liom the menu to the iight ol the
image pieview. Il you like a little liveliness, you can tell youi
computei to change the uesktop pictuie peiiouically. Apple
supplies options ianging liom eveiy live seconus to eveiy time
you log in oi wake liom sleep. Anu il you want youi menu Lai
to Le soliu insteau ol see-thiough, tuin oll ¨Tianslucent menu
Lai¨ heie.
Il you choose to change the pictuie peiiouically without
caielully vetting the souice images, you`ll likely Le pie-
senteu with something completely useless, conlusing, oi
emLaiiassing at a ianuom moment.
Foi something as seemingly munuane as a scieensavei, you can
get a lot out ol the Scieen Savei pieleience pane. Apple incluues
seveial Luilt-in scieensaveis; while most aie just aLstiact ani-
mations (sauly no llying toasteis), theie aie two that aie a Lit
moie inloimative: RSS Visualizei lets you watch an RSS leeu
ioll acioss the scieen; to change which leeu is uisplayeu, click
Options anu then change the URL. ¨Voiu ol the Day¨ woiks
exactly how you might imagine: you get a woiu anu a uelini-
tion. But since it`s liom Apple, it`s ienueieu moie Leautilully
than any othei woiu-ol-the-uay uisplay you can linu.
All youi iPhoto pictuies aie listeu heie, too; you can choose
youi entiie liLiaiy oi a specilic event, alLum, oi MoLileMe
(soon to Le iClouu) galleiy. Il you specily a collection ol pic-
tuies, you can change the way the pictuies aie uisplayeu. The
Display Style Luttons just Lelow the pieview let you choose
Letween Sliueshow, Collage, anu Mosaic. Click the Options
Lutton loi even moie contiol ovei how the pictuies aie
Preference Pane Rundown | 119
Can`t ueciue on a scieensavei? Let youi Mac select one loi you;
just check the ¨Use ianuom scieen savei¨ Lox. Right Lelow
that is anothei checkLox that supeiimposes a clock ovei youi
scieensavei. The Test Lutton lets you see youi scieensavei in
action Leloie you commit to it.
The ¨Stait scieen savei¨ sliuei Leneath the Pieview winuow
lets you contiol how long you have to Le inactive Leloie the
scieensavei kicks in. Il you make this uelay longei than the
uelay set loi youi Mac to sleep, you`ll see a yellow waining sign
Lelow the sliuei. Don`t woiiy, nothing Lau will happen÷
you`ll just nevei see the scieensavei Lecause, Ly the time it
kicks in, the scieen will alieauy Le Llank.
Il you`u like the scieensavei to kick in on uemanu÷hanuy
when you`ie messing aiounu online anu the Loss walks in÷
you can set a hot corncr that lets you invoke the scieensavei
iight away. Click the Hot Coineis Lutton in the lowei-lelt coi-
nei ol the Scieen Savei pane anu you`ll get a new winuow with
options loi eveiy coinei. Use the uiop-uown menus to set op-
tions loi any coinei you want; when you move youi mouse to
that coinei, it liies up the scieensavei (oi uoes whatevei you
selecteu eailiei). The only uownsiue ol setting hot coineis is
that you have eight options loi each coinei, so unless you want
to use a mouiliei key with the coinei, you uon`t have enough
coineis to use all the options.
By using mouiliei keys (you can choose liom Shilt, ,
Option, anu Contiol), you can get a single coinei to uo
many uilleient things. To auu a mouiliei key to a hot
coinei, holu uown the mouiliei key while you select
what you want the hot coinei to uo liom the Active
Scieen Coineis winuow`s menus. Using mouilieis with
hot coineis not only gives you extia llexiLility, it pie-
vents you liom acciuentally invoking the hot coinei ac-
tion when you`ie mousing aiounu.
120 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
You won`t linu a lot ol options in the Dock pieleience pane,
Lut you get contiol ovei the most impoitant aspects ol the
Dock. You can change its size÷liom illegiLly small to iiuicu-
lously laige÷with the aptly nameu Size sliuei, which woiks in
ieal time so you can see the change as you`ie making it.
Il you tuin on Magnilication, the application oi uocument
you`ie mousing ovei will Lecome laigei than the iest ol the
items in youi Dock. How much laigei? Use the Magnilication
sliuei to ueteimine that.
Il you want to move the Dock somewheie else, click one ol the
thiee ¨Position on scieen¨ iauio Luttons: Lelt, Bottom, oi
Right. (Top isn`t an option Lecause you uon`t want the Dock
to compete with the menu Lai.)
The ¨Minimize winuows using¨ menu lets you choose which
animation youi Mac uses when you minimize a winuow: the
Genie ellect oi Scale. (These uays, this is just a mattei ol pei-
sonal pieleience, Lut in the eaily uays ol Mac OS X, some
machines weien`t last enough to ienuei the Genie ellect.)
The ¨Minimize winuows into application icon¨ setting uetei-
mines wheie youi winuows go when you click the yellow Lut-
ton lounu at the uppei lelt ol almost eveiy winuow. Il you leave
this uncheckeu, minimizeu winuows appeai on the iight siue
ol the Dock (oi the Lottom ol it il you put the Dock on the lelt
oi iight siue ol youi scieen). Il you tuin on this checkLox, you`ll
save space in the Dock, Lut to iestoie minimizeu application
winuows, you`ll have to iight-click oi Contiol-click the appio-
piiate application`s icon in the Dock, select the minimizeu
winuow liom the application`s winuow menu, oi invoke Mis-
sion Contiol.
Theie`s also a checkLox laLeleu ¨Animate opening applica-
tions,¨ which sounus like moie lun than it actually is. All it
uoes is contiol whethei applications` icons Lounce when you
launch them. Il you tuin this option oll, you`ll still Le aLle to
tell when an application is staiting Lecause the uot that appeais
Preference Pane Rundown | 121
unuei it (oi next to it, il the Dock is positioneu on the lelt oi
iight) will pulse (unless you`ve tuineu oll the inuicatoi lights,
as explaineu in a sec). Il you tuin on ¨Automatically hiue anu
show the Dock,¨ it will iemain hiuuen until you move the
mouse aLove oi next to it.
The Llue uots that inuicate that an application is iunning ieally
Lothei some people. Il the Llue uots aie the Lane ol youi ex-
istence, Lion olleis something new: a way to tuin them oll.
That`s iight, unchecking the Lox next to ¨Show inuicatoi lights
loi open applications¨ will make the Llue uots go away. To
liguie out which apps aie iunning once you`ve Lanisheu the
uots, use Mission Contiol oi the Application Switchei.
Mission Control
The Exposé e Spaces pieleience pane has Leen ieplaceu Ly
Mission Contiol (see ¨Mission Contiol¨ on page 6). This pane
allows you to aujust how you invoke Mission Contiol anu what
happens when you uo.
You`ll linu an option to uisplay DashLoaiu as a uesktop space,
which is tuineu on Ly uelault; this setting puts a mini-sizeu
DashLoaiu scieen at the top ol youi scieen with youi othei
spaces. You can opt to have OS X aiiange youi spaces so that
the ones you`ve useu most iecently aie at the top ol the list; il
you like to manually set youi spaces, uncheck this option. You
can also have OS X switch you to a space with an open winuow
when you switch applications. Vith this option on (which it
is Ly uelault), il you have a space with a Salaii winuow open,
say, anu you switch to Salaii liom anothei space oi lull-scieen
application, the space you switch to will have a Salaii winuow
open alieauy. Il you tuin this option oll, you might linu youi-
sell in a space without an open winuow loi the application you
just switcheu to, which can Le conlusing.
You also get to change the shoitcuts useu to invoke Mission
Contiol, Application winuows, Show Desktop, anu Show
DashLoaiu. Finally, the Hot Coineis Lutton lets you ueline
what youi Mac uoes when you sliue youi mouse to a coinei ol
122 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
the scieen (eveiything liom launching Mission Contiol to put-
ting youi uisplay to sleep).
Language & Text
The Language taL ol the Language e Text pieleience pane lets
you set the language youi Mac uses.
The Text taL is helplul il you spenu much time typing. It
incluues a list ol symLol anu text suLstitutions youi Mac pei-
loims, which lets you uo things like type (i) anu have it auto-
matically show up as ®. Even Lettei, you can auu youi own
suLstitutions. Click the - Lutton Lelow the list to auu whatevei
text you want suLstituteu anu what you want to ieplace it with;
make suie the checkLox to its lelt is tuineu on, anu youi Mac
shoulu make that lix automatically liom then on. This won`t
woik in eveiy application, Lut in the suppoiteu ones, text suL-
stitutions can save you a lot ol elloit.
On the Text taL, you can also aujust how Mac OS X checks
youi spelling (the uelault is automatic Ly language, Lut you can
have it check eveiything loi Fiench even il youi Mac is using
English). The Voiu Bieak setting allects how woius aie selec-
teu when you uouLle-click on a woiu, anu two uiop-uown
menus let you customize how uouLle anu single smait guotes
aie loimatteu.
Fiom the Foimats taL, you can contiol the loimat ol the uate,
time, anu numLeis on youi machine; pick which cuiiency
symLols you want to use; anu pick Letween US (impeiial) anu
metiic units ol measuiement.
On the Input Souices taL, you can tuin on ¨Show Input menu
in menu Lai,¨ which auus a multicoloi llag to the otheiwise
giayscale menu Lai. Il you check the Lox laLeleu KeyLoaiu e
Chaiactei Viewei (at the top ol the list ol input souices), you`ll
Le aLle to launch the Chaiactei Viewei anu KeyLoaiu Viewei
liom the menu Lai.
The ¨Input souice¨ list lets you select the language you want
to type in. You can choose anything liom Alghan Daii to
Preference Pane Rundown | 123
Velsh, which can mean a lot ol sciolling. To speeu things up,
use the seaich Lox at the Lottom ol the winuow to linu the
language you aie altei.
You can choose as many languages as you like anu switch Le-
tween them using the llag menu extia that appeais in youi
menu Lai automatically when you select multiple languages.
So you uon`t have to spenu all uay changing languages, you
can assign the languages gloLally oi locally, iespectively, using
the iauio Luttons laLeleu ¨Use the same one in all uocuments¨
anu ¨Allow a uilleient one loi each uocument.¨
Security & Privacy
The Secuiity e Piivacy pieleience pane is likely one ol the most
uselul anu most oveilookeu panes in OS X. Take youi time
setting up these pieleiences anu youi uata will Le much salei
than il you stick with the uelaults. Ignoie this pane anu people
can see moie ol youi uata than you pioLaLly want to shaie,
paiticulaily il they have physical access to youi Mac. This pane
leatuies loui taLs: Geneial, FileVault, Fiiewall, anu Piivacy.
General tab
Il you want to spenu 30 seconus making youi Mac much salei,
the Geneial taL is the place to visit. The liist option on this taL
is ¨Reguiie passwoiu ¸¸¸ altei sleep oi scieen savei Legins,¨
which lets you lill in that Llank with ¨immeuiately¨ oi a uuia-
tion. This makes it so that anyone who wants to use youi com-
putei has to entei a passwoiu il the scieensavei has staiteu oi
il youi Mac has Leen asleep. This ieguiies moie typing on youi
pait, Lut it is likely woith the inconvenience, especially il
you`ie using youi Mac in an open setting. Not ieguiiing a pass-
woiu lets anyone who walks Ly shake youi mouse anu stait
poking aiounu. So unless you log out eveiy time you`ie away
liom youi Mac loi moie than 30 seconus, seiiously consiuei
enaLling this option.
The iest ol the options in the Geneial taL aie loi auministiatois
only. You can click the lock in the pane`s lowei lelt anu then
124 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
type in an auministiatoi useiname anu passwoiu to make
changes to the lollowing settings:
Disab|c autonatic |ogin
Checking this Lox means all useis will have to log in each
time the computei is iestaiteu.
Rcquirc an adninistrator password to acccss systcn prcjcrcnccs
with |oc| icons
System Pieleiences can Le poweilul, so you woulun`t
want just anyone mucking with them. Check this Lox to
loice useis to authenticate Leloie changing any pieleien-
ces in a pane that has a lock icon in its lowei-lelt coinei.
Log out ajtcr __ ninutcs oj activity
This is a little ieuunuant il you alieauy ieguiie a passwoiu
to wake the computei oi get past the scieensavei, Lut loi
total contiol, this is a Lettei option. You can loice youi
Mac to log out altei any peiiou ol inactivity Letween 1 anu
960 minutes (that`s 16 houis!). This option will attempt
to shut uown any applications you`ie iunning, so save
youi woik Leloie you wanuei away (at least until Auto
Save is univeisally suppoiteu).
Show a ncssagc whcn thc scrccn is |oc|cd
Tuin on this setting anu type the message that you want
to appeai unuei the login winuow when youi scieen is
Autonatica||y updatc sajc down|oads |ist
This setting, which is tuineu on Ly uelault, lets you opt
out ol Salaii`s uaily upuate ol sale uownloaus. These up-
uates help piotect you against malwaie such as
MacDelenuei.mpkg. Il you uownloau a uangeious lile
anu it is on Apple`s list ol known malicious soltwaie,
you`ll get a message telling you to move it to the Tiash.
(The list is stoieu on youi Mac Lut gets upuateu eveiy
uay.) Tuin oll this setting anu you`ie taking chances you
uon`t want to take.
Preference Pane Rundown | 125
Disab|c rcnotc contro| injrarcd rcccivcr
By uelault, youi Mac (unless it`s a Mac Pio) will accept
input liom almost any inliaieu uevice. This can pose a
secuiity iisk anu Le veiy annoying il you`ie using Apple
TV anu youi laptop. Tuin this Lehavioi oll Ly checking
the Lox. Il you want to use a iemote with youi Mac Lut
have it ignoie all othcr iemotes, click the Paii Lutton anu
lollow the instiuctions that appeai.
FileVault tab
Lion incluues the new anu impioveu FileVault 2, which pio-
viues an extia layei ol secuiity loi youi uata. Vhen enaLleu,
FileVault enciypts youi entiie uiive with XTS-AES 12S en-
ciyption, the same algoiithm useu Ly goveinments to piotect
classilieu uata. You might think all that enciypting anu ue-
ciypting woulu Luiuen youi system, Lut Mac OS X manages
this tiick on the lly so you`ll nevei notice a suLstantial slow-
uown Lecause ol FileVault.
FileVault is tuineu oll Ly uelault, Lut il you ueciue to enaLle
it, youi computei will geneiate a 2+-chaiactei iecoveiy key.
Committing that key to memoiy will Le a choie, so you can
opt to stoie the key with Apple Ly choosing the appiopiiate
iauio Lutton when the next page pops up. Il you uo choose to
stoie youi key with Apple, it will Le enciypteu. Apple will only
issue the key il you can answei a secuiity guestion exactly how
you answeieu it uuiing setup. (In othei woius, you won`t have
to iememLei the long secuiity key, Lut you wi|| have to ie-
memLei the answei.) Altei you make youi choice, iestait youi
Mac anu youi uisk will Le enciypteu.
Il you loiget youi login passwoiu and lose youi iecoveiy
key, youi uata is gone loievei.
126 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
Firewall tab
The Fiiewall taL ueals with youi Inteinet anu netwoik con-
nections. The uelault setting is oll, which means youi Mac will
listen to anu iesponu to just aLout anything coming ovei the
netwoik: netwoik tiallic, pings, anu assoiteu signals that
you`ie nevei awaie ol. Suipiisingly, this usually isn`t a pioLlem
il you use youi home netwoik oi othei tiusteu netwoik all the
time. Youi ioutei (oi the ioutei ol othei tiusteu netwoiks) has
a liiewall Luilt in, so youi Mac`s liiewall will Le a Lit ieuunuant.
But il you`ie constantly joining illy ViFi hotspots with youi
MacBook, you will likely want to enaLle the liiewall.
To uo that, check the lock icon in the pane`s lowei lelt anu, il
it`s lockeu, click it anu then type in youi auministiatoi name
anu passwoiu. Then simply click the Stait Lutton. The light
next to the Fiiewall status entiy will tuin gieen to let you know
the liiewall is up anu iunning.
Now that the liiewall is iunning, you might Le wonueiing what
it`s actually uoing. To linu out, click the Auvanceu Lutton.
Vhen you uo, you`ll get some options that let you tweak how
Lion`s liiewall peiloims. The liist one is ¨Block all incoming
connections¨; il you check this Lox, Lion will only listen to
incoming connections loi veiy specilic, necessaiy netwoik
communications. You`ll also see a message appeai waining you
that tuining on this setting piohiLits you liom using shaiing
seivices such as scieen shaiing anu lile shaiing.
A less inhiLiting option is ¨Automatically allow signeu solt-
waie to ieceive incoming connections.¨ Vith this setting
tuineu on (which it is Ly uelault when the liiewall is enaLleu),
soltwaie that`s Leen signeu (meaning its authoi is known to
Apple anu Mac OS X has conliimeu that it hasn`t Leen alteieu
oi coiiupteu) is alloweu to ieceive incoming connections. Ev-
eiy Apple application on youi Mac has Leen signeu, so you
won`t neeu to woiiy aLout killing any ol the Luilt-in applica-
tions. You can also give applications the gieen light even il they
aien`t signeu Ly clicking the - Lutton; this lets you auu them
to the list ol piogiams that aie alloweu to communicate.
Preference Pane Rundown | 127
You uon`t neeu to tiy to think ol all youi unsigneu ap-
plications anu auu them to this list. A Lettei tactic is to
wait loi an application to tiy to connect to the netwoik;
il it`s unsigneu, Mac OS X will ask il you want to allow
it to accept incoming connections. Click Accept anu that
piogiam will Le auueu to this list.
Il you check the Lox next to ¨EnaLle stealth moue,¨ youi Mac
will Le less visiLle on the netwoik. Foi example, shoulu some
nelaiious peison tiy to scan all poits at youi IP loi a way in,
they`ll get no iesponse; it`ll seem like no computei exists at the
scanneu IP auuiess. Howevei, netwoik activity you engage in,
such as visiting a weL page oi checking youi email, can ieveal
youi piesence on the netwoik.
This taL is new in Lion. It incluues an option that allows youi
computei to senu ceitain uata to Apple; this is tuineu on Ly
uelault. Theie`s also an aiea wheie you can tuin oll location
seivices (also on Ly uelault) loi applications that tiy to uetei-
mine wheie you aie.
The Spotlight pieleience pane has two taLs. The Seaich Results
taL lets you aujust the oiuei ol iesults ietuineu Ly Spotlight
seaiches (uiag items in the list heie to change theii oiuei in
iesults) anu change the Spotlight menu anu winuow shoitcuts.
The Piivacy taL allows you to excluue lolueis anu uisks (Lut
not inuiviuual liles) liom Spotlight`s seaiches. Foi moie on
Spotlight, see ¨Seaiching with Spotlight¨ on page 91.
Universal Access
Univeisal Access settings aie uesigneu loi people with impaii-
ments that pievent them liom using theii Macs in a stanuaiu
128 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
mannei÷Lut they can Le lun loi anyonc who wants to use a
Mac in a nonstanuaiu mannei.
At the Lottom ol the pane aie two checkLoxes: one that lets
you enaLle access loi assistive uevices (such as touchscieens
anu pointing uevices) anu one that auus a Univeisal Access
menu extia to the menu Lai.
Each ol the pieleience pane`s loui taLs contiols a uilleient
methou ol inteiacting with youi Mac.
Seeing tab
This taL incluues iauio Luttons loi tuining VoiceOvei (Mac
OS X`s Luilt-in scieen-ieauing utility) on oi oll. You`ll also linu
Luttons loi enaLling scieen zooming. Il you want to customize
how youi Mac zooms, click the Options Lutton to access a
Lunch ol zoom-ielateu settings. The Display section ol the
Seeing taL has two iauio Luttons: ¨Black on white¨ is the
stanuaiu uisplay; ¨Vhite on Llack¨ inveits youi scieen so that
eveiything liom youi uesktop image to youi Dock icons is uis-
playeu in the opposite colois÷Llack tuins white, gieen tuins
puiple, etc. Il you want to eschew coloi altogethei, check the
¨Use giayscale¨ Lox (a gieat way to simulate a ietio computing
expeiience). The Enhance Contiast sliuei Lumps up the con-
tiast, making suLtle uetails haiuei to see Lut text easiei to ieau.
The ¨Zoom in winuow¨ setting allows you to magnily a single
winuow insteau ol youi entiie scieen. Clicking the Options
Lutton next to it lets you line-tune the zoomeu winuow: set the
magnilication, invoke a pieview iectangle, smooth out images,
anu ueciue whethei you want to zoom to lollow youi keyLoaiu.
You`ll also uiscovei iauio Luttons that contiol how the scieen
Lehaves when zoomeu. You can have the scieen move to whei-
evei the pointei is, move only when the pointei ieaches an
euge, oi move so that the pointei is at (oi neai) the centei ol
the image. You`ll also get an option to use a scioll wheel anu a
mouiliei key ol youi choice to zoom the winuow.
Preference Pane Rundown | 129
Hearing tab
On the Heaiing taL, you can choose to have youi Mac`s scieen
llash insteau ol using auuio aleits (guite uselul when youi Mac
is muteu), anu theie`s an option to play steieo auuio as mono.
Keyboard tab
Foi some, piessing the vaiious keystiokes ieguiieu to opeiate
a Mac can Le challenging. Sticky Keys, which is contiolleu Ly
the options at the top ol the KeyLoaiu taL, solves this pioLlem.
Insteau ol Leing loiceu to hit multiple keys at the same time
(such as anu P to piint), enaLling Sticky Keys makes youi
Mac inteipiet piessing anu then piessing P as il you`u
piesseu them simultaneously. You`ll also linu checkLoxes that
allow you to tuin Sticky Keys on oi oll Ly tapping the Shilt key
live times, enaLle Leeping when a mouiliei key is piesseu, anu
uisplay the piesseu keys on scieen as you piess them (these last
two settings only woik il Sticky Keys is tuineu on).
Anothei option is Slow Keys, which puts a uelay Letween when
you piess a key anu when youi Mac accepts it. Tuin this leatuie
on anu theie will Le a uelay Letween the time you piess a key
anu the time when OS X iecognizes that you uiu so (you can
aujust that peiiou with the Acceptance Delay sliuei). Il youi
lingeis move slowly, this can save a lot ol unwanteu iepeateu
keystiokes. The ¨Use click key sounus¨ checkLox tells youi
Mac to make one sounu when a key is uepiesseu anu a uilleient
sounu when the key is accepteu.
Mouse tab (Mouse & Trackpad tab on MacBooks)
Those who have tiouLle using a mouse oi tiackpau can contiol
the mouse cuisoi with the keyLoaiu insteau Ly heauing to this
taL anu tuining on Mouse Keys. This is also wheie you set the
length ol time you have to holu the uiiectional keys Leloie the
cuisoi staits to move. You can also specily the cuisoi`s maxi-
mum speeu anu, il you have tiouLle seeing the cuisoi, its size.
Il you use this leatuie, you`ll Le happy to see that, in Lion, the
cuisoi looks much Lettei when magnilieu than in pievious
130 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
veisions ol OS X. Click the Tiackpau Options oi Mouse Op-
tions Lutton to line-tune things even moie.
CDs and DVDs
Il you have an optical uisk uiive in youi Mac, this pieleience
pane contiols what youi Mac uoes when you inseit an optical
uisk. You can even tell it to uo uilleient things uepenuing on
the type ol uisk: a Llank CD oi DVD, a music CD, a pictuie
CD, oi a viueo DVD. Vhen you click one ol the uiop-uown
menus, you`ll see Apple`s iecommenueu action (the auuio CD
menu incluues Open iTunes, loi example), Lut you aien`t limi-
teu to just the pieuelineu options. Choosing ¨Open othei ap-
plication.¨ will Liing up youi Applications loluei so you can
choose any piogiam you like. Oi you can opt to have a sciipt
iun when you inseit a uisk; when you choose this option, you`ll
Le piesenteu with the lamiliai winuow that lets you Liowse to
the iepositoiy wheie the sciipt you want to use is saveu.
Il you own a laptop oi an iMac, you pioLaLly won`t visit this
pieleience pane until you neeu to connect a seconu monitoi oi
piojectoi. On the othei hanu, il you`ie a coloi peilectionist oi
neeu to connect youi Mac to a non-Apple uisplay, stopping Ly
the Displays pane is necessaiy. This is wheie you can contiol
youi monitoi`s iesolution, coloi uepth, Liightness, anu coloi
to lit youi neeus.
Il you`ie using multiple uisplays, you can set the location ol the
menu Lai, enaLle uisplay miiioiing, anu also conliguie the
spatial aiiangement ol each scieen so they coiiesponu to how
the uisplays aie physically aiiangeu.
This is also wheie you`u cxpcct to linu an option to iun two oi
moie applications in Full Scieen moue. Sauly, that`s not an
option. You can have 10 scieens, Lut when you use a lull-scieen
app, the othei scieens will change to a giay linen pattein con-
veying no uselul inloimation.
Preference Pane Rundown | 131
Energy Saver
You get uilleient options in this pieleience pane uepenuing on
what kinu ol Mac you`ie using. On a MacBook, you`ll see two
taLs÷Batteiy anu Powei Auaptei÷which makes sense Le-
cause you`ll likely want uilleient settings when you`ie using
the powei auaptei than when you`ie ielying on the Latteiy.
Also, the ¨Show Latteiy status in the menu Lai¨ checkLox is
tuineu on Ly uelault, giving you a guick way to see how much
powei you have lelt. (Il you leel that the menu Lai on youi Mac
is simply too ciowueu, unchecking this Lox will liee up a tiny
Lit ol space.)
The options on Loth laptops anu uesktops aie veiy similai. The
sliuei next to ¨Computei sleep¨ allows you to ueline the uelay
Letween the time you stop using youi Mac anu the time it en-
teis sleep moue, a low-powei moue that uses much less powei
than when it`s ¨awake.¨ Although Lion will iestait all youi
apps when you iestait, waking liom sleep is a much lastei
piocess. (The two taLs on a laptop÷Batteiy anu Powei
Auaptei÷allow you to set uilleient values loi when youi Mac
sleeps uepenuing on its cuiient powei souice.) The ¨Display
sleep¨ sliuei aujusts how long it takes loi youi scieen to tuin
oll to save powei (again, you can set two uilleient values il
you`ie on a laptop).
Unuei the sliueis aie some checkLoxes (they vaiy slightly Le-
tween the Batteiy anu Powei Auaptei taLs):
Put thc hard dis|(s) to s|ccp whcn possib|c
This checkLox will put youi uiives to sleep when OS X
thinks it`s a goou iuea. (Some haiu uiives have this lunc-
tionality Luilt in, Lut Mac OS X will put the uiives to sleep
Leloie theii liimwaie woulu noimally uo so.)
Wa|c jor nctwor| acccss
Il you use Back to My Mac oi have a copy ol Apple Remote
Desktop, you`ll pioLaLly want to check this Lox, which
allows youi Mac to wake up when you want to log in
132 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
Autonatica||y rcducc brightncss bcjorc disp|ay gocs to s|ccp
Checking this Lox means that youi uisplay will noticeaLly
uim Leloie it Lecomes completely Llack. Any mouse oi
keyLoaiu action will Liing the uisplay Lack to lull
S|ight|y din thc disp|ay whcn using this powcr sourcc (|aptops
This option is on the Batteiy taL. As you can pioLaLly
guess, this is supposeu to extenu Latteiy lile Ly making
the uisplay use less eneigy when you`ie ielying on Latteiy
powei. In piactice, most people uon`t notice the uilleience
in Latteiy lile.
Start up autonatica||y ajtcr a powcr jai|urc
Checking this Lox means that il the powei llickeis, youi
Mac will stait up again as soon as the powei comes Lack
on. Youi Mac uoesn`t ieally know that the powei has
gone; it just knows that shutuown piotocol wasn`t lol-
loweu. Il you acciuentally hit the oll Lutton on a suige
piotectoi, youi Mac will stait up when the Lutton is
moveu Lack to the on position, too. (Foi oLvious ieasons,
this option isn`t availaLle on MacBooks` Batteiy taL.)
Rcstart autonatica||y ij thc conputcr jrcczcs
This has Leen an option in pievious seivei veisions ol
OS X, Lut with Lion it`s on eveiy install ol OS X. Checking
this Lox tells youi Mac to monitoi youi computei loi
keinel panics anu system lieezes. Il you`ie woiiieu that
checking this Lox coulu iesult in spontaneous ieLoots,
uon`t woiiy too much. The system uses a timei anu ie-
sponse system, so youi Mac will neeu to Le liozen loi at
least live minutes Leloie it iestaits.
Il you`ie a veiy consistent peison, you can get the Lest ol all
woilus Ly clicking the Scheuule Lutton. This Liings up a pane
wheie you can tell youi Mac when you want it to stait up oi
wake anu when you want it to shut uown, sleep, oi iestait Ly
choosing the scheuule liom the pop-up menus anu enteiing
times in the Loxes.
Preference Pane Rundown | 133
Sounus lantastic, iight? Vell, mayLe the Scheuule leatuie isn`t
all that it coulu Le. You have to Le loggeu in anu youi computei
has to Le awake loi it to shut uown at a specilic time. So this
is a gieat option il you`ie sitting in liont ol youi Mac when you
want it to shut uown, Lut unless you`ie comloitaLle leaving
youi Mac unattenueu anu awake while you`ie loggeu in, the
automatic shutuown option isn`t ol much use.
Happily, you uon`t have to woiiy aLout these pioLlems il you
want youi Mac to wake oi stait automatically; automatic
staitup woiks exactly as you`u expect. Foi example, il you`ie
sitting in liont ol youi Mac eveiy weekuay Ly S:07, having youi
Mac automatically stait up at S:03 can save you a lew minutes
ol waiting each uay.
The KeyLoaiu pieleience pane is wheie you can change key
commanus (see Chaptei S loi a list ol common ones) anu how
youi keyLoaiu iesponus to typing. The pane is uiviueu into two
taLs÷KeyLoaiu anu KeyLoaiu Shoitcuts÷anu incluues a Set
Up Bluetooth KeyLoaiu Lutton. Il you`ve got a Bluetooth key-
Loaiu that youi computei hasn`t iecognizeu automatically,
click this Lutton to make Mac OS X attempt to paii with it.
Keyboard tab
This taL has two sliueis: the Key Repeat sliuei allows you to
aujust how lieguently a key will iegistei il you holu it uown,
anu the Delay Until Repeat sliuei contiols how long you have
to holu a key uown Leloie youi Mac staits iegisteiing that key
iepeateuly. The KeyLoaiu taL also gives you the option to use
all the numLeieu F keys as stanuaiu lunction keys. Il you tuin
on this option, those keys won`t woik the same way; loi
example, piessing F10 won`t mute youi Mac, it will invoke
Exposé (to mute youi Mac, you`ll neeu to piess the Fn and F10
at the same time). Tuining on the ¨Show KeyLoaiu e Chai-
actei Vieweis in menu Lai¨ checkLox cieates a menu extia that
gives you easy access to chaiacteis (aiiows anu such) with the
134 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
Chaiactei Viewei anu the KeyLoaiu Viewei`s simulateu key-
Loaiu that shows what the mouiliei keys uo when piesseu.
Click Input Souices to see the ¨Input souice¨ list, which lets
you type in uilleient languages. Select the language you want
to type in, anything liom Alghan Daii to Velsh. That can mean
a lot ol sciolling, so to speeu things up, you can use the seaich
Lox at the Lottom ol the winuow to linu the language you`ie
You can choose as many languages as you like anu switch Le-
tween them at will using the llag menu extia that appeais in
youi menu Lai automatically when you select multiple lan-
guages. So that you uon`t have to spenu all uay changing lan-
guages, you can choose to assign the languages gloLally oi
locally using the iauio Luttons laLeleu ¨Use the same one in all
uocuments¨ anu ¨Allow a uilleient one loi each uocument,¨
Keyboard Shortcuts tab
This is wheie you can aujust the key commanus useu Ly youi
Mac. The lelt siue ol the pane has a list ol applications anu
leatuies so you can moie easily locate the ones you want to
change. To actually change a key commanu, uouLle-click it in
the list on the iight anu then piess the key you want to use
insteau. You can use the lunction keys oi keys with mouilieis
as youi new choice. Figuie 5-2 shows an example.
To auu a new key commanu, click the - Lutton. You`ll see a
pop-up menu ol applications that you can auu keyLoaiu com-
manus to. Select an application, type the cxact name ol the
menu commanu you want to cieate a keyLoaiu shoitcut loi
into the Menu Title Lox, anu then type the key you want to use
as the shoitcut. Foi example, theie`s no keyLoaiu commanu
loi customizing the toolLai in the Finuei. To cieate one, select
Finuei liom the pop-up menu, type Customize Toolbar...
(with the uots) into the Menu Title Lox, anu then click the
KeyLoaiu Shoitcut lielu anu type youi shoitcut. Now when a
Finuei winuow is active, you can hit that key anu the
Preference Pane Rundown | 135
Customize ToolLai winuow will show up. As a Lonus, the key
commanu you auueu will also appeai next to the commanu`s
name in the Finuei`s View menu. Il you tiie ol youi custom key
commanu, click the shoitcut once anu then hit the - key; youi
key commanu will Le Lanisheu liom the pieleience pane and
liom the Finuei. The Restoie Delaults Lutton (on the iight siue
unuei the list ol keyLoaiu shoitcuts) will also kill youi custom
key commanu anu any othei changes you`ve maue.
Below the two lists, this taL also incluues a setting loi Full
KeyLoaiu Access (a way loi you to inteiact with youi Mac
without using the mouse). Il you switch this setting liom the
uelault ¨Text Loxes anu lists only¨ to ¨All contiols,¨ you`ll Le
aLle to use TaL to move liom lielu to lielu in most applications.
Iigurc 5-2. Changing thc |cy connand jor Dashboard
136 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
Plan on using a mouse with youi Mac? This pieleience pane
lets you set up a Bluetooth mouse anu customize youi mousing
One ol the most oll-putting changes loi a lot ol people
when they liist use Lion is the OS`s new sciolling Le-
havioi: Vhen you scioll with two lingeis oi with a
mouse wheel, moving youi lingeis oi the wheel up (away
liom you) makes the cuiient page oi uocument scioll
down, anu vice veisa. It`s calleu ¨Scioll with lingei ui-
iection¨ anu it woiks peilectly on the iPhone anu othei
iOS uevices. Vhen you put this same Lehavioi on Macs,
it still woiks line÷except that it`s exactly the oppositc
ol how sciolling has woikeu since the liist Mac iolleu
You`ll guickly get useu to new sciolling, Lut il you just
can`t stanu it oi you use multiple OSes anu want some
consistency, heau to the Mouse anu Tiackpau pielei-
ence panes anu tuin oll ¨Scioll with lingei uiiection.¨
Magic Mouse options
Il you`ve got a Magic Mouse, the Point e Click taL ol this
pieleience pane allows you to tuin ¨Scioll with lingei uiiec-
tion¨ on oi oll, ueciue whethei you want a seconuaiy click
(known as a ¨iight-click¨ to eveiyone Lut Apple) with youi
Magic Mouse anu how you want saiu click enacteu, anu tuin
smait zooming oll oi on. You also get a mouse Latteiy÷level
inuicatoi anu a sliuei loi aujusting tiacking (how last the
mouse pointei moves on scieen in iesponse to physical mouse
On the Moie Gestuies taL, you can tuin on ¨Swipe Letween
pages,¨ ¨Swipe Letween lull-scieen apps,¨ anu an option to
launch Mission Contiol with a uouLle tap. Each gestuie comes
Preference Pane Rundown | 137
with a nilty movie explaining how to pull oll the necessaiy taps
anu swipes. To watch the movie, put youi cuisoi ovei the ges-
tuie you`ie inteiesteu in anu the instiuctional viueo will play
Mighty Mouse options
Il you`ie using a Mighty Mouse, you`ll linu sliueis loi aujusting
tiacking, uouLle-click, anu sciolling speeus. You`ll also see
pop-up menus loi eveiy pait ol the Mighty Mouse that can
uetect pushes. Each menu lets you specily what happens when
you piess that Lutton. You can choose liom a multituue ol
actions to assign to each Lutton, incluuing seconuaiy clicks
anu application launching.
Altei you`ie uone setting up the Luttons, you can contiol how
the Mighty Mouse sciolls Ly choosing liom the pop-up menu
next to Sciolling. You can tuin it oll, have it scioll veitically
only, scioll veitically anu hoiizontally, oi scioll 360 uegiees.
You can also set up youi Mighty Mouse to zoom Ly checking
the Lox next to Zoom. You get to select the mouiliei key that
will invoke zooming when you`ie using the scioll Lall. Il you
click the Options Lutton, you`ll linu some settings that let you
line-tune its sciolling Lehavioi.
If you’re using a non-Apple mouse
Some people uon`t like Apple`s mice, anu that`s OK÷youi
Mac will happily woik with non-Apple mice. Some mice ship
with custom uiiveis, Lut most can woik with youi Mac stiaight
out ol the Lox. The customization options you see in the Mouse
pieleience pane uepenu on the mouel you`ie using.
Youi options heie uepenu on which MacBook you use. On
newei MacBooks with multitouch tiackpaus (which weie in-
tiouuceu on the MacBook Aii in 200S), you`ll get the options
uesciiLeu in the multitouch section Lelow. (You`ll get that
138 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
same set ol options il you`ie using Apple`s Magic Tiackpau.)
Il you have an oluei MacBook, you`ll get a uilleient set ol
options, though some ol the settings aie the same as on
multitouch machines.
Multitouch trackpads
In the Tiackpau pieleience pane, you`ll Le aLle to aujust youi
MacBook`s tiacking speeu, set up a Bluetooth tiackpau, anu
conliguie gestuies. On the ¨Point anu Click¨ taL, you can en-
aLle ¨Tap to click¨ (which makes youi Mac inteipiet a light
tap as a click), ¨Seconuaiy click¨ (a.k.a. ¨iight-clicking¨),
¨Look up¨ (a leatuie that looks up woius with Mac OS X`s
Luilt-in Dictionaiy), anu thiee-lingei uiagging.
Vhen you click the Scioll e Zoom taL, you`ll linu the lollow-
ing options: ¨Scioll with lingei uiiection,¨ ¨Zoom in oi out Ly
pinching,¨ ¨Use two lingeis to Smait zoom,¨ anu ¨Rotate
images using two lingeis.¨
The Moie Gestuies taL incluues six uilleient options to cus-
tomize. You`ll Le aLle to tuin on ¨Swipe Letween pages¨ anu
tell youi Mac how you want to gestuie to invoke that lunction.
You can uo the same with ¨Swipe Letween lull-scieen apps,¨
Mission Contiol, anu App Exposé. Launchpau anu ¨Show
Desktop gestuies¨ aien`t customizaLle; you can only tuin them
on oi oll.
As with the Magic Mouse, these gestuies aien`t always sell-
explanatoiy, so each gestuie comes with a little movie showing
you how to pull it oll. Hovei ovei the option you want ex-
plaineu anu the associateu movie will automatically stait play-
ing. (One supposes it has Leen a goou time loi hanu mouels in
the Cupeitino aiea.)
Print & Scan
This pieleience pane, unsuipiisingly, is wheie you auu anu
iemove piinteis anu scanneis. To auu a uevice, click the tiny
- Lutton on the lelt siue ol the pane. Lion will automatically
Preference Pane Rundown | 139
look loi neaiLy piinteis anu scanneis anu set them up loi you.
To iemove a piintei oi scannei, select it in the list anu then
click the - Lutton Leneath the list. The iest ol the options you
see in this pane uepenu on the exact mouel ol piintei oi scannei
you have installeu.
The Sounu pieleience pane is uiviueu into thiee taLs: Sounu
Ellects, Output, anu Input. The ¨Output volume¨ setting is
always visiLle at the Lottom ol the pane, iegaiuless ol which
taL you`ie using. Theie`s a checkLox Lelow that volume sliuei
that lets you get iiu ol the Volume menu extia. Il you`ie won-
ueiing how you`ll contiol the volume with the menu extia
gone, iememLei that you can use the keyLoaiu loi that tiick;
use the F10÷F12 keys on Apple keyLoaius.
Sound Effects tab
The Sounu Ellects taL allows you to choose an aleit sounu. To
pieview a sounu, click it in the list oi use the aiiows to move
up anu uown. Lion gives you plenty ol options loi auuio aleits,
so hopelully you can linu something to youi liking.
The next guestion is wheie uo you want the aleit sounus to
come liom? Il you have speakeis pluggeu into youi Mac, you
can opt to senu the sounu thiough those speakeis oi thiough
the computei`s Luilt-in speakei(s).
Below that is a sliuei loi aujusting the aleit volume il, loi ex-
ample, you want youi aleit sounus to Le soltei than the iest ol
the sounus coming out ol youi Mac (you uon`t want Basso
walking all ovei iTunes, iight?). Note that the maximum aleit
volume is the same as the mastei volume loi youi system, so il
you want aleits to Le the louuest noise coming out ol youi Mac,
you`ie out ol luck unless you can tuin uown the volume ol
othei sounu-geneiating piogiams.
140 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
Finally, you get two oi thiee checkLoxes so you heai the sounus
you want anu skip the sounus you uon`t. By checking the Lox
next to each entiy, you can:
º Play oi silence usei inteilace sounus (such as the noise the
Tiash makes when Leing emptieu).
º Play leeuLack when volume is changeu (with this tuineu
on, il you hit a volume key oi move the volume sliuei, the
aleit sounu will play at the new volume).
Output tab
The Sounu Ellects taL lets you ueciue which speakeis play aleit
sounus. On the Output taL, you get to ueciue wheie eveiything
c|sc is playeu. Foi example, you can choose Letween youi Mac
Pio`s inteinal speakei (not gieat loi an immeisive meuia expe-
iience) oi the top-ol-the-line speakeis you pluggeu into the
optical out poit. Heauphones aie a special case, as plugging
heauphones in mutes the inteinal speakeis.
You also might get some extia options uepenuing on youi
haiuwaie. Foi example, il you`ie using the Luilt-in speakeis on
an iMac oi MacBook, you get to aujust the lelt-iight Lalance
with a sliuei.
Input tab
This taL is wheie you contiol youi Mac`s ¨eais.¨ Il you`ie using
anything othei than a Mac Mini oi Mac Pio, youi computei
has a Luilt-in inteinal miciophone, which is the uelault selec-
tion loi sounu input. This means that any auuio chats, viueo
chats, oi poucasts you iecoiu will get iecoiueu via that inteinal
mic. Il you want to use a USB miciophone insteau, plug it in
anu select it liom the list on this taL.
Anothei option on this taL is ¨Input volume,¨ which contiols
how ¨hot¨ (as they say in the iauio Lusiness) the sounu coming
into youi Mac will Le. Tuin it all the way up anu anyone you`ie
chatting with will ieach loi his oi hei volume contiols a milli-
seconu into the conveisation.
Preference Pane Rundown | 141
Tuining on ¨Use amLient noise ieuuction¨ tells youi Mac to
ignoie the sounus going on aiounu you÷scieaming kius,
howling wolves, what have you. It isn`t peilect, Lut it helps
when you`ie chatting oi, moie impoitantly, using voice com-
manus with youi Mac.
Mail, Contacts & Calendars
This pieleience pane is new in Lion. Insteau ol setting up mail
accounts in Mail, juggling calenuais in iCal, anu so on, this
pane lets you set up youi accounts once in a centializeu loca-
tion. iChat, Mail, Auuiess Book, anu othei apps use the inloi-
mation you entei heie to keep you cuiient.
Vhen you liist open this pane, it will look on youi Mac loi
email anu chat accounts anu automatically auu them. Il you`ie
setting up a new Mac, this pane comes with iClouu (when it`s
ieleaseu), Miciosolt Exchange, MoLileMe, Gmail, Yahoo!, anu
AOL accounts pieconliguieu, so il you`ie using one ol those
(anu you pioLaLly aie), just click the Auu Account Lutton anu
select the seivice you use. As you auu the seivice, a winuow
will pop up allowing you to check the seivices you want to use
(chat, calenuais, anu mail) liom that pioviuei.
Il youi seivice isn`t listeu, click Othei anu get ieauy to uo a
little Lit ol woik. The pielisteu seivices all pioviue calenuais,
chat, contact, anu mail accounts; to get the same lunctions
liom anothei seivice, you`ll have to set these up inuiviuually.
Figuie 5-3 gives you an iuea ol what you`ie in loi.
As ol this wiiting, MoLileMe is still aiounu, Lut when iOS 5 is
ieleaseu, MoLileMe will uisappeai anu Le ieplaceu Ly iClouu.
Il you have a MoLileMe account, taking the time to set it up
will likely ease the tiansition to iClouu.
Vith MoLileMe, you can sync youi uata to the MoLileMe
seivice (anu, in tuin, to othei Macs, iPhones, iPou Touches,
142 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
anu iPaus). MoLileMe also incluues iDisk, which lets you stoie
lots ol uata on Apple`s seiveis. Foi moie on MoLileMe÷anu
iClouu, once it`s ieleaseu÷heau to this Look`s weLsite.
You can guess what this pieleience pane uoes: it contiols youi
netwoik conliguiation. At the top ol the pane is the Location
menu. By uelault, it`s set to Automatic, Lut il you use youi Mac
in moie than one place, you might want to auu a location. To
uo so, pick Euit Locations liom this menu; in the winuow that
appeais, click the - sign anu then auu youi location. (¨Loca-
tion¨ is OS X netwoiking-speak loi a gioup ol saveu conligu-
iations loi netwoik poits. Chances aie you won`t neeu to
manage these manually.)
On the lelt siue ol the Netwoik pane, you`ll see all the ways
youi Mac can connect to the netwoik (typically ViFi, Etheinet,
anu FiieViie, Lut this can vaiy accoiuing to the mouel ol youi
Iigurc 5-3. You can avoid thc hass|c oj crcating an account hcrc by
gctting a jrcc Gnai| or Yahoo! account
Preference Pane Rundown | 143
Mac). Il a netwoik is connecteu, it`ll have a gieen light next to
it (unconnecteu netwoiks have ieu lights). It`s possiLle to have
moie than one active netwoik connection÷a ViFi connection
anu an Etheinet connection, peihaps. Il that`s the case, you
can uiag the connections aiounu in the list to match youi pie-
leiieu oiuei ol connecting. Foi example, uiagging Etheinet to
the top will loice youi Mac to use the Etheinet connection
Leloie the ViFi connection.
To the iight ol the list ol netwoiks, you`ll linu inloimation
aLout anu options loi youi cuiient netwoik. This is wheie you
can linu youi IP auuiess anu settings ielateu to the kinu ol
connection you`ie using (like a Tuin Vi-Fi Oll Lutton, loi ex-
ample). Foi wiieu netwoiks, you`ll get to pick how you want
to conliguie IPv+. You can get this inloimation liom youi ISP,
Lut most use DCHP anu youi Mac will Le aLle to take caie ol
this loi you. You`ll also see an Auvanceu Lutton that you can
click to Liing up six uilleient taLs. Conliguiing these taLs usu-
ally isn`t necessaiy anu is Leyonu the scope ol this pocket
The Lest thing aLout the Netwoik pieleience pane is the ¨As-
sist me¨ Lutton at the Lottom ol it. Il you`ie having pioLlems
setting up youi netwoik, clicking this Lutton anu lollowing the
uiiections will likely solve youi pioLlems. The Reveit Lutton,
as you can guess, will unuo any changes you`ve maue to youi
netwoik settings, anu Apply tells the pieleience pane to im-
plement youi changes.
PieuictaLly, this is the go-to panel il you`ie using a Bluetooth
uevice oi il you want to uisplay a Bluetooth status icon in youi
menu Lai. This panel incluues a list ol all the uiscoveiaLle
Bluetooth uevices neaiLy (in othei woius, ones youi Mac can
connect to) anu theii cuiient connection statuses. Il you click
the Shaiing Setup Lutton, you`ll open the Shaiing pieleience
pane (uesciiLeu next). Il you click the Auvanceu Lutton, you`ll
get the lollowing options:
144 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
º Open Bluetooth Setup Assistant at staitup il no keyLoaiu
is uetecteu
º Open Bluetooth Setup Assistant at staitup il no mouse oi
tiackpau is uetecteu
º Allow Bluetooth uevices to wake this computei
º Reject incoming auuio ieguests
The uesciiptions Lelow each item explain what they`ie loi.
You`ll also linu an aiea that lists (anu allows you to aujust)
Bluetooth uevices that use seiial poits on youi Mac.
The Shaiing pieleience pane allows you to shaie a vaiiety ol
liles anu Lits ol haiuwaie ovei youi netwoik (all ol these op-
tions aie oll Ly uelault):
D\D or CD Sharing
This option allows othei computeis to use the optical
uiive in youi Mac. Theie`s also a checkLox to have youi
Mac ask you Leloie anyone accesses youi computei`s op-
tical uiive.
Scrccn Sharing
Allows othei computeis to view youi scieen anu contiol
youi computei ovei the netwoik. You can specily which
useis aie alloweu to connect oi allow all useis. Il you`u
like to let people connect liom non-Mac computeis, click
Computei Settings anu then enaLle the VNC (Viitual Net-
woik Computing) option; they`ll neeu a VNC client such
as RealVNC oi TightVNC loi this to woik.
Ii|c Sharing
File shaiing allows otheis to access youi shaieu liles ovei
the netwoik, a nilty way to tiaue liles. Il you tuin this
option on, make suie you cieate a stiong passwoiu.
Il you tuin on lile shaiing, useis on othei computeis have
a lew ways to connect. Il the computeis you want to shaie
liles with aie on the same local netwoik, they can get to
Preference Pane Rundown | 145
youi computei Ly heauing to the Finuei`s menu Lai anu
choosing GoConnect to Seivei. The auuiess they`ll neeu
to access youi computei is youi Mac`s name with .|oca|
It may Le even easiei, though. Mac OS X leatuies a zeio-
conliguiation netwoiking piotocol calleu Bonjoui. You`ll
see othei computeis that you can access in the siueLai ol
a Finuei winuow.
Useis will have to supply a useiname anu passwoiu to
connect. You may want to set up a shaiing-only usei (see
¨Setting up accounts¨ on page 3S) loi this.
Il you want to access youi liles liom anothei Mac while
away liom youi home oi woik netwoik, you can use Back
to My Mac, which was pait ol MoLileMe anu will Le pait
ol iClouu. Foi specilic instiuctions on using the iClouu
veision, heau to this Look`s weL page.
Printcr Sharing
Checking this Lox tuins youi Mac into a piint seivei.
Il you`ie on a laptop anu want to piint something in
the Lasement, you won`t have to haul youi caicass ovei
to the piintei oi even senu the lile to the Mac connecteu
to the piintei loi latei piinting. ]ust check the Piintei
Shaiing Lox on the Mac that`s hookeu up to the piintei
anu you can piint liom anywheie on youi local aiea net-
Scanncr Sharing
This is Piintei Shaiing`s less-useu little Liothei, anu it
woiks in much the same way: il you`ve got a scannei con-
necteu to the host Mac, you can use it liom a iemote
computei. This leatuie is new in Lion.
Wcb Sharing
This isn`t the Lox to check il you want to shaie youi In-
teinet connection; insteau, this Lox lets you shaie weL
pages in youi Sites loluei. Tuining on VeL Shaiing ieveals
a URL loi youi computei`s weLsites anu youi peisonal
weLsite (which happens to Le the computei`s weLsite with
146 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
~username appenueu) that people on youi local netwoik
can visit. The URLs will Le something like http://your-
conputcrnanc/ anu http://yourconputcrnanc/-yourho-
Youi weLsite will Le availaLle ovei Bonjoui netwoiking
as well; you can conliguie Salaii to uisplay Bonjoui sites
in its Lookmaiks Ly opening Salaii`s Pieleiences, going to
the Bookmaiks pane, anu tuining on all the Incluue Bon-
joui checkLoxes.
Rcnotc Login
This lets useis connect to youi Mac ovei SSH (Secuie
Shell). To uo that, you`ll neeu to open a Teiminal winuow
(ApplicationsUtilitiesTeiminal) anu eithei use the
ssh commanu-line utility oi select ShellNew Remote
Rcnotc Managcncnt
Il you have a copy ol Apple Remote Desktop anu want to
use it to connect to youi Mac, make suie this Lox is
checkeu. Il you`ie cuiious, Remote Management is a lot
like scieen shaiing, except that it`s uesigneu loi people
contiolling moie than one Mac at a time, as you might
linu in a classioom setting.
Rcnotc App|c Evcnts
Checking this Lox will let othei Macs senu Apple Events
to youi computei. Vhat aie Apple Events? They aie wiue
ianging, Lut just aLout anything AppleSciipt can uo can
Le an Apple Event.
Xgrid Sharing
Xgiiu allows intensive computing tasks to Le Lioken up
anu woikeu on Ly inuiviuual Macs. This option is mainly
useu loi scientilic ieseaich anu othei piocessoi-intensive
|ntcrnct Sharing
This setting lets you shaie youi Inteinet connection with
othei computeis. You can choose to shaie a wiieu con-
nection via AiiPoit oi shaie an AiiPoit connection with
Preference Pane Rundown | 147
anothei computei wiieu to youis. Il you`ie shaiing a wiieu
connection via AiiPoit, you can choose to auu some se-
cuiity measuies.
B|uctooth Sharing
Checking this Lox allows Bluetooth uevices to inteiact
with youi Mac. The options heie let you customize youi
Mac`s Lehavioi when ieceiving liles, uesignate a loluei loi
the liles youi Mac accepts ovei Bluetooth, set Liowsing
Lehavioi, anu uesignate which lolueis useis can Liowse
on youi Mac.
Users & Groups
Using this pieleience pane, an auministiatoi can manage ac-
counts. To auu oi uelete accounts, use the - anu - Luttons
unuei the list ol useis. (Foi a complete uiscussion ol managing
accounts, see ¨Usei Accounts¨ on page 35.)
Clicking Login Options at the Lottom ol the list ol useis lets
you enaLle oi uisaLle automatic login. You`ll also get to choose
what appeais in the login winuow: the ¨Name anu passwoiu¨
setting is moie secuie than ¨List ol useis¨ Lecause it means that
anyone tiying to get into youi Mac will neeu to guess Loth youi
useiname and passwoiu. You also get to ueciue whethei to
show the Restait, Sleep, anu Shut Down Luttons on the login
winuow; show the Input menu in the login winuow; show
passwoiu hints; anu use VoiceOvei in the login winuow.
Finally, you can enaLle last usei switching, which÷as its name
implies÷lets you switch Letween accounts without logging
out liist. You`ll still neeu a passwoiu to get Lack to youi ac-
count, Lut il an application was iunning when you switcheu
useis, it`ll Le iunning when you come Lack to youi account.
The uiop-uown menu next to this setting lets you view useis
Ly lull name, shoit name, oi icon. Foi moie on last usei switch-
ing, see ¨Logging In¨ on page ++.
Fast usei switching is nilty, Lut you might Le wonueiing il you
aien`t Lettei oll using the Resume leatuie ol Lion, which ie-
148 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
staits eveiything automatically when you log Lack in. Vhile
the enu iesult is the same, last usei switching is actually a little
lastei than ielying on Resume Lecause the applications aien`t
lully shut uown when you use last usei switching.
Parental Controls
Paiental Contiols aie Mac OS X`s way ol piotecting youi kius
while they aie on the Inteinet. This pieleience pane takes some
ol the woiiy out ol allowing a chilu to use the Inteinet unsu-
peiviseu Ly letting you set up a vaiiety ol iules anu lilteis. These
contiol not only wheie youi chilu can go on the Inteinet Lut
also what piogiams they can use anu even who they can chat
anu email with. The pane has live taLs.
Vhile Paiental Contiols aie uesigneu loi paients whose
kius use theii computeis, you can use them to manage
any usei who isn`t an auministiatoi.
Apps tab
This taL allows you to enaLle a simplilieu Finuei anu contiol
which applications the usei can iun. Il you`ie enaLling content
contiols, contiolling which applications the manageu usei can
iun is essential.
To give paiticulai applications the gieen light, click the Lox
next to Limit Applications anu then use the settings unuei-
neath it to choose applications. Tuin oll the ¨Allow Usei to
Mouily the Dock¨ checkLox to ievoke that piivilege. Clicking
the Logs Lutton ieveals wheie youi kiu has Leen going, shows
wheie she`s tiieu to go, anu gives you access to hei iChat
tiansciipts. See something you uon`t like? Hit the Block Lutton
at the Lottom ol the winuow to auu the weLsite oi chat pai-
ticipant to the list ol Llockeu sites oi inuiviuuals.
Preference Pane Rundown | 149
Web tab
This taL is conceineu with wheie people can go while they`ie
on the Inteinet. It olleis thiee levels ol contiol:
A||ow unrcstrictcd acccss to wcbsitcs
Clicking this iauio Lutton allows complete access to the
Try to |init acccss to adu|t wcbsitcs autonatica||y
Il you click this Lutton, Mac OS X will iely on lilteis anu
lists ol auult weLsites anu tiy to Llock them. It`s suipiis-
ingly accuiate. The uownsiue is that the lilteis also Llock
all https (secuie) weLsites, so il youi teen is uoing online
Lanking, she won`t Le aLle to access hei account. Il you
want to allow a site oi specilically excluue a site that isn`t
caught Ly the liltei, click the Customize Lutton.
A||ow acccss to on|y thcsc wcbsitcs
This is the most iestiictive option. The sites a manageu
usei can visit aie limiteu to the ones listeu heie, which
have Leen pieappioveu Ly Apple. To auu oi uelete sites,
use the - anu - Luttons Lelow the list.
People tab
This taL limits who the manageu usei can inteiact with via
Mail, iChat, oi Loth. Once you`ve checkeu the appiopiiate
Lox(es), you have to appiove any peison who wants to email
oi chat with youi kius Ly clicking the - Lutton anu then typing
in the peison`s email auuiess anu instant messaging
150 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
Time Limits tab
This taL allows you to set a maximum amount ol time the
computei can Le useu pei uay anu when. ]ust uiag the sliueis
to set the uuiations loi weekuays anu weekenus. Use the Beu-
time section to iestiict when the usei can Le on the computei.
Other tab
This taL incluues loui options: hiuing piolanity in OS X`s Luilt-
in uictionaiies, pieventing the usei liom piinting uocuments,
pieventing the usei liom Luining CDs anu DVDs, anu pie-
venting the usei liom changing the passwoiu to his oi hei
Date & Time
The Date e Time taL ol this pieleience pane is wheie you can
set the uate using the calenuai inteilace (oi just Ly typing it in)
anu set the time. The ¨Set uate anu time automatically¨ check-
Lox (which is tuineu on Ly uelault) tells youi Mac to letch the
cuiient uate anu time liom the seivei that`s selecteu in the
menu to the iight. You can mouily youi uate anu time loimats
Ly clicking the Open Language e Text Lutton; see ¨Language
e Text¨ on page 123 loi uetails.
The Time Zone taL contiols the time zone youi Mac uses.
Theie`s a checkLox that tells youi Mac to uo this automatically,
Lut il it guesses wiong, you can set it manually Ly clicking on
the map oi pioviuing the name ol a majoi city in youi time
The Clock taL gives you the option ol showing the cuiient uate
anu time in the menu Lai, allows you to choose how the time
is uisplayeu theie, anu lets you tweak a lew othei options. You
can also have youi Mac announce the time eveiy houi, hall
houi, oi 15 minutes. Click the Customize Voice Lutton anu
you`ll Le aLle to change the voice useu to announce the time,
how louu it is, anu even how guickly it speaks.
Preference Pane Rundown | 151
Software Update
This pieleience is locuseu on getting upuates loi Mac OS X
anu telling you which upuates you`ve alieauy installeu. (Note
that Soltwaie Upuate only upuates Apple soltwaie.) The
Scheuuleu Check taL allows you to scheuule when youi com-
putei checks with Apple`s seiveis loi new upuates. Uncheck
the ¨Check loi upuates¨ Lox anu you`ll have to check loi them
manually. You also have the option to automatically uownloau
upuates. This can Le uselul Lecause, as soon as an impoitant
upuate is uownloaueu (automatically, Lehinu the scenes),
you`ll Le notilieu anu can install it without having to wait loi
the uownloau to complete. The Installeu Soltwaie taL contains
a list ol all the upuates you`ve installeu.
Il you`ve evei seen Star Trc|, you`ve pioLaLly uieameu ol talk-
ing to youi computei anu having it uo youi Liuuing. Mac
OS X can uo that. Getting the most out ol the Speech leatuie
ieguiies some tweaking, though. The Speech pieleience pane
has two taLs: Speech Recognition (the exciting ¨contiol youi
Mac with youi voice¨ stull) anu the moie munuane ¨Text to
Speech¨ taL, which gives you contiol ovei how youi Mac ieaus
Speech Recognition tab
This taL is wheie you tuin SpeakaLle Items (shoit veiLal com-
manus you give to youi computei like ¨Vhat time is it?¨) on
oi oll. This taL has two suLtaLs: Settings anu Commanus.
On the Settings taL, the Miciophone menu allows you to
choose which mic to use. You can choose one that`s pluggeu
into youi Mac oi go with the Luilt-in mic (assuming youi Mac
has one). The CaliLiate Lutton opens a winuow wheie you can
piactice giving youi Mac veiLal commanus. The Change Key
Lutton lets you pick which key you piess to tell Mac OS X to
stait listening.
152 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
The Listening Methou section allows you to have the Mac lis-
ten eithei only while you`ie piessing the Listening Key oi altei
you speak a keywoiu. Il you ueciue to go with a keywoiu, you
can choose whethei the keywoiu is optional anu whethei it`s
is ieguiieu Leloie oi altei the commanu. The uelault keywoiu
is ¨computei,¨ Lut it is pioLaLly wisei to go with a woiu that
you uon`t say when liustiateu (as in ¨stupiu computei¨).
¨RoseLuu¨ woiks well; just uon`t watch Citizcn Kanc while
computing. Theie`s also an Upon Recognition option to make
youi Mac to play a sounu to acknowleuge that it has ieceiveu
youi commanu (you get to choose the sounu).
The Commanus taL is wheie you contiol exactly what speak-
aLles aie alloweu. In the ¨Select a commanu set¨ list, tuin a
paiticulai set ol commanus on oi oll Ly checking the Lox next
to that set (highlighting an item in the list uisplays a shoit ex-
planation ol what commanus aie incluueu in that set). Foi
example, you coulu choose Auuiess Book anu then click Con-
liguie to see a list ol all youi contacts. Using speakaLle
commanus, you coulu tell youi Mac to open an email to one
ol youi contacts. Uncheck a paiticulai contact anu you won`t
Le aLle to use speech commanus to ieach that peison.
Click the Open SpeakaLle Items Foluei Lutton to uisplay, well,
the SpeakaLle Items loluei (Figuie 5-+). This is wheie all youi
speakaLle actions aie stoieu. You have a Levy ol choices Luilt
iight in, anu you can always cieate youi own using Automatoi.
Il you`ie going to make youi own speakaLle items, you
have to save them in this loluei. No Lig ueal, iight? In
Snow Leopaiu anu eailiei veisions ol OS X, that was
tiue. But in Lion, the SpeakaLle Items loluei is insiue the
usei`s LiLiaiy loluei, which is invisiLle. Because ol that,
the easiest way to get at this loluei to move youi own
speakaLles into it is to use the Open SpeakaLle Items
Foluei Lutton in the Speech pieleience pane.
Preference Pane Rundown | 153
Text to Speech tab
This taL gives you contiol ovei how Mac OS X ieaus text. It
also lets you ueciue whethei you want to heai an announce-
ment when an aleit is uisplayeu oi when an application neeus
youi attention. To select which voice youi Mac uses, select
youi lavoiite liom the System Voice menu (click Play to pie-
view each one). The Speaking Rate sliuei contiols how guickly
the voice speaks. Il you want to have youi Mac ieau text you`ve
selecteu, tuin on ¨Speak selecteu text when the key is piesseu¨
anu, il you like, click Change Key to pick youi own key com-
Lination loi this leatuie.
Time Machine
Time Machine is Apple`s solution to the annoyance ol making
Lackups. In this pieleience pane, you can choose wheie, what,
anu when to Lack up. Foi moie inloimation, see ¨Time Ma-
chine¨ on page 176.
Iigurc 5-1. A sna|| sanp|ing oj spca|ab|c itcns jor Mai|
154 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
Startup Disk
The Staitup Disk pane allows you to specily which cuiiently
attacheu uisk you wish to use to stait youi Mac. You can use
any valiu staitup uisk (youi choices will show up in the pane),
incluuing DVDs anu exteinal uisks. Clicking Restait ieLoots
youi system using the selecteu uisk. You can also choose youi
staitup uisk while youi Mac is staiting Ly piessing anu holuing
the Option key.
Il youi Mac has a FiieViie poit, you can also choose to stait
the machine in Taiget Disk Moue. This tuins youi high-piiceu
Mac into a gloiilieu haiu uiive, Lut it is extiemely uselul loi
tiansleiiing uata anu pieleiences anu iepaiiing tiouLlesome
haiu uisks.
Non-Apple Preference Panes
Altei you install a non-Apple application that has a pieleience
pane ol its own, you`ll see that pane in a new section ol System
Pieleiences laLeleu Otheis (as shown in Figuie 5-5). These
panes woik the same as Apple`s own, anu they allow you to
contiol aspects ol the piogiam oi leatuie you auueu. Foi ex-
ample, il you install Peiian so youi Mac can uisplay a gieatei
vaiiety ol viueo types, the way to inteiact with Peiian is thiough
its pieleience pane.
One ol the most common guestions aLout thiiu-paity pielei-
ence panes isn`t how to usc them; it`s how to get iiu ol them.
Il the thiiu-paity application uoesn`t incluue an option to un-
install its pieleience pane, you can manually uninstall the pane
Ly iight-clicking oi Contiol-clicking it anu selecting Remove
(see Figuie 5-5).
Non-Apple Preference Panes | 155
Iigurc 5-5. Rcnoving a third-party prcjcrcncc panc
156 | Chapter 5: System Preferences
Built-in Applications
and Utilities
Vhen you install Lion, a numLei ol applications anu utilities
come along loi the iiue. You`ll get the pieuictaLle apps like
Salaii, anu the Loiing-yet-uselul utilities like Activity Monitoi,
as well as Lianu-new applications like Launchpau. Anu some
ol the oluei applications, such as Mail, have Leen iauically
Applications Installed with Lion
This section gives you a guick iunuown ol all the applications
installeu Ly uelault with Lion. Note that the list only coveis
applications that come with a Lion install÷il you have a
Lianu-new Mac oi aie upgiauing an oluei Mac, you`ll likely
have othei applications that aien`t incluueu in this list (such as
Address Book
Il you`ve useu pievious veisions ol OS X, the liist time you
launch Auuiess Book you`ll Le in loi a suipiise. The piogiam
spoits a completely new look in Lion: the olu, utilitaiian
inteilace has Leen ieplaceu Ly an inteilace that looks like an
actual auuiess Look (Figuie 6-1).
Iigurc ó-1. Thc ncw |oo| oj thc vcncrab|c OS X Addrcss Boo|
As with pievious veisions ol OS X, Auuiess Book keeps tiack
ol all youi contacts` inloimation÷eveiything liom phone
numLeis to email auuiesses. You can customize entiies, so
auuing anu ueleting lielus is no pioLlem. To change the laLel
loi a lielu oi auu a completely new lielu loi a contact, just click
the Euit Lutton at the Lottom ol the caiu. The Lest thing aLout
Auuiess Book is that it`s integiateu thioughout Mac OS X, so
you can access youi contacts in Mail, iChat, anu even some
thiiu-paity applications.
Vhile you can use the new veision ol Auuiess Book in the same
way you useu oluei ones, this latest veision olleis some new
lunctionality. You can initiate a FaceTime call, compose a let-
tei, visit a contact`s FaceLook page, anu much moie. How? ]ust
click on the laLel next to any Lit ol uata (email, phone numLei,
etc.) anu holu uown youi mouse/tiackpau Lutton, anu a menu
will pop up showing you Auuiess Book`s Lianu-new options
ielateu to that piece ol inlo (Figuie 6-2).
158 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
Vhen you set up youi Mac, Auuiess Book automatically
auus an entiy loi you. That might seem ciazy÷altei all,
you know how to get in touch with youisell÷Lut theie
aie Lenelits. Foi example, you can uiag youi caiu liom
Auuiess Book into an email to senu it to anyone you
App Store
Vhen Apple mentions ¨electionic uistiiLution¨ while tium-
peting the new leatuies in Lion, what the company`s ieally
talking aLout is the Mac App Stoie. Il you use an iOS uevice oi
il you`ve installeu Lion on an oluei Mac, you`ie lamiliai with
how the App Stoie opeiates.
Foi the uninitiateu, theie aie a lew things to iememLei. You
log into the Mac App Stoie with eithei youi iTunes account oi
Iigurc ó-2. |s thcrc anything Addrcss Boo| can`t do?
Applications Installed with Lion | 159
Apple ID. (Don`t have an Apple ID? You can get one loi liee
at https://app||c.con.) Using the Mac App Stoie uilleis
liom the tiauitional way you`ie useu to managing soltwaie.
Insteau ol having to seaich loi upuates, you`ll linu any upuates
to youi puichases piominently inuicateu in the App Stoie; click
Upuates to install the latest veisions ol all youi puichases. You
can install App Stoie puichases on any ol youi authoiizeu Macs
(up to live).
You can`t authoiize oi ueauthoiize machines via the
Mac App Stoie. Insteau, you have to open iTunes, click
its Stoie uiop-uown menu, anu then manage authoiizeu
Macs liom theie using the Authoiize/Deauthoiize This
Computei commanus.
Automatoi is a woikllow tool loi automating iepetitive tasks:
iesizing photos, conveiting lile types, comLining text liles,
syncing liles Letween lolueis÷that kinu ol thing. In Lion, Au-
tomatoi looks anu acts much like pievious veisions, anu at liist
glance you won`t notice the uilleience. But closei inspection
ieveals new actions that make automating things even easiei.
So il theie was something you coulun`t get Automatoi to uo
Leloie, now is a gieat time to ievisit this application. Automa-
toi now also suppoits Auto Save anu Veisions (see ¨Auto Save
anu Veisions¨ on page 12), as well as woikllow conveisions.
Still not linuing the sciipt you neeu? Google has you coveieu:
type ¨automatoi actions¨ into the Google seaich Lox anu you`ll
linu scaus ol piewiitten sciipts.
Vhen you liie up this application, you get a Lasic calculatoi.
Il you exploie the piogiam`s menu Lai, you`ll note that it has
160 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
Luilt-in conveision lunctions, scientilic anu piogiammei
moues (in the View menu), anu numeious conveision lunc-
tions (in the Conveit menu). Il you want a histoiy ol youi cal-
culations, you can get a iunning iecoiu Ly using Papei Tape
(-T). Calculatoi can also speak: the piogiam can announce
Loth Lutton piesses anu youi iesults; just visit the Speech menu
in Calculatoi`s menu Lai.
Using Calculatoi loi Lasic math isn`t the lastest way to
get the answei÷Spotlight can uo math, too. So il you
neeu a simple expiession calculateu, type it into Spot-
light (see Figuie 6-3) anu skip Calculatoi altogethei!
Iigurc ó-3. Thc sanc answcr as Ca|cu|ator, but nuch norc convcnicnt
Fancy a game ol chess? Il so, Mac OS X has you coveieu. Pie-
uictaLly, you get the stanuaiu human-veisus-computei chess
game (with aujustaLle uilliculty), Lut you also get loui chess
vaiiants, a tweakaLle Loaiu anu pieces, anu the aLility to speak
to youi Mac to move pieces. (Il you uon`t like the uelault view,
you can change the tilt ol the chessLoaiu Ly clicking anu holu-
ing the mouse Lutton anywheie on the Loaiu`s Loiuei. Aiiows
Applications Installed with Lion | 161
will pop up that allow you to tilt anu iotate the Loaiu to youi
You can also pit the computei against itsell oi play against an-
othei human. Sauly, you can`t play chess against someone ovei
a netwoik, so il you want a heau-on challenge with a human,
they`ll have to Le at youi Mac with you. Any time you want to
save youi game, just hit -S (Auto Save isn`t implementeu in
Chess yet).
The DashLoaiu icon in the Applications loluei simply launches
DashLoaiu, Lut theie aie Lettei ways ol launching it than that.
You can use the DashLoaiu gestuie (see ¨Multitouch tiack-
paus¨ on page 139), the keyLoaiu shoitcut (F+), oi Mission
Contiol. Foi moie on this leatuie, see ¨The Dash-
Loaiu¨ on page S7.
This is the uictionaiy iesponsiLle loi Mac OS X`s system-wiue
spellcheck. Vhen you mistype a woiu, the suggesteu spelling
will appeai Leneath the woiu (just like on iOS uevices); hit
Retuin to accept the suggestion (uon`t woiiy÷piessing Retuin
won`t auu a paiagiaph Lieak to youi uocument) oi just keep
typing anu OS X will inseit the suggestion loi you. Il you`ie
not happy with OS X`s suggestion you can click the tiny ×. Foi
spelling (like mine) that`s so Lau OS X can`t even guess at the
woiu you want, you`ll get a uasheu ieu line unuei the woiu
mocking youi ineptituue. Right-click oi Contiol-click woius
unueilineu in ieu to see youi Mac`s suggestions. Il you hate
youi woius Leing coiiecteu automatically, visit the
Language e Text pieleience pane (see ¨Language e
Text¨ on page 123) anu, on the Text taL, uncheck ¨Coiiect
spelling automatically.¨
The Dictionaiy application is moie than just a spellcheckei. It
also lets you seaich the Ncw Oxjord Eng|ish Dictionary, the
162 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
Oxjord Ancrican Writcr`s Thcsaurus, Apple`s uictionaiy, anu
Vikipeuia. You can choose which ol these loui options to use,
oi seaich them all at the same time, Ly clicking the appiopiiate
woiu neai the top ol the winuow (All, Dictionaiy, anu so on).
Dictionaiy is a gloLal application, so you can use it to look up
uelinitions anywheie on youi Mac. To uo so, select the woiu
in guestion anu then eithei iight-click oi Contiol-click the
woiu anu choose Look Up ¨¦woiu¦,¨ oi use a thiee-lingei
uouLle-tap il you have a tiackpau capaLle ol unueistanuing
that gestuie.
DVD Player
DVD Playei plays (suipiise!) DVDs. Il you`ie upset that Fiont
Row (the piogiam that maue viueo anu pictuie viewing moie
comloitaLle in pievious veisions ol OS X) isn`t incluueu in
Lion, you`ll Le pleaseu to leain that DVD Playei is a lull-scieen
app, so you can still get that immeisive viewing expeiience
when you`ie watching something intense like Chairnan oj thc
Board. DVD Playei also incluues many options that let you uo
things like tweak the coloi oi mess with the auuio egualizei.
Anu il you`ve got an Apple iemote lying aiounu, you can use
it to contiol DVD Playei.
By uelault, DVD Playei liies up the movie in Full Scieen
moue (you can change this Lehavioi Ly selecting DVD
PlayeiPieleiences). Move youi mouse to the Lottom ol
the scieen to access the playLack contiols; to the top ol
the scieen to select a chaptei; anu to the vcry top ol the
scieen to ieveal the menu Lai, wheie you can change the
size ol the playLack winuow.
You`ve Leen aLle to viueo chat with a Mac since Apple intio-
uuceu iSight anu iChat AV, so what`s the Lig ueal with Face-
Applications Installed with Lion | 163
Time on a Mac? FaceTime uoes something iChat can`t uo: it
lets you chat jacc-to-jacc (ol couise) with iOS alicionauos anu
otheis othei iunning Lion.
Vhen you liist launch FaceTime, you`ll Le gieeteu Ly Pielei-
ences in the siueLai. Deciue which email auuiess you want to
ieceive FaceTime calls at, hit Done, anu the Pieleiences siueLai
will Le ieplaceu Ly a sciollaLle list ol youi contacts. Click on
the peison you want to contact anu ueciue il you want to con-
tact hei iOS uevice (iPhone + oi iPau 2 oi newei) oi hei Mac.
Foi iPaus anu Macs, you use an email auuiess that the peison`s
set (click it!); loi iPhone calls, you can just click on the numLei.
Il you haven`t visiteu the Mail, Contacts e Calenuais
pieleience pane yet, you`ll have to cieate an Apple ID oi
use one you alieauy have to get going with FaceTime.
Font Book
Font Book gives you contiol ovei all the lonts on youi Mac.
Lion installs ovei 100 lonts Ly uelault anu othei piogiams may
install even moie. You can pieview, gioup, install, anu ueacti-
vate lonts using Font Book. This piogiam is also happy to val-
iuate youi lonts (go to FileValiuate Font) to iuentily any
uamageu ones that might cause youi system to Lecome unsta-
Lle. In some cases, uuplicate copies ol lonts can also cause
piogiams to Lecome unstaLle. Font Book lets you ueactivate
uuplicate lonts: go to EuitLook loi Duplicates. Il Font Book
linus uuplicates, you`ll have the choice ol iesolving them man-
ually oi automatically.
iCal has Leen the stanuaiu OS X calenuaiing app since Panthei
(10.3). The veision ol iCal that comes with Lion (5.0) is a suL-
stantial uepaituie liom pievious veisions. Its look now closely
164 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
mimics a uesktop Llottei. You can iun iCal in Full Scieen
moue, which is paiticulaily hanuy when looking at a lull yeai
ol entiies anu checking out anothei new leatuie ol iCal: the
heat map. iCal automatically assigns colois that iellect youi
availaLility on a paiticulai uay; the moie clutteieu youi scheu-
ule, the ieuuei the uay will Le.
The hanuiest new leatuie is the Quick Event Lutton (the - in
the uppei lelt ol the iCal winuow): click it, type in a phiase like
¨meeting 9 on Monuay,¨ anu iCal auus that event to youi cal-
enuai. Don`t woiiy: while iCal looks uiamatically uilleient in
Lion, it still lets you uo all the same calenuaiing tasks you uiu
in pievious veisions.
iChat is an instant-messaging system anu a little moie. It lets
you have a text, auuio, oi viueo chat with anothei usei (AIM
anu ]aLLei chat seiveis aie suppoiteu, as well), Lut you can
also show oll youi pictuies with a sliueshow oi give a Keynote
piesentation. You can even set up conleiences anu have the
paiticipants chat with one anothei. iChat also olleis the aLility
to shaie scieens, which is a gieat way to tiouLleshoot a liienu`s
oi ielative`s Mac. Anu in Lion, iChat has Leen upgiaueu to
incluue a lull-scieen moue, the aLility to connect with Yahoo!
Messengei useis, anu suppoit loi (anu piotection liom) thiiu-
paity plug-ins.
Il you`ie shaiing youi scieen with anothei usei, Le awaie
that he oi she can make changes, copy liles, anu uelete
things on youi Mac, just as you uo when you`ie using it.
Image Capture
Image Captuie lets youi Mac tianslei images liom a cameia oi
a scannei. This is uselul il you have a Lunch ol images you neeu
Applications Installed with Lion | 165
to impoit liom a uevice to some place othei than iPhoto (which
can impoit images, too).
iTunes staiteu out lile as a way to manage the music you iippeu
liom youi CD liLiaiy. It is a lot moie than that now. iTunes
lets you Luy music, Luy TV shows, ient oi Luy movies, anu,
almost inciuentally, manage youi music, TV shows, poucasts,
movies, anu iPhone/iPau/iPou Touch App Stoie puichases. It
is also wheie you contiol the authoiization ol youi Macs loi
the Mac App Stoie.
This application launchei anu lile-management system is cov-
eieu in Chaptei 1, see ¨Launchpau¨ on page S.
Mail has Leen ieimagineu in Lion (see ¨Mail¨ on page 1+ loi
moie uetails). The layout has Leen iauically changeu (some-
thing you can unuo Ly heauing to MailPieleiencesViewing
anu then checking the ¨Use classic layout¨ Lox). Mail now uses
a wiuescieen layout anu oiganizes youi emails into conveisa-
tions. Like othei Lion applications, Mail also ieceiveu the lull-
scieen tieatment, so you can ieally expanu youi mail-ieauing
ieal estate Ly going to ViewEntei Full Scieen oi clicking the
uouLle aiiows in the winuow`s uppei iight (piess Esc to exit
Full Scieen moue).
Mail is the stanuaiu email client loi Mac OS X. It lets you set
up iules to hanule incoming messages, senuing them uiiectly
to a uestination loluei uepenuing on the ciiteiia you select (go
to MailPieleiencesRules). But theie`s moie to Mail than
just senuing anu ieceiving email. You can use it as youi RSS
ieauei anu as a place to stoie notes loi youisell; it even lets you
cieate to-uos that incluue an alaim.
166 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
Foi goou oi ill, you can also cieate lancy email with Mail Ly
using stationeiy templates. To access them, click the Stationeiy
icon at the top iight ol any New Message winuow. Choose one
anu youi mail will Le lull ol coloi (anu pioLaLly annoyance)
loi all the ieaueis ol youi missive. Il you`ie looking loi an easy
methou ol attaching photos (oi using them with stationeiy),
Mail incluues a Liowsei loi all youi images stoieu in iPhoto.
In the New Message winuow, just click the Photo Biowsei icon
(it`s to the lelt ol the Stationeiy icon) anu choose the pictuie
you want to attach. You can set up Smait MailLoxes that soit
youi email loi you. The lollowing sections contain moie inlo
on using Mail.
Adding new accounts
Vhen you liist iun Mail, it will ask loi youi name, an existing
email auuiess, anu the passwoiu loi that account. (To auu an-
othei account, select FileAuu Account.) Type in those thiee
Lits ol inloimation anu Mail will tiy to liguie out how to con-
liguie youi email seivei. Il it can`t, it`ll ask you to pioviue ue-
taileu settings, such as the incoming seivei name, account type,
anu moie. You can get that inlo liom youi auministiatoi oi
Inteinet Seivice Pioviuei.
Il you`ie just auuing an email-only account, Mail is the
way to go. But auuing accounts with Mail isn`t youi Lest
option il you`ie a|so using othei seivices (like chat, cal-
enuaiing, etc.) olleieu Ly youi email pioviuei. In that
case, heau to the Mail, Contacts e Calenuai pieleience
pane to take caie ol eveiything at once.
Some email seivices, such as Gmail, allow you to access youi
mail using eithei POP (Post Ollice Piotocol) oi IMAP (Inteinet
Mail Access Piotocol). Il you like to access the same mail liom
multiple uevices (such as an iPhone anu a computei), IMAP is
youi Lest choice, Lecause that way all youi mail is stoieu on
Applications Installed with Lion | 167
the seivei; when you ieau a message, it`s maikeu as ieau acioss
all the uevices you access it liom. (Some seivices may rcquirc
you to enaLle IMAP Leloie you can access them.) To enaLle
IMAP loi a seivice such as Gmail, log into youi account using
a weL Liowsei, anu then visit the seivice`s settings page. You
may also neeu to look on the mail seivice`s settings scieen oi
in its help system loi instiuctions on conliguiing Mail to access
it via IMAP.
Add a signature to outgoing mail
Il you enu all youi emails with the same thing (even il it`s only
¨Thanks, Chiis¨), all that typing gets iepetitive. You can use a
signatuie to automatically appenu text oi auu a pictuie to the
enu ol youi messages.
To auu a signatuie, go to MailPieleiencesSignatuies, anu
then, in the list on the lelt, choose the account you want to auu
a signatuie to (oi choose All Signatuies to cieate one loi a||
youi accounts). Click the - Lutton anu then type the signatuie
text into the iight-hanu Lox (Mail automatically suggests youi
name anu email auuiess, Lut you can just type ovei that). Il
you want to use an image (such as a pictuie ol youi actua|
signatuie), scan it in, whittle it uown to a small size (you can
use Pieview to uo that), anu uiag the image into the iight-hanu
Lox. Il you auu moie than one signatuie, you can click the
uiop-uown menu next to Choose Signatuie anu specily a sig-
natuie oi tell Mail to iotate thiough youi signatuies seguen-
tially oi ianuomly.
Enable junk mail filtering
Heau to MailPieleiences]unk Mail, anu then make suie the
Lox next to ¨EnaLle junk mail lilteiing¨ is checkeu. You can
have Mail move the suspecteu junk to the ]unk mailLox oi
leave it in youi inLox. Note that eveiy time you maik a message
as junk, Mail leains liom youi action anu impioves its junk
lilteiing. Mail`s junk liltei isn`t 100 peicent accuiate, so il all
youi mail pioviueis have theii own seivei-siue junk lilteiing,
you might not want to Lothei with Lion`s junk mail lilteiing.
168 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
Manage mailboxes
To auu a new, stanuaiu mailLox, go to MailLoxNew Mail-
Lox. To auu a Smait MailLox÷which lets you set ciiteiia loi
messages that shoulu go stiaight into it (without you having to
lilt a lingei)÷choose New Smait MailLox insteau; you`ll Le
piesenteu with a winuow wheie you can set up youi ciiteiia.
Quickly delete junk mail
Il you`ve Lecome conliuent in Mail`s aLility to liguie out which
mail is junk, you can get iiu ol those messages Ly piessing
Option--] oi going to MailLoxEiase ]unk Mail.
Search your mail
You can use Spotlight to seaich loi that elusive memo you want
to ieieau, Lut il you use the seaich Lox in Mail`s menu Lai, you
won`t have to waue thiough seaich iesults liom othei souices.
You`ll get the same lightning-last iesults, Lut you`ll see only
matches liom youi email, notes, anu to-uos.
Mission Control
Mission Contiol eains a spot in the Applications loluei anu
you can (oLviously) launch it Ly clicking its icon theie. Foi
moie inlo, see ¨Mission Contiol¨ on page 6.
Photo Booth
Photo Booth is likely the silliest anu most lun application in-
cluueu with Lion. Vith PhotoBooth, you can uo things as sim-
ple as snapping a pictuie with youi Mac`s Luilt-in iSight cameia
anu as complicateu as lilming a shoit movie with a lake Lack-
giounu. PhotoBooth even allows you to tiim clips Ly picking
the staiting anu enuing liames. Auuing to the lun aie the new
ellects incluueu in this veision anu the aLility to auu youi own
Applications Installed with Lion | 169
Pieview is the uelault image viewei loi Macs. Any image you
uownloau in a common loimat such as .jpg, .png, oi .pdj will
open in Pieview Ly uelault. Pieview lets you iesize, ciop, anu
annotate images anu aujust theii colois. You can also use Pie-
view to snap scieenshots, cieate icons, anu moie.
The veision ol Pieview that ships with Lion olleis a lot ol im-
piovements ovei the last veision. Foi example, it now leatuies
suppoit loi Auto Save anu Veisions so you uon`t have to woiiy
aLout losing youi woik. It also incluues a Full Scieen moue so
you can maximize the pictuies anu PDFs you`ie euiting.
QuickTime Player
QuickTime is the technology Lehinu much ol Mac OS X`s me-
uia savvy: DVD Playei, iTunes, anu othei applications iely
heavily on it. You can use QuickTime Playei to watch movies
anu listen to music. It`s also uselul loi geneiating guick auuio
oi visual content. You can iecoiu uiiectly into QuickTime via
youi iSight cameia, attacheu weLcam, oi miciophone, anu use
the piogiam to peiloim simple tiimming. Once you`ve cieateu
something you want to shaie with the woilu, you can post it
uiiectly liom QuickTime to a vaiiety ol uestinations via the
Shaie menu.
Theie`s one othei killei leatuie in QuickTime: the aLility to
iecoiu youi scieen. Choose FileNew Scieen Recoiuing, click
the ieu ciicle in the miuule ol the winuow that appeais, anu
you`ll Le oll to the wonueilul woilu ol scieencasting.
Salaii is the slick weL Liowsei that comes with Mac OS X. It
incluues a lew new leatuies in Lion: you can go lull scieen loi
immeisive weL Liowsing; theie`s a Reauing List so you can
maik longish aiticles loi latei peiusal (click the eyeglasses icon
at the lelt enu ol the toolLai); anu a new uownloaus Lutton on
170 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
the iight siue ol the toolLai lets you see how uownloaus aie
Even with these changes, Salaii is still the Liowsei you`ie useu
to. It`s Luilt on the open souice VeLKit Liowsei platloim
(http://wcb|, anu it is Loth weL stanuaius÷compliant
anu lull-leatuieu. Theie`s a lot to Salaii: it uoes eveiything you
expect liom a weL Liowsei anu a little moie, so getting it set
up the way you want it is woith the elloit.
Change the home page
Vhen you get a new Mac, the uelault home page is http://www
.app|c.con. This is gieat il you love to keep up with Apple, Lut
pioLaLly a Lit Loiing loi eveiyuay use. To set a new home page,
go to SalaiiPieleiencesGeneial, anu then type the URL ol
the page you want in the Homepage text Lox oi, il you`ve al-
ieauy loaueu the page you want, click ¨Set to Cuiient Page.¨
Change the default browser
Il you`u like to use a Liowsei othei than Salaii (such as Fiielox)
Ly uelault, heau to SalaiiPieleiencesGeneial, anu then
choose the Liowsei you want liom the ¨Delault weL Liowsei¨
pop-up menu.
Control which pages are shown in Top Sites
Salaii 5 leatuies a slick splash page, Top Sites, that incluues
snapshots ol youi most commonly visiteu sites. (To see it, ei-
thei piess Shilt--1 oi click the icon Lelow the lelt siue ol the
auuiess Lai that looks like a Lunch ol tiny sguaies.) It`s uselul
anu visually appealing, Lut Salaii might put some pages theie
that you uon`t want to see. You can euit which pages aie shown
Ly clicking the Euit Lutton in the lowei-lelt coinei ol the Top
Sites scieen. Lock uown pages you want to keep Ly clicking
theii pushpin icons, anu Lanish pages you uon`t want shown
Ly clicking theii ×s. (A Llue stai in the coinei ol a weL page
means that the page has Leen upuateu since youi last visit.)
Applications Installed with Lion | 171
You can auu a page uiiectly to Top Sites Ly choosing Book-
maikAuu Bookmaik anu then choosing Top Sites liom the
menu that appeais. (Note that Top Sites Lookmaiks aien`t
synceu to MoLileMe oi iClouu, so you shoulu save the URL
somewheie in youi Bookmaiks Bai oi Bookmaiks menu, as
Find a page you didn’t bookmark
It happens to eveiyone: you see an inteiesting site Lut uon`t
Lothei to Lookmaik it, anu then thiee uays latei you want to
go Lack to that site Lut uon`t iememLei what it`s calleu oi how
you enueu up on it. Salaii`s Liowsing histoiy to the iescue! To
Liing up youi histoiy, select HistoiyShow All Histoiy. Then
type whatevei snippet you iememLei aLout the mysteiy site in
the Seaich Lox (the one Lelow the Google seaich Lox). Salaii
ietuins all the weL pages that you`ve Leen to that contain what
you seaicheu loi.
Block pop-up ads
To enaLle pop-up Llocking, go to SalaiiBlock Pop-Up Vin-
uows (Shilt--K). A checkmaik next to that menu item inui-
cates the pop-up Llockei is active.
Change where downloaded items are saved
By uelault, Salaii saves uownloaueu items in the Downloaus
loluei in youi Home uiiectoiy, Lut you can have Salaii uown-
loau to any spot you like. Go to SalaiiPieleiencesGeneial
taL, anu then, in the ¨Save uownloaueu liles to¨ pop-up menu,
click Othei anu choose a new location.
Control cookies
Most weLsites senu cookies (small Lunules ol uata that aie
stoieu Letween sessions anu visits to a weLsite) to youi
Liowsei. Il you`ie conceineu aLout how cookies aie useu, you
can customize the way Salaii hanules them. Click Sa-
laiiPieleiencesPiivacy, anu then choose the setting you
want in the ¨Block cookies¨ section. You can also examine all
172 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
the cookies that Salaii has Ly clicking Details. Fiom theie, you
can seaich, view, anu iemove cookies. To iemove all cookies
in one lell swoop, click Remove All VeLsite Data.
Get rid of Safari’s history
You might linu youisell on sites that you uon`t ieally want to
Le on, Lut Salaii isn`t picky anu saves a|| the sites you visit in
its histoiy. Although theie aie some things that, once seen,
cannot Le unseen, you may still like to pietenu that you nevei
visiteu a paiticulai site. Il so, you can eithei uelete Salaii`s en-
tiie histoiy (go to HistoiyCleai Histoiy) oi uelete ollenuing
entiies Ly hanu (go to HistoiyShow All Histoiy, select the
site(s) you want to get iiu ol, anu then hit the Delete key).
Il you uo nothing, Salaii will still uelete youi Liowsing histoiy
altei one month. Il this inteival is too long oi too shoit loi youi
taste, you can change its uuiation Ly aujusting Salaii`s pielei-
ences. Take a tiip to SalaiiPieleiencesGeneial anu change
the ¨Remove histoiy items¨ setting. You can choose pieset in-
teivals Letween one uay anu one yeai oi take contiol ol the
situation anu select Manually.
Add a URL to the desktop
Il you like to have sites you lieguently visit accessiLle uiiectly
liom the uesktop, highlight the URL ol the site you want in
Salaii`s auuiess Lai anu then uiag the URL uiiectly onto the
uesktop. Alteinatively, you can uiag a site`s lavicon (the icon
to the lelt ol the page`s auuiess) insteau. Eithei way, a lile icon
(which looks like a piece ol papei with a giant ¿ on it) appeais
on youi uesktop with the URL oi page`s title as its name. Now
you can uouLle-click this icon to loau that page in youi uelault
Liowsei. To change the name ol the icon, single-click its name
anu then type something moie meaninglul, just as you woulu
with any othei lile.
Applications Installed with Lion | 173
Browse privately
Theie aie times when you uon`t want Salaii keeping tiack ol
youi histoiy; Piivate Biowsing is the answei. To tuin it on, click
SalaiiPiivate Biowsing. The uialog Lox that appeais uetails
what Piivate Biowsing uoes. Click OK to Liowse without hav-
ing seaich Lox seaiches iememLeieu, sites you visit auueu to
Salaii`s histoiy, oi cookies stoieu peimanently.
Piivate Biowsing isn`t a ¨set it anu loiget it¨ option; it
applies to youi cuiient session only. So il you guit Salaii,
the next time you open it, Piivate Biowsing will Le in-
active anu Salaii will uiligently iecoiu all ol youi online
comings anu goings.
Make Safari remember passwords for website logins
This is a gieat timesavei, although it`s a Lit ol a secuiity iisk il
you leave youi Mac unattenueu while you`ie loggeu in (loi a
tip on making that a little salei, see ¨Passwoiu Manage-
ment¨ on page 190). To get Salaii to iememLei anu automat-
ically entei youi login inloimation loi weLsites, go to
SalaiiPieleiencesAutoFill, anu check the Lox next to ¨Usei
names anu passwoius.¨ Fiom then on, when you entei a usei-
name anu passwoiu into a site, Salaii will ask il you want to
save it. (You may linu that some sites, especially Lanking anu
cieuit caiu sites, uon`t allow you to save passwoius.)
Use a different default RSS reader
Salaii is the uelault RSS ieauei in Mac OS X, Lut you might
pielei to use Mail oi a thiiu-paity RSS ieauei such as
NetNewsViie. To make this change, you can go to
SalaiiPieleiencesRSS, anu then select the RSS ieauei ol
youi choice liom the ¨Delault RSS ieauei¨ pop-up menu.
174 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
Customize Safari’s toolbar
Salaii`s uelault toolLai is missing some Luttons you might
want, such as a Home Lutton to take you to youi home page.
You can auu Luttons to Salaii`s toolLai Ly going to
ViewCustomize ToolLai anu then uiagging the Luttons you
want iight onto the toolLai. Vhile the Customize ToolLai
pane is open, you can also get iiu ol the things you uon`t want
on Salaii`s toolLai Ly uiagging them oll ol it, anu ieaiiange
toolLai items Ly uiagging them aiounu.
Stickies aie a viitual veision ol Post-it notes. Fiie up this ap-
plication anu you can leave notes all ovei youi uesktop. Select
FileNew oi piess -N to cieate a Llank note you can type in,
auu images to, anu use loi ieminueis. Vhen the list on a sticky
Lecomes something you neeu to shaie, you can expoit it as iich
text Ly choosing FileExpoit Text.
System Preferences
This is the place to tweak Mac OS X. System Pieleiences aie
coveieu in Chaptei 5.
TextEuit is a not-too-shaLLy woiu piocessoi that you can use
to wiite the gieat Ameiican novel oi a gioceiy list. Although
eailiei veisions ol TextEuit weie limiteu, it keeps gaining lea-
tuies in eveiy new veision ol Mac OS X. Foi example, TextEuit
takes auvantage ol Auto Save anu Veisions. Lion`s system-wiue
spellcheckei is availaLle in the piogiam, anu you can also auu
a giammai check (select TextEuitPieleiences anu tuin on
¨Check giammai with spelling¨). TextEuit`s uelault loimat loi
saving liles is .rtj (Rich Text Foimat), Lut you can also save
(anu open) HTML; OpenOllice.oig (.odt); anu Miciosolt
Voiu 97, 2003, anu 2007 uocuments. TextEuit can also open
Applications Installed with Lion | 175
anu save .docx (Voiu 2011) liles, Lut you`ll likely lose some
loimatting when you open one; saving as a .docx lile pieseives
the loimatting liom TextEuit.
You can even auu text styles in TextEuit: select some text
anu then use the Foimat menu to make it look the way
you want. Then click the Styles Lutton at the top lelt ol
the euiting winuow (the Lutton has a ] symLol on it),
choose Show Styles, anu then click ¨Auu to Favoiites¨
(Figuie 6-+). You`ll then Le aLle to give the lile a name
loi lutuie use.
Iigurc ó-1. TcxtEdit sty|cs in action
Time Machine
Time Machine automates the Lacking-up piocess anu puts a
Leautilul giaphical inteilace on llipping Lack time. To use
Time Machine, all you ieally neeu is an attacheu uiive with
sullicient space, anothei Mac, oi Time Capsule (Apple`s all-in-
one Lackup uevice anu ViFi ioutei).
176 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
Alas, you can`t plug a haiu uiive into an AiiPoit Lase
station anu use Time Machine on that uisk. Youi choices
aie limiteu to anothei Mac, Time Capsule, oi an at-
tacheu uiive.
Time Machine opeiates seamlessly once it`s set up anu tuineu
on. To set it up, connect a suitaLle uiive, anu then launch Time
Machine (ApplicationsTime Machine), click Set Up Time
Machine, anu then choose which uisk (oi Time Capsule) you
want to use as a Time Machine uisk. Altei Time Machine is up
anu iunning, you can make a lew aujustments. Vhen you
launch Time Machine, you`ll see a Lig On/Oll Lutton, a Lutton
to Liing up the Select Disk uialog Lox, anu an Options Lutton.
Clicking the Options Lutton lets you specily which lolueis anu
uiives you don`t want Lackeu up; just click the - Lutton in the
uialog Lox that appeais anu then select the items you want to
Using Time Machine is intuitive when you`ie looking loi a lile
you acciuentally ueleteu (click the Time Machine menu extia
oi application icon to launch Time Machine, anu then navigate
thiough the availaLle Lackups). But il you want to iestoie youi
system liom a Time Machine Lackup, you`ll liist neeu to Loot
liom the Lion Recoveiy HD (see ¨Staitup tiouLleshoot-
ing¨ on page 110). Once you`ve Looteu up anu pickeu youi
installation language, uon`t stait installing Mac OS X. Insteau,
click the menu Lai anu select Utilities. The last option in the
uiop-uown menu is Restoie System Fiom Backup; selecting it
lets you choose the Time Machine uisk oi Time Capsule you
want to use to iestoie youi system.
Utilities Included with Lion
Vhat`s the uilleience Letween an application anu a utility? It`s
laigely semantic. Utilities aie a type ol application. But in gen-
eial, the ones calleu ¨applications¨ allow you to cieate anu
Utilities Included with Lion | 177
mouily uata, while the ones calleu ¨utilities¨ allow you to
monitoi anu manage youi Mac. Theie`s a ieason Utilities is a
suLloluei ol Applications anu not the othei way aiounu: util-
ities aie usually not as exciting as the applications you linu in
the iest ol the Applications loluei.
But that uoesn`t mean the Utilities loluei is lull ol aicane, Loi-
ing stull. Theie aie plenty ol uselul applications insiue. You`ll
imagine gieat uses loi a lot ol them once you get a guick peek
at what they uo.
Activity Monitor
The main winuow ol Activity Monitoi gives you a list ol all the
piocesses iunning on youi Mac (click a column heauing to
change how the list is soiteu). You can view stats aLout CPU
loau, system memoiy, uisk activity, uisk usage, oi youi net-
woik using the Luttons neai the Lottom ol the winuow. Click
on a piocess anu then click the Inspect icon to get a closei look
at the piocess. You can also use Activity Monitoi to guit any
piocess Ly selecting the piocess anu clicking the Quit Piocess
icon (veiy uselul when a piogiam is neeulessly hogging the
piocessoi oi is uniesponsive).
Il Activity Monitoi is iunning, it uisplays a constantly
iunning giaph ol system usage in the Dock. You can
contiol what uata is Leing uisplayeu Ly iight-clicking on
the Dock icon anu choosing the uata you want Disk
Utility to uisplay in the Dock.
AirPort Utility
Il you own a Time Capsule, an AiiPoit Lase station, oi an Aii-
Poit Expiess, you can use this utility to manage those uevices.
178 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
AppleScript Editor
AppleSciipt is a piogiamming language that`s uesigneu to Le
easy to use. It can contiol sciiptaLle applications on youi Mac
(that incluues most, Lut not all, applications), allowing you to
geneiate sciipts that can, loi example, iesize photos automat-
ically. Using the AppleSciipt Euitoi allows you to wiite, euit,
test, iun, anu compile AppleSciipts. Foi moie inloimation, see
Audio MIDI Setup
MIDI is an acionym loi Musical Instiument Digital Inteilace.
This utility lets you hook musical instiuments up to youi com-
putei, which is uselul loi lans ol GaiageBanu anu othei auuio
Bluetooth File Exchange
Use this utility to senu liles to suppoiteu Bluetooth uevices,
such as phones, PDAs, oi othei computeis. (Bluetooth is
slowei than ViFi Lut ieguiies less setup to tianslei liles.) Altei
you launch this utility, you can eithei uiag the lile you want to
tianslei onto the Bluetooth Dock icon anu wait loi a list ol
iecipients to appeai, oi select a lile in the Bluetooth File Ex-
change winuow anu then click the Senu Lutton (anu wait loi
the list ol possiLle iecipients to appeai).
Boot Camp Assistant
Boot Camp Assistant lets you install Vinuows (XP, Vista, oi
7) on any Mac iunning Lion. This utility will paitition youi
haiu uiive anu install the necessaiy uiiveis. (OLviously, you`ll
neeu a Vinuows installation uisk.) Once Boot Camp Assistant
woiks its magic, you`ll have a uual-Loot Mac capaLle ol iun-
ning Lion oi Vinuows. (You choose which opeiating system
to Loot into using the Staitup Disk pieleience pane÷see
¨Staitup Disk¨ on page 155.)
Utilities Included with Lion | 179
Boot Camp isn`t the only way to get Vinuows onto youi
Mac. Theie aie seveial thiiu-paity piogiams that let you
iun Vinuows anu Lion at the same time (as opposeu to
Boot Camp, which ieguiies you to ieLoot when you
want to switch opeiating systems). Two populai ones
aie Paiallels Desktop anu VMwaie Fusion.
ColorSync Utility
Because eveiyone sees colois a little uilleiently anu uevices
olten inteipiet colois in uilleient ways, ColoiSync helps you
manage colois. It lets you iepaii ICC (Inteinational Coloi Con-
soitium) pioliles on youi Mac (click the Piolile Fiist Aiu icon
to uo so). Click the Pioliles icon to inspect the pioliles useu Ly
youi Mac; ColoiSync uisplays a gioovy 3-D plot ol the piolile
you select (when applicaLle). The Devices icon lets you manage
the pioliles ol attacheu uevices. ColoiSync Utility also allows
you to apply lilteis to, loi example, a PDF uocument with the
Filteis icon. Finally, the Calculatoi icon lets you sample any
pixel uisplayeu on youi computei anu linu its values (click
the magnilying glass icon anu then click the coloi you`ie in-
teiesteu in).
Unlike youi cai keys, youi Mac keeps tiack ol itsell. Eveiy time
something unexpecteu (oi even ioutine) happens, the system
notes the pioLlem in a log, Lut these logs aie a Lit uillicult to
linu. That`s wheie Console comes in: it lets you ieview the
eiiois loggeu on youi Mac much moie conveniently than il you
hau to uig thiough the LiLiaiy loluei. Clicking on the Show
Log List icon toggles a siueLai showing the logs availaLle on
youi computei. The logs contain inloimation ciitical loi uiag-
nosing Lugs you senu to Apple anu can Le uselul in tiacking a
pioLlematic application.
180 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
Il you open Console, uon`t let the numLei ol messages
you see alaim you; Mac OS X just logs a lot ol inloima-
tion. You can use the seaich Lox to linu what you`ie
looking loi, oi click a specilic item in the Log List to liltei
out the unwanteu inloimation.
DigitalColor Meter
Vith this utility, you can inspect the coloi values ol anything
uisplayeu on scieen. You can set the size ol the apeituie (all
the way uown to a single pixel) anu choose liom loui uilleient
ways the iesults can Le calculateu.
Disk Utility
Disk Utility is a toolLox loi all youi uisks. You can use it to
eiase uisks (incluuing CD-RVs anu DVD-RVs), loimat uisks,
mount anu unmount uisks (il you`ve ejecteu an attacheu uisk,
you can iemount it without unplugging/ieplugging it Ly click-
ing Disk Utility`s Mount icon), secuiely uelete uata, cieate
compiesseu oi uncompiesseu uisk images, iepaii peimissions,
paitition uisks, anu moie. To leain how to use Disk Utility to
check youi uiive`s health, see the section ¨Staitup PioL-
lems¨ on page 10S.
Most uisks come loimatteu loi Vinuows computeis.
Vhile these uisks will woik with youi Mac, it`s a goou
iuea to change the uisk`s loimat to Mac OS X`s native
Mac OS Extenueu (]ouinaleu) lilesystem, Lecause some
leatuies, like Time Machine, won`t woik with a
Vinuows-loimatteu uisk.
Utilities Included with Lion | 181
GiaL is Mac OS X`s scieen-captuie utility. It lets you captuie
a section ol the scieen, a complete winuow (sans uiop shauow),
oi the entiie scieen. It even has a timeu option that gives you
10 seconus to get whatevei piocess you`ie tiying to captuie
iunning. All the images aie saveu in .tijj loimat.
Giaphei uisplays giaphs ol eguations that aie Luilt into the
piogiam, as well as eguations you entei. This utility can hanule
a wiue iange ol cooiuinate choices (polai, cylinuiical, Caite-
sian, anu spheiical), anu can even geneiate 3-D giaphs. This is
a uselul tool il you`ie stuuying calculus.
Java Preferences
This utility is wheie you tell youi Mac what you want the ]ava
piogiamming language to uo loi you anu how. It lets you select
youi pieleiieu veision ol ]ava, manage secuiity, anu conliguie
Keychain Access
Keychain Access stoies youi passwoius loi the moments when
you inevitaLly loiget them. As long as you iememLei youi
system passwoiu, you can iecovei any passwoiu stoieu in
the Keychain. (Many thiiu-paity piogiams, like Fiielox, uon`t
use Keychain.) You can also cieate secuie notes ieauaLle only
in Keychain that aie lockeu with youi passwoiu. Foi moie on
Keychain Access, see Chaptei 7.
Migration Assistant
Vhen you liist set up youi Mac, you hau the option ol tians-
leiiing youi uata liom anothei computei. You weie also as-
suieu that il you uiun`t want to tianslei youi uata iight then,
182 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
you coulu uo it latei. Foi moie inlo on all the ways you can
tianslei uata using Migiation Assistant, see ¨Moving Data anu
Applications liom Anothei Computei¨ on page 26.
Network Utility
Netwoik Utility lets you peiloim common netwoiking tasks.
Most useis will linu the Inlo taL the most uselul. Foi those
lamiliai with Unix netwoik uiagnostics, theie aie also taLs loi
Netstat, Ping, Lookup, Tiaceioute, Vhois, Fingei, anu Poit
Podcast Capture
This app woiks with Poucast Piouucei, which comes with
OS X Lion Seivei. The liist thing the app will loice you to uo
is to entei the name ol the seivei you`ie going to use. Il you
uon`t have a seivei loi Poucast Captuie, the lun stops theie. Il
you uo have one, you can use this utility to iecoiu youi scieen,
youisell, oi auuio anu senu it to the seivei wheie it can then
Le encoueu anu uistiiLuteu.
Podcast Publisher
Il you uon`t have OS X Lion Seivei anu aie jealous ol the ca-
paLilities ol Poucast Captuie, uon`t woiiy÷Poucast PuLlishei
has you coveieu (Figuie 6-5).
Poucast PuLlishei manages to uo thiee uistinct poucasting
tasks in one slick piogiam: cieate poucasts, aichive episoues,
anu puLlish poucasts. (You`u expect that last leatuie Laseu on
this utility`s name, Lut the othei two lunctions shoulu come as
a pleasant suipiise.)
Since Poucast PuLlishei peiloims thiee uilleient (though iela-
teu) lunctions anu you might Le only Le inteiesteu in one,
heie`s a look at each leatuie.
Utilities Included with Lion | 183
Content Creation
Theie aie a lot ol ways to iecoiu auuio anu/oi viueo with youi
Mac. You coulu use QuickTime, Photo Booth, oi iMovie. Vith
Poucast PuLlishei, you get a new choice: the utility has content-
cieation leatuies Luilt iight in so you can cieate a poucast anu
puLlish it without even switching piogiams.
Il it`s youi liist time launching Poucast PuLlishei (oi il you click
New Poucast in the lowei-lelt coinei ol the utility`s winuow),
you`ll see a coikLoaiu with a yellow sticky note imploiing you
to auu a new episoue. Beloie you ciank out that liist episoue,
give youi poucast a cool name Ly clicking the geneiic name
neai the top ol the winuow. Now it`s time to cieate some
Il you want to uo a viueo poucast, click the ¨Auu a new epi-
soue¨ sticky note. The winuow will change to the image liom
youi iSight suiiounueu Ly a Llack Loiuei (you can use a uil-
leient cameia Ly visiting the Cameia menu). At the Lottom lelt
ol the winuow, you`ll see a couple ol unlaLeleu Luttons. The
Iigurc ó-5. Brand ncw in Lion: Podcasting nadc casy!
184 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
Lutton with the lilmstiip on it is selecteu Ly uelault; il you want
to iecoiu youi uesktop, click the Lutton next to it.
Once you`ie ieauy to iecoiu, click the iecoiu Lutton at the
Lottom centei ol the winuow. Sit thiough the thiee-seconu
countuown anu then iecoiu to youi heait`s content (you can
switch Letween using the uesktop iecoiuei anu iSight on the
lly). Vhen you`ie uone iecoiuing, click the iecoiu Lutton
again. You`ll then see a lilmstiip oi waveloim iepiesentation
ol youi cieation unuei the main viueo aiea, allowing you to set
when the episoue staits anu stops.
You might Le wonueiing il you can uo an auuio-only poucast.
But ol couise! On Poucast PuLlishei`s main scieen, simply click
the tiiangle next to New Movie Episoue anu choose New Auuio
Episoue. The iecoiuing piocess woiks exactly as uesciiLeu
aLove, Lut only the auuio liom youi Mac`s Luilt in mic will Le
iecoiueu. (Il you want to use a uilleient mic, heau to the Cam-
eia uiop-uown menu.)
Podcast Management
The euiting poweis ol Poucast PuLlishei aie seveiely limiteu,
so you might not want to use it to cieate poucasts, Lut you may
want to use it to nanagc youi poucasts.
Il you`ve cieateu a poucast with some othei piogiam, you can
impoit into Poucast PuLlishei. Il it`s in one ol youi meuia li-
Liaiies, heau to Poucast PuLlishei`s View menu anu choose
Show Meuia Biowsei. Then uiag the lile ovei liom the Meuia
Biowsei anu it will take a spot on Poucast PuLlishei`s coik-
Loaiu as a new episoue. You can also uiag anu uiop liles liom
youi Mac onto the coikLoaiu to cieate new episoues. Il youi
poucast iesiues on the Inteinet, you`ll linu an ¨Impoit Poucast
liom URL¨ option in the File menu.
Vith Poucast PuLlishei, you aien`t limiteu to one poucast. You
can have multiple poucasts, each with its own coikLoaiu lull
ol episoues. To cieate a uistinct poucast, simply click the New
Poucast Lutton at the Lottom ol the winuow oi piess -N.
Utilities Included with Lion | 185
Once you`ve got enough poucasts anu episoues sitting aiounu
to conluse youisell, you can clean things up. To uelete a whole
poucast, click a Llank spot on its coikLoaiu anu then hit De-
lete. To uelete an episoue, click the viitual pushpin holuing it
to the viitual coikLoaiu, anu you`ll get options to uelete oi get
inlo aLout the episoue. As you woulu expect, ueleting some-
thing in Poucast PuLlishei only ueletes it locally; il you`ve
shaieu it, the episoue oi poucast will still Le aiounu.
Podcast Publishing
Poucast PuLlishei can manage anu piouuce poucasts, Lut its
name just woulun`t Le appiopiiate il it coulun`t help you puL-
lish poucasts, too. To puLlish a poucast, click the episoue you
want, anu then click the Shaie Lutton in the lowei-iight coinei
ol the piogiam`s winuow. The liist thiee options listeu aie loi
small-scale shaiing: expoiting the episoue to iTunes (youi local
liLiaiy), senuing it with Mail, oi geneiating a copy on youi
uesktop. You`ll also see options that let you shaie youi poucast
using a seivei oi with a iemote woikllow.
RAID Utility
Got a RAID (Reuunuant Aiiay ol Inexpensive Disks) caiu in-
stalleu in youi Mac? No? Then you can ignoie this utility. Il
you do have a RAID caiu, this utility lets you conliguie a RAID
on youi system.
System Information
This utility can tell you just aLout eveiything you might want
to know aLout youi Mac. Haiuwaie, netwoiks, anu soltwaie
aie all coveieu in gieat uetail. Il you`ie wonueiing aLout any
paiticulai aspect ol youi Mac, System Inloimation is the place
to look.
186 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
You can invoke System Inloimation Ly clicking
ALout This MacMoie Inlo.
Theie is some weiiuness with System Inloimation. Il you in-
voke it Ly visiting the Utilities loluei anu uouLle-clicking its
icon, it will look just like System Piolilei liom Snow Leopaiu.
This can Le liustiating il you`ie looking loi the new, moie
giaphical uisplay ol system inloimation. Vhile all the inlo you
neeu is availaLle in the oluei-looking veision ol this utility, to
get the giaphical uisplay shown in Figuie 6-6, you have
to invoke System Inloimation Ly going to ALout This
MacMoie Inlo.
Iigurc ó-ó. Sanc uti|ity, nuch coo|cr intcrjacc
Utilities Included with Lion | 187
Mac OS X is Luilt on Unix, anu the Teiminal utility is youi
winuow into that woilu. Unix is incieuiLly poweilul anu Tei-
minal lets you iun Unix commanus. Clicking HelpTeiminal
Help will get you staiteu il you aien`t lamiliai with Unix. The
most impoitant Teiminal tip? Vhen you`ie conluseu, typing
man command-name Liings up a manual page wheie you can leain
aLout a paiticulai Unix commanu (tiy man man loi staiteis). In
Lion, Teiminal gets a Lit ol an upgiaue: it`s now a lull-scieen
VoiceOver Utility
VoiceOvei is Mac OS X`s scieen-ieauing piogiam that ue-
sciiLes what`s happening on youi scieen using one ol the voices
installeu with OS X. This utility allows you to customize
VoiceOvei`s settings: you can contiol what voice is useu, how
youi computei is navigateu when using VoiceOvei, how
VoiceOvei hanules weL pages, anu how the keys on the key-
Loaiu contiol youi Mac. You can even set up a Biaille monitoi.
Foi auuitional inloimation, llip to ¨Seeing taL¨ on page 129.
X11 is the Mac OS X veision ol the X Vinuow System, which
allows youi Mac to iun many giaphical Unix applications.
188 | Chapter 6: Built-in Applications and Utilities
Managing Passwords in Lion
Vhen you liist Loot a new Mac anu set up a usei, the system
is conliguieu to automatically log in that usei. That`s pioLaLly
line il you`ie the only peison who uses that Mac, Lut not so
gieat il youi Mac is sitting out wheie a lot ol people have access
to it. You`ll want to customize youi secuiity settings to lit the
enviionment wheie you`ll Le using youi Mac. Il it`s a uesktop
machine anu you`ll only Le using it at home, loi example, you
pioLaLly uon`t have much to woiiy aLout. But il it`s a Mac-
Book that you plan on hauling eveiywheie you go, you`ll want
a little moie secuiity.
See ¨Logging In¨ on page ++ to linu out how to uisaLle
automatic login. Anu see ¨Logging Out, Sleeping, anu
Shutting Down¨ on page +5 to customize youi logout
Secuiity in Mac OS X usually comes uown to passwoius: pass-
woius loi seivices, accounts, weLsites, anu email. Once you`ve
cieateu all those pesky Lut necessaiy passwoius, you`ll want
to tuin youi attention to managing them.
Password Management
To manage all youi passwoius, Lion uses keychains; they`ie
wheie it stoies youi passwoius anu ceitilicates to keep them
sale liom piying eyes. These keychains save you a lot ol time,
Lecause youi Mac can use the stoieu passwoius to uo a vaiiety
ol uselul things, like joining youi wiieless netwoik without any
help liom you.
The moie you uo online, the moie passwoius you neeu. Iueally,
you want uilleient passwoius loi eveiything; using the same
passwoiu loi youi Lank`s weLsite anu loi posting to a thiiu-
iate message Loaiu isn`t the Lest iuea. Howevei, with so many
passwoius iunning aiounu, it is easy to loiget them. Ve`ve all
Leen laceu with the situation wheie we weie surc we typeu in
the iight passwoiu only to Le iepeateuly uenieu access. Foitu-
nately, Mac OS X can help.
Recovering a Forgotten Password
So you`ve loigotten the passwoiu to some iaiely visiteu yet
essential seivei oi some netwoik you only join eveiy six
months. Tuins out Lion pioLaLly iememLeieu the passwoiu
loi you (to have it save weLsite passwoius, too, see ¨Make Sa-
laii iememLei passwoius loi weLsite logins¨ on page 17+). To
iecovei the passwoiu, open Keychain Access (Applica-
tionsUtilitiesKeychain Access) anu type the name ol the
site, application, oi something ielevant into the piogiam`s
seaich Lox. Keychain Access will linu entiies that match youi
seaich ciiteiia anu piesent you with a list like the one in
Figuie 7-1.
Vhen whatevei you`ie looking loi appeais in the list in the
miuule ol the Keychain Access winuow, uouLle-click that
item`s name anu a winuow will pop up that incluues a ¨Show
passwoiu¨ checkLox. Check the Lox, entei youi Mac OS X
passwoiu, anu you`ll see the passwoiu.
190 | Chapter 7: Managing Passwords in Lion
Foi an auueu level ol secuiity, you can conliguie Mac
OS X to lock youi keychain altei a peiiou ol inactivity.
Open Keychain Access, click ¨login¨ in the Keychains
list on the lelt siue ol the winuow, anu then select
Euit¨Change Settings loi Keychain `login.`¨ You`ll
then Le aLle to lock the keychain altei a peiiou ol inac-
tivity oi when the computei sleeps. Once a keychain is
lockeu, Lion won`t let youi Mac give out passwoius until
you unlock the keychain Ly typing in youi passwoiu.
Make a Great Password
The lollowing passwoius aie not acceptaLle: |ctncin, pass-
word, 123, anu qwcrty. Using one ol those loi anything you
caie aLout is like leaving the uooi to youi house wiue open÷
Lut iemoving the welcome mat. Suie, a miscieant night pause
momentaiily when he notices the welcome mat is missing, Lut
that won`t stop him liom coming into youi house. You neeu a
Lettei passwoiu.
Lion can help you in youi guest. You can linu out whethei youi
chosen passwoiu is stiong with Passwoiu Assistant, which
tests the stiength ol youi passwoiu. Foi whatevei ieason, you
can`t access Passwoiu Assistant uiiectly, so you`ll have to use
Iigurc 7-1. Rccovcring ny Sajari Boo|s On|inc password
Password Management | 191
Keychain Access to get to it. (Actually, any piompt that
uisplays the little key icon will give you access to Passwoiu
Assistant, Lut Keychain Access is one ol the easiest ways to get
theie.) Open Keychain Access (ApplicationsUtilitiesKey-
chain Access), anu then select Euit¨Change Passwoiu loi
Keychain `¦keychain name¦.`¨
Theie is an excellent liee utility that will invoke Pass-
woiu Assistant any time you want to geneiate a new
passwoiu. To get a copy, point youi Liowsei to http://
In the ¨Entei a new passwoiu loi keychain `¦keychain name¦`¨
uialog Lox that pops up, type a piospective passwoiu in the
New Passwoiu lielu. As you type, you`ll see a coloieu Lai ap-
peai that inuicates how goou youi passwoiu is (ieu loi weak,
yellow loi laii, anu gieen loi goou oi excellent). Unuei that is
a Passwoiu Stiength iating (Veak, Faii, Goou, oi Excellent).
Vhen you`ie uone typing, click the key icon anu the Passwoiu
Assistant winuow appeais (Figuie 7-2).
Il youi passwoiu isn`t the uigital eguivalent ol Foit Knox, tiy
out some new passwoius to see how they iate. Il you can`t come
up with a goou one on youi own, Lion is happy to pitch in anu
help. The Tips lielu gives you pointeis on how to Luilu a Lettei
passwoiu, anu the Type uiop-uown menu lets you choose the
kinus ol passwoius Lion suggests: ¨memoiaLle¨ ones, ones
with letteis anu numLeis, puiely numeiic ones, ianuom ones,
oi FIPS-1S1-compliant ones (the kinu useu Ly goveinment
Once you`ve lounu a goou, stiong passwoiu, close the Pass-
woiu Assistant winuow anu then click Cancel in the ¨Entei a
new passwoiu loi.¨ winuow (unless you actually want to
change the passwoiu loi that keychain). Now you can type that
passwoiu into whatevei piogiam oi weLsite neeus it anu know
that youi inlo shoulu Le pietty secuie.
192 | Chapter 7: Managing Passwords in Lion
Storing Secure Notes
Keychain is gieat at stoiing passwoius, Lut you can also use it
to stoie notes. To wiite a note that no one else can see (well,
except loi people who know youi useiname anu passwoiu),
open Keychain Access (ApplicationsUtilitiesKeychain Ac-
cess), click ¨login¨ in the Keychains list, select Secuie Notes in
the Categoiy section, anu then click the - Lutton at the Lottom
ol the winuow. Give youi seciet note a name anu then stait
typing away (Figuie 7-3). Vhen you`ie uone, click Auu anu
youi note will Le salely stoieu in the Keychain.
Add a Keychain Access Menu Extra
Vith all the goouness Keychain Access olleis, you might want
easy access to it. You can auu it to youi Dock, Lut that might
Le getting a little ciowueu, anu the Keychain icon isn`t the Lest-
looking one Apple has chuineu out. Luckily, you can auu a
menu extia loi Keychain Access (see ¨Menu ex-
tias¨ on page 55 loi a ielieshei). To uo that, the next time
you`ie using Keychain Access, go to Pieleiences (-,) anu in
Iigurc 7-2. Know your password`s strcngth
Password Management | 193
the Geneial taL, check the Lox next to ¨Show keychain status
in menu Lai.¨
Securing Your Data
Caielully choosing passwoius is a gieat stait when it comes to
secuiity, Lut it`s not a peilect solution. Il someone has physical
access to youi Mac, theie aie things she can uo to get at youi
uata. Il this piospect seems paiticulaily loathsome to you, you
shoulu consiuei making the extia elloit to enaLle FileVault 2,
a leatuie ol Lion that makes youi uata impossiLle to access
unless you want it accesseu. Foi inloimation on setting up
FileVault 2, see ¨FileVault taL¨ on page 126.
Iigurc 7-3. Thcy nust ncvcr |now
194 | Chapter 7: Managing Passwords in Lion
Keyboard Commands and
Special Characters
Vhen you`ie using the keyLoaiu, you want to keep youi hanus
on the keys. A tiip to the mouse oi hunting loi a special chai-
actei can ieally slow you uown. The goou news is that Lion has
a lot ol Loth key commanus anu special chaiacteis Luilt iight
in. The Lau news is that, unless you`ie one ol those people who
memoiize the uigits ol pi to a thousanu places loi lun, you
won`t iememLei them all.
The most impoitant key commanus anu special chaiacteis vaiy
liom usei to usei. Foi example, il you`ie wiiting aLout Exposé,
knowing how to type é ieally helps, Lut knowing how to type
¬ isn`t ol much use. Eveiyone uses his oi hei Mac a little uil-
leiently, so this chaptei leatuies a wiue selection ol keyLoaiu
commanus anu ways to type uilleient chaiacteis. Memoiize
the ones loi the lunctions you use most, anu you`ll save a lot
ol time anu elloit.
Key Commands
Vhen youi hanus aie on the keyLoaiu, it`s much guickei to
keep them theie to peiloim some munuane task than it is to
uig thiough the menus anu linu the option that lets you type a
special chaiactei oi cieate a new loluei.
In geneial, the less time you spenu using the mouse (oi tiack-
pau), the moie piouuctive you`ll Le when using the keyLoaiu.
Vhile you`ll want to leain the keyLoaiu commanus loi all youi
lavoiite piogiams, some commanus aie so common that it`s
woith ieseiving a special spot loi them in youi Liain:
Save. This saves the uocument you`ie woiking on. The
moie olten you use this commanu, the happiei you`ll Le
(at least until Lion`s Auto Save leatuie is uniloimly im-
plementeu). Nothing is moie liustiating than having all
youi haiu woik uisappeai when the powei llickeis oi an
application ciashes.
Il you`ie using a keyLoaiu uesigneu loi Vinuows
systems, you won`t see the key. Insteau, use the
Vinuows key, which is usually in the same spot
you`u linu the key. Some keyLoaius use a uillei-
ent symLol, howevei; loi example, the Happy
Hacking KeyLoaiu uses the ¨lozenge¨ symLol (◊).
Copy. This commanu copies the cuiient selection loi latei
Paste. Once you`ve copieu something, you`ll want to paste
Cut. This commanu ueletes the cuiient selection Lut cop-
ies it to youi Mac`s memoiy. Altei you`ve cut something,
you can paste it elsewheie until you copy oi cut something
196 | Chapter 8: Keyboard Commands and Special Characters
Opens the pieleiences loi the active application.
-j and -j
Moves loiwaiu (]) anu Lackwaius ([) in the Finuei, Salaii,
anu some othei applications.
Opens the cuiient application`s Help uialog Lox so you
can get guick answeis to youi vexing guestions.
Quits the cuiient application.
You can`t easily guit the Finuei, so this commanu
uoesn`t woik when you`ie using it. To linu out how
to guit the Finuei (well, to ielaunch it), see ¨The
Finuei stops iesponuing¨ on page 101.
This commanu Liings up the application switchei, which
lets you cycle thiough iunning applications Ly piessing
TaL iepeateuly as you holu uown . Vhen you get to the
application you`ie altei, let go ol Loth keys. Il youi hanus
aie on the keyLoaiu, this is a nuch lastei way to switch
applications than the Dock.
Foice guits the cuiient piogiam.
Once you`ve masteieu those commanus, youi appetite loi key-
Loaiu shoitcuts is likely to Lecome insatiaLle. Foitunately,
theie`s plenty moie ol that keyLoaiu-shoitcut, time-saving
goouness, much ol which is shown in TaLle S-1.
Key Commands | 197
Unloitunately, some ol these commanus aien`t suppoi-
teu uniloimly acioss all piogiams. Foi example, in the
Finuei anu many othei applications, -I uisplays the Get
Inlo uialog Lox loi the cuiiently selecteu lile oi oLject,
Lut in most woiu-piocessing applications, -I italicizes
the selecteu text.
Also, on some keyLoaius, you may neeu to holu uown
the key laLeleu Fn to use keyLoaiu shoitcuts that ieguiie
a lunction key (F1, F2, etc.).
Tab|c 8-1. Connon |cyboard shortcuts
Key command Most common action Finder action
-A Selects all Selects all items in current
-B Makes selected text bold (in word-
processing programs).
-C Copies current selection Copies selected files and
-D Duplicates selected object (usually in
drawing applications)
Duplicates selected file or
-E Searches for highlighted text Ejects disk
-F Finds text Opens a new Finder
window with cursor in
search field
-H Hides current application Hides Finder
-I Italicizes selected text Opens Get Info window for
selected item
-J Jumps to currently selected text
(useful if you’ve selected some text,
then scrolled elsewhere in a
Shows View options
198 | Chapter 8: Keyboard Commands and Special Characters
Key command Most common action Finder action
-K Clears screen (Terminal) or inserts
hyperlink (text editors, word pro-
cessors, and Mail)
Opens “Connect to Server”
-L Goes to line number (common in text
Creates an alias
-M Minimizes window Same
-N Creates new document Opens new Finder window
-O Displays Open File dialog box Opens selected item
-P Prints None
-Q Quits current application None
-R Varies Shows original file when an
alias is selected
-S Saves current file None
-T Displays Font panel Adds selected item to
Finder window sidebar
-V Pastes copied item Pastes copied file(s) or
-W Closes window Same
-X Cuts None
-Z Undoes most recent action Same
-1 Varies Displays Finder items as
-2 Varies Displays Finder items as list
-3 Varies Displays Finder items as
-4 Varies Displays Finder items in
Cover Flow View
-Delete Varies Moves selected item to
-Tab Opens Application Switcher Same
-[ Goes back (when using a web
Goes back one directory
Key Commands | 199
Key command Most common action Finder action
-] Goes forward (when using a web
Goes forward one directory
-? Activates Help menu Same
-Space Activates Spotlight search Same
-` Cycles through application windows Cycles through Finder
Tab Moves focus to next item or (in text
editors) inserts a tab
Moves focus to next item
Shift--3 Takes a picture of your screen; saves
image file to desktop
Shift--4 Displays a cursor for taking a snap-
shot of part of the screen (press Space
to take a picture of a single window);
saves image file to desktop
Works like -Shift-3, but copies
picture to clipboard
Works like -Shift-4, but copies
picture to clipboard
Shift--A Varies Opens Applications folder
Shift--C Varies Opens Computer folder
Shift--D Varies Opens Desktop folder
Shift--O Varies Opens Documents folder
Shift--G Varies Opens “Go to the folder”
dialog box
Shift--H Varies Opens Home folder
Shift--K Varies Opens Network folder
Shift--N Varies Creates a new folder
Shift--Q Displays logout dialog box, logs out
automatically after one minute
Shift--S Opens “Save As…” dialog box None
Shift--U Varies Opens Utilities folder
200 | Chapter 8: Keyboard Commands and Special Characters
Key command Most common action Finder action
Shift--Delete Varies Opens Empty Trash dialog
Varies Empties Trash
Option (while
Copies item to new location Copies file/folder to new
-Option (while
Varies Creates an alias to a file/
folder at new location
Option--D Shows or hides the Dock Same
Option--M Varies Minimizes all windows
Option--Esc Forces an application to quit Same
Option--Eject Puts computer to sleep Same
Control-Eject Displays the Restart/Sleep/Shut
Down dialog box
Control--Eject Quits all applications and restarts
You`ie pioLaLly not going to iememLei a|| ol those shoitcuts,
Lut you`ll likely iememLei the ones you use lieguently. Anu
moie time at the keyLoaiu means less time wasteu mousing
anu seaiching loi commanus.
Customizing Key Commands
Il you uon`t like the key commanus Luilt into Mac OS X, you
uon`t have to put up with them. You can change them oi auu
youi own Ly taking a tiip to the KeyLoaiu pieleience pane. Foi
uetails, see ¨KeyLoaiu Shoitcuts taL¨ on page 135.
Key Commands | 201
Typing Special Characters in Mac OS X
Il you`ie Langing away on the keyLoaiu anu linu youisell
wanting to type special chaiacteis (like the é in Exposé, loi
example), theie aie convoluteu methous ol getting the chaiac-
tei you want (pasting them liom the VeL, say), Lut you might
Le wonueiing il theie`s a tiackpauless oi mouse-liee way to uo
it. In Lion, theie is.
One ol the unueiiateu new leatuies ol Lion is an easy way to
get at those pesky uiaciitic symLols. Simply type the lettei
you`ie inteiesteu in anu ho|d thc |cy down, anu a winuow will
pop up with all youi options (as in Figuie S-1). You can then
use the aiiow keys to select the uiaciitic you want, oi piess the
numLei key that coiiesponus to the numLei Lelow youi pick.
Iigurc 8-1. A|| your options jor c
This new leatuie is univeisal, so you can use it anywheie you
can type a chaiactei. It uoes have a couple ol uiawLacks,
though: uepenuing on how youi key iepeat iate is set, you
might linu youisell typing sss Leloie the uiaciitic menu shows
up, anu il you type a special chaiactei olten, you`ll want to
commit its keyLoaiu shoitcut to memoiy to save youisell some
202 | Chapter 8: Keyboard Commands and Special Characters
TaLle S-2 shows how to easily type uiaciitic symLols.
Tab|c 8-2. Diacritic acccnt nar| shortcuts
Symbol Name Keystroke
´ Acute Option-E, then type the letter
^ Circumflex Option-I, then type the letter
` Grave Option-`, then type the letter
˜ Tilde Option-N, then type the letter
¨ Umlaut Option-U, then type the letter
That takes caie ol only a lew chaiacteis you may not Le aLle
to linu on youi keyLoaiu. But what aLout othei chaiacteis,
such as the euio symLol oi the Apple logo? You might tiy
looking thiough the Font Book utility, Lut with the numLei ol
lonts incluueu in a stanuaiu OS X install, that task can ieguiie
moie luck than skill.
The Chaiactei Palette is a Lit easiei to use. You enaLle it Ly
heauing to ApplicationsSystem PieleiencesLanguage e
Text. Click the Input Souices taL, anu then check the Lox la-
Leleu KeyLoaiu e Chaiactei Viewei. Youi Mac auus a new
icon to the lelt siue ol the menu Lai that lets you launch eithei
Chaiactei Viewei oi KeyLoaiu Viewei. Chaiactei Viewei lets
you Liowse a wiue vaiiety ol special chaiacteis anu inseit them
into uocuments Ly clicking them (the chaiacteis appeai in the
most iecently useu application). Vith KeyLoaiu Viewei (Fig-
uie S-2), you can holu uown Shilt, Option, oi Shilt and Option
simultaneously to see how the keyLoaiu is mouilieu when
you`ie uepiessing those mouiliei keys. As with Chaiactei
Viewei, you can click the letteis oi symLols to inseit them into
a text lielu.
Typing Special Characters in Mac OS X | 203
You can also check out TaLle S-3 loi a guick ieleience to U.S.
English keyLoaiu mouilieis.
Tab|c 8-3. Spccia| charactcr shortcuts jor U.S. Eng|ish |cyboards
No modifiers Shift Option Shift-Option
` ˜ ` (above next vowel
1 ! ¡ (fraction slash
2 @ ™ €
3 # £ ‹
4 $ ¢ ›
5 % ∞ f (ligature)
6 ^ § f (ligature)
7 & ¶ ‡
8 * • °
9 ( ª •
0 ) º ¸
- _ – —
= + ≠ ±
q Q Œ Œ
Iigurc 8-2. Wondcr what Option-Shijt docs to thc charactcrs on your
|cyboard? Wondcr no norc!
204 | Chapter 8: Keyboard Commands and Special Characters
No modifiers Shift Option Shift-Option
w W Σ „
e E ´ (above next vowel
r R ® ‰
t T † ˇ
y Y ¥ Á
u U ¨ (above next vowel
i I ^ (above next
vowel typed)
o O Ø Ø
p P Π ∏
[ { “ “
] } ‘ ‘
\ | « »
a A Å Å
s S ß Í
d D ∂ Î
f F ƒ Ï
g G ©
h H ˙ Ó
j J Δ Ô
k K ˚
l L ¬ Ò
; : … Ú
‘ “ Æ Æ
z Z Ω ¸
x X ≈ ˛
c C Ç Ç
Typing Special Characters in Mac OS X | 205
No modifiers Shift Option Shift-Option
v V √ ◊
b B ∫ I
n N ~ (above next “n”
m M µ Â
, < ≤ ¯
. > ≥ ˘
/ ? ÷ ¿
206 | Chapter 8: Keyboard Commands and Special Characters
? (guestion maik), llashing, 111
. (ellipsis), 51
No symLol, 17
uiag action, 61, 70
shoitcuts to memoiize, 196
taLles ol keyLoaiu shoitcuts,
56, 19S÷201
◊ (lozenge symLol), Happy
Hacking KeyLoaiu, 196
ALout This Mac, 20, +S, 1S7
ALout to Fail status, 109
ALout ., 51
accent maik shoitcuts, 203
Acceptance Delay sliuei, 130
accounts, 35÷3S
menu, 56
setting up, 3S
types ol usei, 36
Action menu, 60
Active Scieen Coineis, 120
Activity Monitoi, 102, 17S
accounts, 1+S
weLsites (paiental contiols),
Auuiess Book, 25, SS, 157÷159
Auministiatoi account, 36, ++,
117, 12+
auult weLsites, 150
Auvanceu taL, 6+, 127
AIM chat seivei, 165
AiiDiop, 11, 63, 92
AiiPoit, 1+7, 177, 17S
llashing, 130
how to customize, 130, 1+0
pop-up Latteiy, 105
spoken, 15+
aliases, 63, 70
All My Files, 10, 63
amLient noise ieuuction, 1+2
animation, S1, S9, 119, 121
AOL, 1+2
App Stoie (Mac) (see Mac App
Appeaiance pieleiences, 117
Apple Events, 1+7
Apple ID, 25, 159
Apple menu, +S÷51
Ve`u like to heai youi suggestions loi impioving oui inuexes. Senu email to
Apple Remote Desktop, 132, 1+7
Apple technical suppoit, 99
Apple wiuget inuex, 91
AppleCaie, +9
AppleSciipt Euitoi, 179
Applications loluei, 63, 131
Applications menu, 51
compatiLility with Lion, 16
ueleting, 9
loice-guitting, 100
hiuing, 76
installing, 63
opening on login, 76
paiental contiols, 1+9
pieinstalleu, 157÷177
guitting, 76
showing in Finuei, 76
signeu/unsigneu, 127
stack, 73
switching Letween, 73, S1
tiansleiiing liom olu
computei, 27
Aiiange menu, 60
aiiow keys, 5S, 65
aleits, 1+0
calculatoi, 161
MIDI, 179
poucasts, 1S5
authoiizeu Macs, 23, 160
Auto Save, 12, 100, 160
allowing ol incoming
connections, 127
Liightness ieuuction, 133
login, +3, ++, 112, 125, 1+S
iestait, 133
upuates, 125, 152
view, 7S
Automatoi, 160
Lack Lutton, 60
Back to My Mac, 63, 132
Lackgiounu, uesktop, 57, 11S
Lackup copies, 72
MacBook, 10+
menu extia, 56
mouse, 137
pieleiences, 132
Leach-Lall cuisoi, 100
Beutime (paiental contiols), 151
enaLling loi mouiliei keys,
on staitup attempt, 10S
incoming connections, 127
paiental contiols, 1+9
pop-up aus, 172
Llue uots, 122
Bluetooth, 1++
lile exchange, 179
mouse, 137
shaiing, 1+S
Bonjoui, 1+6, 1+7
Lookmaiks, 1+7, 172
Boot Camp, 179
Loot uiive, 62
Loot up, ++, 110÷11+
Biaille monitoi, 1SS
Biowse All Veisions, 13
Liowsei, 1+7
(see also Salaii)
Lookmaiks, 1+7, 172
cleai histoiy, 173
uelault, 171
piivacy, 17+
seaich histoiy, 172
Luilu numLei, +9
Luining, uisk, 62, 72, S+
calculatoi, SS, 160, 1S0
caliLiating the Latteiy, 10+
Luining, S+, 151
uisplay/hiue, 59
208 | Index
uuplicating, 72
paiental contiols, 151
pieleiences, 131
shaiing, 1+5
on siueLai, 63
stait liom, ++
Change Desktop Backgiounu, 57
Chaiactei Palette, 203
Chaiactei Viewei, 123, 13+
chaige capacity, 10+
check loi upuates, 152
chess, 161
chips, compatiLle, 19
chipset, 10+
Classic apps, 21
click key sounus, 130
click, seconuaiy, 137
clock, 151
Collage scieensavei, 119
Luttons, menus, winuows,
calenuai, 165
ColoiSync, 1S0
DigitalColoi Metei, 1S1
DVD playei, 163
highlighteu text, 117
image viewei, 170
laLels, 6+
monitoi contiols, 131
ieveising, 129
Column View, 60, 66
compiess liles/lolueis, 71
conleience calls, 165
Console, 1S0
conveisations, Mail, 15
cookies, 172
copy commanu, 5+
copy to new location, 70
copy-piotecteu movies/soltwaie,
countiy keyLoaiu, 25
Covei Flow View, 60, 67
CPU taL, 102
lolueis, 6S, S3
icons, 170
poucasts, 1S+
Smait lolueis, S5
cut commanu, 5+
cycle counts, 10+
DashLoaiu, S7÷91, 122, 162
uata iecoveiy, 109
uate pieleiences, 151
DCHP, 1++
uuiescue utility, 109
ueauthoiizing computeis, 160
Delay Until Repeat sliuei, 13+
accounts, 1+S
applications, 9
lolueis, 9
junk email, 169
poucasts, 1S6
Salaii histoiy, 173
sensitive liles peimanently,
liom Smait lolueis, S7
weLsites (paiental contiols),
wiugets, 90
uesktop, 57÷59
loluei, 39, 63
icons, 5S
pieleiences, 57, 11S
Devices, 63
uiaciitic symLols, 202
uialog Lox, 51
Dictionaiy, SS, 162
Dilleient Netwoik Setup, 25
DigitalColoi Metei, 1S1
uimming uisplay, 133
automatic login, +3, 125, 1+S
inliaieu ieceivei, 126
wiugets, 90
Disk Utility, 2+, 71, 72, 10S, 1S1
ejecting, 70
Index | 209
eiasing, 71
mounting/unmounting, 1S1
putting to sleep, 132
ieloimatting, 71
iepaii piogiams loi, 11+
Lutton style, 119
uimming, 133
pieleience pane, 131
iesetting, ++
sleep sliuei, 132
tiouLleshooting, +9, 107
Display as (stacks), 76
Dock, 72÷S1
auuing/aiianging items, 73
automatically hiuing, S0
conliguiing, +9
uisplay system usage, 17S
Exposé, 75
location ol, +9, S0
menus, 76, 121
paiental contiols, 1+9
pieleiences, 121
iemoving items, 7+
uocuments (see liles)
Documents loluei, 39, 63
.uocx liles, 176
uownloauing installei, 22
Downloaus loluei, +0, 63, 172
uiagging liom siueLai, 63
uiive item inlo Lox, 5S
ejecting, 70
making noise, 10S
paititioning, 179
iemounting, 71
ienaming, 6S
Diop Box, +1
uual-Loot Mac, 179
uuplicateu lonts, 16+
liles/lolueis, 12, 70
optical uisks, 72
Luining, S+
uisplay/hiue, 59
uuplicating, 72
item inlo Lox, 5S
on siueLai, 63
pieleiences, 131
shaiing, 1+5
stait liom, ++
DVD Playei, 17, 163
Euit menu, 5+
Eject, ++, 70
electionic uistiiLution, 2, 159
ellipsis (.), 51
email auuiess, 25
emeigency staitup uisk, 2
emptying Tiash, S0
enciyption, 126
Eneigy Savei, 132
Enhance Contiast sliuei, 129
eiasing uisks, 71
ESPN wiuget, SS
Etheinet, 32, 1+3
Exposé, Dock, 6, 75
exteinal uisks, uisplay/hiue, 59
F keys, 13+
lace-to-lace chatting, 16+
FaceLook, 15S
FaceTime, 15S, 163
lactoiy settings, ++
Fan View, 77
last usei switching, +5, 56, 1+S
FAT32 uisks, 71
Favoiites Lai, 15, 63
File menu, 5+
in All My Files, 10
compiessing, 71
copying, 70
uownloauing, 172
uuplicating, 12, 70
extensions, 6+, S+, 96
locking, 12
managing inlo, 9+÷97
210 | Index
migiating, 27
opening with specilic
applications, 7+
peimissions, 96
pieviewing, 96
Put Back commanu, S0
Quick Look, 6S
ieau-only, 9+
ienaming, 6S
ieveiting to pievious, 13
shaiing, 96, 1+5
tiansleiiing Letween Macs,
FileVault 2, 126, 19+
Fill Scieen, 119
lilteis, coloi, 1S0
Finu My Mac, 3S
Auvanceu taL, 6+
Liing to liont, 59
common tasks, 6S÷71
cieating lolueis in, S3
customizing, 61÷62
Geneial taL, 6+
LaLels taL, 6+
pieleiences, 59, 63
SiueLai taL, 6+
soiting options, 60
stops iesponuing, 101
unaLle to ieposition, 75
View menu, 5S, 65
winuow, 59÷61
Fingei, 1S3
FIPS-1S1-compliant passwoius,
Fiielox, Mozilla, 171, 1S2
Fiiewall, 127
FiieViie, 1+3
S00, 32
Taiget Disk Moue, 2S, ++,
Fiimwaie Passwoiu Utility, 113
Fit to Scieen, 119
llash aleits, 111, 130
llash uiives, 57, 71
Flight Tiackei wiuget, SS
auuing to Favoiites, 15
Application, 17, 131
compiessing, 71
cieating, 6S, S3
uuplicating, 70
in Launchpau, S
migiating, 27
ienaming, 6S
Font Book, 16+
Foice Quit, 50, 100÷102
Foimats taL, 123
loiwaiu Lutton, 60
.lpLl liles, S+
Fiont Row, 17, 163
liozen computei, 133
FTDI uevices, 10+
Full KeyLoaiu Access, 136
lull-scieen moue, 5, 131, 163,
lunction keys, 13+
Genie ellect, 121
gestuies, 11, 139
Get Inlo, 62, 9+
.gil liles, +0
gloLal changes, 36
Gmail, 1+2, 16S
GNU uuiescue utility, 109
GPS units, 10+
GiaL, 1S2
giammai check, 175
Giaphei, 1S2
giayscale, 129
Giiu View, 77
giiu, snap to, 5S
Gioup accounts, 37, 97
Guest accounts, 37, 3S
Happy Hacking KeyLoaiu, 196
haiu uiives
uisplaying on uesktop, 59, 6+
Index | 211
not compatiLle with AiiPoit,
paititioning, 179
putting to sleep, 132
spin-uown, 105
tiouLleshooting, 10S
heauphones, 1+1
heaiing pieleiences, 130
heat map (iCal), 165
Help menu, 5+
hiue/show (see show)
Highlight settings, 117
histoiy, Liowsing, 172
Home loluei, 39÷+2, 62
home page, 171, 175
Hot Coineis, 120, 122
https weLsites, Llocking, 150, 17
iCal, SS, 1+2, 16+
ICC (Inteinational Coloi
Consoitium) pioliles, 1S0
iChat, 1+2, 1+9, 163, 165
iClouu, 25, 3S, 1+2, 172
application, S
Louncing, 73
cieating, 170
uesktop, 5S
Finuei options, 60, 62, 65
magnilication ol, S0
iDisk, 63, 1+3
iLile, 157
Image Captuie, 165
IMAP (Inteinet Mail Access
Piotocol), 167
iMovie, +0
inliaieu ieceivei, 126
Input souices, 123, 135
applications, 63
Lion, 3, 19÷2+, 26
list ol installeu upuates, 152
instiuctional viueo ol gestuies,
13S, 139
integiity check, 10S
Intel apps, 16, 21
Intel chips, 19
inteinal Latteiies, 105
inteinal miciophone, 1+1
Inteinet, 127
(see also Liowsei)
Fiiewall, 127
liist-time connection, 25
Lion installei uownloau time,
Lion ieinstall ovei, 112
Paiental Contiols, 37, 1+9÷
poucast impoit, 1S5
iestiicting access to, 150
seaiching with Spotlight, 92
shaiing, 1+7
iOS, 1
IP auuiess, 12S, 1++
iPhoto, +0, 167
iPou, 59, 63
IPv+, 1++
iSight cameia, 3S, 163, 169, 1S+
iSync, 17
iTunes, 159, 166
]aLLei chat seivei, 165
]ava pieleiences, 1S2
]ouinaleu lilesystem, 2+
.jpg liles, +0, 170
]ump to ., 11S
junk mail lilteiing, 16S
Keep in Dock option, 76
keinel panic, 133
key commanus (see keyLoaiu
key iepeat iate, 13+, 202
keyLoaiu pieleiences, 130, 13+
keyLoaiu shoitcuts
212 | Index
application winuows, S3
common, 196÷201
how to customize, 135
menu Lai, 56
shutuown/logout, +6
special chaiacteis, 202÷206
staitup, ++
KeyLoaiu Viewei, 123, 203
Keychain Access, 55, 1S2, 190,
Keynote piesentations, 165
Kinu list, 16
laLels, 6+
language settings, 123, 135, 203
Launchpau, S÷9, 17
changes liom Snow Leopaiu,
1, 3, 37, 73
compatiLle chips, 19
uownloauing, 22
installing, 3, 19÷2+, 26
memoiy ieguiiements, 20
iestaiting altei install, 2+÷26
utilities incluueu with, 177÷
List View, 60, 65, 7S
Listening Methou, 153
local netwoik shaiing, 1+7
Location, Netwoik, 1+3
auministiatoi icon, 3S, ++, 97,
117, 12+, 127
uocuments, 12, 95
keychain, 191
lockeu scieen message, 125
Salaii pages, 171
secuie notes, 1S2
log list, 1S0
logging in
to Mac App Stoie, 159
last usei switching, 56
guest accounts, 3S
open applications on, 76
iemotely, 132
iisk ol automatic, ++
shoitcuts, +6
logging out
altei peiiou ol inactivity, 125
uisaLling Resume when, +3
ol guest account, 37
options, +5
shoitcuts, +6, 51
Shut Down Lutton, +5, 1+S
ol usei account, 50
Lookup, 1S3
Mac App Stoie, 159
uownloauing Lion liom, 3,
launching, +9
OS X ieguiiements, 20
iestoiing liom, 9
Mac Mini, 1+1
Mac Pio, 1+1
MacBook, 10+
Machine settings, 27
Magic Mouse, 11
Magnilication setting (Dock),
Mail, 1+
auuing new accounts, 167
auuing new mailLoxes, 169
attachments, +0, 7+
conveisation gioups, 15
email auuiess, 25
junk mail lilteiing, 16S, 169
Mail, Contacts e Calenuais
pane, 1+2
New Message winuow, 167
paiental contiols, 150
pieleiences, 166
ieveit to classic layout, 166
seaiching, 169
show on lockeu scieen, 125
signatuie, 16S
Smait mailLox, 169
upgiauing, 2+
Index | 213
malwaie, 36, 125
manual uninstall, 155
maximizing winuows, S2
inlo on installeu, +9
installing, 10S
ieguiiements, 20
menu Lai
extias/menulets, 55
making it uisappeai/ieappeai,
menus on the, +7÷57
tuin tianslucent oi soliu, +S
menu extias, 55
messages (see Mail)
metauata, 93
Miciosolt Exchange, 1+2
Miciosolt Voiu, 5, 175
MIDI (Musical Instiuments
Digital Inteilace), 179
Mighty Mouse, 13S
Migiation Assistant, 26÷3+, 1S2
minimizing winuows, S2, 121
Mission Contiol, 6, 75, 122
MoLileMe, 25, 1+2, 172
mouiliei keys, 120
monitoi contiols, 131
mono auuio, 130
Moie Gestuies taL, 137
Moie Inlo, 96
Mosaic scieensavei, 119
mounting uisks, 1S1
Bluetooth, 137
uisplay moves with, 107
holu commanu, ++
Magic Mouse, 137
Mighty Mouse, 13S
Mouse Keys setting, 130
mouse wheel, 137
navigating without, 5S
non-Apple, 13S
pieleience pane, 137
.mov liles, 71
copy-piotecteu, 72
loluei, +0
wiuget, SS
moving winuows, 5
multiple uiives/paititions, 23
multiple installs, 3, 23
multiple monitois, 6, +7, 131
multitouch tiackpaus, 139
Music loluei, +0
mute, 76
navigating without mouse, 5S
NetNewsViie, 17+
Netstat, 1S3
Netwoik Utility, 113, 1S3
options loi migiating liles, 31÷
options on install, 25
pieleiences, 27, 1+3
New Buin Foluei, S+
New Email Vith Selection, 53
New Foluei, 5+
No Seivices Apply, 53
non-Apple applications, 155
non-Apple mouse, 13S
.out liles, 175
Open at Login, 76
Open iTunes, 131
Open with, 96
optical uisks, 72
Option key, ++, 67, 70
OS Extenueu (]ouinaleu)
lilesystem, 2+, 71, 1S1
OS X ieguiiements, 20, 22
Papei Tape (Calculatoi), 161
Paiallels Desktop, 1S0
paiametei ianuom access
memoiy (PRAM), 11+
Paiental Contiols, 37, 1+9÷151
214 | Index
paititioneu uiives, 2+, 179
passwoius, 1S9÷19+
having Salaii iememLei, 17+
hints, 1+S
keychains, 190
paiental contiols, 151
iecoveiing loigotten, 190
ieguiie altei sleep/scieen
savei, 12+
ieguiie loi lockeu icons, 125
shaiing anu peimissions, 97
stiength ol, 191
paste commanu, 5+
Path, 62
.pul liles, 170
People, paiental contiols, 150
Photo Booth, 169
Photo Biowsei, 167
pictuie liLiaiy, 25
Pictuies loluei, +0
Ping, 1S3
pixel sampling, 1S0
play leeuLack on volume change,
.png liles, +0, 170
pocket uiives, 71
Poucast PuLlishei, 1S3÷1S6
pointing uevices, 129
POP (Post Ollice Piotocol), 167
pop-up aus, 172
Poit Scan, 1S3
Post-it notes, 175
powei auaptei pieleiences, 132
powei lailuie, iecoveiy liom, 133
powei souice pieleiences, 132
poweieu USB poits, 103
PoweiPC apps, 16, 21
PRAM (paiametei ianuom access
memoiy), 11+
pieleiences (see System
pieinstalleu Lion, 19, 26
Pieview, 170
paiental contiols, 151
Piint e Scan pieleiences, 139
shaiing, 1+6
Liowsing, 17+
pieleiences, 12S
Spotlight, 9+
Tiash, S0
piocessoi, +S
piolanity, Llocking, 151
piojectois, 131
Piolilic uevices, 10+
pioxy icons, 61, S2
PuLlic loluei, +0
guestion maik, llashing, 111
Quick Events, 165
Quick Look pieview, 59, 66, 6S,
QuickTime Playei, +0, 71, 170
Quit Piocess, 102, 17S
Quit ., 52, 76
RAID Utility, 1S6
RAM, +S, 10S
ianuom scieensavei, 120
ieau-only liles, 9+
Reauing List, 170
RealVNC, 1+5
ieLooting (see iestaiting)
iecalls, 106
Recent Items, 50
iecoiu scieen, 170
iecoveiy key, 126
Recoveiy Moue, 26, 177
ieloimatting, 71
iegisteiing Lion, 2+
ieinstalling Lion, 112
Relaunch, 102
Remote Apple Events, 1+7
iemote contiol inliaieu ieceivei,
Remote Desktop, 132, 1+7
Remote Login, 1+7
Remote Management, 1+7
Index | 215
iemounting uisk uiives, 71, 1S1
Remove liom Dock option, 76
iename lile/loluei/uiive, 6S
iesetting uisplay, ++
columns, 67
winuows, +
iestait Lutton, 1+S
iestaiting, 50
automatically, 133
in Recoveiy Moue, 112
staitup uisk useu loi, 155
to lix Loot eiiois, 111
Restoie Delaults Lutton, 136
Restoie System Fiom Backup,
Resume, 1+, +3, 1+S
to classic Mail layout, 15
to pievious lile veision, 13
Rosetta, 16, 17
iotate gestuie, 139
RSS, 166
ieauei, 17+
Visualizei, 119
.itl liles, 175
S.M.A.R.T. status, 109
Bonjoui sites, 1+7
Lookmaiks, 172
cookies, 172
histoiy, 173, 17+
home page, 171
pop ups, 172
Reauing List, 170
static weL page, 112
switch to, 122
toolLai, 175
Salaii-only moue, 3S
Sale Boot/Sale Moue, ++, 111
Auto Save, 12, 100, 160
uocuments, 39
Inteinet pages, 172
passwoius, 17+
as Smait loluei, S6
unsaveu changes inuicatoi,
Scale ellect, 121
Piint e Scan pieleiences, 139
shaiing, 1+6
Scheuule settings, 133
Scheuuleu Check, 152
scieen captuie, 170, 1S2
scieen shaiing, 1+5
scieen-ieauing utility, 129, 1SS
scieencasting, 170
scieensavei pieleiences, 11S÷120
uiiection ol, 137, 13S
Scioll e Zoom taL, 139
scioll Lais, +, 11S
scioll wheel, 129
Seaich Lox, 61
Secuie Empty Tiash, S0
Secuie Notes, 193
secuie weLsites, 150
Secuiity e Piivacy pieleiences,
(see also passwoius)
seeing pieleiences, 129
Sell-Monitoiing Analysis anu
Repoiting Technology
(S.M.A.R.T.), 109
seiial numLei, +9
seivei, uisplay/hiue, 59
Seivice options, +9
Seivices Menu, 52, 53
settings, migiating, 27
Shaieu loluei, 39
Shaieu section (Finuei), 63
Shaiing Only accounts, 37
Shaiing pieleiences, 1+5÷1+S
Shilt key, ++, 65
shoitcuts (see keyLoaiu
All Vinuows, 52, 75
216 | Index
applications, 52, 76
DashLoaiu, 122
Desktop, 122
Dock, 122
icon pieview, 5S
in Finuei, 76
inuicatoi lights, 72, 122
Input menu, 123
item inlo, 5S
KeyLoaiu e Chaiactei
Vieweis, 13+
keychain status, 55
Log List, 1S0
View Options, 5S
Shut Down Lutton, +5, 1+S
All My Files, 10, 63
changes liom pievious
veisions, 59
uisplay options, 6+
eject uiive/uisk, 71
icon size, 11S
Mail, 1+
signatuie, email, 16S
Single Usei Moue, ++
Sites loluei, +1, 1+6
columns, 67
Covei Flow aiea, 67
cuisoi, 130
DigitalColoi apeituie, 1S1
Dock, S1, 121
DVD playLack winuow, 163
icon, 5S, 59, 11S
image, 93, 170
winuow, +
Ski Repoit wiuget, S9
sleep moue, +6, 50, 132, 1+S
Sliueshow scieensavei, 119
Slow Keys, 130
Smait lolueis, S5÷S7
Smait MailLoxes, 167
SMC (System Management
Contiollei), 105
snap to giiu, 5S
Snow Leopaiu
changes liom, 1, 3, 37, 73
checking loi PoweiPC apps,
Finuei winuow, 59
siueLai, 1+
upuating to OS X 10.6.7, 20
Luining copy-piotecteu, 72
Lion license, 23
Soltwaie Upuate, +9, 152
Soit Ly, 5S
Soit Ly (stacks), 76
uiive, 10S
pieleiences, 1+0÷1+2
Spaces, 7, 9S, 122
SpeakaLle Items, 152
speakeis, 1+0
special chaiacteis, typing, 202÷
speech iecognition, 152
spellcheck, 162
spinning cuisoi, 100
auuing comments, 9+
calculating with, 161
anu Finuei, 61
icon, 56
pieleiences, 12S
seaiching with, 91÷9+
anu Smait lolueis, S5
stacks, 73, 77
Stanuaiu accounts, 37
staitup, +2
(see also logging in)
Staitup Disk pieleience pane,
Staitup Managei, ++
tiouLleshooting, 10S÷11+
Stationeiy pau, 9+, 167
stealth moue, 12S
steieo auuio, 130
Stickies, S9, 175
Sticky Keys, 130
Stocks wiuget, S9
Stoiage, +9
Index | 217
Stietch to Fill Scieen, 119
styles, TextEuit, 176
suLlolueis, 65
Suppoit options, +9
swiping, 7, 137
applications, 6, S1
useis, +5
symLol suLstitutions, 123
System loluei, 2S
system lieezes, 133
System Inloimation, +9, 1S6
System Management Contiollei
(SMC), 105
System Pieleiences, 115
Bluetooth, 1++
CDs anu DVDs, 131
Date e Time, 151
Desktop e Scieen Savei, 11S÷
Displays, 131
Dock, 121
Eneigy Savei, 132
Geneial, 117
KeyLoaiu, 13+÷136
Language e Text, 123
Mail, Contacts e Calenuais,
Mission Contiol, 122
MoLileMe, 1+2
Mouse, 137
Netwoik, 1+3
Paiental Contiols, 1+9
Piint e Scan, 139
Restoie Delault, 116
seaich Lox, 116
Secuiity e Piivacy, 12+÷12S
Shaiing, 1+5÷1+S
Soltwaie Upuate, 152
Sounu, 1+0÷1+2
Speech, 152÷15+
Spotlight, 12S
Staitup Disk, 155
Time Machine, 15+
Tiackpau, 13S
Univeisal Access, 12S÷131
unlocking, 3S
Useis e Gioups, 1+S
system iesouices, 102
Taiget Disk Moue, 2S, ++, 155
technical suppoit, 99
Teiminal, 113, 1SS
Text Only option, 62
Text taL, 123
text to speech, 15+
TextEuit, 53, 175
thiiu-paity wiugets/applications,
90, 155
ThunueiLolt, 33
TightVNC, 1+5
Tile Game wiuget, S9
tiling wallpapei, 119
Time Capsule, 63, 176
Time Limits, 151
Time Machine Lackup, 29, 15+,
176, 1S1
time pieleiences, 151
time zone, 25, 27, 151
Top Sites, 171
touchscieens, 129
Tiaceioute, 1S3
tiacking, mouse, 137
tiackpau, 11, 130, 13S
tiansleiiing liles Letween Macs,
11, 25
(see also Migiation Assistant)
Tianslation wiuget, S9
tianslucent menu Lai, +S, 119
Tiash, 79
auvanceu options, 65
ejecting with, 71
opening, S0
secuiing, S0
unaLle to move, 75
common pioLlems, 99÷107
uisplay, +9, 107
haiu uiives, 10S
staitup, 10S÷11+
218 | Index
Tuin Hiuing On, +9
Tuin Magnilication On, +9
typelaces, 16+
unuo commanu, 5+
uninstall, 155
Unit Conveitei wiuget, S9
Univeisal Access, 12S÷131
Univeisal apps, 16, 21
Unix, 1SS
unsaveu changes inuicatoi, S2
unsigneu applications, 12S
Upon Recognition, 153
URLs, auuing to uesktop, 173
USB uevices, 63, 103
USB miciophone, 1+1
Use giayscale setting, 129
usei accounts, 25, 27, 35÷3S
usei inteilace sounus, 1+1
Useis loluei, +0
Utilities, 177÷1SS
valiuating lonts, 16+
veiLose moue, ++
Veiilieu status, 109
veisions, 12, +9, 160
View as (stacks), 76
View contiols, 60
VMwaie Fusion, 1S0
VNC (Viitual Netwoik
Computing), 1+5
voice, clock, 151
VoiceOvei, 129, 1+S, 1SS
Volume menu extia, 56
volume ol aleits, 1+0
Vake loi netwoik access, 132
waking up youi Mac, 50
wallpapei, 11S
wainings (see aleits)
Veathei wiuget, S9
VeL Clip wiuget, S9
VeL Shaiing, 1+6
weLcam, 25
VeLKit platloim, 171
Vhois, 1S3
wiugets, S7÷91
connection, 1+3
tiansleiiing uata with, 32
Vikipeuia, seaiching with
Spotlight, 92
Vinuow menu, 5+
contiols loi, S2
minimizing, S2, 121
iesizing anu moving, +
iestoiing, 11S
Vinuows, Miciosolt
changing uisk loimat liom,
installing, 179
Voiu Bieak setting, 123
Voiu ol the Day, 119
Voiu, Miciosolt, 175
Voilu Clock wiuget, 90
X11 (X Vinuow System), 1SS
Xeon chip, 20
Xgiiu, 1+7
XTS-AES 12S enciyption, 126
Yahoo!, 1+2
Zip liles, 71
Ly pinching, 139
with mouse, 13S
Zoom in winuow, 129
Index | 219

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