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Frmulas de Clculo Diferencial e Integral (Pgina 1 de 3)

Frmulas de Clculo Diferencial e Integral


VALOR ABSOLUTO

( a + b ) ( a 2 ab + b 2 ) = a 3 + b3 ( a + b ) ( a3 a 2 b + ab 2 b3 ) = a 4 b 4 ( a + b ) ( a 4 a 3b + a 2 b 2 ab3 + b 4 ) = a 5 + b5 ( a + b ) ( a5 a 4 b + a 3b 2 a 2 b3 + ab 4 b5 ) = a 6 b 6
n k +1 ( a + b ) ( 1) a n k b k 1 = a n + b n n k =1 impar par

0 30 45 60 90

tg ctg cos sec csc sin 0 0 1 1 12 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 3 1 3 2 2 3 3 2 12 0 0 1 1

Grfica 4. Las funciones trigonomtricas inversas arcctg x , arcsec x , arccsc x :


4

sin + sin = 2sin

y = sin x

a si a 0 a = a si a < 0 a = a a a y a a a 0 y a =0 a=0 ab = a b
n n

( a + b ) ( 1)
a1 + a2 +

a n k b k 1 = a n b n n k =1 SUMAS Y PRODUCTOS
n k +1

y , 2 2 y = cos x y [ 0, ] y = tg x y

1 1 ( + ) cos ( ) 2 2 1 1 sin sin = 2 sin ( ) cos ( + ) 2 2 1 1 cos + cos = 2 cos ( + ) cos ( ) 2 2 1 1 cos cos = 2 sin ( + ) sin ( ) 2 2 tg tg = sin ( ) cos cos

-1

, 2 2 y 0,
2

arc ctg x arc sec x arc csc x 0 5

-2 -5

+ an = ak
k =1

sin cos =

1 y = ctg x = tg x

IDENTIDADES TRIGONOMTRICAS
sin + cos 2 = 1 1 + ctg 2 = csc 2 tg 2 + 1 = sec 2

a
k =1

k n

= ak
k =1 k

c = nc
k =1 n

a+b a + b

a
k =1

ak
k =1

ca
k =1 n

= c ak
k =1

1 y = sec x = cos y [ 0, ] x 1 y = csc x = sen y , x 2 2


n n k =1

1 sin ( ) + sin ( + ) 2 1 sin sin = cos ( ) cos ( + ) 2 1 cos cos = cos ( ) + cos ( + ) 2 tg tg = tg + tg ctg + ctg FUNCIONES HIPERBLICAS

sin ( ) = sin cos ( ) = cos tg ( ) = tg


sin ( + 2 ) = sin cos ( + 2 ) = cos tg ( + 2 ) = tg sin ( + ) = sin cos ( + ) = cos tg ( + ) = tg
sen x cos x tg x

(a
k =1 n

+ bk ) = ak + bk
k =1

EXPONENTES

Grfica 1. Las funciones trigonomtricas: sin x , cos x , tg x :


2 1.5

a p a q = a p+q ap = a pq aq

(a
k =1

ak 1 ) = an a0

(a )

p q

=a
p

pq

(a b)
p

= a b
p

ap a = p b b a p/q = a p
q

LOGARITMOS log a N = x a x = N

log a MN = log a M + log a N log a M = log a M log a N N log a N r = r log a N log b N ln N log a N = = log b a ln a log10 N = log N y log e N = ln N
ALGUNOS PRODUCTOS a ( c + d ) = ac + ad

n a + ( k 1) d = 2 2a + ( n 1) d k =1 n = (a + l ) 2 n 1 r n a rl k 1 ar = a = 1 r 1 r k =1 n 1 2 k n n = + ( ) 2 k =1 n 1 2 k = ( 2n3 + 3n 2 + n ) 6 k =1 n 1 k 3 = ( n 4 + 2n3 + n 2 ) 4 k =1 n 1 4 k = ( 6n5 + 15n4 + 10n3 n ) 30 k =1 1+ 3 + 5 + n! = k


k =1 n

0.5

0 -0.5

-1

-1.5

-2 -8

sin ( + n ) = ( 1) sin
n
8

-6

-4

-2

Grfica 2. Las funciones trigonomtricas csc x , sec x , ctg x :


2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5

cos ( + n ) = ( 1) cos
n

tg ( + n ) = tg

ex e x 2 e x + e x cosh x = 2 sinh x e x e x = tgh x = cosh x e x + e x e x + e x 1 = ctgh x = tgh x e x e x 1 2 = sech x = cosh x e x + e x 1 2 = csch x = sinh x e x e x sinh x =
sinh : [1, 1,1 {0} , 1 1, 0 ,1] {0} {0} cosh : tgh : ctgh : sech : csch :

sin ( n ) = 0 cos ( n ) = ( 1) tg ( n ) = 0
n 2n + 1 sin = ( 1) 2 2n + 1 cos =0 2 2n + 1 tg = 2 n

+ ( 2n 1) = n

2
0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5 -8 csc x sec x ctg x -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8

Grfica 5. Las funciones hiperblicas sinh x ,


cosh x , tgh x :
5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 senh x cosh x tgh x 0 5

( a + b) ( a b) = a b 2 ( a + b ) ( a + b ) = ( a + b ) = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 2 ( a b ) ( a b ) = ( a b ) = a 2 2ab + b 2 ( x + b ) ( x + d ) = x 2 + ( b + d ) x + bd ( ax + b ) ( cx + d ) = acx 2 + ( ad + bc ) x + bd ( a + b ) ( c + d ) = ac + ad + bc + bd 3 ( a + b ) = a3 + 3a 2b + 3ab 2 + b3 3 ( a b ) = a 3 3a 2b + 3ab 2 b3 2 ( a + b + c ) = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + 2ab + 2ac + 2bc


2 2

n n! , kn = k ( n k )!k ! n n n ( x + y ) = xnk y k k =0 k

Grfica 3. Las funciones trigonomtricas inversas arcsin x , arccos x , arctg x :


n! n2 x1n1 x2 n1 ! n2 ! nk ! xknk
4

( x1 + x2 +

+ xk ) =
n

sin = cos 2 cos = sin + 2


sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin cos ( ) = cos cos sin sin tg tg tg ( ) = 1 tg tg sin 2 = 2sin cos

CONSTANTES = 3.14159265359

( a b ) ( a + ab + b ) = a b ( a b ) ( a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2 + b3 ) = a 4 b 4 ( a b ) ( a 4 + a 3b + a 2 b 2 + ab3 + b 4 ) = a 5 b5
2 2 3 3

e = 2.71828182846 TRIGONOMETRA CO 1 sen = csc = HIP sen CA 1 cos = sec = HIP cos sen CO 1 tg = ctg = = cos CA tg

FUNCIONES HIPERBLICAS INV

sinh 1 x = ln x + x 2 + 1 , x cosh 1 x = ln x x 2 1 , x 1 tgh 1 x = 1 1+ x ln , 2 1 x x <1 x >1

-1

arc sen x arc cos x arc tg x -2 -1 0 1 2 3

-2 -3

( a b ) a n k b k 1 = a n b n
k =1

radianes=180

HIP CA

CO

cos 2 = cos 2 sin 2 2 tg tg 2 = 1 tg 2 1 sin 2 = (1 cos 2 ) 2 1 cos 2 = (1 + cos 2 ) 2 1 cos 2 tg 2 = 1 + cos 2

( (

) )

1 x +1 ctgh 1 x = ln , 2 x 1

1 1 x2 , 0 < x 1 sech 1 x = ln x 2 1 x +1 1 , x 0 csch x = ln + x x

Frmulas de Clculo Diferencial e Integral (Pgina 2 de 3)


IDENTIDADES DE FUNCS HIP
cosh 2 x sinh 2 x = 1 1 tgh 2 x = sech 2 x ctgh 2 x 1 = csch 2 x sinh ( x ) = sinh x cosh ( x ) = cosh x tgh ( x ) = tgh x

d dv du ( uv ) = u + v dx dx dx d dw dv du ( uvw ) = uv + uw + vw dx dx dx dx d u v ( du dx ) u ( dv dx ) = dx v v2 d n n 1 du ( u ) = nu dx dx

sinh ( x y ) = sinh x cosh y cosh x sinh y cosh ( x y ) = cosh x cosh y sinh x sinh y tgh x tgh y 1 tgh x tgh y sinh 2 x = 2sinh x cosh x tgh ( x y ) = cosh 2 x = cosh 2 x + sinh 2 x 2 tgh x tgh 2 x = 1 + tgh 2 x 1 sinh 2 x = ( cosh 2 x 1) 2 1 cosh 2 x = ( cosh 2 x + 1) 2 cosh 2 x 1 tgh 2 x = cosh 2 x + 1
sinh 2 x tgh x = cosh 2 x + 1

dF dF du = (Regla de la Cadena) dx du dx du 1 = dx dx du dF dF du = dx dx du x = f1 ( t ) dy dy dt f 2 ( t ) = = donde dx dx dt f1( t ) y = f2 (t ) DERIVADA DE FUNCS LOG & EXP d du dx 1 du = ( ln u ) = dx u u dx d log e du ( log u ) = dx u dx log e du d ( log a u ) = a a > 0, a 1 dx u dx d u du e ) = eu ( dx dx d u du a ) = a u ln a ( dx dx d v du dv + ln u u v u ) = vu v 1 ( dx dx dx DERIVADA DE FUNCIONES TRIGO d du ( sin u ) = cos u dx dx d du ( cos u ) = sin u dx dx d du ( tg u ) = sec2 u dx dx d du ( ctg u ) = csc2 u dx dx d du ( sec u ) = sec u tg u dx dx d du ( csc u ) = csc u ctg u dx dx d du ( vers u ) = sen u dx dx DERIV DE FUNCS TRIGO INVER 1 d du ( sin u ) = dx 1 u 2 dx
1 d du ( cos u ) = dx 1 u 2 dx 1 d du ( tg u ) = dx 1 + u 2 dx 1 d du ( ctg u ) = dx 1 + u 2 dx 1 d du + si u > 1 ( sec u ) = dx u u 2 1 dx si u < 1 1 d du si u > 1 ( csc u ) = dx u u 2 1 dx + si u < 1 1 d du ( vers u ) = dx 2u u 2 dx

DERIVADA DE FUNCS HIPERBLICAS d du sinh u = cosh u dx dx d du cosh u = sinh u dx dx d du tgh u = sech 2 u dx dx d du ctgh u = csch 2 u dx dx d du sech u = sech u tgh u dx dx d du csch u = csch u ctgh u dx dx DERIVADA DE FUNCS HIP INV d du 1 senh 1 u = dx 1 + u 2 dx
d du 1 cosh 1 u = , u >1 dx u 2 1 dx d 1 du , u <1 tgh 1 u = dx 1 u 2 dx d 1 du 1 , u >1 ctgh u = dx 1 u 2 dx d 1 du si sech 1 u = dx u 1 u 2 dx + si + si cosh -1u > 0 -1 si cosh u < 0

INTEGRALES DE FUNCS LOG & EXP

e du = e
u u

a du = ln a a 1
u

au a > 0 au
u

u ua du = ln a ln a

tgh udu = ln cosh u ctgh udu = ln sinh u sech udu = tg ( sinh u ) csch udu = ctgh ( cosh u )
1

ue du = e ( u 1) ln udu =u ln u u = u ( ln u 1)
u

1 u ( u ln u u ) = ( ln u 1) ln a ln a u2 u log a udu = 4 ( 2log a u 1) u2 u ln udu = 4 ( 2ln u 1) INTEGRALES DE FUNCS TRIGO

log

udu =

1 = ln tgh u 2 INTEGRALES DE FRAC du 1 u u 2 + a 2 = a tg a u 1 = ctg a a du 1 ua 2 2 u 2 a 2 = 2a ln u + a ( u > a ) du 1 a+u 2 2 a 2 u 2 = 2a ln a u ( u < a )


INTEGRALES CON

sech 1 u > 0, u 0,1 sech 1 u < 0, u 0,1

e x = cosh x + sinh x e x = cosh x sinh x


OTRAS
ax 2 + bx + c = 0 b b 2 4ac 2a b 2 4ac = discriminante x=

d du 1 csch 1 u = , u0 dx u 1 + u 2 dx

INTEGRALES DEFINIDAS, PROPIEDADES Nota. Para todas las frmulas de integracin deber agregarse una constante arbitraria c (constante de integracin).

exp ( i ) = e
1

( cos i sin )
LMITES

si ,

lim (1 + x ) x = e = 2.71828...
x 0

1 lim 1 + = e x x sen x lim =1 x 0 x 1 cos x lim =0 x 0 x ex 1 lim =1 x 0 x x 1 lim =1 x 1 ln x

{ f ( x ) g ( x )} dx = f ( x ) dx g ( x ) dx cf ( x ) dx = c f ( x ) dx c f ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx + f ( x ) dx f ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx f ( x ) dx = 0 m ( b a ) f ( x ) dx M ( b a )
b b b a a a b b a a b c b a a c b a a b a a b

sin udu = cos u cos udu = sin u sec udu = tg u csc udu = ctg u sec u tg udu = sec u csc u ctg udu = csc u tg udu = ln cos u = ln sec u ctg udu = ln sin u sec udu = ln sec u + tg u csc udu = ln csc u ctg u
2 2

du a2 u2

= sin

u a u a

= cos

du u 2 a2 du

= ln u + u 2 a 2

u 1 sin 2u 2 4 u 1 2 cos udu = 2 + 4 sin 2u 2 tg udu = tg u u

sin

udu =

1 u u a 2 u 2 = a ln a + a 2 u 2 1 du a u u 2 a 2 = a cos u 1 u = sec a a u 2 a2 u 2 2 2 a u du = 2 a u + 2 sen a 2 u 2 a 2 2 2 2 2 u a du = 2 u a 2 ln u + u a MS INTEGRALES

ctg

udu = ( ctg u + u )

e e

au

sin bu du = cos bu du =

e au ( a sin bu b cos bu ) a 2 + b2 e au ( a cos bu + b sin bu )

u sin udu = sin u u cos u u cos udu = cos u + u sin u


INTEGRALES DE FUNCS TRIGO INV

au

m f ( x ) M x [ a, b ] , m, M
b

f ( x ) dx g ( x ) dx
b a a b b a a

f ( x ) g ( x ) x [ a , b ]

f ( x ) dx f ( x ) dx si a < b
INTEGRALES

DERIVADAS f ( x + x ) f ( x ) df y Dx f ( x ) = = lim = lim x 0 x dx x 0 x d (c) = 0 dx d ( cx ) = c dx d ( cx n ) = ncx n1 dx d du dv dw (u v w ) = dx dx dx dx d du ( cu ) = c dx dx

adx =ax af ( x ) dx = a f ( x ) dx ( u v w ) dx = udx vdx wdx udv = uv vdu ( Integracin por partes ) u du = n + 1
n

sin udu = u sin u + 1 u cos udu = u cos u 1 u tg udu = u tg u ln 1 + u ctg udu = u ctg u + ln 1 + u sec udu = u sec u ln ( u + u
2 2 2 2

a2 + b2 1 1 sec u du = 2 sec u tg u + 2 ln sec u + tg u ALGUNAS SERIES


3

f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) + f ' ( x0 )( x x0 ) + + + f ( n ) ( x0 )( x x0 ) n!
n

f '' ( x0 )( x x0 ) 2! : Taylor

) )

f ( x ) = f (0) + f ' ( 0) x + + + f ( n) ( 0 ) x n

f '' ( 0 ) x 2 2! : Maclaurin

csc udu = u csc u + ln ( u + sinh udu = cosh u cosh udu = sinh u sech udu = tgh u csch udu = ctgh u sech u tgh udu = sech u csch u ctgh udu = csch u
2 2

= u sec u cosh u u2 1

u n+1

n 1

= u csc u + cosh u INTEGRALES DE FUNCS HIP

du

= ln u

n! x 2 x3 xn + + + + n! 2! 3! x 3 x5 x 7 x 2 n 1 n 1 + + ( 1) sin x = x + 3! 5! 7! ( 2n 1)! ex = 1 + x + cos x = 1 x2 x4 x6 + + 2! 4! 6! + ( 1)


n 1

( 2n 2 ) !

x 2 n 2

ln (1 + x ) = x

n x2 x3 x 4 n 1 x + + + ( 1) n 2 3 4 2 n 1 x3 x 5 x 7 n 1 x tg x = x + + + ( 1) 3 5 7 2n 1

Frmulas de Clculo Diferencial e Integral (Pgina 3 de 3)


ALFABETO GRIEGO
Mayscula Minscula Nombre 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Alfa Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon Zeta Eta Teta Iota Kappa Lambda Mu Nu Xi Omicron Pi Rho Sigma Tau Ipsilon Phi Ji Psi Omega Equivalente Romano A B G D E Z H Q I K L M N X O P R S T U F C Y W

NOTACIN
sin cos tg sec csc ctg

Seno. Coseno. Tangente. Secante. Cosecante. Cotangente.


sin

vers Verso seno. arcsin =

Arco seno de un ngulo .

u = f ( x)
sinh Seno hiperblico. cosh Coseno hiperblico.

tgh

Tangente hiperblica.

ctgh Cotangente hiperblica.


sech Secante hiperblica. csch Cosecante hiperblica.

u, v, w

Funciones de x , u = u ( x ) , v = v ( x ) . Conjunto de los nmeros reales.

= {, 2, 1,0,1, 2,}

Conjunto de enteros.

Conjunto de nmeros racionales.


c

Conjunto de nmeros irracionales.

= {1, 2,3,} Conjunto de nmeros naturales.


Conjunto de nmeros complejos.