Quadratic Functions

Standards
14.0 Students solve a quadratic equation by factoring or completing the square. 19.0 Students know the quadratic formula and are familiar with its proof by completing the square. 20.0 Students use the quadratic formula to find the roots of a seconddegree polynomial and to solve quadratic equations. 21.0 Students graph quadratic functions and know that their roots are the x-intercepts. 23.0 Students apply quadratic equations to physical problems, such as the motion of an object under the force of gravity.

Chapter 10

Lesson 10.3

Lesson 10.3

Additional Items Involving Solutions to Equations
Objectives: 1. Find the number and kind of solutions to a quadratic equation by using the discriminant. 2. Find an unknown constant in quadratic equation so that there is exactly one solution. 3. Find an equation from its solutions.

The Discriminant
The expression under the radical sign in the formula (b2 – 4ac) is called the discriminant. The discriminant will take on a value that is positive, 0, or negative. The value of the discriminant indicates two distinct real solutions, one real solution, or no real solutions, respectively.

If the discriminant b² − 4ac is

a) Positive:
►and

a perfect square 2 real, rational solutions ►and is not a perfect square 2 real, irrational solutions

b) Negative: The roots are 2 imaginary/complex c) Zero: 1 real, rational

Example 1: Find the discriminant and find the nature of the roots.

4 x  25  20x
2

a = 4, b = -20, c = 25 b2 – 4ac = (-20)2 - 4(4)(25) = 400-400 = 0 zero Hence, there is one real, rational root

Example 2: Find the discriminant and find the nature of the roots.

3x  2  5 x
2

a= 3, b = -5, c = 2 b2 – 4ac = (5) 2  4(3)( 2)  25  24  1 positive Hence, two real rational roots

Example 3
Use the discriminant to determine the number and type of solutions for the following equation.

5 – 4x + 12x2 = 0
a = 12, b = –4, and c = 5 b2 – 4ac = (–4)2 – 4(12)(5) = 16 – 240 = –224 (negative) Hence, there are 2 complex solutions.

Example 4: Determine k so that the equation has exactly one real, rational solution.

kx  40x  25
2

a= k, b = -40, c = -25 b2 – 4ac = (40 ) 2  4(k )( 25 )  1600  100 k
100k  1600 k  16

Example 5: Find an equation that has the following solutions.
y= 2, y = -2, y = 4 y-2 = 0 y+2 = 0 y-4=0

(y-2) (y+2) (y – 4) = 0
(y2 – 4) (y – 4) = 0 y3 – 4y2 – 4y + 16 = 0

Homework
Problem Set 10.3 TB pp. 622-623 (Multiples of 4 numbers 4, 8, …, 52)