By: Trisha Crone, Charmaine Loja, Chrys Quiroz, William Unger, Rebecca Walters, and Michael Yarvi

Introduction
• Terms
– – – – – – – – – Cisgender Queer Transgender Transsexual Drag queen/king Cross dresser Intersex Homosexual Bisexual

• There are 9 million Americans who identify themselves as LGBT.
– This number may be higher, but many individuals who are LGBT are afraid to be publicly open about it
(Gates,2011)

History of LGBT Oppression
• During the 15th century when a population was to be dehumanized they would be accused of engaging in sexual activities with the same sex
– Society spreads more accusations saying that these individuals performed unsavory sexual practices, they were sinners and must repent, they were a threat to society that must be dealt with

• In the early 20th century LGBT individuals were often thought of as “gleeful killers” based off of two serial killers • The idea resurfaced later with Norman Bates and Aileen Wuornos
(Mogul, Ritchie, & Whitlock, 2011)

History of LGBT Oppression (Cont.)
• In the late 80’s and early 90’s it was thought that most LGBT individuals were sexual deviants and often resorted to becoming sex workers
– Stonewall

• Many believe that society today is more tolerant and our generation is more open minded, but unfortunately LGBT oppression is as strong today as it was in the past • Unrepresented Minority
– http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nru8g9BoMLo
(Mogul, Ritchie, & Whitlock, 2011)

LGBT Discrimination Among Family
• Upon coming out to their parents, 50% of gay teens reported a negative reaction
– In some instances a family member would attempt to send their son or daughter to a conversion camp to “cure” them
• Youths ages 13 to 18 can be forced to be held at church facility, deprived of all privacy and contact with family and friends for 2 to 6 weeks

• 26% report being kicked out of their homes after coming out to their parents
– Studies show that 20 to 40% of homeless youth are LGBT
• These individuals are left without the support of their family and friends. Distributing aid or providing resources to this community is difficult

(Gutterman, 2005 ; American Psychological Association, n.d.).

LGBT Discrimination In the Work Environment
• Most states do not have laws in place prohibiting workplace discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity
– In 39 states a person can still be fired based on gender identity – A person can be fired in 31 states for sexual orientation

(American Psychological Association, n.d.)

United States: Land of Opportunity?

http://www.dallasvoice.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/States.png

LGBT Discrimination In the Work Environment
• This likely contributes to low socioeconomic status of LGBT individuals
– Studies have found that LGBT individuals make less than their heterosexual counterparts
• Gay men earn up to 32% less than similarly qualified heterosexual men • Up to 64% of transgender people report income below $25,000 • This is despite LGBT individuals having, on average, more education than the general population
(American Psychological Association, n.d.)

LGBT Discrimination In the Work Environment
• The Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA) is a bill which has been introduced in every congress since 1994
– Would prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity – Has yet to pass in both houses of congress.
• ENDA passed in the senate in late 2013, but House Republican leadership vowed that the bill will not pass in the House. They claim it will lead to frivolous lawsuits and be a “job killer”
(O’Keefe, 2014; Kilmas, 2014)

Michael Sam
• If Michael Sam is drafted he will become the first NFL player to publically come out • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPhWjyC6bG8
– “Instead of being known as the gay athlete or gay football player, I want to be Michael Sam, defined for being a great person and having great character”

• Michael Sam’s chances of being drafted have changed for the worst after announcing he was gay • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Olc5C4SXAYM
(Branch, 2014)

LGBT Discrimination Among Society
• The criminal justice system
– Due to a history of LGBT individuals being falsely accused of crimes and arrested, many have a fear of law enforcement
• Domestic abuse: it is still believed that a man cannot be victim and the woman the abuser • LGBT individuals walking outside at night were arrested for suspicious activities • Victims of hate crimes were arrested instead of the perpetrators

– Many who went through our nation’s court systems were left to represent themselves and were often given longer prison sentences than non-LGBT person
(Mogul, Ritchie, & Whitlock, 2011)

LGBT Discrimination Among Society
• We are taught that there is a separation between religion and state, but unfortunately that is not reality • There have been religious groups that have protested against LGBT rights
– Protest Gay Day at Disneyland
• several religious groups said that they did not want individuals who are gay influencing innocent children at Disneyland.
(Mogul, Ritchie, & Whitlock, 2011; Tashman, 2013)

LGBT Discrimination Among Society
• Same sex marriage is now legal in 17 states and the District of Columbia
– In Utah, a federal judge has declared banning same sex couples from marrying to be unconstitutional

• Same sex couples in 21 states are afforded some level of protection for their relationships
– In addition to the 17 which allow marriage:
• One acknowledges the validity of out of state marriages (OR) • Three allow for full domestic partnership or civil union (CO, NV, OR) • One which permits more limited domestic partnership (WI)
(Freedom to Marry, 2014)

LGBT Discrimination Among Society
• 33 states have laws or constitutional amendments which deny the freedom to marry to same sex couples
– 9 states have amendments banning same sex marriage – 20 states have amendments banning same sex marriage AND alternative forms of legal protection – 4 states have statutes limiting freedom to marry (but without any amendments)
(Freedom to Marry, 2014)

LGBT Discrimination Among Society

Retrieved from http://i.cdn.turner.com/cnn/interactive/us/map-same-sex-marriage/same-sex-marriage-map.jpg

LGBT Discrimination Among Society
• A common argument against same sex parentage is that their children’s psychological and social well being will suffer
– Many studies have shown that this is not true:
• Children of same-sex couples are equal to those raised by heterosexual couples in school functioning, cognitive and physical abilities, and self concept • Children of same sex couples do not show greater tendencies toward psychosocial problems (such as depression, anxiety, or low self esteem) • Children of same-sex parents frequently report having normal, positive, and healthy relationships with peers
(SPSSI, n.d.)

LGBT Discrimination Among Society
• The ability for same sex couples to adopt varies from state to state
– 10 states and the District of Columbia permit LGBT individuals to adopt their partner’s child
• Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and the District of Columbia.

– 16 states and the District of Columbia allow same sex couples to jointly adopt
• Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Vermont, Washington, and the District of Columbia

– Mississippi and Utah are the only two states which do not permit same sex couples to legally adopt at all
(Lifelong Adoptions, 2014)

Beliefs and Values
• Recognized as equal, removing unfair barriers, and having the same opportunities • Common beliefs such as: family, hard work, responsibility, commitment, sacrifice, and duty • “This is about everyday Americans who want the same chance as everyone else to pursue health and happiness, earn a living, be safe in their communities, serve their country, and take care of the ones they love”
(Movement Advancement Project, 2014)

Roles
• Members of the LBGT community share the same roles as heterosexuals, such as son, daughter, sister, brother, employee, co-worker • The role of being a parent is important to many members of the LGBT community • It is estimated that approximately 6 to 12 million children have gay or lesbian parents in the United States
(Rozdzial, 2008)

Roles (Cont.)
• Involvement in community activity may foster a sense of belongingness that helps to deal with negative experiences
– Helps to cope with stigma related to sexual orientation

• Network of friends within LGBT community is essential to development • Studies suggest strict social norms
– i.e. Only having relations with same sex

Customary Practices - Religion
• 29% feel unwelcome at a religious organization at some point in their lives • Acceptance of homosexuality has increased at a slower rate than the overall acceptance for the population as a whole, 41% religious, 55% society • A lot of religions look at homosexuality as being a choice, where it is deviant behavior that can be changed

(Drake, 2013; Lamar, 2014)

Changes in Acceptance Rates

Retrieved from: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/06/25/how-lgbt-adults-see-society-and-how-the-public-sees-them/

Customary Practices- Parenting/Family
• Unanimous studies on children of gay and lesbian parents have concluded that sexual orientation of mothers and fathers bears no impact on the child’s emotional development, sexuality, gender identity, or psychological well-being • Children are more likely to accept non-traditional gender roles and more tolerant of same-sex relationships • Despite these findings, not all states allow samesex couples to adopt, yet every state allows single gay and lesbian parents to adopt
(Rozdzial, 2008)

Customary Practices- Parenting/Family
• A study by Gillian Dunne found that gay fathers tend to be more compassionate toward their kids • A British study found that about 50% of divorced fathers lose contact with their children within a year of divorce, while gay men remained actively involved in their children’s lives • Dunne believes that gay men who opt into fatherhood are more likely to be actively involved in routine child care
(Rozdzial, 2008)

Customary Practices – Coming Out
• Coming out to parents
– Over time acceptance from a parent of a child identifying as homosexual has increased – In 1985 64% reported they would be very upset – 19% of adults reported they would be very upset in 2013 – A larger percentage of gay and lesbian individuals have reported coming out to their mother over father

(Drake, 2013)

Customary Practices – Coming Out

Occupational Alienation
Right to experience occupation as meaningful and enriching (Townsend & Wilcock, 2004)

Hiding Identity
• Yerke & Mitchell (2013)
– Currently not allowed entry into the military and if they are to enter, they must hide their sexual identification or face dismissal • LGB are allowed to enter into the military Could not make friends because he felt “displeased with himself “(p. 565) and was not sure about what he wanted to be Bullied, but did not seek help from teachers Could not come out to his family or friends • Came out to his boss, but was betrayed Felt pressured into conforming to the gender norms Three participants adopted the occupational role of husband and father Cross-dressed secretly • One participant’s wife asked her to hide her identity until their children were grown

Others Would Not Recognize Their Identity
• Mogul, Ritchie, & Whitlock (2011) – LGBT prisoners would be placed in the prisons based on their genitalia
• Penal officials refused to recognize their chosen names and gender identities • Deprived of access to clothing matching their identity
– Denied access to bras, makeup, and other cosmetics

Walsh & Crepeau (1998)

– –

Began et al. (2012)
– – –

Occupational Marginalization
Right to exert individual or population autonomy through choice in occupations (Townsend & Wilcock, 2004)

• Yerke & Mitchell (2013) – Identified as a paraphilic disorder (though not recognized in the DSM-IV) – “According to the UN, everyone should have sufficient autonomy and social empowerment to navigate and negotiate healthy lives” • Mogul, Ritchie, & Whitlock (2011) – Forbidden to dress according their gender identity – Unable to congregate in public

Occupational Deprivation
Right to develop through participation in occupations for health and social inclusion (Townsend & Wilcock, 2004) • Yerke & Mitchell (2013) – Confusion stage • Does not allow to continue with exploration of their gender – Need to be able to provide healthcare for Transgender individuals • Veterans waited to come out and are subjected to “inconsistent, insensitive, and, at times, prejudiced” healthcare – Denied access to needed services like mammograms for FTM individuals and prostate exams for MTF individuals – Sex reassignment surgery – Will not seek needed treatment “due to concern of medical providers’ reactions and knowledge of others’ with negative experiences” Mogul, Ritchie, & Whitlock (2011) – Transgender prisoners were denied access to clothing, make-up, and other cosmetics that allow them to portray their gender identity – Denied healthcare • Denied access to hormone treatment that is necessary in maintaining their gender and sexual identity • Difficulty in accessing HIV/AIDS medication

Occupational Deprivation
Right to develop through participation in occupations for health and social inclusion (Townsend & Wilcock, 2004)

Walsh & Crepeau (1998) – Forced to end his friendship with Betsy – Could not make friends and form close relationships with others as a child and adult due to internalized homophobia Began et al. (2012) – Felt obligated into fitting into the social norm • One participant expressed that she could not do the “female stuff” (p. 230) she wanted – Difficult process of transitioning • Experienced fear of harassment or losing their job when transitioning • Occupational losses – One participant could no longer swim because of her wig – One participant could not get her degree because she did not want to get her degree under her masculine name – “Lost or altered their occupational roles as husbands and fathers” (p. 235)

Occupational Imbalance
Right to benefit from fair privileges for diverse participation in occupations (Townsend & Wilcock, 2004)

• Campbell (2013) – Poor outcomes (anxiety, smoking, depression, alcohol misuse, substance use, suicide, social isolation) • “Disconnection from health and support services” • Began et al. (2012) – Lack of education in “trans-health” for healthcare providers • Most participants explained that they had to constantly educate their healthcare professionals – “Kind of doctor-assisted do-it-yourself approach” (p. 232) » Told physicians what prescriptions to write for them – Feared losing their job during and after transitioning

Occupational Imbalance
Right to benefit from fair privileges for diverse participation in occupations (Townsend & Wilcock, 2004)

Walsh & Crepeau (1998) – Poor portrayal of the LGBT population in the media • Bruce believed that talk shows and newspapers “reinforce stereotyping gay men and confuse homosexuality with sexual crimes” (p. 566) – Could not participate in social environments and seek support Mogul, Ritchie, & Whitlock (2011) – Many LGBT individuals experience physical and/or sexual harassment by police and penal officials • When victims report incidences of rape/violence, police focus on their sexual orientation and neglect to investigate the actual perpetrators • “Walking while trans” (p. 61) – Being interrogated by police due to gender-nonconforming appearance

Occupational Rights
• Right to health – Campbell (2013) • Denial may make it difficult to obtain needed health services for information and advice, procedures, products, etc. • Late diagnosis and decrease in prevention – Mogul, Ritchie, & Whitlock (2011) • Difficulty in health management and maintenance in prison • Denial of hormone treatment • Difficulty accessing HIV/AIDS medication • Lack of confidentiality Right to socially participate – Walsh & Crepeau (1998) • Bruce had difficulty in forming relationships with others; became depressed – Began et al., (2012) • Many participants lived a double life – Mogul, Ritchie, & Whitlock (2011) • Unable to congregate in public – Unjust treatment from police

Impact on Health and Well-Being
• Physical health
– May not seek health services for preventative care due to needing to “out” themselves – Refusal of healthcare

• Mental health
– Depression – Suicide

Las Vegas Resources
• The Center
– http://thecenterlv.org/ – Mission Statement
• The Gay and Lesbian Community Center of Southern Nevada, a community-based organization, supports and promotes activities directed at furthering the well-being, positive image, and human rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer community, its allies, and low to moderate income residents in Southern Nevada

– Offer
• HIV and STD testing, support groups, special community events, alcohol’s anonymous, community library, youth programs, and space to rent to cater a personal event • Largest gender neutral bathroom in Las Vegas

References
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender persons and socioeconomic status. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/ses/resources/publications/factsheet-lgbt.pdf Beagan, B. L., Souza, L. D., Godbout, C., Hamilton, L., MacLeod, J., Paynter, E., & Tobin, A. (2012). “This is the biggest thing you’ll ever do in your life”: Exploring the occupations of transgendered people. Journal of Occupational Science, 19(3), 226-240. doi: 10.1080/14427591.2012.659169 Boyle, S., & Omoto, A. (2013). Lesbian Community Oughts and Ideals: Normative Fit, Depression, and Anxiety Among Young Sexual Minority Women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38(1), 33-45. doi: 10.1177/10361684313484900. Branch, J. (2014, February 09). N.F.L. prospect Michael Sam proudly says what teammates knew: He’s gay. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/10/sports/michael-sam-college-football-star-says-he-is-gay-ahead-ofnfl-draft.html?_r=1

References
Campbell, S. (2013). Sexual health needs and the LGBT community. Nursing Standard, 27(32). Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23641652 Drake, B. (2013). How LGBT adults see society and how the public sees them. Retrieved from: http://www.pewresearch.org/facttank/2013/06/25/how-lgbt-adults-see-society-and-how-the-public-sees-them/ Freedom to Marry, Inc. (2014). Where state laws stand. Retrieved from: http://www.freedomtomarry.org/pages/where-state-laws-stand Gates, G. (2011, April). How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. Retrieved from http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/research/census-lgbt-demographics-studies/how-many-people-are-lesbian-gaybisexual-and-transgender/ Gutterman, W. (2005, June 30). Anti-gay camp claims to 'cure' gay teens. Retrieved from http://www.pridesource.com/article.html?article=14862

References
Kilmas, J. (2013, November 7). Senate passes gay-rights bill to prevent workplace discrimination. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/nov/7/senate-passes-non-discrimination-bill/ Lifelong Adoptions. (2014). LGBT adoption statistics. Retrieved from: http://www.lifelongadoptions.com/lgbt-adoption/lgbtadoption-statistics Mogul, J. L., Ritchie, A. J., & Whitlock, K. (2011). Queer (in)justice: The criminalization of lgbt people in the united states. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Movement Advancement Project. (2014). Talking About Overall Approaches for LGBT Equality. Retrieved from: http://lgbtmap.org/file/talking-about-overall-approaches-for-lgbt-issues.pdf Lamar. (2014). Homosexuality Normal or Abnormal. Retrieved from: http://lamar82.hubpages.com/hub/Homosexuality-Normalor-Abnormal

References
O’Keefe, E. (2013, November 4) ENDA, explained. The Washington Post.

Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-fix/wp/2013/11/04/what-is-the-employment-nondiscrimination-act-enda/ The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) (n.d.). Psychological and social outcomes for children of same-sex parents. Retrieved from: https://www.spssi.org/_data/n_0001/resources/live/Psychological%20social%20outcomes%20in%20children%201-232014.pdf Tashman, B. (2013, May 13). Religious rights groups launch annual protest of "gay day" at Disney. Retrieved from Religious Right Groups Launch Annual Protest of 'Gay Day at Disney - See more at: http://www.rightwingwatch.org/content/religiousright-groups-launch-annual-protest-gay-day-disney

References
Walsh, A. L., & Crepeau, E. B. (1998). “My secret life”: The emergence of one gay man’s authentic identity. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52(7), 563-569. doi: 10.5014/ajot.52.7.563 Yerke, A. F. & Mitchell, V. (2013). Transgender people in the military; Don’t ask? Don’t tell? Don’t enlist! Journal of Homosexuality, 60. doi:10.1080/00918369.2013.744933