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Urban Warfare

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Own movement also becomes a problem in urban areas. However.9-kilo RQ-11B model provides endurance between 80 and 110 minutes with single-use batteries. However. as illustrated by this montage showing a Camero system at work. Paolo Valpolini. here launched by a Canadian soldier. which provides a wide-enough T On the Cover he ability to ’see‘ through walls. Biass T he denser the urban scenario. but also to map the position of people in a building. To start with. Opening breaches to avoid booby traps often installed by insurgents on the most obvious entrance points is another problem. is in use by more than ten countries While most current peacekeeping missions take place in wide areas that are sparsely populated – Iraqi and Afghanistan population densities are respectively 62 and 49 inhabitants/metre2 compared to the 115 and 277 of France and Great Britain – most contacts with insurgents still take place in urban areas. Vertical Awareness What is better than having a top view of the area in which one is called to operate? An image taken from an adequate height can provide a map that evolves in real time. the weaker the level of communications.» an Italian officer told Armada. The irony is that while urban terrain is certainly one of the worst places in which to engage insurgents. it also is where they are most likely to be found – and this alone commands the development and acquisition of ad hoc equipment. especially when more densely populated. organisational plans for future medium infantry regiments have provision for deployment of three vertilift systems within the regiment itself. The current 1. not to mention that of automatic location systems. What happened in October 1993 in Mogadishu is still a scorching experience. is gaining growing interest in the urban warfare fighter community not only to detect. and at first light of dawn we launch a Raven before sending the commander of the Afghan forces detachment to talk to the village elders. The Aerovironment Raven is operated by Italy (and many other countries). provided the troops on the ground have the right equipment to receive that imagery. platoon or companylevel operations are often carried out in isolated villages where troops operate together with Afghan security forces to guarantee security and provide assistance. Although in Afghanistan ’urban‘ does not necessarily mean highly built-up areas. their numbers are limited. the typical mud-built compounds of that nation are intricate enough to generate problems to allied troops. Handlaunched. Many armies have acquired much smaller and cheaper systems that allow them to survey their next area of operation themselves before sending in troops. 1 . These valuable systems are normally deployed when major operations are being planned or underway. with each company of its 41st Regiment running its own systems. mainly to provide intelligence before the action and allow upper-echelon commanders to monitor operations in real time. «We normally deploy at night close to the village. leaving the operation of tactical drones and other higher-end assets to specialists. Generically this is known as the Rover.Urban Warfare Elbit Systems’ Skylark I. and the fact that armed elements can easily merge within the population renders the situation even more hazardous. the latest version of which – the Rover 5 – is no bigger than a Playstation. The use of large and persistent drone systems over an area of operation is also questionable in this respect. inputs from Eric H. Any top observation used to co-ordinate movement on the ground must be available in strict real time. and identifying enemy firing positions adds to the burden. armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 In Afghanistan. when small units are engaged in daily patrols these are not available. and the amount of tasks they are assigned leaves just a lean portion of their flight time to support ground troops. its operational range is about ten km. as a good share of the tragedy was imputable to the delay that occurred between the observation made by the aircraft overflying the area and the reception of the message by the troops on the ground. as an adequate level of situational awareness is certainly more difficult to achieve there than on open ground.

such as those typical of current theatres of operation. In addition. for close-up viewing). but within limits. Two forward-looking cameras. (Armada/PV) The Bundeswehr and the Dutch forces field the Aladin built by EMT in Germany. while the twinengine 2. The US Armed Forces have recently signed a contract to upgrade the Ravens to full digital configuration. (Armada/PV) radius. Although target surveillance could partially be achieved by circling around the point An Italian soldier prepares an Aerovironment Raven B before a recce flight. Weighing 4. British forces are using the Lockheed Martin Desert Hawk III that was acquired under an urgent operational requirement. vertilift micro and mini drones are certainly those that can best fill that type of operational requirement. The station is common to all Aerovironment mini and micro drones and is thus also deployed by the US Marine Corps to operate the Raven. although the range is widening. take off to reach another observation position or return to launch- 2 armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 . The typical drawback of rotary-wing aircraft is their limited endurance. it offers a one-hour endurance and boasts four daylight cameras: one is used for pilot purposes.46 metres. Australia. Amongst these. slow down (and even shut down) its engine and remain in position as long as its power source allows. In spite of the advent of the vertilift drones. Not only does it allow one to store multiple pre-planned missions and follow the video images in real time. while the fourth is canted sideways for circling observation mode. A larger and longer-endurance version of the Skylark appropriately suffixed LE was launched in late 2008 and can remain aloft for three hours. because their aerodynamic lift requires them to fly at a certain speed. Tipping the scales at four kilos. then whoop up the engine. surveillance time can be stretched. which is also operated by at least ten other countries. a thermal or lowlight side-looking camera and a low-light illuminator. a wingspan of two metres and is carried in a backpack together with the PC-based control station. Not yet used in large numbers. Handlaunched. one thermal and one colour daylight. namely a daylight stabilised turret. and the drone provides more than one hour of over-target time.37-metre wingspan Desert Hawk III has a 90-minute endurance and a 15-km operational range. it also provides for the capture and storage of up to 80 still images taken from the video stream. (US Marine Corps) of interest. With a take-off weight of less than four kilos and a wingspan of 1. the Netherlands and Canada have deployed them in Afghanistan and in Iraq. Even smaller than the Raven. three-level buildings. they are also easy targets when they fly at low speeds or hover. Micro drones are also used in urban theatres. constitute the night package.The L-3 Communications Rover 5 allows frontline soldiers to receive the imagery produced by drone sensors. This pretty much rounds up the list of fixed-wing micro and mini drones most widely used in the sub-Asian continent.5 kg with daylight sensors and 4.37 kg. and are thus more to be considered small-area surveillance tools rather than target surveillance systems. these systems allow troops to work out their own risk assessment from real-time imaging before entering a built-up area. is continuous target observation. However. Plug-andplay payloads allow to easily switch from night to day sensors. With two air vehicles overlapping their missions. endurance limitations would soon cut in. which will provide greater communication security and better performance.8 kg with night sensors. not to mention that an urban configuration can easily deny viewing the target under some angles given the drone's relatively low height above the ground and that while electric motors are relatively quiet the presence of a continuously circling drone would certainly not remain unnoticed for long by the locals. while their noise signature still makes them easier to spot. the 430gram Wasp III has a 72-cm wingspan and a 45-minute endurance. It can be equipped with three different payloads. particularly when the urban configuration consists of low. Wasp III and Dragon Eye drones. What these systems cannot provide.1metre wingspan and an endurance of 45 to 60 minutes. the Skylark I has a 90minute endurance. where a vertilift system has an edge over its fixedwinged counterpart because of the fact that it can land on a vantage viewing spot.7-kilo Dragon Eye has a 1. especially when they are required to hover for long periods of time. two are pointed downwards (one for wide angle and the other A US Marine operating an Aerovironment Dragon Eye. the 1. as areas to be investigated under those circumstances are usually much closer. adapting the air vehicle to the situation. their fixed-wing counterparts still remain very useful tools in urban scenarios. to give them a real-time top-down view of their area of operation. Another battle-proven mini drone is the Israeli Elbit Systems Skylark I. with control stations averaging from compact and light to relatively light with the latter offering a longer range and thus a more powerful datalink. Aerovironment's ruggedised ground control station is also Playstation-sized and weighs 3.

Starting from micro-level drones. With a range of twelve km and a maximum speed of twelve metres/sec. A typical system designed for perching operations. At 1. the latter lifting the one-kilo apparatus and its 200-gram payload within a radius of 500 metres under analogue datalink. The quest for sonic and visual discretion is exemplified by the contract assigned in mid-May 2010 by the US Air Force Research Laboratory to Aurora Flight Sciences to develop a new design software code for propellers that combine acoustic. and a sensor package mounted on top of the air vehicle. The club has other members like the German Rheinmetall Pearl and the American Draganflyer X6. An uncooled infrared camera with a x2 digital zoom is offered as option. the Aladin is in service in Afghanistan with the German contingent. the Fancopter’s lift is provided by two electrically powered counter-rotating rotors. Upon launch it unfolds its tandem wings and starts returning streaming video from an electro-optical sensor. which expands to 1500 metres radius in digital control. two punishing factors should never be left unconsidered – weight and power consumption – as they directly take their toll on range and endurance. In late 2009 Aerovironment conducted an ’end-to-end demonstration‘ of its Switchblade lethal mini drone. they prove useful to relay overhead information on nearby urban areas. What it will do once landed in a technique known as ’perching‘ is up to its payload and to its operator's needs. (EMT) lighter ones. The very light structure. which is based on similar concepts and offered for both the security and military markets – and even civilian in some cases. Produced by EMT. the air vehicle then becoming the air system used to deploy a series of sensors. time up to three hours. but it is equipped with an obstacle avoidance system that ensures that the air vehicle does not come closer than two metres from any obstacle. (Armada/EHB) armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 3 .the enemy side (often the most widely used system among insurgents) and. The drone's payload. backpackable. possibly networked together.. They can include radio relays to ensure better coverage of the urban scenario (a typical snag encountered by troops). aerodynamic and stress codes into a single unit with a view to generating configurations of open or ducted or other geometry propellers that best optimise the aero-acoustic parameter. tube-launched and weighs about one kilo. electronic warfare packages to stop mobile phone communications on M icro UAVs are not solely used for surveillance. ensures an unobstructed view when looking at negative elevation angles. its small warhead exploding on impact. although this will require an onboard image processing system that could certainly add weight to the sensor package. Once a target is detected the operator designates it and the Switchblade folds its wings back under the fuselage to turn itself into a weapon that is autonomously guided on target by its video tracker. To our The same company was also awarded a contract to develop an integrated system for guiding micro drones in environments over cluttered by audio and sound sensors. although it is not clear if it has yet been deployed to Afghanistan.5-kg quad-rotor system with a one-kilo payload capacity – quite a feat if one considers that this represents 40% of the coleopter’s all-up weight. as is the case of some full-blown helicopter-sized drones – although it is clear that for urban operations the systems that should be employed by front-line units are the While hand-launched aircraft like the Drac. The Air Robot AR100B micro drone also has a one-metre-diameter circular protection around its four rotors. One of the latest entries in this little vertilift drone club is the Utri Draco. deployed in Afghanistan since June 2010. is not limited to imaging systems. are difficult to operate from a built-up area due to their shallow take-off and landing flight paths. While flight endurance is limited to 25 minutes. it features two payloads. namely a downwards-looking camera for both landing and reconnaissance. If and when costs are no longer an issue. Known as Panoptis (Panoramic Avoidance and Navigation using OPTIcs integrated with Sonar) the system will allow small air vehicles to continue to operate during datalink outages or when the warfighter loses the vehicle’s situational context. the EMT Penzberg Fancopter was acquired by the Bundeswehr. while other applications may be found. power guzzlers here are more the datalink than the sensors themselves. knowing that datalink sets maximum range to about one kilometre. .. perching missions can extend the surveillance Drones With a Sting – I ing point. but change-detection software may well help in the quest to save energy by allowing the system to broadcast the imagery back to base only when something is moving within the scene being observed by the camera. A typical payload package will include imagery sensors in the form of day or night television cameras to provide realtime footage to the ground control station. a 2. with a view to making them less dependable on the piloting function and – as a straight consequence – more reliable. one could also envisage using the vertilift drone to place a sensor at the right location and then leave it on its own.5 kg. The Draco does not have a safety ring around its rotors.and passing presence of a ghost are two impossible dreams that both fixed-wing and rotary-wing drone manufacturers want to get as close as possible to. it has an endurance of over 30 minutes and carries a stabilised electro-optical day/night colour camera with a x10 optical zoom and a ± 70° pan and +70°/-40° tilt movement. The latter can be tilted on two axes and includes either two daylight CCD cameras (one with wide-angle and one with telephoto lenses) or an uncooled thermal camera and a near-IR CCD camera for night operations. whether fixed or droppable. with a wire fence around the rotors to reduce risk to the operator. Sound of Silence. The weight range of available vertical lift systems starts from a few grams to culminate well into four-figure kilos. The Switchblade is battery-powered...

(EMT) knowledge. in different dimensions. developed and manufactured by Utri and marketed by Selex Galileo. The British Army plans on an initial operational capability in Afghanistan in 2011. the latest member is the Datron Scout. which couldn’t have been made simpler. The newest member of the company’s Stamp family is the T-Stamp seen here. unveiled at the Eurosatory defence equipment exhibition near Paris in June 2010. The Triple-sensor-STAbilized Miniature Payload has since been sold to UAV Navigation and one other Spanish customer. as their rotors are not protected. and one over it for perching missions. as opposed to switching fields of view – which is the norm for most small gimballed sensor payloads. while others are standing in line to hop on the market. All-up at six kilos including its one-kilo total payload(s). These weapons can endow such category of aircraft with a precision-attack capability and thereby 4 . loiter for ten hours and dive at a speed of 400 km/h to home in its eight-kilo blast warhead. the >3. it is powered by electric motors and has the peculiarity of being able to carry two payloads. coupled to its size. one under the body for reconnaissance flights. Drones With a Sting – II L oitering weapons have been around for a while. Mutatis mutandis. but merely tell it where to go by marking waypoints on the control screen with a stylus. Unique in many ways. In perspective. a role in which stealthiness is not as critical as in other missions such as reconnaissance. To the best of our knowledge this is the only mini drone of its kind to have made it out to the battlefield. Just shy of eight kilos. a new breed of attack drones is emerging for more tactical situations. as well as an unnamed customer in Israel. Obviously a man-in-the-loop system. flying in urban canyons can prove dangerous. Just a sample to illustrate this simplicity: upon launching a mission.Small vertilift drones such as EMT Fancopter can be used in the perching mode. and is able to perform perching missions. does not exactly qualify it as a stealthy platform – now a prerequisite for observation and reconnaissance missions. Although principally intended as radar terminators. it carries a Selex nose-mounted gimballed electro-optical package. Brought from plan to first flight reality in a mere 15 months by MBDA. its main drawback. These are obviously apt to carry out reconnaissance missions but. can be sent out to a range of 100 km (basically its data-link limit). may open new opportunities to rotarywing drones belonging to the upper tier of the light and tactical category. Potential weapon candidates include the Lockheed Martin Dagr system (quad-launcher weighing 81. According to the current categorisation. the Honeywell T-Hawk is being tested by the US forces in Afghanistan and Iraq. while six systems have been acquired by the British Army. mentioned in another boxed section in these columns. it can receive targeting information from a forward observer on the ground located in or near a built-up area. the quad-chopper raises to a height of one metre and stays there until a required altitude is tapped on screen with the stylus. apart from its use of non-standard fuel. The rest is a child’s game. in the form of guided rockets. (Armada/JK) weight. which allows small drones to maintain track on a target during zooming. If one considers that the typical payload capacity currently represents about 15% of the all-up awaiting the heavy fuel engine that will free it from its battlefield-dreaded gasoline addiction. While the Switchblade.6 kg). The same method is used to indicate a no-fly zone. which considerably increases the duration of their mission. the T-Hawk was developed as part of the Future Combat Systems requirements and is currently in an evolutionary phase armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 Rotary-wing Carriers The development of lighter attack weapons. now go design the airframe»). which debuted in 2009 in uncooled guise. Based on the ducted fan principle. The Singapore Technologies Fantail is another perching-capable system in the ducted-fan mini category. is its noise emission which. Controp’s payloads grace many drone systems – some drone programmes have even been designed around a Controp payload (literally: «Use this sensor. a seven-kilo verti-lifter can carry around one kilo. the previous sensor might be replaced by a releasable autonomous unit to be located on top of a building to provide continuous surveillance as long as the battery provides power. British forces are currently using their T-Hawks as part of a roadside bomb clearing package known as the Talisman. This includes specialised vehicles. Powered by a petrol (gasoline) engine. represents the bottom end of the scale (thus far). Among them is the Italian Asio. The Scout has been flown in winds of 60 km/h (quite a feat). while Aurora Flight Sciences’ Golden Eye 50 is a flying reconnaissance system. a new larger system – also tube-launched – will soon be deployed by the British Army in the form of the Fire Shadow. a mini drone has a take-off weight between two and 20 kg. Powered by a heavy fuel UEL rotary piston engine that is fired up before booster launch from its vehicle-mounted canister. since one does not actually control the aircraft.5-kg (cooled or uncooled versions) T-Stamp features Controp’s proprietary continuous optical zoom lens. the Fire Shadow is flown via waypoints only. its sensor package is located underneath the air vehicle. The smartest part of the Scout probably resides in its operation. the Thales LMM (Light-weight Multirole Missile) shown at Farnborough 2008 under a Schiebel Camcopter and the ATK/Elbit Systems Gatr. A host of helicopter-like systems are available on the market.

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since the bird has an endurance of six hours. The Air Mule is big. the optimisation of flight control laws. as their sighting systems are designed to observe and identify targets at a distance. (Utri) Horizontal Awareness One of the characteristics of urban scenarios is they call for vehicles to operate in a secluded environment where threats can appear at very short distance and notice. (Armada/PV) 6 armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 .000 feet. The camera operates in the 7-14 µm band. armoured vehicle crews are de facto short sighted. Typical flight endurance I t will not be long before a full range of suicide attack drones. The first phase of flight testing was completed in January 2010 and was used to verify the fly-by-wire control system that provides three-axis auto-stabilisation. since none of its rotary components are directly exposed. in view of that nation’s six Bam vessel acquisition programme.8-metre diameter rotors that enable the aircraft to reach a dash speed of 180 km/h. in the form of the Spanish Pelicano presented at Eurosatory by Indra and based on the same Cybaero backbone as the Skeldar. The three-metre wingspan attack drone carries a 23-kg warhead. The advantage of an array of fixed cameras is that it gives an observing enemy no clue as to where in particular the occu- replace conventional helicopters. by the way.5 tonnes if short take-off and landing profiles are used.The Draco is a fourrotor micro-aircraft developed by Utri of Italy. Indra is currently developing its own automatic take-off and landing electronics for ship operations. the control box feeds the image to three screens. the loitering Harop photographed here on Rheinmetall’s stand at the recent ILA air show in Berlin. which included several modifications to Bradley IFVs. is given as eight hours for a range of 1080 km and a ceiling of 12. MLRS and M113A3 Ambulances.2 tonnes for pure vertical take-off and landing operations and even 1. becomes available. This situation is less critical for armoured vehicles equipped with armoured glass windows. Even if crewmembers accept to take the risk of operating with open hatches they might still miss an opponent that gets uncomfortably close to their vehicle. casevac and other support missions in critical areas – urban of course being among them. but these attachments were partially removed for the sec- Drones With a Sting – III Bigger and Weirder A peculiar vertilift air vehicle is being developed that could bring a totally new dimension to urban warfare. has a horizontal and vertical field of view of 54° and 40° respectively and is focused from five metres to infinity. The Air Mule is 6. It is currently in service with US Army units following a contract awarded in November 2009. In that testing phase the air vehicle was tethered. That little nest has just been joined by another bird. Vehicles are thus more and more equipped with viewing systems allowing their crews to watch their close surroundings. Unlike the Harpy it is intended to replace. which has a payload capacity of 50 kg. with one or more cameras. pants of the vehicle are concentrating their staring effort. or on dedicated hardened solutions that are specifically designed for military application. The canard nose section carries a gimballed infrared and a CCD camera while the man-in-the-loop facility enables the operator to call off the attack in case of collateral damage risk and initiate another loitering sequence. BAE Systems ond phase that began last March to verify the integration of new position hold sensors. for which the company is receiving Spanish Government support. but its maximum take-off weight reaches a mighty 1. since it is proposed for resupply. and positively calls upon a man-inthe-loop function. but here comes an interesting combination from Rheinmetall. it is equipped with a collision-avoidance system. These can be based on off-the-shelf solutions. Some systems provide 360° coverage while others cover only the rear arc. 2. a rear-view infrared camera system moulded into the ground vehicle’s taillight housing that gives the driver a safe backing-up capability and provides the infantrymen in the rear with increased situational awareness before debussing. from mini to medium size. In that respect. Mention has been made elsewhere in these pages of the Switchblade and the Fire Shadow. Mention was made of the Camcopter. Under development in Israel by Urban Aeronautics. The idea is to use the established KZO recce drone in conjunction with the new IAI Harop in a tandem known as Wapeb. It consists of an uncooled infrared camera fitted into an LED taillight assembly. is not relegated to the sole role of radar destruction. but the Saab Skeldar V-200 with its 40-kg payload may also be a potential weapon platform. particularly in the rear arc. the Air Mule flight principle is based on a vane control system that allows to vector its rotors’ downwash and thus provide superior manoeuvrability while considerably reducing risks to bystanders. The Rheinmetall Pearl is only one of the many examples of vertilift systems developed in recent years. the proper running of all mechanical systems and exploration of the vane system utilisation. particularly over urban areas that are dreaded by pilots and crews. the latter replacing the original conventional taillight unit. but with a purpose. A 730-hp Ariel 1 turbine drives the front and rear 1. A recent example is the BAE Systems Check-6.2 metres long.15 wide and weighs 560 kg including fuel. although even those have numerous dead angles.

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This all-round vision offers an elevation of between -20° and +60°. 8 armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 . compared to topview single cameras. which can be seen independently by different users such as the driver. The latter comes in the form of a 10. Optsys of France. and the ability to fly back home in case data-link is interrupted. Kollmorgen has recently integrated a gunshot detection system that feeds the relevant data to the One 360. No doubt a dieselised alternative will follow sooner or later. another for the highresolution image of a selected area and the third that may be configured to display data from other sensors.or four-sensor systems to overcome this problem and give overlapping arcs that also provide some redundancy should one of the systems take a hit. Its systems use a single camera that looks vertically into specially designed optics on top of which a parabolic mirror followed by a telecentric lens provides the 360° view. the One 360 offers high-resolution images. Remote Reality provides two. (Armada/PV) the crew visual and acoustic reference points. The Viper can record the images provided by all eight cameras for up to six hours. Its display function generates three windows: one for the 360° view. As it is often impossible to cover 360° on a vehicle with a single system due to physical obstacles such as turrets. Another US company that is now fully involved in 360° observation systems is Remote Reality. is able to process the huge amounts of data necessary to instantaneously monitor the complete surroundings. Images can be replayed on two further screens provided as options. but the advantage is that dead areas are basically nil. Its perching-capable system is the Asio. the One 360 offers the advantage of simplified installation on existing vehicles and does not have to cope with parallax issues. weapon interface or navigation imagery. on the right in this photo. is launching its Viper (a contraction of Vision Périmétrique). and Engage (hence the name of the system). The circular image obtained is then digitally unwrapped by specific software that provides the panoramic image as well as pan. for example. aerials and so forth. which is optimal for enhancing situational awareness and improving fighting capabilities in an urban environment.All elements of the Datron Scout – battery. something that has much to do with its battlefield pioneering status. evaluate the full situation and direct the remote weapon station to the region of interest. for its part. lowlatency images. in both number of sensors. but its major drawback is the current gasoline engine. Known as See Through Armour (STA).4-inch touch-screen tablet personal computer and can be augmented by a second terminal for the infantry housed in the rear compartment. This can be shown on the vehicle computer screens or can be injected into helmet-mounted displays. Navigate.000 units in the coming years. The gunner can continue to engage targets. offering The Honeywell T-Hawk is deployed downrange. Due to its full solid-state digital stabilisation with inertial measurement unit and embedded processing functions. The proprietary lens system ensures minimal optical aberrations. The video processing engine is scalable and can thus easily support changes and upgrades to the system. The image processing software then combines all the images into a 360° real-time video panoramic strip. A single sensor head system. Operation via the touch screen is simplicity itself. The installation of such a system is of course more complex in terms of cabling. sensor formats and sensor types. Digital cameras can be replaced by uncooled thermal cameras with a resolution of 384 x 288 or 640 x 480 to provide night vision. part of the Nexter Group. It has a threekilometre link. The system can use dedicated hardened cameras that feed digital signals to the manmachine interface. The standard suite is based on seven or eight digital 640 x 480 daylight colour cameras with x2 digital zoom. tilt and zoom views. the system can be used to slew other electrooptical sensors and remote weapon systems (it is. A no-movingpart system with day and night sensors. each user being able to select his area of interest. (Armada/EHB) expects the potential market for its Check-6 system to reach 12. which in turn instantly opens a window on the source of the shot. it is based on a series of video cameras installed around the vehicle. It uses a dedicated hardware processor based on the latest fieldprogrammable gate array technology that Italy’s Utri developed a series of light. fully integrated with Kongsberg’s family of remotelyoperated weapon stations). Elbit Systems of Israel was among the first companies to offer a panoramic observation system. sensor and even rotor arms – are clip-on affairs. As can be expected from such newgeneration systems. (Honeywell) Kollmorgen Electro-Optical. vehicle commander and infantry section commander. electrically powered drones. the One 360 provides full-rate video. to provide soldiers inside a vehicle with an all-round capability to Observe. introduced its One 360 in 2009. Interestingly. which is based on an array of cameras placed along the vehicle periphery in order to provide 360° coverage from very short distances to 200 metres.

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including a 21-megapixel visible-light system and a four-megapixel medium-wavelength infrared thermal system. Moreover. Undoubtedly the most advanced drone of its kind. among which Australia and Italy. all in real time. The company is working on a new generation of systems that will be smaller and lighter and that are expected to be introduced later in 2010. infrared and laser sensors into a single interactive display. (STK) The LMM guided rocket system developed by Thales has been exhibited on one of the lateral hardpoints of a Schiebel Camcopter S-100. the other for light vehicles. including visual. which can be mounted on military vehicles and tripods.00001-lux night vision cameras. twelve 752 x 582-pixel 0. and a single high-resolution pan. known respectively as ODR-HV and ODR-LV. In February 2009 Sarnoff was awarded a contract from the US Marine Corps War Fighting Laboratory to demonstrate an advanced 360° modular camera array prototype. portable and low-power processing of multiple vision sensors. Acadia II was developed as part of the Darpa Multispectral Adap- The Singapore Technologies Fantail has a good payload capacity together with perching capability. mounted on the top of the pole and able to rotate. a laserguided version of the 70-mm FFR. such as the Omnialert360. it includes a 640 x 480-pixel thermal imager. The system has a vertical field of view of -50°/+5°. a pan-tilt platform and a laser rangefinder. power source and monitor. In April 2009 Sarnoff announced its Acadia II.Lockheed Martin developed the Dagr.5-lux daylight cameras.2 kg and is over 31 cm high with a diameter of 18 cm. a 360° horizontal FoV system based on BAE Systems’ PMC300 camera with an uncooled Vox microbolometer detector with a 640 x 480-pixel array and a 30-Hz frame rate. Remote Reality is providing its systems to numerous prime contractors of new vehicles or upgrading programmes for US services. a weight of 8. Remote Reality provides the Thermalvision360. the company also developed the Eagle 360. acoustic. which gives the system the image fusion and processing power required to integrate the outputs of 29 different sensors.1 megapixels and a frame rate of up to 60/sec to ensure very low latency. on the CVAC2 screen the operator can observe Boomerang acoustic cues. Sarnoff proposes a field-ready 360° visualisation system with six fixed cameras to provide allround view and a moving top pan-tiltzoom camera. but also will further expand their potential use on board robotic vehicles. This modular. where ODR stands for omni-directional reconnaissance. the system was then transitioned to the Stryker Fsep (Full Spectrum Effects Platform) programme as well as onboard the Cougar as part of the Wolfpack AE2 enhancement programme and was integrated with the Crows turret. for a weight of less than 2. The heart of the system is Sarnoff’s Acadia I Asic vision accelerator. while the pan-tilt camera. The image is transmitted to a 10. Each camera is 18-cm high and has a diameter of ten cm. The five panoramic cameras located in the pole provide a 360° view with a vertical field of view of 64°.4-inch display where 10 armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 .3 kg. a field on which the Massachusetts-based company is keeping (probably like many others) a sharp eye. two GPS receivers.00005-lux day/night zoom camera. which can pack four missiles in less than 90 kg. the US Marine Corps and the Australian Army. based on cameras with a 190° horizontal field of view over -60°/+7° vertical. Known as Computer-Vision Assisted Combat Capability (CVAC2). as well as messages. a 680 x 500pixel 0. tilt and zoom camera to allow for closer investigation of suspected threats. Based in New Jersey. All those systems are supported by software packages allowing movement and target detection. which it claims to be the world’s most powerful system-on-a-chip for real-time. For night vision. stand-alone system. The HV is based on a central pole mounted on the top of the vehicle and contains five cameras able to zoom in on specific areas for 360° situational awareness. streaming video from drones. with a resolution of 2. (Armada/PV) In addition to the 360SA (for Situational Awareness) camera. Remote Reality systems were tested by the US Army. one for heavy vehicles. the night-flight capable Austrian device has an over six-hour endurance with a 34-kg payload. This not only will allow an even easier integration in existing vehicles. An infrared camera for night vision can also be included in the pole. The company also has very-high-resolu- tion omni-directional camera systems. obviously with special attention to roadside bomb and close threat detection. has a horizontal field of view of 32° and a vertical FoV of 24°. comes with proprietary touch-screen controls. (Armada/PV) tive Networked Tactical Imaging System (Mantis) programme. twelve 720 x 540-pixel 0. ODF Optronics of Israel also proposes two systems based on a single sensor unit. but has also raised interest in many other countries. while the Omniserver was designed for the storage and retrieval of videos captured by the system.

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floors or ceilings. its dimensions are 0. this hand-held system leverages the AN/PSS-14 mine detector microsecond ’off time‘. plaster. Images can be recorded and the system can be integrated into the vehicle battlefield management system. but differ in their circuitry and user interfaces. which peaks at only of 31. including IFF. It will be able to carry one wounded soldier. width and height being 12 armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 . stucco and drywall. This small handheld radar device operates in the 3100 to 3500 MHz band and can penetrate up to 20 cm of concrete.5The Air Mule is currently undergoing test flights in Israel. L-3 Cyterra has developed the Emmdar (ElectroMagnetic Motion Detection And Ranging). while no further details have been unveiled on the Emmdar II. the Emmdar and the Emmdar II.84 x 0. When the vehicle is stationary the HV can provide automatic alarms via a proprietary video motion-detection algorithm that can trigger alerts in a region of interest.6 milliwatts. the number and spacing of frequency steps greatly improves the reliability and precision of target location. It is powered by six AA batteries and can be used through exterior and interior walls. which ensures R&D and Camero US. Known within the Service as AN/PPS-26. According to L-3 Cyterra. Most of the systems developed so far use millimetric waves. (Urban Aeronautics) turned into a commercial variant). operating either in local or standoff mode.Bearing a certain resemblance with the Saab Skeldar. same figures for stationary targets. Such systems are not solely aimed at military use but also find useful applications within specialised police units and hostage rescue teams. which is not too surprising since they both share the same Cybaero backbone. Its resolution is 20 cm at a range of eight metres. datalink. bricks. the emitted pulses bounce off the rooms’ multiple surfaces. the Indra Pelícano will soon be powered by a 55 horsepower JP5-running Hirth engine and incorporates all-Indra electronics. while the latter locates multiple targets and can indicate both their ranges and directions. The production of the Emmdar has been discontinued (but was The Urban Aeronautics Air Mule may be used for carrying supplies to front line troops in urban areas and. the whole cycle is repeated 54 times/sec. a weight of less than 1. being to deal with through-wall propagation.36 kg (3. one per military police squad and one per engineer platoon. as well as wall transmission and reflection inside the building. Rather than operating on a single frequency. 8 and 20 metres.15 metres. Camero controls two companies. The system sensitivity is sufficient to detect the motion of a person’s breathing or the imperceptible movements of a person tying to stand still. The Xaver 800 is mostly aimed at police and rescue units. L-3 Cyterra had to obtain a waiver to use the Emmdar in the United States as the 3100 to 3500 MHz frequency band is allocated to the Federal Government Radiolocation service. adobe. In a US Army document the Approved Acquisition Objective was of 8415 man-portable Sense Thru The Wall (SttW) systems with a specified distribution of one system per infantry squad. a false alarm report of less than 5% (10% threshold) and a sensing range of over 100 metres (20 metres threshold). spaced two MHz apart from 3101 to 3499 MHz. stabilised sensor package and autopilot. allowed L-3 to overcome the problem. (Urban Aeronautics) Wall See-through Looking through a wall or at least knowing what one can expect behind a wall without having to enter a room would certainly be a major advantage for any soldier engaged in urban warfare. The system is able to ‘see’ through most materials such as cement. the challenge technology. as suggested by this artist’s work. but the system software sifts the echoes at different frequencies in order to let echoes from stationary objects fade into the background. According to open sources. The very low power output of the system. Of course.5D’ – the latter meaning that it provides the range of the persons who are behind the wall with time history. Although developed mostly for paramilitary applications. it developed two systems based on a multi-channel ultra-wideband sensor operating between three and ten GHz. Deployed. the previous being able to locate one target at a time indicating its range but not its direction. It transmits on one frequency for 75 microseconds followed by a 17. Camero Tech in Israel. the LV has an additional feature in that its pan-tilt camera can be titled upwards to 90° – a boon for urban operations. Its field of view is of 80° both in azimuth and elevation and its detection ranges are 4.84 x 0. its display indicating where possible moving or stationary targets are located. Key performance objective requirements were over 95% probability of moving target detection (85% threshold). (Indra) software reconstitutes the 360° panoramic view and uses a 1 through 12 o’clock pattern to indicate orientation. Interestingly. which combines metal detection with ground penetrating radar technique. They apparently have identical transmission characteristics. concrete. allowing those from moving objects to stand out. two models are available. the Emmdar steps through two hundred frequencies. it has four antennas and can display 3D and 2D views as well as an odd ‘1. as do most radars. two per special forces team. reinforced concrete. for casevac missions.2 kg threshold). which is in charge of marketing.

as well as understanding possible opponents’ directions of approach knowing in advance the building layout. also based on millimetric wave. Currently about 30 Xaver 400s are used in Afghanistan by American forces – half with special forces and half with the 82nd Airborne Division – while some 50 more units are used by two other undisclosed countries.5D views with a resolution of one metre at the end of the range. including stairwell and wall layout). its endurance is 4. Operating in the 1. A laptop application keeps the sensor along the wall while monitoring and recording images on a computer from a safe distance. timber.5 hours. According to Cambridge Consultants.5 hours with primary batteries and 2. In addition the tactical version of Camero sensors. Its main drawback for tactical use is its weight. it is equipped with a small 680 x 480-resolution colour display to provide 2 or 3D imagery. the systems would be produced by General Dynamics. a ground control station to move the flight path of a drone to a particular area of interest. which will only have a detection capability (but no positioning).Optsys. the Army intends to acquire some 11. In addition displaying the tactical information and geo-referenced images that one would expect from a terminal of this kind – including drone-gathered pictures – the unit can be used to ask. it provides a resolution of 30 cm and can detect personnel at a range of up to 20 metres. the company is proposing Currently French Army Aravis vehicles are equipped with a cots 360° system. since in most cases military units do not need the same accuracy as hostage rescue teams. their main interest is to have an idea of how many subjects are behind a wall and a general idea of where they are located. This info must be collected without any contact with the building or deployment inside it. Battery powered. which would also provide logistic support in country and in theatre. Among Darpa’s requirements is subsurface urban situational awareness (that is finding the building basement layout and underground connections. According to programme metrics the system is to be considered high-tier equipment and certainly not to be distributed to tactical units – time to achieve building metrics being within three days 13 . as well as brick blocks separated by a cavity. armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 ing the scene in order to look at the room from different entry points. via VHF. The Xaver 400 has therefore only two aerials. and can be obtained both with passive or active sensing. Raytheon and L3 Cyterra are the other two known bidders. The system received Federal Communications Commission approval and certification in December 2009. cinder block. the 400 features a builtin wireless transmitter that allows images relay of what’s seen on the small screen of the sensor out along the command chain up to a range of 100 metres. Should Camero succeed. a Nexter company. which is aimed at both paramilitary and military use. has developed the Viper. with a view to providing the warfighter with all possible information that will allow him to confidently manoeuvre inside a building. Camero is in the final stage of development of the Xaver 100. (Kollmorgen) a special version of its Xaver 400 tailored to US Army requirements. which means that it can only provide 2D and 1. its weight with batteries is 2. which provide an endurance of 2. Following the success of the system. Darpa is already looking ahead and has launched the Comprehensive Interior Reconnaissance (Cir) programme. (Armada/PV) In Britain. Camero developed a second product. although no details on customers are available. 22. a small handheld system the size of a GPS receiver and weighing less than one kilo. this time aimed at tactical units.6 to 2. concrete block. although radar sensing is discouraged. It has a 120° x 90° field of view and is able to perform through different types of materiel.5 hours with rechargeables. The Xaver 400 is 37 cm wide. (Armada/EHB) The Kollmorgen One 360 is an integrated 360° no-moving-part vision system which provides different views to different users. which gives good peripheral vision to a vehicle crew. the system is in use in all continents with the exception of South America. 15 kg with batteries.5 high and 12 cm thick. Camero is bidding for a major US contract. (Armada/PV) Sagem’s End Reception Station-Remote Video Terminal is now used by French forces in Afghanistan. At 5. trading performance for reduced weight and dimensions.000 systems. The new product should be available in the fall of 2010. such as 23-cm-thick brick wall. This should not impact on effectiveness.7 kg including battery and measuring 35 x 45 x 21 cm. reinforced concrete. Camero is also eyeing other markets such as India and Singapore. Numerous Xaver systems have also been sold to Asian countries. where a strong interest for such sensors is emerging. its software allows rotat- reduced to 47 cm when the antennas are folded. which remains the same.2-GHz band. Cambridge Consultants developed the Prism 200.5 hours for continuous use and it can operate at temperatures of -20° C to +55° C. In the future they will get the Optsys Viper.95 kilos while its endurance is 4.

Knowing where friendly personnel operate obviously reduces the risk of friendly fire. As far as environment is concerned. for example. while others are more general in nature. forests or deep valleys can reflect the signals generating what is normally known as signal multi-pathing – which in turn generates a reduction in accuracy – this happens even more sharply in urban areas where the GPS receiver is surrounded by reflective surfaces and where armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 In 2009 Sarnoff obtained a contract from the US Marine Corps to demonstrate a situational awareness system known as CVCA2 that can operate either on a vehicle or from a tripod. It can also be used to locate and map underground structures. What it basically does is integrate the weak incoming signals originated by GPS satellites for a longer period of time in order to extract the data needed to triangulate the receiver position. The final objective is to obtain a sensor with a weight of less than five kilos able to operate at a standoff range of between 1000 and 2000 metres. however such a solution appears to be difficult to exploit in the military domain for various reasons. In that field the California-based Eureka Aerospace is developing a highresolution impulse synthetic aperture Sarnoff proposes a series of 360° viewing systems for increasing vehicle situational awareness. (Sarnoff) signal that is 1000 times weaker compared with other receivers. A specific study was also made regarding multipathing and signal attenuation through construction materials. one may justifiably wonder whether some of the technologies that might emerge from this programme would not eventually spin out to tactical applications. intentional or unintentional. The systems exploiting these features are normally defined as A-GPS (Assisted-GPS). Buildings to be reconnoitred can be up to ten floors high with two-level basements and can be located in high-density urban blocks. The company hopes to reach this stage in two years’ time to allow the system to be installed into a small drone. these range from jamming. 14 . Nevertheless. and a tracking sensitivity of -189dBW. the lack of signal caused by the Faraday Cage effect results from reinforced concrete buildings and metallic objects in the vicinity of the receiver. which can visualise the structure of a wall and even see objects that are immediately beyond it. many factors can reduce GPS accuracy or even deny its availability. Those figures alone indicate that the system would only be used in very critical operations. The aim is to obtain a system that is sufficiently compact and lightweight to allow its integration into a light armoured vehicle or a drone to provide its 3D inside mapping from a range of a few hundred metres of a building. Thus they can be exploited to hybridise the navigation system. The higher sensitivity of such systems is not owed to different hardware but rather to different signal processing. However. as receivers would have to be optimised for exploiting such a network. and this is something that current battle management systems installed on board most vehicles are able to do. as they receive signals from GPS-equipped radios. According to the company the Q20 HS level data demodulation capability allows it to provide sustained operation indoors without network assistance. (Ultrafine) radar (Impsar) that is able to detect and identify in near real-time various targets behind different types of walls. which means they can cope with a from sensors deployment. (Sarnoff) Remote Reality is providing to US services its 360SA and Thermalvision systems. some of these are being installed on the Stryker vehicles. Eureka Aerospace is also actively developing the capability to generate 3D stereometric images with the Impsar. All this gave birth to GPS receivers with around 30 dB sensitivity. depending on the type of construction. the receiver of which hosts twelve parallel channels with an RF acquisition sensitivity of -174dBW unassisted or 185dBW hot or assisted. to environmental and meteorological issues. It enables soldiers to determine the best place for placing a wall-breaching charge. (Remote Reality) Blue Force Tracking Blue force tracking is now a sine qua non to reduce blue-on-blue incidents. An aggravating factor is that weak GPS signals cannot be received in places where. as they are stronger. A partial solution comes from the adoption of high-sensitivity GPS receivers. Indoor accuracy is obviously affected and location precision is decreased by one figure of magnitude. An example of such receivers is the Qinetiq Q20 HS (High Sensitivity) module. as seen here. mobile phone signals are still available. providing a second positioning system besides the GPS. bunkers and caves that possibly contain hostile subjects.Ultrafine Technology has developed the portable Ultraview PR-1. since most soldier upgrade programmes include such facilities. Currently Eureka Aerospace is working with a demonstrator mounted in a van and one that is mostly built from cots components. which is 30 more than the benchmark of -159 for standard GPS modules. The first are technical. The same applies to soldiers who carry state-of-the-art equipment.

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Wi-Fi ings. (Camero) although a noteworthy snag is the reliance on a network that is not under friendly control. is under development and will only tell the soldier if somebody is behind the wall. The lower frequency ensures optimal wall penetration while the higher one provides location accuracy.A close-up of the Camero Xaver 400. The system developed by Thales. Another addition to positioning systems can be provided by wireless networks. would need a 20dB power increase over the current authorised limit. which get. Data are exchanged in real time and the various positions While the Xaver 400 is the system proposed by Camero for tactical situations and provides a 2D view. If the matrix has sufficient values it can be inverted to obtain the relative 3D positions of the nodes. The main limitation to achieve this range in the presence of obstacles is the power level imposed by the generic regulation in Europe. This technique can be used for ’deep indoor‘ operations (underground) and requires at least five or six elements to be able to work. although such a system may be used to create ad hoc Wi-Fi networks. the Xaver 100 seen here. via portable systems distributed on the ground and in buildings. With this technique. This requires a link distance between users of around 150 metres in non-line-of-sight conditions indoors.8 GHz frequency range. However. (Camero) networks are short-range and wide-area positioning support would thus need a lot of Wi-Fi networks – not to mention the fact that such a hybrid positioning system would require a database of all Wi-Fi transmitters and their exact locations via their IP addresses to be able to triangulate a position. In the latter the system works by measuring all the distances between the radios that are in the propagation range. down to ± 30 cm. a smaller system. using four transmitters located around a building. The use of existing networks is therefore theoretical. particularly Wi-Fi. The ABL technique requires deploying fixed installations (at least three receivers).3dBm/MHz in the 3. The company is currently working to solve the problem of providing an absolute reference like GNSS using AFL localisation in order to situate the users on a map. as intended for military applications as well as for emergency teams (fire brigades. which is a maximum power of -41. Anchor Based Localisation (ABL) and Anchor Free Localisation (AFL). (Armada/JK) armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 form a matrix. The Georgia Tech Research Institute has developed a wideband local positioning system based on transmitters operating on two different wavelengths – 915 MHz and 5. (Camero) The Xaver 800 has four antennas and can provide 3D images of the situation behind a wall.1 to 4. The system was aimed at tracking soldiers during training.49 GHz – that track soldiers inside build- The Thales F@stnet Twin hand-held radio is a dual-band SDR that operates the St@rmille waveform on UHF and the PR4G waveform on VHF wavebands. which is already deployed downrange and is being proposed to the US Army for a major contract. as the nodes have to be within the range of the fixed nodes to calculate their position. The application foreseen by Thales is indoor localisation that provides seamless positioning with GNSS used outdoors. Hybridisation with micro-electromechanical inertial sensors is also considered as an extension to the 16 . their synchronisation from a GPS.15. the distances are calculated only with these fixed nodes and a triangulation is done for the positioning. which makes it the system of choice for special units. however a quickly deployable version could be developed for use in certain combat situations. This technique is possible in a ’light indoor’ environment. exploiting pulse technology as defined in the IEEE 802. The proposed system can work in two different modes. for instance. police and so forth). Thales Communications is working on an ultra-wideband system.4a standard to measure distances with a very high accuracy.

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combined with Qinetiq inertial navigation equations. part of the Coco Communications Mobile Ad-hoc Network. ranging measurements to provide complementary information. whether using standard algorithms supported by zero velocity updates or pedestrian dead reckoning (or both) each with different precision. three magnetometers and a barometric altimeter. A multi-sensor integration algorithm is used to combine the outputs of the various sensors to produce an optimum navigation solution. (Novatel) A Tactical Mesh Router. magnetometers and barometric altimeters is one of the most common approaches. Man motion is one of the most challenging applications for a navigation sys- tem. Sensors include three commercial grade gyros. in their location (in the shoes or on the body). video and data communications and feature an 18 armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 . The Synchronous Position. the newest member to the Novatel GNSS/INS Span product family is the IMU-LCI – a tactical-grade IMU with fibre-optic gyros and micromechanical accelerometers.73 grams. Weighing 0. (Armada/PV) mechanical inertial measurement unit. the Coco Tactical Mesh Router is battery operated with an eight-hour endurance. Communications Urban canyons and buildings are certainly not the preferred environment for good RF propagation. A personal dead-reckoning system normally uses a six degree of freedom inertial measurement unit that generates the rate-of-rotation. Numerous soldier modernisation programmes include navigation systems that do not rely only on satellite navigation receivers. a PNI TCM-5 3 axis magnetometer and a Druck RPT 350-055B barometric altimeter. Attitude and Navigation (Span) range provide accurate inertial measurements. Coco’s systems have been tested in interoperability communications exercises and are being used by the US Coast Guard. but could also be in use by other US services and possibly deployed downrange. (Coco Communications) Coco Communications developed a series of hardware and software items that can create instant. in the type of inertial navigation algorithm. tactical mesh routers recreate a network inside buildings or underground structures. Some of the previous solutions exploiting ultra-wide bands can obviously carry not only positioning information but also voice and data. This can be directly interfaced with many GPS receivers and manpack computers and does not require any extra sensors. which offers a considerable reduction in positioning errors. Dead reckoning is thus usually employed. three accelerometers. Army and Navy. This system is known to be used by the US Coast Guard boarding teams. They provide secure voice. Dead reckoning systems based on inertial sensors as well as on other systems are also being considered. drift and noise latitudes. To reduce the most significant errors caused by the bias drift of the accelerometers. Qinetiq developed a man-motion navigation system based on its Q20 High Sensitivity GPS Receiver Module. and acceleration measurements are used in real time to estimate the location of the user relative to a known starting point. but some research centres and companies are integrating various systems into a single navigation unit to overcome the shortcomings of each single system. the BAE Systems micro electroReleased in May 2010. Differences can be found in the number and quality of inertial sensors. a technique known as zero velocity update was implemented. While software items can be used when existing networks are available. Numerous companies are providing dead-reckoning modules. secure networks in tactical situations where traditional networks may be hindered. although 3D remains a problem.The Prism 200 by Cambridge Consultants is a wall-penetrating radar that provides information on the presence of humans on the other side. Integrating satellite navigation together with inertial sensors. such as Honeywell with its 25-gram DRM 4000. Typical accuracy is two per cent of the distance travelled with an azimuth accuracy of under 1°. The firm’s Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (Manet) routing allows network traffic to be quickly routed in rapidly changing mobile environments. a series of colour diodes instructs the operator where to locate other similar systems to provide coverage. For security reasons these routers cannot be turned off without a password entered on a PDA or laptop. As an example. It is put into operation by pushing a single button. as in ships and buildings.

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(Coco Communications) 20 . Manets are used by the US Coast Guard boarding teams. loading Coco Node software to become part of the Manet is not an issue.6. SP2. multi-port SHDSL modem and gateway to analogue armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 The Coco Communicator software can transform any PDA into a system capable of linking to Coco ad hoc networks. Normally linked to a power source. dual or four SHDSL channels. it has the advantage of working with the same old two-wire or four-wire connection. When the need arises to establish a command post at battalion or company level in an urban strongpoint. (Ultralife) support end-to-end as well as link cryptography. (General Dynamics C4 Systems) legacy systems. SP3.Closely integrated with the Soldier Radio Waveform. but is a hybridisation of a Voice over Internet protocol terminal. video and data softphone application. although external aerials can be used to extend range for special uses. integrating video monitoring into conference calls using cameras linked on the network. Windows Mobile 5. The individual communication terminal can be any IP-enabled device and since many soldier modernisation programmes include such ruggedised personal digital assistants. Known as Tough VoIP Network Extender. which can operate on systems running Windows XP SP2. it can operate on batteries for up to 20 hours. which once used up to 40 Tactical Mesh Routers when operating onboard a large ship. The network based on these routers is wholly scalable with no limitation to the size or location of the network. All those systems The Tactical Radio Gateway links the Manet developed by Coco Communications with existing tactical networks. Ethernet switch. Another software tool provided by Coco is a communicator voice. (Coco Communications) Seen here mounted on the company’s 20-Watt A-320 amplifier. ATM and TDM transport over single.0 or Linux. If the unit plans to spend some time in the same location. but other customers are still undisclosed. If network services are lost.69 Mbps with a single pair connection and 11. Packets. to link the various cells of the command post that will probably deploy at least one ruggedised laptop each. which allows creation of any number of tactical voice networks. It can be linked to a radio and thus allows the com- internal antenna. and making itself a network node.0 & 6. SHDSL interfaces can provide data rates up to 5. The case containing the system weighs ten kg. Ultralife’s Dual Port Adapter allows two separate RF antennas to be connected to the amplifier. The Network Extender is a self-healing and self-configuring unit. PDAs loaded with Coco Node become themselves a node of the network. Elektrobit of Finland has developed what might be seen as the modern version of the old field telephone. Windows Server 2003 SP1. in an era of networking. Currently Coco is distributing Node Version 4. which automatically and transparently adapts to the available network services. Through the Coco Tactical Radio Gateway the ad hoc network can be linked to any type of radio. The DPA also functions as a low-noise amplifier for UHF satcom operations. communications are the first thing to be established. Where the use of a radio-based network could be challenged by a building or interception by the opponent. It supports Ethernet. it may be quite useful.38 Mbps with two. it is able to maintain the voice and data services in restricted operation mode. the Rifleman Radio from General Dynamics C4 Systems is expected to soon enter lowrate initial production.

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9 kg. five to six cells could be in charge of attacking a single vehicle. is based on the Merkava Mk 4 and is equipped with the Rafael Aspro-A active defence system (also Elektrobit of Finland proposes its digital Tough VoIP Network Extender for the quick establishment of a Lan at lower level command posts. the Tough VoIP features a 2. The unit includes Sip/VoIP for connecting to telephone networks. The multi-band. etc. Israel. Various solutions have been developed to counter this threat. and which have to take into consideration many other elements such as mobility in terms of road capacity and bridge load limitations. Israel knows where the next fight will take place. which is currently entering service. Movement within urban areas with vehicles is always a risky business. damages to road systems. The Network Extender has a weight of 8. Israel’s new armoured personnel carriers are based on main battle tank chassis. knows who its enemy will be and knows that deployment of its heavyweight vehicles will not be a problem. thus providing as much armour protection as possible. confirm and cancel buttons. providing enhanced connectivity. in upper stories and in basements.7-inch diode-illuminated display with a 128 x 64-pixel resolution. a machine gunner and an ammunition bearer. psychological impact. Most vehicles are thus wheeled and medium weight. a push-to-talk button on the side and keypad lock. for example. mostly from the top. which most likely will be another CRO. Elektrobit provided the system to the Finnish Air Force in 2009 and last May the Finnish Army started a series of field tests. A dynamic real-time phonebook is available with the simple push of a button. Tough VoIP is able to maintain voice comms in restricted operation mode where network services have been lost. The ITT Spearnet UHF radio is for frontline squadmember comms. however. although a series of compromises have to be made to cope with the urban scenario. Slat armour was adopted on US Army Strykers in mid-2000. and armoured. from ground units to direct support aircraft. mineresistant and ambush protected. up and down arrow buttons for menu browsing. letters and special characters.mand post to run on a single VHF or HF radio. Chechen war returns indicate that the lower level combat group consisted of General Dynamics C4 Systems has updated its URC-200 to V2 status. (General Dynamics C4 Systems) armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 known as the Trophy). they also have a much better knowledge of the area. (Armada/JK) With a weight of 450 grams. Protecting an armoured vehicle in an urban context is not an easy task. while the Achzarit is based on the T-54/55 chassis. it will never enable one to avoid contact with enemies. from slat armour. (Elektrobit) Soldier comms in the urban jungle requires a soldier-proof solution. Elektrobit aims at working as a partner with the main defence communication companies. wideband ad hoc network voice. providing multihop routing. Deployed at ground level. passive add-on armour to reactive armour and active self-protection. AM and FM bands. is in a situation that is not comparable with that of the other western countries: while the other armies do not know where they will deploy for the next operation. GPS with situational awareness reporting and up to 1500 kbps data transfer out to six km. multi-mode line-of-sight radio operates over the VHF. as not only do opponents have many caches on hand. possibly located at some distance in order to avoid precise location by an opponent. the main threat comes from the ubiquitous rocket-propelled grenades. as it will fight alongside its borders. providing its systems as the final interface with tactical command posts. Armour remains the principal medium of protection for troops. a sniper. and Elektrobit provides its Tough VoIP terminal for the system. Armour and Firepower As much as situational awareness is of paramount importance to reduce risks. Heavyweight vehicles are therefore seldom used in such missions. an international standard 16-button keypad with numbers. and it is self-healing and self-configuring. Things are much different for other nations. while dismounted infantry was used by the Russian troops to protect the vehicles. The Namer. as it was a lighter option compared to the add-on plates used until then to withstand hits from 22 . which normally must deploy far away from home. Apart from roadside bombs. the hollow charge warheads of which easily defeat medium armoured vehicles. a fully integrated wireline IP phone that can be either operated as part of EB Tough VoIP solution or as IP terminal together with third party equipment. three or four-men-strong fighting cells including an RPG gunner. or only as a last resource. especially when engaged in a crisis response operation. UHF.

which weighs an estimated ten times more. According to IBD. According to Rafael.36 tonnes lighter. In March 2009 Ruag acquired the majority of Geke in Germany and created Geke Schutztechnik (GST). Similar materiel has also been used to provide skirt armour to Bradleys.36 tonnes slat weight was 1. The system can also be used inside buildings. since fragments are mostly propelled upwards and downwards. at 2. (Armada/PV) The Danish Army installed slat armour even on its Leopard 2 deployed in Afghanistan in order to improve their resistance against RPGs. a modular screen system with a weight of 15 kg/metre2 that can be folded against the original armour when not in use. (Coco Communications) shoulder-fired rockets. The Lasso has been adopted by the Danish Army for its M113s deployed in Afghanistan. and only very few are propelled horizontally. for a weight that is eight to ten times less than the equivalent rolled homogeneous armour protection. The Sidepro-RPG can be used in conjunction with the aforementioned Lasso. The major drawback of this solution is that the standoff distance needed to reduce incoming warhead effectiveness translates into a 45-cm increase in vehicle overall width. Instead of a bar armour Ruag adopted a mesh screen made of special four-millimetre-thick high-tensile steel. Indeed. is 50% less than its competitors. which according to the company can withstand multiple hits from RPG-7V. the collateral danger from possible fragments is only 1. Ruag of Switzerland developed the Sidepro-Lasso (Light Armour System against Shaped Ordnance). the mesh gauge was established following theoretical and practical tests in order to optimise the chances of stopping the two-kilo round flying at 300 metres/sec before it reaches the vehicle armour. which contributed to the development of new products. BAE Systems’ Lrod cage has been fitted to US Army and US Marine Corps Mraps. according to Ruag. which in turn reduces mobility. General Dynamics ATP is replacing US Army Stryker’s slat armour with Rafael’s new reactive armour based on The IBD Amap-ADS active system has been thoroughly tested and should soon start to be produced. Deliveries began in mid-2010. and thereby prevent its triggering. Further developments aim to ensure protection against kinetic energy weapons and roadside bombs. to facilitate vehicle storage and transportation. However. The system weighs less than 45 kg/metre2 and is 250 mm thick with minimised incidence on vehicles mobility – at any rate much less than that of conventional reactive armour. a 3D structure that offers multi-hit protection with a specific weight of less than 15 kg/metre2 which.3% higher than that of a vehicle equipped with passive armour. which remains inert if hit by small arms fire or during transport and maintenance phases. while possibly avoiding detonating it.This diagram shows the deployment of Coco TMRs and PDAs during ship boarding and inspection. Active armour systems can also considerably improve vehicle safety. (Danish Army) armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 low burning rate explosive. to be effective in an urban scenario they need to feature extremely short reaction times if they want to defeat rocket grenades fired 23 . The British Army also adopted this solution for many types of vehicles it deployed to Afghanistan. VM and VL. IBD Deisenroth of Germany added to its Amap system the Amap-P. but develops its full energy when hit by a shaped charge. IBD also offers the Amap-SC (Shaped Charge) passive armour in various configurations to match the required level of protection. the Amap-P is able to destroy or short-circuit the warhead ignition system. The first is Sidepro-RPG.

Rosalind Lui Phone: +65 64587885. egillberg@glocalnet. ISSN: 0252-9793 24 armada Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 .biz Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Laguk Co.com www.armada.net Spain Vía Exclusivas.bontje@armada. LI-9490 Vaduz. Benelux. (Ruag) from a few tens of metres. Ltd. CH-8050 Zurich. Yuri Laskin Phone: +7 495 912 13 46. PA 17318-0437. 8050 Zurich. + 36. Combining its Sidepro-Lasso mesh protection and the Sidepro-RPG passive protection Ruag can provide comprehensive solutions for different types of vehicles. Thomas Withington ABC Controlled circulation: 22. Armada International.. Aeulestrasse 5. Liechtenstein. The concept proposes to improve geospatial intelligence collection and processing by fusing light detection and ranging and geographic information systems data sources used to detect and classify urban geospatial features. Emigsville PA 17318-0437. Clearly visible is the 250-mm-thick compact design that does not obstruct the mobility of the vehicle. (Ruag) Urgent Intelligence Needed Recognising threats in an urban environment is much more difficult than doing it in a symmetrical warfare on an open battlefield. Turning to other means of close-range protection like remote-controlled roofmounted weapons. Fax:+41 44 308 50 55. in order to automatically characterise object attributes and function. blackrockmedia@cox.388.ch. valid from autumn 2009. margiespub@rcn. ISSN 0252-9793. zena@expomedia.net Arabic Countries Shayma Ghandour Phone: +971 50 125 3709.ch Publisher: Caroline Schwegler Editor-in-Chief: Eric H. PA. identify shapes and provide classification of objects for a broad range of pressing urban mission planning analyses. o. Macarena Fdez. The design concept would enable the capture of analyst expertise using advanced machine learning a approaches.com Italy.data about urban environments.armadainternational. 95 Aberdeen Road. Copyright 2010 by Internationale Armada AG. Switzerland. Switzerland. Switzerland Cornelius W. Issue No. To achieve this goal the US military launched a programme aimed at urban Compendium Urban Warfare 2010 Supplement to issue 4/2010 Volume 34. June/July 2010 INTERNATIONAL Index to Advertisers ATK Ceradyne Curtiss-Wright Elbit Systems ITT Kollmorgen Electro-Optical Meprolight C4 7 21 7 15 11 11 Raytheon BBN Technologies Recon Robotics Remington RUAG Land Systems Rubb Buildings Textron Marine & Land Ultralife 19 5 9 21 17 C3 C2 is published bi-monthly in Zurich. drrosalind@tsea. Rubbish bins containing bombs.ru Asia Dr. such as warning of vehicles found on a road shoulder after dark.com Western USA – West of the Mississippi River Diane Obright Phone: +1 858 759 3557.com Germany Sam Baird Phone: +44 1883 715 697. Bontje Phone: +41 55 216 17 81. Switzerland ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001:2004. ylarm-lml@mtu-net. Periodicals postage paid at Emigsville. macarena@viaexclusivas. it has an intercept range of under two metres and a minimum defeat distance of ten metres. is published bi-monthly by Internationale Armada AG and is distributed in the USA by SPP. Hagenholzstrasse 65.4.com United Kingdom Zena Coupé Phone: +44 1923 852537.com Eastern USA – East of the Mississippi River Margie Brown Phone: +1 540 341 7581. urban environments command a wide elevation arc. which might prove too much to defeat a near point-blank shot. (postage) Printed by Karl Schwegler AG. A contract worth seven million US dollars was assigned to BAE Systems National Security Solutions to provide support to Darpa for Phase II of the programme. certified by ABC/WEMF. Currently the most promising solution seems to emanate from IBD Deisenroth. Phone: +41 44 308 50 50. + 36. c/o PO Box 437. www. POSTMASTER: Please send address changes to Armada International. We shall not dwell on this subject here since it is examined in detailed in an ad hoc article published in the magazine with which this Compendium has been despatched. Paolo Valpolini. It will also provide automated time-sensitive situation analysis. intelligence gathering known as Urgent (Urban Reasoning and Geospatial Exploitation Technology).orbec@pema-group. Known as the ADS (Active Defense System). Biass Editor/Artwork: Johnny Keggler Advertising & Production Manager: Thomas Schneider Administration: Marie-Louise Huber Regular Contributors: Roy Braybrook. Head Office: Armada International. e-mail: mail@armada. in other words. snipers concealed in doorways and windows. from at least -30° to +70°. Nordic Countries Emanuela Castagnetti-Gillberg Phone: +46 31 799 9028. BAE is currently developing a design concept that promises to speed the collection and processing of geospatial An APC M113 equipped with Ruag Sidepro-RPG and Sidepro-Lasso. Advertising Sales Offices Austria. cornelius. Odile Orbec Phone : +33 1 41 43 83 00. (postage) Overseas: USD 186. FSC COC 100012 and EKAS certified.ch France Promotion et Motivation. shayma. or estimating damage to a building exterior after an explosion. Emigsville. flat surfaces that could be potential landing zones – the analysis of an urban scenario is all but easy.com All other countries: contact the Head Office Annual subscription rates: Europe: CHF 186.ghandour@hotmail. while the latter figure for most other systems is evaluated to at least 50 metres. a tool that will help its users better understand the nature of locations. de Grado Phone: +34 91 448 76 22. sam@whitehillmedia. Date of first certification 1992.

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