UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS FOREIGN LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT SEMINAR I

RESEARCH PROJECT: “EFFECTS OF OVERPOPULATION ON INTERMEDIATE ENGLISH II GROUPS AT THE WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR”

PRESENTED BY: BRENDA VERÓNICA BATRES GALÁN ADRIANA LUCÍA ESTRADA MORALES MOISÉS EZEQUIEL LÓPEZ GARCÍA JOSÉ ALBERTO GIRÓN SANTAMARÍA

INSTRUCTOR LICDA. DELURDY DE SERMEÑO

SANTA ANA, MARCH 25th, 2013

INDEX

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. vi ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................ viii CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ................................................................ 9 1.1 1.2 Description of the Problem ...................................................................................... 9 Objectives .............................................................................................................. 11 General Objective ........................................................................................... 11 Specific Objectives ......................................................................................... 11

1.2.1 1.2.2 1.3 1.4

Justification ............................................................................................................ 12 Scope of the Research ............................................................................................ 12

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ................................................................. 14 2.1 Large Classes ......................................................................................................... 14 Age ................................................................................................................. 15 Level ............................................................................................................... 15 Classroom ....................................................................................................... 16

2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.2 2.3

Large classes in English Language Teaching ........................................................ 17 Communicative Competence and the Four Macro Skills ...................................... 18 Macro Skills.................................................................................................... 19

2.3.1 2.4

Advantages for Institutions .................................................................................... 20

2.5

Drawbacks of Large Classes in English Language Teaching ................................ 21 Class size and students’ performance ............................................................. 23 Large Classes and the effectiveness of teaching ............................................ 23 Teacher-based problems ................................................................................. 24 Student-based Problems ................................................................................. 24 Curriculum-based Problems ........................................................................... 25

2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.6

Alternatives ............................................................................................................ 25 Organizing the Physical Environment ............................................................ 27 Building the Psycho-Social Environment....................................................... 27 Planning Lessons ............................................................................................ 27

2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.7

Visualization of the Study...................................................................................... 28

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................... 30 3.1 3.2 3.3 Paradigm, Type of Study, and Design ................................................................... 30 Sampling Procedure ............................................................................................... 31 Preliminary Phase .................................................................................................. 31 Approaching the Field of Study...................................................................... 32 Diagnostic Study ............................................................................................ 32 Definition of the Problem ............................................................................... 33

3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.4

Planning Phase ....................................................................................................... 33 Literature Review ........................................................................................... 34

3.4.1

2

3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.4.5 3.4.6 3.5

Visualization of the Study .............................................................................. 35 Data Collection Instruments ........................................................................... 35 Validation of Data Collection Instruments ..................................................... 36 Validity and Reliability .................................................................................. 36 Ethical Aspects ............................................................................................... 37

Execution Phase ..................................................................................................... 37 Data Collection Procedure .............................................................................. 37 Data Processing .............................................................................................. 38 Data Interpretation and Analysis .................................................................... 38

3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.6

Timeline and Budget .............................................................................................. 39 Timeline .......................................................................................................... 39 Budget ............................................................................................................. 40

3.6.1 3.6.2

REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................... 42 APPENDIXES ...................................................................................................................... 44

3

INTRODUCTION
The present research project is focused on the “Effects of Overpopulation in Intensive Intermediate English II Groups of the Western Multidisciplinary Campus of the University of El Salvador, Semester I-2014.” In this research study, the researchers will focus on collecting meaningful, trustworthy data to analyze how large classes may hinder the teaching and learning process. Thus, this project is divided into four chapters, the first of which includes a meticulous description of the problem previously diagnosed throughout two different questionnaires – one for students and one for teachers. Besides, this chapter contains a general objective and a set of specific objectives, which will lead the researchers throughout the execution of the investigation. Also, chapter I includes the justification of the project in which the researchers set the reasons and importance why to study the phenomenon. Finally, this chapter details the scope of the research – the target population, the techniques and tools to be used, the resources to be taken into consideration, and the viability of possibility for the study. Chapter II, in addition, contains the literature review upon which the researchers will conduct the study. The theoretical framework first defines the concept for large classes considering important aspects as age, level, and classroom. It also includes relevant information on how language classes are affected by overpopulation. Moreover, this chapter encompasses a little summary of the communicative competences and the four macro skills involved in second language teaching and learning. More importantly, the theoretical framework points out some of the most common drawbacks students and vi

teachers face when in large classes. Eventually, chapter II provides a set of recommendations and alternatives that can help both students and teachers cope with overcrowded classes. Furthermore, a table containing the hypothesis and the operationalization of its variables is presented in chapter III. Such table details each of the units of observation found in the hypothesis as well as the independent and dependent variables. Also, each of the variables is briefly defined and branched out into a number of indicators that enabled the researchers to design effective instruments. Chapter III, also, includes the instruments to be used for the collection of data and the time allotted to the administration of each of the tools. The last chapter brings together the type of study, the sampling procedure, and the preliminary, planning and execution phases. In other words, this chapter includes the methodology to be followed throughout the investigation. Among the most relevant stages that this chapter contains is the preliminary phase, which describes how the researchers approached the field of study to diagnose and define the problem. The planning phase, also, summarizes the theoretical framework, the operationalization of variables, data collection instruments, the ethical aspects to be considered when investigating, among others. Finally, the execution phase compiles the data collection procedure, data processing, and data interpretation and analysis; moreover, it contains a detailed, tentative timetable and budget to which the researchers will adjust during the development of the investigation. Finally, all the instruments to be used for this proposal are presented at the end in the appendixes section.

vii

ABSTRACT
The research project “Effects of Overpopulation in Intermediate English II Groups at the Western Multidisciplinary Campus of the University of El Salvador” sums up the factors that Intensive Intermediate English students face in the classroom. The main objective of the research is to determine how overpopulation affects students and teachers of Intermediate English II at the Western Multidisciplinary Campus of the University of El Salvador, during semester I-2014. According to some experts, foreign language acquisition is best acquired when groups are small; in this way, students can improve the development of their language skills in which they present more problems or difficulties, and teachers can focus more on helping students shape each skill. In order to test the hypothesis, “Large classes affect Intermediate English II students at the Western Multidisciplinary Campus of the University of El Salvador in the development of the four macro skills and in the teaching process, during semester I-2014”, the researchers will conduct a non-participant observation under the quantitative paradigm. Through a causal comparative study, Intensive Intermediate English II students are going to be observed by the researchers during the different activities carried out by teachers to enhance students’ listening, speaking reading and writing skills. Moreover, the researchers will use different instruments to collect data which will be organized in graphs and tables; this will allow the researchers to make a deep analysis on the results. Finally, the sample population will be composed of four Intermediate English II groups.

viii

CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The teaching-learning process is immense by nature; it involves many different aspects such as class size, monitoring, clear instructions, timing, classroom management, and so forth. The amount of students in a classroom, for instance, has to be subject of attention when immersed in this process, for large groups might affect and even hinder students’ learning in that students might not have the appropriate atmosphere in which to learn. In this regard, Intermediate English I groups at the Western Multidisciplinary Campus of the University of El Salvador have been observed to be made up of approximately thirty five students during semester II - 2013. Nevertheless, what experts suggest in regards to this phenomenon is that an appropriate language class should not have more than approximately twelve students (Ahmadin, 2012).

1.1 Description of the Problem
Based on preliminary observation carried out to approach the problem somewhat deeper, the researchers perceived that most Intermediate English groups surpass the amount of students suggested for a language class. Therefore, the researchers administered a questionnaire (see Appendix 1) aimed to get students’ opinions on this phenomenon. According to some Intermediate English students who are affected by this problematic situation, overcrowded classes lessen the opportunities for the teaching-learning process to happen in such an effective way. Some of the most striking opinions found are the following.

9

-

“The amount of students in a class affects learning because sometimes it is difficult to pay attention.”

-

“It is difficult to participate when the amount of students in a class is big because teachers do not have enough time to listen to all students’ opinions.”

-

“The larger the group, the more difficult it is to pay attention to all students.” “If the class were smaller, the assistance that the teacher gives to students would be better.” From students’ perspective, this phenomenon does not allow the process to be

effective. Indeed, some students point out that teachers demand high levels of accuracy when listening, speaking, reading, or writing, but there is not enough time to practice in the class due to overpopulation. On the other hand, teachers of intermediate English I of the Western Multidisciplinary Campus believe that this problem does not provide students with the necessary tools to develop the four macro skills to the fullest (Appendix 2). Teachers state that this problem has been faced during many years, but now, it is getting worse. However, teachers agree that something has to be done and that the teaching-learning process cannot wait until the perfect conditions appear. In other words, teachers assure that something must be done out of the conditions that exist. Certainly, students and teachers’ opinions towards overpopulation on intermediate English I groups were very similar: it clearly affects the teaching-learning process and does not let students develop their four macro skills effectively since they do not have enough time to practice their reading, speaking, listening, and writing abilities in class.

10

Therefore, this research is aimed to find an answer to the following question: How does overpopulation on intermediate English II groups at the Western Multidisciplinary Campus of the University of El Salvador affect the teaching and learning process during semester I2014?

1.2 Objectives
1.2.1 General Objective
To determine how overpopulation affects students and teachers of Intermediate English II at the Western Multidisciplinary Campus of the University of El Salvador during semester I, 2014.

1.2.2 Specific Objectives
1. To find out which of the four macro skills is the most affected one due to overpopulation during semester I, 2014. 2. To know to what extent overpopulation affects the development of intermediate English II classes 3. To analyze how overpopulation affects students’ behaviors during activities 4. To identify how overpopulation in a class affects teachers’ behaviors and ways of delivering a lesson 5. To establish recommendations on how teachers can adapt their teaching styles to a great amount of students

11

1.3 Justification
This research project focuses on the overpopulation of the intensive intermediate English II groups at the Western Multidisciplinary Campus of the University of El Salvador. In order to provide recommendations to avoid this phenomenon, the researchers will investigate how overpopulation affects students’ performance in the teaching and learning process. This research will contribute to determine in what ways large classes affect the development of the intermediate English II courses. More importantly, this project will actually provide reliable information on how this phenomenon happens and on what teachers can do to adapt their classes to a great number of students in the foreign language department of the University of El Salvador at the Western Multidisciplinary Campus. With this investigation, the researchers will also find out whether intermediate English II students are being taught with the appropriate teaching methods and tools so that every single student in the classroom may acquire the necessary knowledge and competences to be proficient both in their major and in life in general. Thus, by means of analyzing the results carefully, the researchers will provide students and teachers with trustworthy recommendations on how to cope with large classes in an English language teaching environment so that the teaching-learning process not be hindered by this phenomenon. Indeed, this research project aims to help not only the target population but also other researchers interested in finding a solution through further probes.

1.4 Scope of the Research
This research project addresses intermediate English II students at the Western Multidisciplinary Campus of the University of El Salvador during semester I, 2014. To 12

carry out this investigation, the researchers will make use of a variety of techniques and tools so that meaningful data be collected. Among the instruments to be used throughout the investigation are checklists, questionnaires, interviews, and mere observation. As time is an important source, the researchers will administer it with great care; that is, the researchers will attempt to save as much time as possible when conducting the research. In this regard, the time allotted for the investigation will depend on the subjects being studied, for this can turn to be either a long research or a short one. Thus, no research can be conducted without relying on one of the most important aspects: money. The researchers will take care of this resource by means of administering a variety of techniques and tools that do not require too many expenses. Eventually, the viability of possibility for this research is highly striking, for the phenomenon to be studied has been coped with along recent years up to date. Besides, the importance of conducting this probe relies a lot on the fact that this phenomenon is faced by both students and teachers who are concerned with the teaching-learning process in each of the Intermediate English II groups. Moreover, this project will provide the investigators with meaningful knowledge to conduct quantitative researches.

13

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Academic education sets the bases for the development of any individual, city, country, and of course, of the world itself. Academic education takes place in formal environments and settings such as schools, academies, universities, and any institution aimed at polishing people’s knowledge, skills, values, among others. In second language learning, for instance, the teaching-learning process may be affected by several factors; one of the most striking aspects that hinder such process in a number of ways is large classes.

2.1 Large Classes
The definition of a large class itself varies from one perspective to another; while some may perceive a class with thirty students large, others may simply not – depending on the context. Therefore, no quantitative definition of what constitutes a large class can be provided. Many studies, however, have tried to give answer to how large is perceived as large when explaining the size of a class. “After administering a questionnaire in several countries, it was found that teachers’ perception of class size varies from country to country and at different levels and educational contexts within the same country (Shamin, Negash, Chuku, & Demewoz, 2007).” According to UNESCO (2006), a large class has no exact size. Usually, the size of a class is measured in terms of the number of students per teacher – which is also called student-teacher ratio. In some countries, twenty-five to thirty students per one teacher is considered large, while in other countries, this is seen to be normal or even quite small. From a teacher’s perspective, then, a class is overpopulated when it feels overpopulated. In 14

other words, teachers who normally teach twenty-five or fewer students may feel a class of thirty-five students large and overwhelming. Watson (2006) agrees that perceptions of class size are subjective. For instance, if a teacher is used to teaching classes of twenty students, he or she will often say that thirty students is a large class; but for another teacher whose regular class size is forty students, an overcrowded class might comprise sixty students. Furthermore, overpopulated classes can also be analyzed by means of some other important aspects as the following.

2.1.1 Age
A class might be classified as large or overpopulated in terms of age. It is not the same to work with a group of teenagers as to work with a group of grown-ups around the age of twenty-five. More notably, the attention that children demand in a class is not the same as the treatment that teenagers call for. In other words, large classes when working with children are not exactly like overcrowded classes when teaching teenagers or even adults. Therefore, age does play an important role when attempting to define large classes.

2.1.2 Level
Defining a large class can also be affected by level. Teachers in charge of a high school class may not see large classes in the same manner as teachers in charge of kindergarteners. Moreover, a large class at kindergarten may not be perceived as overcrowded for teachers in charge of higher levels. That is, no definition of large classes can be stated putting aside the level of teaching.

15

2.1.3 Classroom
Moreover, class size can also be determined by classroom size. It means that the physical surroundings do matter when assuming a class as large. If there are many students in class but the classroom is big, it is hard to state whether the class is large or not. However, if there are considerably few students in a class and the classroom is small, teachers might be tempted to state that such class is large. All of the previous variables make it impossible to definitively state how large a class must be to be considered large. However, many researchers have tried to give answer to how large should be considered as large in terms of class size. Table 1, presented by Watson (2006), shows what some authors have found out in this regard after carrying out some investigations in different parts of the world and, therefore, in different contexts. Nevertheless, the author points out that the results do not aim to state the size of classes to be considered large; indeed, other teachers may have very different ideas depending on the environment and the nature of the subject they teach. Table 1: Some Minimum Sizes of Large Classes
Authors Barker (1976) Chimombo (1986) Dixon (1986) Finocchiaro (1989) George (1991) Hayes (1997) Holliday (1996) Hubbard et al. (1983) Li (1998) Long (1977) Nolasco & Arthur (1986) Safnil (1991) Samuda&Bruton (1981) Touba (1999) Minimum Size of Large Classes 55 50 40 65 60 50 50 45 50 60 40 60 40 60

16

Certainly, there is not a universally accepted definition for large classes. And researchers who attempt to decipher the size for large class seem not to get into an agreement. Therefore, the definition of large classes just depends on the environment, country, and context in which the teaching-learning process occurs and on the kind of students and teachers that are part of such process.

2.2 Large classes in English Language Teaching
The definition of large classes, as explained above, is determined by context and subjectivity. However, it becomes of great importance to analyze the term taking into consideration the nature of the subject being taught. Not all subjects are equally the same in terms of nature; some subjects require students’ direct attention in the class but little inclass practice. English Language Teaching (ELT), however, is a field that demands mere students’ practice both in and outside the classroom. In that regard, classes might be considered large when students have little exposure to practice the language sufficiently. According to Watson (2006), the nature of the subject being taught influences teachers’ judgments of the size of large classes. In other words, the definition for overpopulated classes is subjective, and the perspective towards large classes changes according to the nature of the subject. For example, at many universities, schools, or institutes, classes for lectures may consist of several hundred students and produce no bad effect on their learning; but for the teaching of English – which requires the learning of complex skills – these massive lectures are likely to cause a wide variety of problems. Ahmadin (2012) states that English language teaching (ELT) requires the appropriate environment for learning to take place. He points out that ideal language classes must not have more than approximately “twelve students.” Classes, then, should be large enough to 17

give diversity and student interaction and small enough to give students many chances to participate and to get individual attention. In that sense, most language classes are relatively large. The size of large ELT classes, according to Ahmadin (2012), is a problem that prevents the learning of the second or third language from happening in such an effective manner. Therefore, his approach of a class made up of twelve to fifteen students seems to be an adequate and appropriate way to go. Nevertheless, there may be many factors that cause this phenomenon; and one of the most common ones is lack of resources – mainly in developing countries as El Salvador.

2.3 Communicative Competence and the Four Macro Skills
According to Hymes (1972), the term communicative competence stands for the knowledge of both rules of grammar and rules of language use appropriate to a given context. Communicative competence is sub-branched into discourse competence, defined as the selection and sequencing of utterances or sentences to achieve a cohesive and coherent spoken or written text given a particular purpose and situational context; linguistic competence, which refers to all the elements of the linguistic system, such as phonology, grammar and vocabulary; pragmatic competence, which concerns the knowledge of the function or illocutionary force implied in the utterance that is intended to be understood or produced; intercultural competence, the knowledge of how to interpret and produce a spoken or written piece of discourse within a particular socio-cultural context. According to Uso and Martínez (2006), this communicative competence model emphasizes the importance of the four macro skills, which are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. This skills are viewed as inherent parts to be taken into consideration when

18

teaching a language class; however, these four cornerstones of language learning can sometimes be hindered when classes are overpopulated.

2.3.1 Macro Skills
In second language learning, the integration of the four macro skills (also called language skills) are of great importance since learners are expected to manage the language effectively. Language skills are classified into productive and receptive – both having the same level of importance. Productive skills are those in which the individual needs active participation to communicate ideas; such skills are speaking and writing. Receptive skills, on the other hand, required the learner to be focused on deciphering other’s ideas; these skills are listening and reading (Richards, 2001). Listening refers to the ability to decipher messages accurately taking into account both verbal and non-verbal language. According to Richards (2001), listening materials should be based on a wide range of authentic texts. Also, he points out that learners should be given opportunities to progressively structure their listening by being exposed to the task several times. This, obviously, cannot take place in large classes, for students and teachers do not have enough time to work on the same task several times. Moreover, speaking is one of the most affected skills in large classes because students do not have the enough opportunities to express their ideas. According to Richards (2001), speaking in the early seventies usually meant repeating after the teacher, reciting a memorized dialogue or responding to a mechanical drill. However, with the emergence of the communicative competences approach, speaking now requires the learner to be active in producing the language.

19

Reading skills are also affected when students do not have the time required to practice in the classroom. Richards (2001) states that what most teachers do in language classes is to avoid including activities to shape reading skills. Therefore, this prevents students from understanding written texts in context. Furthermore, writing is the fourth of the macro skills involved in second language learning. In the words of Richards (2001), the idea that writing is simply “speech written down” and, therefore, not worthy of serious attention has been replaced by a much more complex view of the nature of writing with the growth of composition studies in the field of second language learning.

2.4 Advantages for Institutions
Though it may be awkward, there exist some “advantages” of teaching large classes. Nonetheless, such advantages seem not to benefit the core of teaching – students. According to Dr. Burnett and Professor Krause, from Griffith University, “large classes are most common in the first years of study at university. This carries the added responsibility of supporting first year students through the transition to university, while also introducing them to learning in the university context.” Therefore, universities have to face and deal with big amounts of students demanding to study. And it is then when most institutions have to group students into overcrowded classes instead of hiring more personnel to give students quality education. In other words, institutions receive more incomes without investing in extra resources to ensure students’ learning. Therefore, what seems to be an advantage for institutions is not good at all for students in that they suffer the consequences of attending large classes.

20

2.5 Drawbacks of Large Classes in English Language Teaching
Large classes are most of the time considered to be one of the major pitfalls that hinder quality teaching and learning to happen. According to UNESCO (2006), many studies on this phenomenon point to the drawbacks of overcrowded classes and consider small classes as opportunities in which to ensure quality education. Nevertheless, large classes are a reality all around the world, mostly in developing countries like El Salvador. Overcrowded classes, then, are most of the time prejudicial or adverse to learning – not just because of the size but because of the problems that size brings to the learning in the development of the activities. According to Watson (2006), the size of a class itself seems not to be a direct problem that affects learning. Indeed, most researches have shown that the difficulties found in overpopulated class environments do not depend only on the size of the class but in the lack of time, space, and resources to carry out the most appropriate activities that make certain students’ second language learning. In fact, researches on large classes have identified at least two factors that hinder students’ accurate development of the skills required in second language learning: the quality of teaching and the kinds of activities used. In other words, even though the size of the class is not the direct problem that affects learning, overpopulated classes throw up a whole host of problems and challenges for teachers that smaller classes do not. The vast majority of literature into overpopulated classes, according to Watson (2006), shows that the most typically mentioned problems that large classes cause are summarized in the following table.

21

Table 2: The Problems of Large Classes – Watson (2006)

22

The previous table confirms that difficulties presented in second language learning in large classes do not depend just on the size of the class but on a number of problems that are branched out from overcrowded classes. For example, if receiving corrective feedback is a crucial factor in second language learning, then the difficulties of giving useful feedback in large classes could be one remarkable cause of any adverse effects on learning in overcrowded classes. The effects of large classes in a second langue learning environment can be further analyzed from the perspective of both students and teachers separately. According to Carpenter (2006), there are significant disadvantages to large classes, most of which falls into the following sub-topics.

2.5.1 Class size and students’ performance
In the words of Carpenter (2006), extant research on the relationship between class size and students’ performance has identified conflicting results. The results of some studies favor small class environments. “Results vary based on the criteria used to gauge student performance, as well as the class measure itself. When traditional achievement tests are used, small classes provide no advantage over large classes. However, if additional performance criteria are used, it appears that small classes hold an advantage (Carpenter, 2006, p. 14).”

2.5.2 Large Classes and the effectiveness of teaching
Carpenter (2006) states that the traditional passive view of learning involves situations where material is delivered to students using a lecture-based format. In contrast, a more modern view of learning is constructivism, where students are expected to be active 23

in the learning process by participating in discussion and collaborative activities. Overall, the results of recent studies concerning the effectiveness of teaching methods favor constructivist, active learning methods. From that basis, large classes stand for an enormous disadvantage in language teaching.

2.5.3 Teacher-based problems
Most teachers seem to be deeply convinced that the large size of a class is a major impediment for the effective teaching and learning of a language. Elango (2012) states that one of the most frequent problems teachers commit in a large class– either consciously or unconsciously – is the unsuitable use of teaching strategies which often cause learners to lose interest learning the target language. Moreover, the organization of tasks and the correction of mistakes are two of the aspects that cannot be accurately achieved in overcrowded classes.

2.5.4 Student-based Problems
Furthermore, in language learning, students’ attitude is of great importance; however, Elango (2012) agrees that overpopulated classes may cause a number of bad effects among which are the following.      Learners’ indifference to language learning Lack of concentration in classroom activities Fear of making mistakes No participation Interference of the mother tongue

24

2.5.5 Curriculum-based Problems
Furthermore, a large class bears certain problems in the development of curriculums no matter how well designed they may be. According to Elango (2012), most problems regarding curriculum in overpopulated classes can be comprised into the following list.      Irrelevant and unchallenging study materials Uninteresting and uncreative tasks in the class Highly limited course materials According equal significance to all the four skills of language Drab and irrelevant tasks conducted in the class

Certainly, in a way or another, large classes bring a vast number of problems to students’ learning. And it is more complicated in a subject whose nature demands total exposure of students to the target language in both space and time. Therefore, English language teaching environments should not be immersed in overcrowded classes, for the development of every activity seems to affect the teaching-learning process in a big manner.

2.6 Alternatives
In spite of all researches on this phenomenon – overpopulated classes – and the results that most investigations provide, teachers cannot remain reluctant to it. That is, teachers do not simply have to wait for changes in reality but to take the best out of the situation. Indeed, studies have shown that something can be done in order that large classes not be so harmful for students’ development of skills. Indeed, Watson (2006) presents a table with a selection of suggestions that researches have shown in regards to specific problems. 25

Table 3: Suggested Solutions to the Problems of Large Classes – Watson (2006)

26

2.6.1 Organizing the Physical Environment
An ideal class is held in a classroom that let students and teachers feel comfortable to move around and get engaged. Unluckily, most classrooms do not possess such characteristics due to certain factors that have been stated before. However, when dealing with large class settings, some changes in the accommodation of students in the class can be made in order for interaction to be fostered among students. The organization of the physical environment, thus, requires teachers’ creativity, for there is not a specific way of arranging seats in a classroom.

2.6.2 Building the Psycho-Social Environment
A classroom is very frequently regarded as a learning community. According to UNESCO (2006), in large classes, it is necessary to create a sense of community that shows teachers’ interest in and accessibility to students and which encourages pupils to participate in the learning process. Moreover, teachers in charge of large classes have to make a large class feel small. The reason is simply that in small settings, students are given more opportunity to interact with one another.

2.6.3 Planning Lessons
Time for delivering a lesson in a large class is a resource that has to be taken great care of. Therefore, teachers who teach in overcrowded environments have to spend long hours planning lessons in advance. This requires some more effort by teachers because students are expectant to what every class will bring. UNESCO (2006) states that students in large classes pay more attention when they are immersed in a variety of activities and teaching strategies. 27

Unquestionably, there is much to be said in regards to overpopulated classes. Indeed, this phenomenon has been object of constant research. However, it is important to mention that despite the many recommendations that investigations provide, the problem of teaching large classes seems to be a never-ending phenomenon. Therefore, what teachers can do is to adjust their lessons to the conditions in which they teach by taking into consideration what experts have found in this regard. More importantly, teachers’ development in large classes is determined by their attitude to give their best every time they teach a lesson.

2.7 Visualization of the Study

28

29

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY
In order to determine how overpopulation in Intermediate English II groups at the Western Multidisciplinary Campus of the University of El Salvador affects the teaching and learning process during semester I – 2014, the investigators will carry out a research focused on the effects of overpopulation in an English class. Such investigation will be conducted following a very carefully designed methodology whose stages are organized and described below.

3.1 Paradigm, Type of Study, and Design
By conducting the present research proposal, the researchers will focus on collecting and analyzing data under the quantitative paradigm. Therefore, the investigators will gather the information through non-participant observation by making use of a number of instruments that the researchers will carefully describe later. It is important to point out that throughout the analysis of the data collected, the researchers will determine the effects of overpopulated classes in Intermediate English II groups at the Western Multidisciplinary Campus of the University of El Salvador, during semester I – 2014, in order to provide teachers, students, and other researchers with suggestions to overcome the phenomenon being studied. Due to the nature of the investigation, the researchers will conduct a causalcomparative study since the project is aimed at finding the cause-effect relationship of the problem. The study will consist of observing and analyzing the students and teachers from the target population in order to determine to what extent overpopulated classes affect the 30

teaching and learning process. Observation, indeed, will be carried out by making use of checklists, observation guides, rating scales, and questionnaires; all these instruments will help the researchers to gather detailed data based on students and teachers’ behaviors. More importantly, to measure students’ development of the four macro skills, the researchers will design some tests focused on assessing students’ learning of the target language in each of the skills – listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

3.2 Sampling Procedure
This project aims to study a representative sample out of the whole population from Intensive Intermediate English II groups at the Western multidisciplinary Campus of the University of El Salvador. Therefore, the target population for this study has been chosen under the convenience and cluster sampling procedures. The investigators made use of the convenience sampling procedure because of the nature of the study. That is, complete groups will be needed to conduct the investigation in a more effective way. Moreover, the researchers decided to follow the cluster sampling procedure because the investigation will be aimed to analyze groups of the same kind which contain heterogeneous characteristics. By making use of the two above-mentioned procedures, the investigators will observe and analyze three Intermediate English II groups which will be chosen randomly.

3.3 Preliminary Phase
In this phase, researchers will provide a careful description of how they approached the phenomenon and the target population being studied in this proposal, how they got the preliminary diagnosis, and how they will continue with the research in semester I - 2014.

31

3.3.1 Approaching the Field of Study
Throughout the years 2010, 2011, and 2013, the researchers noticed that Intermediate English II groups were formed by more than thirty students. The investigators realized that such amount of students was too large for the teaching- learning process to take place adequately. This phenomenon interested researchers since it seemed to get worse as time went by. Therefore, the investigators decided to go deeper in the problematic situation to be able to determine the positive and negative effects of large classes on Intermediate English II students and teachers. When gathering the data, the investigators will ask for the permission of teachers, students, and all the authorities involved in this problem to conduct the necessary observations and to administer all questionnaires and checklists to the target population.

3.3.2 Diagnostic Study
To prove that large classes are an actual problem in Intermediate English II groups at the Western Multidisciplinary Campus of the University of El Salvador, the researchers administered two different questionnaires – one of which was administered to students. The researchers designed this instrument in order to know students’ perception of the problem so that the researchers could diagnose how damaging it is for English students to be taught in overpopulated classrooms. To administer such questionnaire, investigators chose randomly ten students out of all Intermediate English I groups. Through those ten students’ set of answers, researchers proved that students are aware of the effects of large classes on their learning process. Students pointed out that they do not have enough time to practice in class due to the large amount of students attending the course. Likewise, the investigators administered the other questionnaire to three teachers of the Foreign Language Department 32

at the University of El Salvador who were chosen at random. Those teachers let investigators know that overpopulated classes are a very serious problem that may have a negative impact on the development of their classes. Certainly, the two questionnaires administered were of great importance for researchers to get a preliminary diagnosis of the phenomenon. That diagnosis is going to lead investigators throughout the whole study.

3.3.3 Definition of the Problem
The preliminary diagnosis stated above helped investigators to have a clearer view of the phenomenon in that it provided researchers with some reliable and striking pieces of information which proved that both students and teachers are affected by the overpopulation in the Intermediate English levels. By analyzing all the answers gotten through the questionnaires mentioned before, the researchers were able to state the problem, its scope, and the objectives – both general and specific.

3.4 Planning Phase
After carrying out a diagnosis aimed to make certain that overpopulation was taking place and, thus, affecting Intermediate students’ learning, the researchers began their journey into looking for the necessary information in already existing sources such as webpages, e-articles, e-books, books, and previous researches related to the phenomenon to be studied; such information was helpful to build a trustful theoretical framework, which later provided the investigators with vital information to operationalize the variables contained in the hypothesis. All the information stated in the theoretical framework and all the indicators in the operationalization of the variables helped the researchers design the instruments needed for the project. Indeed, each of the sections belonging to the planning phase are carefully explained. 33

3.4.1 Literature Review
The review of literature is of great importance when attempting to research on any phenomenon. Indeed, the researchers in charge of the investigation consulted and relied on some books and web pages to build a theoretical framework that provided the investigators with previous necessary facts, statistics, and studies on the phenomenon. That is why, the researchers focused on looking for meaningful and trustworthy information by means of searching for institutional web pages whose domain was either “.edu” or “.org.” These websites provided the researchers with a variety of articles and e-books from prestigious universities and companies that had already carried out probes on the phenomenon: overpopulation. Even though there was plenty of information available on the Internet, the investigators made use of only relevant studies and statistics which are briefly described below. The theoretical framework comprises information related to the appropriate amount of students in a language class, based on some experts’ suggestions. First, the researchers provided a general definition of large classes in any environment. As many experts suggest, the definition for large classes cannot be analyzed without considering certain aspects as age, classroom, and the kind of class. Having a very clear understanding of overcrowded classes in any kind of environment, the researchers focused their findings into analyzing how the phenomenon is seen in a language teaching environment. Secondly, the investigators stated how overpopulation affects the development of the teaching learning process. That is, the investigators attempted to determine the effects that overpopulated classes cause on students’ mastering of the four macro skills, as well as on teachers’ delivering effective lessons. Although overpopulation was stated to be a problem, the investigators pointed out certain advantages when in overpopulated classes. However, the 34

researchers focused more on the disadvantages that large classes present since the aim of this proposal is to determine the effects of overcrowded classes. Eventually, the researchers considered important to include a number of alternatives to be taken into account when coping with overpopulation in a language class. Of course, the investigators took such suggestions from previous studies carried out by experts. Certainly, building the theoretical framework helped the researchers have an overall view on the phenomenon – which, later, will lead them to conduct the investigation itself.

3.4.2 Visualization of the Study
The first stage in the visualization of the study was to make certain that the variables could be measured and observed. The researchers, then, analyzed and classified the independent and the dependent variables. Having classified the variables, the investigators began to branch each variable out into appropriate, testable indicators so that the designing of instruments be more practical.

3.4.3 Data Collection Instruments
After the visualization of the study, the researchers designed a number of instruments according to each of the variables. First, in order to get data regarding how large classes affect the teaching-learning classes, the investigators designed a Likert scale (see Appendix 3), a questionnaire (see Appendix 4), and an observation guide (see Appendix 5). Second, the researchers designed an observation guide (see Appendix 6), a rating scale (see Appendix 7), an interview (see Appendix 8), and a questionnaire (see Appendix 9) for the purpose of collecting data regarding the effects of overpopulation on students’ development of the four macro skills. Third, the investigators designed a questionnaire (see Appendix 35

10), an observation guide (see Appendix 11), an interview (see appendix 12), and a rating scale (see appendix 13) in order to find out the effects of overcrowded classes on the teaching process. All these instruments will be administered to intermediate English II students and teachers of the Western Multidisciplinary Campus of the University of El Salvador.

3.4.4 Validation of Data Collection Instruments
Having designed all the instruments, the researchers will ask an expert on the field of composition, an expert on research, and an expert on didactics of the English language to validate each of the tools. The investigators will design a validation sheet for experts to check and evaluate each and every instrument. Besides, the researchers will ask experts to share suggestions for improving the instruments. Such suggestions will be taken into consideration to make the appropriate changes so that the tools be as effective as possible. Then, the researchers will select at random a small group of students from the target population to make sure that each item belonging to the instruments is easily understandable. Once the tools have been validated, they will be administered to the target population.

3.4.5 Validity and Reliability
In order that the instruments be valid, the investigators will design each tool based on construct validity. Thus, the investigators will delimit the instruments under the criteria of “face” and “content” validity to make sure that the indicators from the visualization of the study measures what is intended to be measured. Moreover, for the content of each instrument to be valid, experts’ opinion will be consulted.

36

For the results to be reliable, the researchers will make sure that the items of the instruments are consistent and provide good measurement. Therefore, the investigators will make use of the internal consistency method of reliability. Finally, the researchers will be careful when estimating the number of items per each instrument in order not to lead to factors that affect reliability.

3.4.6 Ethical Aspects
The investigators are aware of the importance of ethic principles when conducting any kind of probe. Therefore, the target population will be respected in that they are a vital part in the development of the research. In other words, the investigators will be extremely careful with politeness when addressing to the target population.

3.5 Execution Phase
Since the study being conducted is based on the quantitative paradigm, the researchers will provide a detailed description of how data will be collected, processed, and interpreted.

3.5.1

Data Collection Procedure

After elaborating and validating the instruments – questionnaires, rating scales, and observation guides - the researchers will administer them to the three clusters selected out of the five intensive intermediate English II groups. To administer such tools, the investigators will ask, through written documents, the head of the Foreign Language Department and all teachers and students involved in the investigation for the permission to conduct observations. The researchers will fill in observation guides, Likert scales, and rating scales by observing students and teachers’ behaviors in class and also by observing students’ development of the four macro skills. On the other hand, to administer 37

questionnaires and interviews, the researchers will provide the target population with printed questions to be answered. When all the tools are answered, the investigators will check them one by one to avoid any misunderstanding in further analyses.

3.5.2

Data Processing

To analyze and organize all the data collected through the different tools, the researchers will make use of the SPSS software which will help them maximize time. Besides, the investigators will utilize Microsoft Excel 2010 to generate frequency tables and graphs from each of the tools administered. Also, since the researchers will conduct a quantitative research, the data will be processed and analyzed after collecting every piece of information from all the instruments.

3.5.3

Data Interpretation and Analysis

All the data gathered by researchers will be classified, organized, and analyzed in order to triangulate the results obtained through the tools administered. The investigators will triangulate intensive intermediate English II students’ opinions on the problem, intensive intermediate English II students’ development of the four macro skills, and intensive intermediate English II teachers’ opinions. These data will be gathered at the Western Multidisciplinary Campus of the University of El Salvador, semester I-2014. The researchers will analyze and interpret the data collected with the help of graphs and tables for a clearer understanding of the results.

38

3.6 Timeline and Budget
The following table presents all the activities that have been already carried out and some tentative dates in which further activities will be carried out. This, however, may be object of change as the researchers conduct the investigation. Moreover, a budget containing tentative amounts of money to be invested on the investigation is presented. This budget is subdivided into supplies and services. The elaboration of the timeline and the budget will help the researchers administer their money and time adequately.

3.6.1

Timeline

39

3.6.2

Budget
SUPPLIES

Type of supply

Name Pens Pencils Printer ink

Cost per item $0.15 $0.15 $ 6.00 black ink, and $18.00 color ink $ 5.00 $1.00 $1.00 $ 20 (black) and $25 color

Number of items 10 10 2 2 1 1 1

Total $1.50 $1.50 $24.00 $10.00 $1.00 $1.00 $45.00

Office supplies

Printer paper Stapler Staples Printer Cartridges

Total: $84.00

40

SERVICES Service Photocopies Internet Other expenses $100.00/ student (food, transportation, and electricity) Total: $580.00 TOTAL BUDGET EXPENSES: $664.00 $500.00 Cost $0.025 / page * 2000 copies $30.00 a month Total $50.00 $30.00

41

REFERENCES
Ahmadin, D. (2012).English language teaching in large class.Language-Edu. Retrieved from http://inggrispascaunisma.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/02/02_DimjatiAhmadin _2012.pdf Carpenter, J. (2006).Effective teaching methods for large classes. pp. 13,14. Retrieved fromhttp://class.web.nthu.edu.tw/ezfiles/669/1669/img/1381/7.Effectiveteachingmetho dsforlargerclasses.pdf Elango, K. (2012). Large classes: boon or bane for teaching learning activities?LanguageEdu. Retrieved from http://inggrispascaunisma.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/02/02 _DimjatiAhmadin_2012.pdf Giffith Institute for Higher Education.Teaching large classes: challenges and strategies. Retrieved from http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/118924/GPGtlc.pdf Hymes, Dell H. (1972): “On communicative competence”. In J. B. Pride and J. Holmes, eds., Sociolinguistics. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 269-293. Richards, J. (2001). 30 years of TEFL/TESL: a personal reflection. SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. Singapore. Shamin, F., Negash, N., Chuku, C., &Demewoz, N. (2007). Maximizing learning in large classes. Retrieved from http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/sites/teacheng/files/ELT16-screen.pdf UNESCO.(2006). Practical tips for teaching large classes. Retrieved from

http://unesco.org.pk/education/icfe/resources/res15.pdf 42

Uso,

E.

&Martínez,

A.

(2006):

“Approaches

to

language

learning

and

teaching: Towards acquiring communicative competence through the four skills”. Retrieved from http://rua.ua.es/dspace/bitstream/10045/10400/1/RAEI_21_09.pdf Watson, R. (2006, August). Why investigate large classes?. Retrieved from

http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/sola/rEFL/Vol9_Reflections_Large_Classes.pdf

43

APPENDIXES

44

UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT SEMINAR I SEMESTER I – 2014

APPENDIX 1

QUESTIONNAIRE ADDRESSED TO INTERMEDIATE ENGLISH II STUDENTS  Objective: To diagnose whether or not intermediate English II classrooms are overpopulated  Directions: Choose the answers that best suit you. 1. Do you think the amount of students in your English class affects your learning?
1. Yes 2. No

Why?____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. How many classmates would you like to have in your English class? _________________________________________________________________________ 3. How do you consider the size of your English class?
1. Appropriate 2. Inappropriate

4. Do you have enough time to participate in all the activities of your English class?
1. Yes 2. No

Why?____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 5. Do you consider that your English teacher covers all his or her students’ needs?
1. Yes 2. No

45

UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT SEMINAR I SEMESTER I – 2014

APPENDIX 2

QUESTIONNAIRE ADDRESSED TO INTERMEDIATE ENGLISH II TEACHERS  Objective: To diagnose whether or not intermediate English II classrooms are overpopulated  Directions: Choose the answers that best suit you.

1. Do you consider that the amount of students in your English classes affects the effectiveness of your classes?
1. Yes 2. No

Why?____________________________________________________________________ 2. According to your teaching experience, how many students should an ideal English classroom have? _____________________ Why?____________________________________________________________________ 3. How do you consider the size of your Intermediate English?
1. Appropriate 2. Inappropriate

4. Do you cover your students’ needs?
1. Yes 2. No

5. Are you sure that all your students participate in all the activities assigned?
1. Yes 2. No

46

UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT SEMINAR I SEMESTER I – 2014

APPENDIX 3

LIKERT SCALE (LARGE CLASSES)  Objective: To find out how large Intermediate English II classrooms are  Directions: Choose the most suitable option based on your observation.

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following items?

1. NUMBER OF STUDENTS
1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree 3. Disagree 4. Strongly Disagree

2. TIME FOR PRACTICE
1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree 3. Disagree 4. Strongly Disagree

3. DISCIPLINE
1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree 3. Disagree 4. Strongly Disagree

4. CLASSROOM SETTING
1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree 3. Disagree 4. Strongly Disagree

47

5. SPACE
1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree 3. Disagree 4. Strongly Disagree

6. VISIBILITY CONDITIONS
1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree 3. Disagree 4. Strongly Disagree

7. HEARING CONDITIONS
1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree 3. Disagree 4. Strongly Disagree

8. NOISE
1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree 3. Disagree 4. Strongly Disagree

Observer: Population: Date: Time:

48

UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT SEMINAR I SEMESTER I – 2014

APPENDIX 4

QUESTIONNAIRE ADDRESSED TO INTERMEDIATE ENGLISH II STUDENTS (LARGE CLASSES)  Objective: To find out how large Intermediate English II classrooms are  Directions: Choose the answers that best suit you.

1. How many classmates do you have in the English class?
1. 10 – 15 2. 15 – 20 3. More than 20

2. Does your English teacher assign the ideal time to every activity in class?
3. Yes 4. No

5. Are you satisfied with the grades you are getting in your English exams?
1. Yes 2. No

4. Do your intermediate English II classmates behave in class?
1. Yes 2. No

5. Do you consider that the mess in a classroom affects your learning?
1. Yes 2. No

6. Do you think you have enough room to move around while performing activities?
1. Yes 2. No

49

7. Do you think your teacher’s tone of voice is adequate?
3. Yes 4. No

8. Do you think the didactic material your teacher uses has the correct size?
1. Yes 2. No

9. Do your classmates cross-talk during classes?
1. Yes 2. No

10. Are you afraid of committing mistakes in front of your classmates?
1. Yes 2. No

Administrator: Population: Date: Time: 50

UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT SEMINAR I SEMESTER I – 2014

APPENDIX 5

OBSERVATION GUIDE (LARGE CLASSES)  Objective: To find out how large Intermediate English II classrooms are  Directions: Fill in the spaces according to what you observe.

Category

1. Limited Effectiveness

2. Considerable Effectiveness

3. High Degree of Effectiveness

1. Amount of Students

2. Time for Practice

3. Discipline

4. Setting

51

5. Space

6. Visibility Conditions

7. Hearing Conditions

8. Noise

Observer: Population: Date: Time:

52

UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT SEMINAR I SEMESTER I – 2014

APPENDIX 6

OBSERVATION GUIDE (MACRO SKILLS)  Objective: To find out how large classes affect students’ proficiency  Directions: Fill in the spaces according to what you observe.

Category

1. Limited Effectiveness

2. Considerable Effectiveness

3. High Degree of Effectiveness

1. Accuracy

2. Fluency

3. Listening Comprehension

53

4. Reading Comprehension

5. Coherence

Observer: Population: Date: Time:

54

UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT SEMINAR I SEMESTER I – 2014

APPENDIX 7

RATING SCALE (MACRO SKILLS)  Objective: To find out how large classes affect students’ proficiency  Directions: Fill in the spaces according to what you observe. 1. Number of times in which students make mistakes:

1. 0 – 5

2. 6 – 10

3. 11 – 15

4. 16 – 20

5. More than 20

2. Number of times in which students hesitate while talking:

1. 0 – 5

2. 6 – 10

3. 11 – 15

4. 16 – 20

5. More than 20

3. Number of times in which students ask the teacher to repeat any statement:

1. 0 – 5

2. 6 – 10

3. 11 – 15

4. 16 – 20

5. More than 20

4. Number of times the teacher plays an audio track:

1. 0 – 5

2. 6 – 10

3. 11 – 15

4. 16 – 20

5. More than 20

55

5. Number of times students read a passage to understand it:

1. 0 – 5

2. 6 – 10

3. 11 – 15

4. 16 – 20

5. More than 20

6. Number of incoherent statements students produce:

1. 0 – 5

2. 6 – 10

3. 11 – 15

4. 16 – 20

5. More than 20

Observer: Population: Date: Time:

56

UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT SEMINAR I SEMESTER I – 2014

APPENDIX 8

INTERVIEW ADDRESSED TO INTERMEDIATE ENGLISH II STUDENTS (MACRO SKILLS)  Objective: To find out how large classes affect students’ proficiency  Directions: Choose the answers that you get from the respondents.

1. Are you getting the results you expect in your English evaluations?

1. Yes

2. No

2. Do people understand your messages when you speak English?

1. Yes

2. No

3. Do you hesitate when speaking English?

1. Yes

2. No

4. Do you need to listen to an audio track more than twice to understand it?

1. Yes

2. No

57

5. Do you understand main ideas when reading English passages?

1. Yes

2. No

6. Do you think others understand your ideas easily?

1. Yes

2. No

7. Are you afraid of speaking or reading in public?

1. Yes

2. No

Interviewer: Population: Date: Time:

58

UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT SEMINAR I SEMESTER I – 2014

APPENDIX 9

QUESTIONNAIRE ADDRESSED TO INTERMEDIATE ENGLISH II STUDENTS (MACRO SKILLS)  Objective: To find out how large classes affect students’ proficiency  Directions: Choose the answers that best suit you.

1. Do you think you are going to fail intermediate English II?

1. Yes

2. No

2. Do you commit many mistakes when speaking?

1. Yes

2. No

3. Do you hesitate while expressing your ideas in English?

1. Yes

2. No

4. Is it difficult for you to understand others’ ideas in English?

1. Yes

2. No

5. Is it difficult for you to get main ideas from a passage in English?

1. Yes

2. No

59

6. Do you consider that others understand your ideas in English?

1. Yes

2. No

7. Do you worry about making mistakes in class?

1. Yes

2. No

Administrator: Population: Date: Time:

60

UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT SEMINAR I SEMESTER I – 2014

APPENDIX 10

QUESTIONNAIRE ADDRESSED TO INTERMEDIATE ENGLISH II TEACHERS (TEACHING PROCESS)  Objective: To find out how large classes affect the teaching process  Directions: Choose the answers that best suit you. Be as objective and honest as possible.

1. Do you think you deliver effective classes?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. Do you consider that the test results students get are affected by the amount of students in the class?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. Do you think large classes promote students’ bad behaviors in a class?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 4. Do you know all your students’ names?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ 61

5. Do all your activities go the way you plan them?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 6. Do you think the size of the classrooms is appropriate for English classes?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 7. Do you develop every single activity planned in the lesson?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 8. Is it viable for you to build rapport in an overcrowded class?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

9. Do you think the amount of students limits the time for every activity?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

10. Do you go over every single mistake your students commit?
1. Yes 2. No

62

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

11. Do you make sure that your students are working in the given tasks?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

12. Do you take into account the amount of students in your class when assessing?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

Administrator: Population: Date: Time:

APPENDIX 11 63

UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT SEMINAR I SEMESTER I – 2014

OBSERVATION GUIDE (TEACHING PROCESS)  Objective: To find out how large classes affect the teaching process  Directions: Fill in the spaces according to what you observe.

Category

1. Limited Effectiveness

2. Considerable Effectiveness

3. High Degree of Effectiveness

1. Time Management

2. Class Management

3. Classroom Setting

4. Space

5. Interaction with Students

64

6. Flow of Activities

7. Error Correction

8. Monitoring

9. Assessment

Observer: Population: Date: Time:

65

UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT SEMINAR I SEMESTER I – 2014

APPENDIX 12

INTERVIEW ADDRESSED TO INTERMEDIATE ENGLISH II TEACHERS (TEACHING PROCESS)  Objective: To find out how large classes affect the teaching process  Directions: Choose the answers that you get from the respondents. 1. Is it important for teachers to adjust to the time assigned to each activity?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. Do your students cross-talk a lot in class?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. Do all your students pay attention to your explanations?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 4. Do you need to shout in order that all your students listen to you?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

66

5. Do you think there is a cause-effect relationship between the amount of students and students’ test results?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

6. Do you often change the setting of the classroom when teaching?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 7. Is the classroom size ideal for you to move around?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 8. Do you take into consideration all your students’ needs when lesson planning?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 9. Do you know all your students’ name?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

67

10. Do you correct all the mistakes your students commit?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 11. Are you able to monitor all your students’ activities?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 12. Regarding the class size, is it difficult for you to assess your students?
1. Yes 2. No

Why? ____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

Interviewer: Population: Date: Time:

68

UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT SEMINAR I SEMESTER I – 2014

APPENDIX 13

RATING SCALE (TEACHING PROCESS)  Objective: To find out how large classes affect the teaching process  Directions: Fill in the spaces according to what you observe. 1. Number of minutes the teacher talks in a 100-minute class:

1. 0 – 15

2. 16 – 30

3. 31 – 45

4. 46 – 60

5. More than 60

2. Number of minutes students talk in a 100-minute class:

1. 0 – 15

2. 16 – 30

3. 31 – 45

4. 46 – 60

5. More than 60

3. Number of times the teacher demands students’ attention:

1. 0 – 5

2. 6 – 10

3. 11 – 15

4. 16 – 20

5. More than 20

4. Number of times the teacher moves around the classroom:

1. 0 – 5

2. 6 – 10

3. 11 – 15

4. 16 – 20

5. More than 20

69

5. Number of times the teacher interacts with students:

1. 0 – 5

2. 6 – 10

3. 11 – 15

4. 16 – 20

5. More than 20

6. Number of times the teacher corrects students’ mistakes:

1. 0 – 5

2. 6 – 10

3. 11 – 15

4. 16 – 20

5. More than 20

7. Number of times the teacher monitors students’ tasks:

1. 0 – 5

2. 6 – 10

3. 11 – 15

4. 16 – 20

5. More than 20

8. Number of times the teacher does informal assessment in a class:

1. 0 – 5

2. 6 – 10

3. 11 – 15

4. 16 – 20

5. More than 20

Observer: Population: Date: Time:

70

UNIVERSITY OF EL SALVADOR WESTERN MULTIDISCIPLINARY CAMPUS FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT SEMINAR I SEMESTER I – 2014 EXPERT VALIDATION SHEET

APPENDIX 14

Validator’s Name __________________________________ Date of Validation: ________  Directions: Rate the items based on the following scale. Be as objective as possible. 1 Poor 2 Needs Improvement 3 Good 4 Very Good 5 Excellent

I.

Clarity of Instructions and Items

1

2

3

4

5

1. The instructions given were written in simple, specific, clear and comprehensible manner. 2. Questions in each item were written in a brief, concise and unambiguous way. 3. The words and concepts utilized in the instrument can be well understood by the respondents. 4. Questions were written in an affirmative approach. 5. Each item has avoided sentences with “double negatives” as well as “doublebarrels”.

Observations: 1 2 3 4 5

II. Accuracy and Suitability of Items 1. The range of information to be provided included all significant aspects of the study. 2. The number of item per area category is suitable and has represented enough questions. 3. The questions were designed to measure what is supposed to be measured. 4. The researchers strictly followed the ethical standards of research such as respondents’ right to anonymity or confidentiality.

Observations:

71

III. Objectivity and Evaluation Rating System 1. Each item/question requires specific and measurable answer. 2. Possible biases on the part of data collectors have been adequately controlled. 3. Scoring and coding adapted for the questionnaire is appropriate and objective for the items. 4. Responses options cover all significant alternatives.

1

2

3

4

5

Observations: 1 2 3 4 5

IV. Over-all Presentation and Organization 1. The instrument is neat and organized. 2. Instruments’ layout and format appeared to be in well-made draft. 3. Words and other items are free from clerical and grammatical errors.

Observations: 1 2 3 4 5

V.

Attainment of Purpose

1. The objectives of the study are congruent with the information needs of the intended respondents. 2. The instrument as a whole fulfills the objectives for which it was constructed.

Observations:

Over-all Remarks: __________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________ Validator’s signature

72