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Copyright

© 2012 by Mike Reinold and Eric Cressey. This video and manual is copyrighted
by Mike Reinold and Eric Cressey. All Rights Reserved. Images, text, graphics,
and other intellectual property are protected by United States and International
Copyright Laws, and may not be copied, reprinted, published, reengineered,
translated, hosted, reproduced, or otherwise distributed by any means without
explicit permission. You may not copy, modify, create derivative works of,
publicly display or perform, republish, store, transmit, or distribute any of the
material in this video without the prior written consent of the Advanced
Continuing Education Institute.


Disclaimer

This video, manual, and the following guidelines have been provided as general
information for exercise and rehabilitation and are intended for educational
purposes. Any individual beginning exercises contained this video or manual, or
beginning any other exercise program, should first consult with a qualified health
professional. Discontinue any exercise that causes discomfort and/or dysfunction
and consult with a qualified medical professional. Please consult with a physician
prior to implementing any rehabilitation or exercise protocol. This video and
manual does not contain medical advice. The instructions and advice presented
are in no way a substitute for professional testing, instruction, or training. The
creator, producer, and distributor of this video, manual, and program disclaim any
liabilities or loss, personal or otherwise, in connection with the exercises and
advice herein.

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In order to function properly our joints need to be mobile, but control
and stabilization of this mobility is often less than
optimal. Unfortunately, stabilization is often overlooked in the design
of rehabilitation and performance programs. Traditional program
design relies too much on stretching what is tight and strengthening
what is weak. We are missing the boat on stabilization.

Functional Stability Training is designed to optimize
movement
It begins with the simple understanding of how the human body works
most efficiently and integrates those concepts into rehabilitation and
performance training. It is based on functional anatomy and
biomechanics, not simplistic anatomy.

It is a combination of functional assessment, mobility, strengthening,
corrective exercise, manual techniques, dynamic stabilization, and
neuromuscular control.

In essence, this isn’t one system, but rather the integration of thought
processes from several sources and disciplines that Mike Reinold
and Eric Cressey have accumulated during their careers.

Basically, Functional Stability Training is how Mike Reinold
approaches building his rehabilitation programs for injured people
and how Eric Cressey builds corrective exercise progressions for
injury prevention and performance training.

Functional Stability Training is the integration of physical
therapy and performance enhancement training, the
integration of exercises and manual techniques, and the
integration between mobility, strengthening, and dynamic
stabilization.
!"#$%&'

Functional Stability Training – An integrated approach to
rehabilitation and performance training – Reinold
Recent Advances in Core Performance - Understand the concept of
Functional Stability Training for the Core, true function of the spine, and
how this impacts injuries, rehab, and training – Reinold
Maintaining a Training Effect in Spite of Common Lumbar Spine
and Lower Extremity Injuries – Outlines the causes and symptoms of
several common injuries encountered in the lower extremity, and how to
train around these issues to keep clients/athletes fit during rehabilitation
– Cressey
Understanding and Controlling Extension in Athletes – Looks into
the causes of and problems with excessive lumbar extension, anterior
pelvic tilt, and rib flairs in athletes – Cressey
LAB – Assessing Core Movement Quality: Understanding where to
begin with Functional Stability Training exercises for the core – Reinold
LAB – A Dynamic Progression of Core Performance Exercises -
Progression from simple core control to advanced rehab and training
techniques – Reinold
LAB – Understanding and Controlling Extension in Athletes –
Progresses on the previous lecture with specific technique and
coaching cues for exercises aimed toward those with these common
issues – Cressey
LAB – Advanced Stability: Training Power Outside the Sagittal
Plane – Traditional power training programs are predominantly focused
on the sagittal plane, but in most athletic endeavors – especially
rotational sports – power must be displayed in other planes of motion –
Cressey

!"#$% %'( !$%'#)*

Dr. Michael M. Reinold, PT, DPT, SCS, ATC, CSCS
is considered a leader in orthopedic and sports
rehabilitation as a clinician, educator, and researcher.
Mike is currently the Head Physical Therapist of the
Boston Red Sox.
Mike has lectured extensively throughout the nation,
published over 50 scientific journal articles and book
chapters, and is the author of the textbook, The
Athlete’s Shoulder, 2
nd
Edition. Mike’s contributions
to sports medicine have earned recognition by
groups such as the APTA, ESPN, Sports Illustrated,
The Sporting News, Men’s Health, The Boston
Globe, and The Boston Herald.

MikeReinold.com



Eric Cressey, MA, CSCS is the president of
Cressey Performance in Hudson, MA. Cressey is a
highly sought-after coach for healthy and injured
athletes alike from youth sports to the Olympic and
professional ranks, with baseball development as his
greatest focus. Behind Eric’s expertise, Cressey
Performance has rapidly established itself as a go-to
high-performance facility among Boston athletes –
and those that come from abroad to experience CP’s
cutting-edge methods.
Eric has lectured in four countries and more than one
dozen U.S. states; written over 200 articles and four books; contributed on
scientific journal articles and book chapters; and co-created four DVD sets. A
record-setting competitive powerlifter, Cressey has deadlifted 650 pounds at a
body weight of 174 and is recognized as an athlete who can jump, sprint, and lift
alongside his best athletes to push them to higher levels.

EricCressey.com
!"#$%&'#()*%(+&)&%,-$'.

Visit FunctionalStability.com for more information on the FST integrated
rehabilitation and performance system. More information and modules on the
upper and lower extremity coming soon!

















*0'")1234235'3.(#$2-$'.

Visit ShoulderPerformance.com to see Mike and Eric’s other DVD - Optimal
Shoulder Performance. A comprehensive 4-DVD resource of evidence-based
testing, treating, and training the shoulder for health and high performance.



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1. A compiehensive appiove to iehabilitation anu pievention piogiams
2. Tiauitional piogiams miss a ciitical component of peifoimance - stability
S. Emphasis on tiaining the bouy by ieplicating how the bouy functions
4. Besigneu to woik in tanuem with manual theiapy techniques to iestoie
postuie, muscle imbalances, stiength, anu uynamic stability
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1. Nuscles uesigneu to be both piime moveis anu moie impoitantly stabilizeis
2. }oints aie stabilizeu thiough static anu uynamic stability
S. Static stability
a. }oint
b. Ligaments
c. Capsule
4. Bynamic stability
a. Notoi contiol
b. Piopiioception
c. Bynamic stabilization
u. Neuiomusculai contiol
S. Biffeient joints offei uiffeient amounts of static stability
6. The knee anu the shouluei
7. What is the function of the iotatoi cuff.
a. Exteinal anu inteinal iotation. Nope.
b. That is the "action" of the cuff
c. The "function" is to uynamically stabilize the glenohumeial joint
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1. In simple foim - stiengthen what is weak anu mobilize what is tight
2. What about what is loose.
S. We aie gieatei at stiengthening anu stietching
4. Neeu to impiove oui ability to uynamically stabilize

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FST | Functional Stability Tiaining | FunctionalStability.com


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1. Nany put the spine in a uisauvantageous position
2. Lumbai mobility
a. Leaus to gieatei mobility anu instability
S. Abuominal hollowing
a. Boes not piouuce S6u uegiee spinal stability - isolateu TA
4. Sit ups
a. Excessive lumbai flexion places SuuuN of compiessive foice
S. Posteiioi pelvis tilts
a. Places spine in too much flexion
6. Supeiman's
a. Places veiy high compiession loau on spine
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1. Be-emphasize lumbai mobility
2. Inciease musculai stiffness to piotect the spine
S. Inciease musculai stiffness in S6u uegiees aiounu spine
4. Emphasize neutial spine
S. Emphasize enuuiance, not stiength
a. Coie stability not uesigneu to maintain position with moueiate
activity foi long uuiations
b. Bolus foi 8-1u seconus - longei uepletes oxygen anu builus up lactic
aciu
c. Inciease enuuiance thiough iepetitions, not holus
6. Challenge the stabilizing system ianuomly
7. Tiain foi stability in functional motions anu positions (athletes)
8. Stop woiiying about specific muscle activity
a. They aie all impoitant anu involveu in spinal stability
b. Focus on gioups baseu on function
9. This is not an inuepenuent home exeicise piogiam! Impoitance of
coaching¡cueing
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1. Auuition by subtiaction
2. Tiain neutial spine
S. Tiain abuominal biacing
4. Teach piopei muscle fiiing patteins
S. Tiain simultaneous biacing anu extiemity movement
a. Exeicise in stable position
b. Exeicise in unstable position
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11/13/11
1
1he versaule SLrengLh Coach:
MalnLalnlng a 1ralnlng LñecL ln SplLe of
ln[urles - ÞarL 1 (Lower 8ody)
Lrlc Cressey
www.LrlcCressey.com
www.CresseyÞerformance.com
lmporLanL ÞrerequlslLes.
• Þrlmary goal should always be Lo ñx whaLs wrong,
noL [usL keep Lhlngs fun.
• When appllcable, you can always Lraln Lhe unln[ured
llmb wlLh greaL beneñLs.
• know when Lo refer ouL. 1wo mlnds and sklll seLs are
beuer Lhan one!
• Make Lhe aLhleLe feel llke an aLhleLe, noL a pauenL.
• Look Lo soû ussue quallLy early-on.
Spondylolysls: 1he new ACL Lpldemlc?
• Þars lnLerarucularls fracLures
(pars defecL)
• Þars lnLerarucularls: connecLs
Lhe verLebral body ln fronL wlLh
Lhe verLebral [olnLs behlnd
• Scouy uog lracLure
• 1raumauc vs. lnsldlous onseL
• uependlng on locauon, paln may
be cenLrallzed or, more
commonly, laLeral.
lncldence
Soler and Colderon (2000):
– 8° of ellLe Spanlsh aLhleLes añecLed
– hlghesL prevalence (27°) ln Lhose ln Lrack & ñeld Lhrows
– 17° of rowers, 14° of gymnasLs, and 13° of welghLllûers had
spondylolysls
– L3 mosL common (84°), followed by L4 (12°).
– Muluple levels of lnvolvemenL ln only 3° of cases
– 8llaLeral 78° of Lhe ume
– Cnly 30-60° of Lhose dlagnosed acLually reporLed low back paln
– Males and females añecLed equally (alLhough assoclaLed
spondylollsLhesls was hlgher ln females)
– Þresence of spondylolysls ls esumaLed aL 13-63°, wlLh Lhe hlghesL
prevalence among welghLllûers.
1hlngs Lo Conslder.
• ls Lhe paLhology Lhe problem? Cr, are
muluple paLhologles maklng people more
sympLomauc?
• Are some aLhleLes [usL walung Lo reach
Lhreshold?
• My guess ls LhaL lL ls much hlgher now (seven
years laLer). Why?

As always.
• Lveryone wanLs Lo compeLe, buL noL Lraln.
• Soclally and economlcally, opporLunlues for
sporL paruclpauon year-round are avallable.
• We slL Loo much.
• Modern fooLwear ls aLroclous.
11/13/11
2
Whlch has led Lo.
• A sLandard rule ln sporLs medlclne: any
adolescenL aLhleLe wlLh lumbar paln of
durauon >3 days musL geL a bone scan Lo
rule ouL a fracLure
• lrequenLly go undlagnosed and wlll
frequenLly respond Lo mosL modallues
(heaL, lce, LMS, uS, massage, exerclse w/
o exLenslon and even chlropracuc
manlpulauon).
• 1hese modallues LreaL paln, spasm,
lnßammauon, eLc., buL Lhe fracLure
remalns.
• AcuLe dlagnosls ls rare, buL lf lL happens,
lLs 12-16 weeks of braclng - and
generally wlLh very good heallng.
uebaLed 1reaLmenL ÞroLocols
ur. !onaLhan 8eeser: AlLhough some cllnlclans recommend
braclng Lo mlnlmlze exLenslon and resulLanL shear forces
across Lhe añecLed segmenL, some evldence from
blomechanlcal sLudles lndlcaLes LhaL lumbosacral braclng may
acLually lncrease lnLersegmenLal mouon aL Lhe lumbosacral
[uncuon. 1herefore, Lhe prevalllng oplnlon appears Lo be LhaL
braclng should be used only for lndlvlduals who remaln
sympLomauc desplLe auempung Lo llmlL Lhelr acuvlues, or for
Lhose who requlre a physlcal/Lacule remlnder Lo avold
provocauve acuvlues.
8ack-8raclng: 8rlnglng 1he Þendulum 8ack Lo
CenLer?
Spinal Level Degrees of Rotation
T1-2 9
T2-3 8
T3-4 8
T4-5 8
T5-6 8
T6-7 8
T7-8 8
T8-9 7
T9-10 4
T10-11 2
T11-12 2
T12-L1 2
L1-2 2
L2-3 2
L3-4 2
L4-5 2
L5-S1 0-5
8emember.
MoLor ConLrol:
8eglnner vs. Advanced
8lsk lacLors - lnLrlnslc
• Þoor bone mlneral denslLy(*)
• Þoor lower llmb allgnmenL and fooL sLrucLure(*)
• laulLy muscular recrulLmenL pauerns (*)
• PelghL - 1aller (non-modlñable)
• 8ody 1ype - longer splne (non-modlñable)
• Þoor condluonlng/muscular faugue(*)
• 8one paLhologles (refer ouL)
• MensLrual/hormonal lrregularlues (refer ouL)
• Ceneuc predlsposluon: lnulL > Caucaslan > Afrlcan-Amerlcan (non-
modlñable)
11/13/11
3
8lsk lacLors - LxLrlnslc
• lnapproprlaLe Lralnlng reglmen or surface (*)
• Sporung dlsclpllne: SporLs demandlng repeuuve lumbar hyperexLenslon,
Lrunk roLauon, and/or axlal loadlng (* shorL-Lerm, poLenually modlñable
long-Lerm)
• looLwear (*)
• Clgareue smoklng (*)
• lnsumclenL nuLrluon - calorles, calclum, vlLamln u (*)
ConLrol whaL we can conLrol.
• Look aL Lhe * from above
• Make sure Lhere a) ls a physlcal LheraplsL
lnvolved (wlLh manual Lherapy) and b) he/she
ls proacuve
• 8emember Lhe psychologlcal aspecL of Lhls for
a young aLhleLe
• AppreclaLe Lhe resLrlcuons of Lhe brace
llexlon vs. LxLenslon-lnLoleranL
• More paln ln slmng (ßexlon) or sLandlng
(exLenslon)?
• Look aL a baslc overhead squaL:
– uoes Lhe buu Luck under? (llexlon)
– uoes Lhe arch remaln, buL Lhe lndlvldual comes up
on Lhe heels - or sLop dead? (LxLenslon)
• lLs [usL Lhe paLh of leasL reslsLance.
8raclng lssues
1. lL ls so easy Lo be lazy wlLh good posLure. Loss of
moLor conLrol of key core sLablllzers: LheraplsL should
geL Lhem ouL of Lhe brace weekly
2. 8esLrlcLs full hlp ßexlon and exLenslon 8CM
3. Can acLually resLrlcL 1-Splne 8CM
4. 1endency Loward hlp roLauon asymmeLrles (especlally
posL-braclng): need for sprlnL mechanlcs work posL-
braclng
3. Avold pronounced axlal loadlng
6. no roLauonal Lralnlng for durauon of braclng: all plyos
(<90¨ hlp ßexlon) and med ball Lhrows musL be llnear
7. 1hlnk anu-roLaLor Lralnlng
llexlon lnLoleranL
• 1end Lo slL ln ßexlon/
posLerlor Þ1
• ÞresenL more llke dlsc
ln[ury cases
• 8rlng cenLer of gravlLy
up Lo drlve subLle
lumbar exLenslon
• PamsLrlngs
moblllzauons, psoas
recrulLmenL
• Cverhead Slngle-leg
Work
LxLenslon-lnLoleranL
• CluLe Acuvauon
– Suplne 8rldges and progresslons
– 8lrddogs
– Þull-1hrough and Wall March lsomeLrlc Polds
• Cpumlze 8CM lnLo hlp exLenslon
• Check feeL closely, pronaLors Lend Lo be
more problemauc.
11/13/11
4
1he Scoop on ulsc ln[urles
• 1994 nL!M sLudy
• 8esearchers senL senL M8ls of 98 "healLhy" backs Lo
varlous docLors, and asked Lhem Lo dlagnose Lhem.
• 80° of Lhe M8l lnLerpreLauons came back wlLh dlsc
hernlauons and bulges. ln 38° of Lhe pauenLs, Lhere
was lnvolvemenL of more Lhan one dlsc.
• ApproxlmaLely 83° of lower back paln cases have no
deñnluve dlagnosls
So Lhe answer Lo Lhe Lrlck quesuon ls.
• ?oure probably already Lralnlng people
around dlsc ln[urles!
• MosL [usL arenL sympLomauc because no
nerves are belng lmplnged (dlsc lssue ls
sLable).
• AdequaLe funcuon of Lhe AC1lvL resLralnLs
proLecLs Lhe passlve resLralnLs.
More 8esearch.
• Cappozzo eL al. found LhaL squamng Lo parallel wlLh 1.6 umes body
welghL (whaL ld call average for an ordlnary weekend warrlor
who llûs recreauonally) led Lo compresslve loads of Len umes body
welghL aL L3-L4 (1). 1haLs 7000n for a guy who welghs abouL
abouL 130.
• ln a sLudy of 37 Clymplc llûers, Cholewlckl eL al. found LhaL L4-L3
compresslve loads were greaLer Lhan 17,000n
• McClll: 1he splne doesnL buckle unul 12,000-13,000n of pressure
ls applled ln compresslon (or 1,800-2,800n ln shear) - so lL goes
wlLhouL saylng LhaL were playlng wlLh ñre, Lo a degree.
Pow do we prevenL dlsc lssues
from becomlng sympLomauc?
• Avold lumbar ßexlon, especlally wlLh roLauon
and compresslon, by:
– lncreaslng ankle moblllLy
– lncreaslng Lhoraclc splne moblllLy
– lncreaslng hlp moblllLy
• SLablllze Lhe lumbar splne wlLhln Lhe 8CM lL
already has
Pow do we prevenL dlsc lssues from
becomlng sympLomauc?
• ueload Lhe splne
• 8e-educaLe cllenLs on Lhelr neuLral splne
• 8e careful wlLh early mornlng Lralnlng
• 8educe body faL
– Lumbar compensauons
– Makes dlagnosuc lmaglng easler!!!!
• llx asymmeLrles
• SporLs Pernla cases
• lemoroaceLabular lmplngemenL (lAl)
• Plp Labral lssues
• ShorL, dense, ñbrouc, ungodly dlsgusung
adducLors
• Þoor hlp lnLernal roLauon and exLenslon
• Þoor psoas recrulLmenL
• LxLenslon-based back lssues, hlsLory of groln/
lower abdomlnal paln, hlp paln
Pockey: WhaL Lo LxpecL.
11/13/11
5
• AdducLor Longus & 8ecLus Abdomlnus lnLeracuon aL
AdducLor Aponeurosls on Þubls
• Zone of Convergence for AdducLor Longus (mosL anLerlor
of adducLors, buL posLerlor Lo pecuneus)
• Cmar lM, eL al. ALhleuc pubalgla and "sporLs hernla:
opumal M8 lmaglng Lechnlque and ñndlngs.
8adlographlcs. 2008 Sep-CcL,28(3):1413-38.
SporLs Pernla Conslderauons
• 1rue AnLagonlsLs
• 8A: posLerlor, superlor force -> elevaLes publs
• AL: anLerlor, lnferlor force -> depresses publs
• ln cadavers, cumng Lhe 8A lncreases anLerlor ulL and pressure
ln adducLors.
• An ln[ury Lo one of Lhese Lendons predlsposes Lhe opposlng
Lendon Lo ln[ury by boLh alLerlng Lhe blomechanlcs and
dlsrupung Lhe anaLomlc conugulLy of Lhe LenoperlosLeal
orlglns. ln Lurn, such dlsrupuon leads Lo lnsLablllLy of Lhe
publc symphysls.
• 8ead everyLhlng you can from Cmar lM, Zoga AC eL al. under
aLhleuc pubalgla.
SporLs Pernla Conslderauons
• Þaln ls your gulde!
• MosL unllaLeral Lralnlng ls ouL.
• Lveryone can sull do 1-leg 8uL, 1-leg hlp LhrusLs, eLc.
Some can do sLep-ups.
• Cverhead presslng Anu pulllng can be problemauc.
• Þronounced axlal loadlng should be avolded.
• SLay away from anu-exLenslon core work: no
rollouLs, overhead medlclne ball sLomps, ßuuers,
fallouLs, eLc. Some folks wlll even have lssues wlLh
prone brldglng varlauons.
SporLs Pernla 1ralnlng Conslderauons
• 8esL!
• Cûen a qulck reLurn Lo
sporLs w/ouL addresslng
causauve facLors.
• lmprove hlp lnLernal
roLauon and exLenslon.
• AcuvaLe gluLes, psoas,
and pelvlc ßoor muscles
SporLs Pernla 1ralnlng Conslderauons
• AdducLors
• Plp exLernal roLaLors
• 8ecLus femorls
• l1 band
• 1lL
• vasLus laLeralls
Soû 1lssue Work
Lavlgne M, Þarvlzl !, 8eck M, Slebenrock kA, Canz 8, Leunlg M. AnLerlor
femoroaceLabular lmplngemenL: parL l. 1echnlques of [olnL preservlng
surgery. Clln CrLhop 8elaL 8es. 2004 !an,(418):61-6.

11/13/11
6
ls a Plp Any ulñerenL 1han a
Shoulder?
• AnLerlor scapular ulL = anLerlor pelvlc ulL
• 8eacuve changes Lo acromlon, [usL llke Lhe
femoral head and/or aceLabulum
• Where do we see lAl Lhe mosL? LxLenslon-
roLauon-based sporLs: hockey, soccer,
baseball
• A losL squaL pauern ln a 9-12 year-old aLhleLe
ls a blg concern, ln my eyes.
• Many of Lhe lssues are slmllar Lo whaL you see wlLh
sporLs hernla cases.
• uC nC1 SCuA1 An A1PLL1L Wl1P lAl!!!!!!
• !usL abouL all slngle-leg work ls okay - and lLs
acLually very beneñclal.
• 1orn labrum? Þoor hlp sLablllLy.
• uonL overlook assoclaLed lssues: back paln
(especlally on same slde), sporLs hernla, labral
paLhologles
• Many aLhleLes do ñne w/ouL Lhe surgery, lL ls sporL-
and posluon-speclñc.
lAl 1ralnlng Conslderauons
• Conslder Lhe dlñerenL
femoral auachmenL
polnLs of Lhe gluLes and
hamsLrlngs
• CluLes have far more
conLrol over Lhe femoral
head.
AnLerlor Plp Þaln: CLher
• Shlrley Sahrmann
• AnLerlor capsule lrrlLauon can occur wlLh hlp
exLenslon lf Lhere lsnL adequaLe femoral
head conLrol (posLerlor pull) durlng hlp
exLenslon.
lemoral AnLerlor Cllde Syndrome
Worklng around ACL rehabs.
• Look Lo Lhe causes
– PyperexLenslon?
– Adducuon/lnLernal 8oLauon?
– WhaL conLrols/deceleraLes Lhese acuons?
• 8elaLed lssues: MCL? ÞCL? LCL? Menlscus?
• ulñerenL reconsLrucuon sLraLegles
• Craû slLes:
– ÞaLellar 1endon
– PamsLrlngs
– Allograû (cadaver)
My Lxperlence
• 1he lasLesL 8ecoverles lnclude:
– Manual 1herapy
– 8CM as Lhe #1 lndlcaLor
– 8ulld sLrengLh Lhrough Lhe 8CM one creaLes
– 1ralnlng Lhe unln[ured llmb exLenslvely
– Loads of work for Lhe posLerlor chaln as hlp exLensors
• Þrogrammlng ls a paln because Lhey progress so
fasL!
• Cyberneuc perlodlzauon
11/13/11
7
LeLs 1alk AnLerlor knee Þaln.
• Cuad domlnanL vs. Plp domlnanL squamng
• lLs noL laLeral paLellar Lracklng, lLs poor
conLrol of femoral lnLernal roLauon!
• ÞosLerlor Chaln Lxerclses!
• Slngle-leg classlñcauons
– SLauc SupporLed/unsupporLed
– uynamlc Accelerauve and uecelerauve
• Ankle MoblllLy? Plp MoblllLy? 1lssue CuallLy?
1ralnlng Lhe ÞosLerlor Chaln
• ueadllû varlauons: sumo, convenuonal, Lrap
bar, rack pulls
• Þull-1hroughs
• keulebell Swlngs
• Plp 1hrusLs
• CluLe-Pam 8alses
SLaucs
• SupporLed
– 8ulgarlan SpllL SquaLs
– SpllL SquaLs
• unsupporLed
– 1-leg squaLs Lo bench (plsLols)
– 1-leg 8uL
– 1-arm, 1-leg 8uL
uynamlcs
• Accelerauve
– 8everse Lunges
– SLep-ups
• uecelerauve - mosL sLressful/advanced
– lorward lunges
– Walklng lunges
AnLerlor knee Þaln: Cuelng
• WelghL on heels (pull Lhrough Lhem)
• AcuvaLe gluLes and hamsLrlngs
• urlve knee over llule Loe
• Long SLrlde
Ankle lssues
• uurlng and posL-braclng, dorslßexlon ls
llmlLed.
• May lmpalr everyLhlng from squamng Lo
sprlnung
• Load unañecLed leg durlng lmmoblllzauon
perlod
• 8everse LxLenslons
• use slldeboard reverse lunges as progresslon
back.
11/13/11
8
lmporLanL 1akeaways
• Work hand-ln-hand wlLh rehablllLauon speclallsLs Lo
formulaLe an approprlaLe reLurn-Lo-acuon plan
• 8emember LhaL dlñerenL shoulder condluons
mandaLe dlñerenL Lralnlng modlñcauons
• undersLandlng Lhe causes, sympLoms, and
exacerbaung exerclses for each condluon noL only
makes lL easler Lo recover from Lhe problem, buL Lo
prevenL lLs recurrence.
11/13/11
1
undersLandlng and ConLrolllng
LxLenslon ln ALhleLes
Lrlc Cressey, MA, CSCS
lounder/ÞresldenL - Cressey Þerformance
www.CresseyÞerformance.com
www.LrlcCressey.com

Cverreacuon/underreacuon
• Alwyn Cosgrove: 8rlng Lhe Þendulum 8ack Lo
CenLer
• lor a long ume, we dldn'L Lhlnk Lhe core was
lmporLanL.
• 1hen we overfocused and dld Lhousands of
slL-ups and crunches and made people worse.
• now we are deaLhly afrald of movlng a splne
Lhrough ßexlon or exLenslon.
llexlon ! LxLenslon
ls llexlon Lhe uevll?
• Maybe ln desk [ockeys
• AcLually, Lhe devll ls ln Lhe deLalls.
• llexlon "# neuLral ls much dlñerenL Lhan
ßexlon $%#& neuLral.
• MosL young aLhleLes llve ln exLenslon (and
roLauon).
WhaL Lo vlsuallze
• AnLerlor Þelvlc 1llL and
lncreased Lordouc Curve
• AnLerlor WelghL 8earlng
• Þ8l: ulmlnlshed Zone of
Apposluon
• AlLered dlaphragm funcuon
• SupplemenLal resplraLory
muscles musL plck up Lhe slack
• Lean guys look faL secondary Lo
anLerlor pelvlc ulL
luncuonal AnaLomy
• !anda: Lower Crossed Syndrome
• Many Lhlnk lL ls [usL an ºx," buL ln reallLy,
Lhere are many checks and balances wlLhln
LhaL x.
• Lxamples, CluLe Max/PamsLrlngs, CluLe Max/
AdducLor Magnus, LxLernal Cbllques/8ecLus
Abdomlnus
11/13/11
2
ÞoLenual ln[urles.
• Achllles Lendlnosls/rupLure, anLerlor knee
paln, proxlmal hamsLrlngs Lendlnosls,
hamsLrlngs sLraln, hlp ßexor sLraln, anLerlor
hlp lrrlLauon, femoroaceLabular lmplngemenL,
sporLs hernla, lumbar sLress fracLure, lumbar
erecLor or CL sLraln, eLc.
• And LhaL's [usL Lhe lower-body and core!
1he 8lg Þlayers: Lausslmus uorsl
• Many auachmenLs
make lL a powerful
exLensor
• Movlng Lhe enure
splne vs. movlng Lhe
scapula on Lhe rlb cage
• Less dlrecL conLrol
over L-splne
1he 8lg Þlayers: Lausslmus uorsl
• LlmlL shoulder ßexlon, along
wlLh long head of Lrlceps
• LaLs lnLernally roLaLe Lhe
shoulder - whlch ls one more
reason many aLhleLes can'L
exLernally roLaLe Lhe shoulder
w/ouL lumbar exLenslon
• ur. Luke Ch: 47° of elbow
paln cases presenL wlLh
subluxaung medlal Lrlceps
(snapplng elbow)
1he 8lg Þlayers: Plp llexors
• ShorL?
• Suñ?
• 1lL? 8ecLus lemorls?
Þsoas?
• 1homas 1esL
1he 8lg Þlayers: Lumbar LrecLors
• Where ls Lhe hyperLrophy?
• Lumbar vs. 1horaclc LrecLors
1he 8lg Þlayers: PamsLrlngs
• Why can hamsLrlngs be ºughL?"
– Þrevlous ln[ury
– ShorLness
– neural Lenslon
– Suñness: ÞroLecuve Lenslon
• PamsLrlngs posLerlor ulL Lhe pelvls, Lhey may
be Lhe only Lhlng prevenung deblllLaung
exLenslon-based back paln.
11/13/11
3
1he 8lg Þlayers: ÞlanLarßexors
• ConsLanLly ºon"
because of anLerlor
welghL bearlng
• Lack dorslßexlon
• ºLose" Lhe squaL
pauern
• Can only squaL wlLh
heel llû (dorslßexlon Lo
neuLral)
So we [usL need Lo sLreLch, rlghL?
• WhaL does sLreLchlng really do? uo we even
know whaL we're really sLreLchlng?
• Welngroñ: ºCeL Long, CeL SLrong, 1raln Pard."
• CeL Long: loam 8olllng, Manual 1herapy,
uynamlc llexlblllLy, ?oga, ÞllaLes, Þ8l, unS,
AlS, MA1, ASAÞ, C8S1uv, or whaLever oLher
acronym you prefer.
• Sahrmann: more abouL creaung suñness Lhan
ºsLreLchlng."
1he Law of 8epeuuve Mouon
! # $%&'(
• l = lnsulL/ln[ury Lo Lhe ussues
• n = number of repeuuons
• l = lorce or Lenslon of each repeuuon as a
percenL of maxlmum muscle sLrengLh
• A = AmpllLude of each repeuuon
• 8 = 8elaxauon ume beLween repeuuons
(lack of pressure or Lenslon on Lhe ussue)

1he Law of 8epeuuve Mouon
• Why ls lL so challenglng Lo change lower-
body posLure and anLerlor pelvlc ulL?
• SLandlng and slmng are consLanL ºn."
• 1here ls no º8."
• Many aLhleLes compeLe aL exLremely hlgh
levels wlLh raglng anLerlor pelvlc ulL and
lordosls: ºl."
! # $%&'(
1he 8lg Þlayers: CluLeus Maxlmus
• Acuve ln all Lhree planes
• LxLernal 8oLaLor, AbducLor,
LxLensor
• ConLrols lnLernal 8oLauon,
Adducuon, llexlon
• Anu-ÞronaLor
• 8rldglng ! Wall March
!8owler SquaLs
!SLrengLh 1ralnlng
1he 8lg Þlayers: LxLernal Cbllques
• Conslder polnLs of
auachmenL as compared
Lo recLus abdomlnus
• ÞosLerlorly ulLs pelvls w/
ouL lncreaslng kyphosls
• 8everse Crunch
Þrogresslons and
8egresslons
11/13/11
4
1he 8lg Þlayers: uorslßexors
• u8 uorslßexlon
• 8and uorslßexlon
1he 8lg Þlayers: Lower 1rapezlus
• Works w/serraLus anLerlor and upper
Lrapezlus Lo upwardly roLaLe Lhe scapula
• Þrone 1-arm 1rap 8alse oñ 1able
• lorearm Wall Slldes aL 133 degrees
• 8emember LhaL scapular posluonlng ls heavlly
lnßuenced by Lhoraclc splne roLauon
1he 8lg Þlayers: SerraLus AnLerlor
• SerraLus anLerlor ls more acuve aL greaLer
angles of humeral elevauon, whlch lsn'L
posslble wlLh llmlLed shoulder ßexlon
secondary Lo resLrlcuons ln laL, long head of
Lrlceps, eLc.
• lorearm Wall Slldes
• lorearm Wall Slldes w/8and
• leeL-LlevaLed Þush-up varlauons
• Scap Þush-ups/Þush-up Þlus?
1he 8lg Þlayers: ÞosLerlor 8oLaLor Cuñ
• Þrone LxLernal 8oLauon, (Manual) Slde-Lylng
LxLernal 8oLauon - arm abducLed 30 degrees
• Palf-kneellng (Manual/Cable) LxLernal
8oLauons aL 90 degrees - scapular plane
• SLandlng (Manual/Cable) LxLernal 8oLauons aL
90 degrees - scapular plane
1he 8lg Þlayers: ueep neck llexors
• 1each Lhe Þacked neck!!!
• Suplne Chln 1ucks ! SLandlng Chln 1ucks
! Cuadruped Chln 1ucks
Cverlooked Þauerns Lo 8egaln
• ueep SquaL
– ueep SquaL 8elly 8reaLhlng w/LaL SLreLch
– 18x SquaLs
– CobleL SquaLs
• Slngle-leg ConLrol
– Slde-Lylng Clam ! 8owler SquaLs
– SymmeLrlcal Loadlng Slngle-leg Lxerclses
– Cñ-SeL Load Slngle-leg Lxerclses
– Slngle-leg Lxerclses w/8alsed CCC
• lull Shoulder llexlon
– Soû 1lssue: 8olllng and Manual 1herapy
– ueep SquaL 8elly 8reaLhlng w/LaL SLreLch
– Slde-Lylng lnLernal-LxLernal 8oLauon
– lorearm Wall Slldes, Cverhead Shrugs?
– Cverhead Carrles & SLablllzauons
11/13/11
3
Cverlooked Þauerns Lo 8egaln
• lull Shoulder llexlon
– Soû 1lssue: 8olllng and Manual 1herapy
– ueep SquaL 8elly 8reaLhlng w/LaL SLreLch
– Slde-Lylng lnLernal-LxLernal 8oLauon
– lorearm Wall Slldes, Cverhead Shrugs?
– Cverhead Carrles & SLablllzauons
• non-8ecLus-uomlnanL 8rldglng
• 8oLary SLablllLy w/ouL LxLenslon
A 1yplcal Week
• uay 1: Anu-8oLauon urlll, 8everse Crunch,
Þrone 8rldge varlauon
uay 2: Anu-LxLenslon urlll, Slde 8rldge
uay 3: Anu-8oLauon urlll, 8everse crunch,
Þrone 8rldge varlauon
uay 4: Anu-LxLenslon urlll, Slde brldge
Also mlx ln: CeL-up varlauons
• Above all else: change Lhe way aLhleLes/
cllenLs llve!
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1. Puipose of oui assessment is two folu:
a. Rule out pathology
b. Finu oui staiting point foi exeicise
2. Combination of seveial components
a. Postuie
b. Isolateu coie movements
c. Integiateu functional movements
S. Piovocative tests, myotomes, ueimatomes, ieflexes
4. Stanuaiu cleaiing of joints, muscle imbalances, anu mobility ueficiencies
shoulu also be peifoimeu

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1. Beteimine if beginning exeicise is safe
2. 4 "ieu flag" questions you shoulu ask eveiy peison:
a. Bave you hau a iecent tiaumatic event.
b. Bo you have any numbness, tingling, buining, oi weakness in youi
legs.
c. Bave you hau any iecent episoues of illness, fevei, chills, oi night
sweats.
u. Bo you have any issues with youi bowel oi blauuei.
S. Piovocative tests
a. Beel uiop test
i. Assesses enu plate fiactuies
b. Seateu compiession test
i. Assesses compiession intoleiance with pooi postuie
c. Pione anu stanuing extension test
i. Assesses the facets, pais, lamina, neive ioot, anteiioi uisc
u. Pione instability test
i. Assesses sheai instability
4. Neuial tests
a. Slump
b. Stiaight leg iaise
Assessing Coie Novement Quality
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FST | Functional Stability Tiaining | FunctionalStability.com


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1. Stanuing postuie most commonly obseiveu
2. Will leain a lot about the peison's ueficiencies
S. uoal is to iuentify aieas of muscle imbalance anu mobility ueficiencies that
will impact coie movement quality

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1. Stait with functional movement pattein assessment - stait with the laige
pictuies
2. Likely a combination of mobility, stiength, anu stability ueficits
S. We aie masteis of compensation
4. Can assess basic functional movements oi piogiess to auvanceu
a. Balance
b. Activities of uaily living anu tiansitions
c. Functional movement scieen
S. Balance
a. Stanuing stoik stance
b. Auu eyes closeu
c. Auu peituibations
6. Activities of uaily living anu tiansitions
a. Sitting ! iaising fiom chaii
b. Benuing foiwaiu
c. Rolling
u. Laying uown ! sitting
e. Walking
7. Functional movement scieen

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1. Initially moie impoitant than functional movements
2. Functional movements iequiie mobility, stiength, anu stability
S. Impaiiments in isolateu coie movements will not allow piopei integiateu
functional movements
4. Stepping stone to integiateu functional movements
S. Shoulu be qualitative anu quantitative
a. Stability anu enuuiance

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11/13/11
2
18x lallouLs/lluuers
• vlrLually ldenucal cues as wlLh sLablllLy ball
rollouLs, buL more challenglng.
• 1he lower Lhe handles, Lhe greaLer Lhe
dlmculLy.
8everse Crunch
• Þrogresslons and 8egresslons
• Slmpllñed: avold anLerlor ulL and forward
head posLure
• Peavler counLerbalance overhead = easler
movemenL
• knees Lo elbows
• Cnce load ls as llghL as lL can be, progress Lo
feeL Lo ßoor w/ouL loslng proxlmlLy Lo gluLes.
Slde-Lylng lnLernal-LxLernal 8oLauon
• lmproves lengLh of pec ma[or and mlnor, laLs,
and long head of Lrlceps
• CpposlLe hand up
• Pead resung on ßoor
• uon'L allow worklng arm Lo drlû forward
• May be besL preceded by slde-lylng wlndmlll
(greaLer L-splne moblllLy allows for greaLer
glenohumeral moblllLy)
11/13/11
3
Lower 1rap Þrogresslons
• Þrone 1-arm 1rap 8alse (and LxLernal 8oLauon) - gluLe
acuvauon, chln Lucked, core braced
• lorearm Wall Slldes (w/band)
• lorearm Wall Slldes aL 133 degrees (maLches llne of
pull of lower Lraps)
• Allowlng shrugglng ls okay lf someone ls sLuck ln
downward roLauon (very downsloped shoulders).
• 8egardless: acuvaLe gluLes, lock rlb cage Lo pelvls (no
lumbar exLenslon) and avold forward head posLure
• Make Lhe shoulder blades move on Lhe rlb cage!
11/13/11
1
Lab: Advanced SLablllLy:
1ralnlng Þower CuLslde Lhe Saglual Þlane
Lrlc Cressey, MA, CSCS
Þalrlng #1
A1) 8oLauonal Med 8all Scoop 1oss
A2) CluLe Wall March lso Polds
81) Cverhead Med 8all SLomp Lo lloor
82) Plps Plgh Pand SwlLches

Þalrlng #2
A1) 8oLauonal Med 8all ShoLpuL
A2) SpllL-SLance kneellng AdducLor Mobs
81) 8ecolled 8ollover SLomps Lo lloor
82) Suplne 8rldge w/8each

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