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MANUALES
Hacia una visión crítica de la ciencia.
Esther Díaz
Mario Heler
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EPITORIAL UNIVERSITARIA DE BUENOS AIRES
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I. ¿QUÉ ES LA CIENCIA? ,
1. LA CIENCIA Y LA CRISIS DE NUESTRA ÉPOCA
Preguntar por la ciencia no debiera parecer una tarea innecesaria para
el hombre contemporáneo. En efecto, el impacto del desarrollo científico y
tecnológico en el siglo XX se manifiesta en todos lodmbitos del quehacer hu-
mano.
Desarrollemos la imaginación: ¿qué ocurriria si m:ígic:1111ente desaparc-
ciC'ran los componentes cicntlficos -es decir, lo' co11oci111irntos y las apliLa-
cioncs de las ciencias- de nuestro mundo actual? Evidentement e, la ·c1ista11-
cia que media entre los hombres de la caverna y nosotros clis111i11u:ria enorme-
mente. Desde la simple aspirina hasta el traspla11te de Órganos, cunw los tcji·
dos sintéticos, el avión, y la telc","doc_promotions_enabled":false,"static_promo_banner_cta_url":""},"eligible_for_exclusive_trial_roadblock":false,"eligible_for_seo_roadblock":false,"exclusive_free_trial_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/exclusive-free-trial-props/215297427","flashes":[],"footer_props":{"urls":{"about":"/about","press":"/press","blog":"http://literally.scribd.com/","careers":"/careers","contact":"/contact","plans_landing":"/subscribe","referrals":"/referrals?source=footer","giftcards":"/giftcards","faq":"/faq","accessibility":"/accessibility-policy","faq_paths":{"accounts":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246346","announcements":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246066","copyright":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246086","downloading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210135046","publishing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","reading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246406","selling":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246326","store":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","status":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/360001202872","terms":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246126","writing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","adchoices":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210129366","paid_features":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","failed_uploads":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210134586-Troubleshooting-uploads-and-conversions","copyright_infringement":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210128946-DMCA-copyright-infringement-takedown-notification-policy","end_user_license":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129486","terms_of_use":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129326-General-Terms-of-Use"},"publishers":"/publishers","static_terms":"/terms","static_privacy":"/privacy","copyright":"/copyright","ios_app":"https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/scribd-worlds-largest-online/id542557212?mt=8&uo=4&at=11lGEE","android_app":"https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.scribd.app.reader0&hl=en","books":"/books","sitemap":"/directory"}},"global_nav_props":{"header_props":{"logo_src":"/images/landing/home2_landing/scribd_logo_horiz_small.svg","root_url":"https://www.scribd.com/","search_term":"","small_logo_src":"/images/logos/scribd_s_logo.png","uploads_url":"/upload-document","search_props":{"redirect_to_app":true,"search_url":"/search","query":"","search_page":false}},"user_menu_props":null,"sidebar_props":{"urls":{"bestsellers":"https://www.scribd.com/bestsellers","home":"https://www.scribd.com/","saved":"/saved","subscribe":"/archive/pmp_checkout?doc=215297427&metadata=%7B%22context%22%3A%22pmp%22%2C%22action%22%3A%22start_trial%22%2C%22logged_in%22%3Afalse%2C%22platform%22%3A%22web%22%7D","top_charts":"/bestsellers","upload":"https://www.scribd.com/upload-document"},"categories":{"book":{"icon":"icon-ic_book","icon_filled":"icon-ic_book_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/books","name":"Books","type":"book"},"news":{"icon":"icon-ic_articles","icon_filled":"icon-ic_articles_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/news","name":"News","type":"news"},"audiobook":{"icon":"icon-ic_audiobook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_audiobook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/audiobooks","name":"Audiobooks","type":"audiobook"},"magazine":{"icon":"icon-ic_magazine","icon_filled":"icon-ic_magazine_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/magazines","name":"Magazines","type":"magazine"},"document":{"icon":"icon-ic_document","icon_filled":"icon-ic_document_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/docs","name":"Documents","type":"document"},"sheet_music":{"icon":"icon-ic_songbook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_songbook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/sheetmusic","name":"Sheet 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isión , los misiles y el rayo Lúscr, pero tam-
bién el agua potable, el gas y la elcctriciciacl !leg;rnclo n nue.stras cas;1s, serian
impcnsublcs. Ni hublur de co111puta<lorns, viajes espaciales u c11cr¡;la nul'lcar.
Además, no solo nuestra vida material se mo<liíicarín. Nuestra visión dei
mundo y de nosotros mismos -las actuales formas de vida, nuestros ideales,
valores y costumbres (individuales y socialcs)- variarían. Por supuesto tam-
bién cambiaría el lenguaje. Aumentaría la mortandad, todo nos sería más
trabajoso y peligroso; la comunicación con cualquier parte dcí mundo se c!ífi-
cultarla y retardarla, si es que continuase siendo posible. Aunque se esfuma-
rían las ojivas nucleares amenazando la existencia misma del pian eta Tierra,
así corno se restituiría el equilibrio ecológico. Este ejercicio de la imaginación _, ·•
sei'lala la importancia de la ciencia y sus aplicaciones: muestra cómo· ei de-
sarrollo científico compromete nuestra vida actual. Bajo est as circunstancias
no resulta superfluo preguntar: ¿qué es la ciencia?
El siglo XV!l -comienzo de la !v1odernidad- se suele considerar la fecha
de nacimiento de la ciencia de hoy. Aunque su período de gestación fue muy
prolongado: desde el siglo VI a.C. en Greda. ¿Por qué en Grecia y no en otras
civilizaciones más antiguas? El motivo se encuentra en el esfuerzo griego por
intentar dar explicaciones racionales. La ciencia pretende ser la heredera mas
eficaz de esos esfuerzos y la que logra desprenderse realmente en sus
teorías de elementos míticos,_religios'?s y metafísicos.
La Edad Moderna se caracteriza por los cambios prpducidos en todas las
manifestaciones humanas. Tales cambios se continúan hast:< nuestros días.
9
Las formas de producción y organización social, que denominamos capimlis-
mo, se constituyeron conjuntamente con el desarrollo de las ciencias. Puede
nfirmlrse que sus evoluciones no son independientes, sino que, por el contra-
"'' " rlo, 5e retro11llment11n m\lt\lílrnente. Las apli<,:nciones de la ciencía, la tecnolo-
. gla, aportaron al proceso ccon6mico y hasta lo orientaron, asl como proble-
mas de produi::dón y comercialización plantearon cuestiones que la ciencia
tuvo qui: r::solver con nuevos avances teóricos.
La ciencia, por su estructura misma, pudo dar explicaciones y procedí-
micntG5 qui: contribuyeron a provocar los grandes cambios vívidos desde la
modernidad. Es decir, la forma de conoi:imiento de la ciencia es eficaz para
dar un tipo de respuestas con consecuencias prácticas. En especial parece más
eficaz, en es1e sentido, que el mito, la religión o la filosofía. La historia de la
ciencia no puede separarse de la tecnología, de su aplicación.
Lis explicaciones científicas dan cuenta de la realidad de tal manera que
posibilitan saber cómo es la realidad. Con ello se sabe también qué condi-
ciones Y relaciones hay que crear o modificar para producir o evitar cierto fe-
nómeno. A un ingeniero, por ejemplo, se le encarga la construcción de un di-
que. No rtalizará un dique más o menos resistente, y sí se rompe, lo recons-
truirá- Posee conocimientos científicos que puede aplicar para que ello no
ocurra (sa:vo que haya errores de aplicación). Conoce cómo actúan ciertos
matcdaks bajo ciertas condiciones, cómo se detiene una fÜerza (el agua en
este caso) r.on otra fuerza de sentido igual y de la misma o mayor intensidad,
Diser.:i entonces el dique en base a esos conocimientos y adaptándolos a las
part!culand:ides de su trabajo. La respuesta a la pregunta: "¿Para qué se
e! dique'l" no es de la incumbencia del ingeniero, ni tampoco del fí-
  aunque un científico puede investigar las consecuencias de construirlo. El
dcntiiico y el técnico determinan los tnedios para obtener una finalidad
(la c.1;,teu.::ión de las aguas, para riego, para evitar inundaciones o para pro-
ducir energía). Para ello posee teorías que especifican cómo, en general, es la
rcalida;J.
El conocimiento científico permite el dominio de los fenómenos. "La
cier..da es poder" afirmaba Bacon (1561-1626). La conjunción de ese poder
1.:on peculiares formas de organización social, política y económica ayudan a
comprender nuestr<\ historia de estos últimos 300 anos. Tal historia muestra,
por un latlo, enormes avances y, por el otro lado, presenta sectores que gozan
de los beneficios de la sociedad de consumo frente a una mayoría que vive en
condiciones infrahumanas, grandes posibilidades de desarrollo y creatividad
junto con estructuras opresoras y alienantes, uniendo la promesa de nuevos e
inimaginables progresos a la alternativa de la destrucción atómica .. Esta si-
tuáción contra:iictoria define a nuestro momento histórico como un período
de!(;ris{s. Hay diferentes formas de entender esta situación.
Par:i unos, los problemas de la crisis de nuestra época son soluciouables
por l.i i:volución de la ciencia misma. En la segunda mitad del siglo XIX,
Ccmte, fundJdor del positivismo, interpreta la evolución humana como des-.
tinada a llegar a una etapa de plenitud gobernada totalmente por la ciencia.
Todas las manifestaciones humanas estarán organizadas científicamente. Es
el estadio positivo, al que Comte cree que se accede en su época. Justamente,
el fin del siglo pasado se distingue por su fe en el progreso, el cual se mate-
rializa por el desarrollo y la expansión de ia ciencia. Pero el sistema positivis-
10
¡
\
1
1
1
ta de Comtc no es hoy rescatado en sus dctnllcs. SI, perdura In creencia en el va-
ior de la metodolog[a científica, en el seguro avance de las ciencias, y en la nece-
sidad de establecer el orden·científico en todos los ámbitos humanos, todo
ello lmjo el lnllujo y él timo del coml!lnlc prui;rerio. Aún hoy exi5te11, C11 dí ,
ferentes matices, defensores de la ciencia como solución para Ja mayoria de
los problemas que acucian al hombre.
Mario Bunge (epistemólogo argentinó contemporaneo, residente en Ca-
nadá) afirma: "la ciencia es-valiosa como herramienta para domar la natura-
leza y remodelar la sociedad; es valiosa en si misma, como clave para la inteli-
gencia del mundo y del yo; y es eficaz en el emiquecimicnto, la disciplina y la
liberación de nuestra mente" (1972, p. 50). Las aplicaciones de la ciencia, ia
tecnología, posibilitan, según Bunge, gobernar a la naturaleza y a la soci edad
según nuestra voluntad. El conocimiento científico nos brinda la compren-
sión de la realidad externa e interna dei hombre. Hasta constituye la forma de
perfeccionamiento de Ja menie. ¿Qué más puede pedírsele a la ciencia? Si al-
gún perjuicio puede ser imputado a la ciencia, es sólo resultado de su mala
aplicación. Para Bunge ''todo avance científico es beneficioso". La ciencia es
neutra. Lo que ocurre es que ia tecnología es ambigua: nos brinda instrumen-
tos que tanto pueden servir al bien como al mal: "Desde iuego, algunos pro-
ductos industriaies de la tecnología sólo sirven para ei mal. Con una
ametralladora sólo se puede matar, mientras que con explosivos se
pueden abrir tuncles." En consecuencia hay una instrumemalización inade-
cuada de ia ciencia, de la cual son responsables los políticos . Pero también en
el ámbito político los conocimientos científicos brindan respuestas. Es nece-
sario obtener -propone Bunge- una "ideología científica" que con Ja ayu-
da de Ja mejor ciencia organice Jos proyectos más convenientes para ia so-
ciedad. "Lo único que puede salvarnos de los efectos nocivos de la tecnolo-
gía, es más tecnología." En cuanto el desarrollo tecnológico depende del de-
sarrollo científico, es necesario apos1ar a este desarrollo como forma de :isc-
gurar el progreso (En1revista a M. Iluñge, La Razón "Cultura", 13s. /\s .
IO-X!-85).
Para otros, el proceso histórico desde la Modernidad es criticable.
Nuestro sistema social defiende concepciones derivadas de !::is práctic:is cien,
tíficas y tecnológicas: "la búsqueda de eficacia, el culto de la productividad,
la preocupación excesiva por la racionalidad, la prioridad concedida de
hecho a los medios sobre Tos fines"; pero .taies concepciones "sirven en rc::ilidau
de cobertura a las empresas dominantes" (J. Ladriere). La mentalidad positivista
-o cientiflcista- estaría detrás de estas concepciones, las cuales rigen de hecho
nuestra cultura. Pero hay ·otros vaior'es "olvidados" o "contrarrestados"
por la ciencia: "valores de contacto, de comunicación, de intuición y afectivi -
dad, valores de creatividad· y de particularidad, simpiicidad y espontaneidad ,
sentido de una concordancia verdadera y auténtica consigo mismo, con los
demás, con la naturaleza" (J. Ladriere). Estos valores tienen que ser defendi-
dos y esto se hace contra la cultura dominante, y por ende, contra la ciencí:i.
En principio se cuestiona la neutralidad de la ciencia. Esta, en re::ilidad,
sería cómplice de ia sociedad opresora e injusta. El desarrollo de 1::i cicnci::i y
de la sociedad están [ntimamente vinculados. Se denuncia la relación de ias
. fuerzas productivas y políticas con la investigación científica. Por ejempio: las
' il
requieren fuertes inversiones, las cuales son efectuadas por
gobierno3, o empresas¡ es Ja rentabilidad obtenible de esas inver-
siones Ja que define Ja aceptación de los proyectos propuestos. En cuanto al
conflicto Norte-Sur (o de los paises ricos versus Jos países pobres) se aduce: el
mayor desarrollo cientifico de Jos paises del Norte, convierte a sus institu-
ciones científ:cns en centros de atracción para los hombres de ciencia de los
países subdesarrollados; formarse en aquellas instituciones, repetir y contí-
nu::ir sus líneas de investigación, se constituye en el ideal, Y con ello se copian
modelos que responden a Jos proyectos que en el Norte hay interés en subsi-
dbr (ver Varrnvsky).
Los problemas contemporáneos \levan entonces a una crisis, Ja cual es
provocada por el desarrollo científico. En consecuencia, la ciencia parece no
poder dar soluc!ón a esos· probiemas. Sin embargo, resulta totalmente inge-
m:o y <lesatinad11 proponer Ja eliminación de Ja ciencia. Nuestro ejercicio de
imaginación inicial senala el significado de una propuesta de este tipo.
Paul Fcy.:rabend considera que e\ .hecho de que en un determinado pro-
ceso la ciencia haya vencido al mito, a Ja religión y a Ja brujería
muestra fill poder: el éxito de la ciencia no hace que sea Ja mejor forma de co-
nocimiento. Piensa que hay que terminar con Ja primacía de la ciencia. De-
fiende le. Eb":"rf3rl y el respeto de las soluciones alternativas. La aceptación de
lil ciencia no tic-ro.! que excluir otras formas cognoscitivas para la resolución
de protkfTl::i., humanos.
Jean Lrid1 ii'.::c, por su parte, sostiene la necesidad de una "racionalidad
arnpiiacl.a" paru rclkxionar sobre nuestra crísis. El conocimiento cientifico es
resulrado de uni'. forma peculiar de captar la realidad. Tal forma responde
a y procedimientos propios de 13 ciencia, los cuales defi-
nen la "raci0n:1!idad científica". Ilajo el influjo de su eficacia y de la concep-
ción   ·;e tiende a pensar que la racionalidad científica se identifica
con la racio'nnl;dad en general: es "racional" sólo aquello que cumpk con las
ele la ciencia o con su metodologin. Mñs aun, atribuir el califi-
cativo de "c1c11tlfico" a una teorla, un procedimiento, una tarea o un objeto
es prestigiarlo. Asl como negar ese calificativo desvaloriza. Sin embargo, la
racionalidad los medios adecuados para lograr fines, pe-
ro nadn dice acerca de esos fines. ;,Para qué llegar a Marte, dominar la fisión
hlOl1liCll, COtl'>lt'Uit' cluclnclés tlé .CélllélllO y t\CCl'O o prolo11g:tr la
viúa? son prtRUntns a !ns que la ciencia 110 responde. Ni puede decirnos por
·qué se ha de ai::tuar conforme a la razón científica. Comte, Bunge, Feyera-
bentl o Ladriere no están haciendo ciencia, ni usando Jos procedimientos de ésta
cu:rndo exponen sus posiciones. Para reflexionar acerca de la totalidad de la
vida y su sentido hac\! falla una razón a111pliada o 101alizadora.
Laciriere soHkne la necesidad de esta racionalidad, ia cual deberá ubicar y
orientar la racionalidad científica.
Lil humanidad ha llegado a un momento crítico de su evolución, al cual
contribuye Ir.. ciencia y sus aplicaciones. ¿La ciencia dará solución a esta cñsis
corr.o pretende el positivismo de viejo y nuevo cuño?, o ·bien,.¿Ja ciencia sólo
es una alttrnati-. a de solución entre otras posibles? o, ¿la ciencia debe ser li-
mitada y orientacla por una racionalidad más amplia? Las posibilidades pro·
12
1
1
1
1
1
puestas quizá no sean las únicas. Pera para poder reflexionar sobre ellas hace
falta comprender en qué consiste esa racionaiidad científica, sí tiene limites y
GUáles.
El interrogante acerca de "¿Qué es Ja ciencia?" es una forma de iniciar
la reflexión exigida por nuestra época. ·
J. ·Busque ejemplos que muestren el impac10 cicntiíico en nuestra sociedad
contemporánea.
2. Sintetice las tesis que defiende el 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ismo.
3. Lea de Varsavsky Ciencia,po/íticay cientificismo y sintetice sus tesis, co-
rno ejemplo de critica a la ciencia en tanto forma de dominio.
4. ¿Qué es Ja "racionalidad cíentifica" y cuál es ei papel de la "razón
ampliada o totalizadora"? . . . ..
5. ¿Considera necesario hacer criticas a las pos1c1ones que s1ntct1zo en los
puntos 2, 3, y 4? ¿Cuáles? .
6. Formule su propia opinión en relación a este tema, en forma de tesis bre-
ves y íundaméntelas.
BIBLlOGRAFÍA
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VARSA 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SKY, O., Ciencia, política y cientificismo. CEA L. Ds. J\s., 1969.
13
, .
2. EL CONOCIMIENTO CIENTÍFICO
La familiaridad que hoy existe con la ciencia y sus productos no significa
poseer, l"n general, una conciencia clara acerca de qllé es la ciencia, de cuáles
son las características del conocimiento científico, de cómo se produce talco-
nocimiento y de cómo se concreta la aplicación tecnológica de las teorías
científicas.
Cuando se habla de ciencia se hace referencia a un conocimiento. Es de-
cir;· a un c1ierpo de ideas. A veces no se distingue con precisión ia tarea nece-
sa;ia para producir esos conocimientos de éstos en tanto resultado de esa ta-
rea. Hay que diferenciar, entonces, la investigación científica del conocimien-
io ci=nt'!jko. La primera constituye la actividad productora del segundo. La
m::rnera en c¡ue se efectúan la investigación científica determina el tipo de co-
nocimiento que llamarnos científico.
1
INVESTlGAClÓN J' CONOCl:'>!IENTO
ClENTlFICA CIENTÍFICO
Aún es necesario distinguir ciencia de sus aplicaciones. El hecho de
que el canocirniento científico pueda ser aplicado a la realidad también dis-
tingue a la ciencia. Se denomina técnica a los procedimientos para dominar
los fenó;nenos. La primera vez que el hombre prehistórico tomó una piedra y
la 11tHizó -v.gr.- para abrir un coco, obtuvo una técnica; puesto que des-
cubrió la forma de vencer la resistencia de ese fruto Y pudo decidir por si mis-
mo cuándo el fruto brindaría su alimento. Cuando los procedimientos para
dominar los fenómenos se originan en la- apiicación de los conocimientos
  se habla de tecnologfa. La diferencia entre ésta y la técnica puede
e¡emplificarse comparando los procedimientos utilizados por un ama de casa
para cocinar con los empleados por una empresa que fabrica alimentos en se-
. ríe. La t.:cnología toma entonces teorías científicas y las adapta para determi-
nados .fines. La construcción de un puente o un túnel sub fluvial, los medica-
mentos, las computadoras, los misiles, etc. se obtienen de la tecnología.
tNVESTtGAC!ÓN l . _ TECNOLOG!A
C!ENTIF!CA _r----- CIENTIFICO
Al abarcar en su totalidad lo que se denomina ciencia, se observa cómo
una tarea teórii:a, _como la producción de conocimiento científico, tiene con-
notac!ones prácticas mediante \a tecnologla. De este modo la ciencia contri-
14
¡
1
!
¡
1
• 1
·- · - ---- ---------L.__ __
bu):e ª! bienestar: ele. la humanidad: /\unque causa perjuicios. La
aphcac1ón ele la c1enc1a produce medicamentos, pero también armamcnt . 1-
1
. . , d l . l . . os, a
exp 1cac1on e a estructura ae atomo permite aprovechar la energía nuclear"
para la pazo para la guerra. El desarrollo científico influye sobre Ja sociedad.
INVESTIGACIÓN]- CONOCIMIENTO]- • J-
CIENTÍFICA CIENTÍFICO . . TECNOLOGI..\ -<>-SOCIEDAD
Se puede distinguir en consecuencia un nivel teórico y un nh·el práctico
e_n ciencias. Esto permite también hablar de ciencia pura, cuando la inves-
tigación se plantea sólo problemas teóricos, es decir, intenta dar cuenta y
explicar la realidad independientemente de su aplicación; así como de cic?ncia
aplicada en tanto se estudian, en base a elementos de la ciencia pura, proble-
mas práctícos, por ejemplo, la investigación para desarrollar una vacuna
contra determinado virus. Hay que diferenciar también los dos tipos de inves-
tigación mencionados. También para obtener tecnología es necesaria la tarea
teórica para produciría. El cuadro que venimos construyendo puede compic-
tarse así:
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noiógicas. Los resultados de ias investigaciones, al mismo 1iempo, modiiica11
la realidad. Algunos estudios de ciené:ia pura requieren tecnologi<1s espe-
ciales. Sin la técnica del telescopio Galileo no hubiera formulado su reoria.
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cias a la tecnología de la coheteria, del radar, de la informática , etc. Cues-
tiones de ciencia aplicada plantean problemas 1eóricos que llevan a nuevos
avances o a reformulaciones de los conocimientos cien ti ficos . Estos a su vez
influyen sobre la cuitura y la organizaéión social.
r--- NIVEL TEÓRICO -----NIVEL
INVESTIGACIÓNL CONOCIMIENTOl_ 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ESTIG,\CJÓNLTECNOLOGIA}- SOCIED \ D
CIENTIFICA r CIENTIFICO f TECNOLÓGICA J
"--CIENCIA PURA--' CIEl'CI..\
¿Cuáles son las características del conocimiento científico c¡ue br inda
tantas posibilidades teóricas y prácticas?
Conviene para responder a esta pregunta tratar antes dos temas: El len-
guaje y el conocimiento. Ambos temas proveerán de nociones neces:!rias para
el desarrollo posterior. La ciencia es una forma de conocimienro q11>? se for-
11111fa en un fenguaje.
·------- --·--------, ...
1. Caracterice y ejemplifique:
-investigación científica - ci;nti0co.
-investigación tecnológica - tecnologia - c1enc1a pura.
-.:ienda aplicada.
BIBLIOGRAFÍA
RUNGE M. La causalidad, Eudeba, Bs. As . 1961.
2
GEYM0
1
NA T, L., Filosofía y filosofía de la ciencia, Labor, Barcelona, 197 ·
16
3. EL LENGUAJE
Al definir al hombre como un "animal racional" se reitera una caracte-
rización griega. En griego "razón" se dice "lagos". Este término griego pro-
viene, a su vez, de un verbo "legein" cuyo significado es "hablar". "Lagos"
es el habla, el lenguaje. El hombre es racional porque posee lenguaje. Al po-
seerlo, es capaz de expresar la Ello significa que es capar de cap-
tarla. La característica distintiva del ser humano es la razón, en tanto es ei
animal que tiene la capacidad de captar y expresar en el lenguaje la realidad.
¿Qué es el lenguaje? Es un conjunto de signos y de reglas que organizan
esos signos. ¿Qué es un signo? El ·humo es signo del fuego . El semMoro en
verde es un signo de paso libre. La paloma blanca e:; signo de la paz. Los di-
bujos de las cuevas de Altamira son signos de   La palabra "rosa" es
signo de un tipo de flor. En los ejemplos dados se pue:le observar que lo q11e
denominamos "signo" remite a otra cosa distinta de él. El signo es un inter-
mediario entre la persona que lo interpreta y ei objeto al que el
signo refiere.1
INTÉRPRETE----
(!)
SIGNO OBJETO
(0)
El signo es un objeto material: ei humo, la luz del semáforo, la paloma,
el dibujo, la palabra prcmunciada o escrita, pero para que funcione como sig-
no es necesario que el intérprete lo tome como tal.
El hombre de campo interpreta como signos fenómenos del ambiente
que para el hombre.de la ciudad. pasan totalmente desapercibidos, es decir,
no son signos para él. Se denomina interpretación al procc·so por ci cu::il el in-
térprete toma a un objeto como signo de algo.
Ln interpretación determina que el signo actúe como tal, o bien porque
permite refi::rir al signo con el objeto al que el signo remite (la in-
terpretación del signo "silla" hacc,que se establezca la referencia con el asien-
to), o bien porque_ el ,signo se nsncin n 11nn iden o pensnmícnto (se inlcrpret<\ el
1 La palabra ' objern' está u1ilizada, aqul en su scn1ido amplio: tanto puede referirse a co-
sas mal eriales, como inmateriales, reaics o .ficticias, ele. En última instancia , rs el algo al QU< re-
mite un signo. Con respecto a'la y ºslmbolo". en seíllido estricto habría que
diferenciar su significado.' Si bien pueden .1omarse como sinónimos, el "símbolo" es un si"no
creado convcr\cionalmen1c:; v. gr., los si&nc.!. 3d idioma cns1c1l:mo.
17
- ------
\
1
.
... ,
,.
.- ··· '
signo "silla" en tanto se piensa en "un mueble con respaldo para sentarse"),
o bi<!n porque.::! signo actúa como un estímulo que provoca ciertas conductas
eil el int'érprete (la luz roja del semáforo provoca que el intérprete -un auto-
,;-"movilista- dl!tcnga su veh!culo). Las tres posibilidades señaladas responden
a sendas teorías lingilfsticas.
Hay entonces distintas formas de entender la interpretación. Fundamen-
talmente, aquí interesa señalar que sin interpretación no hay signo. Dado que
no se intenta desarrollar un curso de lingüística, sino solamente exponer algu-
nos elementos mínimos necesarios para caracterizar al lenguaje científico,
podemos considerar -sólo para nuestro fin y sin entrar en detalles- que hay
i:iterpretaci6n cuando se "comprende'' el signo. . .
que un signo posee signijicaCión cuando un intérprete puede es-
tablecer la relación entre el signo y el objeto al cual remite y/o tener una no-
ción o idea de ese objeto'. ·uamaremos entonces denotado al objeto o a los
objl!tos a que refiere o se aplica el signo y designado a las caracterisicas o
propiedad'!s n !as que remite el signo, El signo "vaso" designa un objeto que
posee las car acteristicas de ser un recipiente para beber liquidas y denota a to"
dos los objetos a los que es aplicable ese signo (todos los vasos). Podemos dar
el designado de "centauro" pero no encontraremos ningún objeto al que
  en consecuencia, el signo "centauro" no tiene denotado.
H.w   que no tienen denotado: "hada", · "la belleza", etc. Otros sig-
n:is tten.en un solo denotado: Napoleón, Manuel Belgrano, cte. Finalmente
pucrl::n con;tituir el denotado un conjunto de individuos más o menos nume-
ros.:is y hasta innumerables: "alumno", "libro", "ciudad", "cosa". Pero
hay sigr.os de los que no se puede especi!icar su denotado con suficiente pre-
ci!ión. Por ejemplo, un asiento con respaldo y brazos pero sin tapizado ¿es
:ina 0 un sillón?; los signos "montón'' y "mucho" tampoco pueden
apiir.am: con precisión. La denotación de lm signo se por su apli-
cadón, pero no siempre es posible precisar el denotado de !_os signos. En este
último caso h::iblamos de vagt1edad de ios signos. '
· •. El de un signo se determina por medio de la definición. Sin
e-mbargo, mu<.:has veces utilizamos correctamente un signo sin poder dar su
definición. Se recurre al diccionario pára definirlo; aunque .una palabra figu-
ra, a veces, con varias acepciones; pa.ra decidir cuál es la adecuada ·es nece-
sario ubicar el signo en el contexto correspondiente. También puede especifi"
car se el dt:sinnado por el uso que se ie da al signo. Podemos decir que se de-
termina lo que es el designado 'según se comprende en qué consiste la
interpretacitm. El hecho de que un signo tenga más de un designado se deno-
mina ambigiledad; v. gr., "banco" designa a la ..institución y a un tipo de
a;icnto.
- Interpretación- SIGNO t----- Objeto
IGNIFICAD Denotado
Hemo> dicho ya que el lenguaje es un conjunto de sigqos y de reglas que
organizan esos signos. No basta con reunir algunos signos para obtener un
h:nguaje. Hace falta establecer las relaciones entre esos signos -por ejemplo,
er. una oración o secuencia de signos-, la relación entre los signos y sus sig-
18
nificados, Y también ia vírlculación con los de esos · D
l
· d · signos. e esta
manera, e conjunto e signos puede utiiiz:arse para Jaco · "ó
h b Q · · . mumcac1 n entre los
º:11 res. men emita un mcnsa1e en un lo hará respetando ·esas re-
lac1?nes el recept?r del mensaje podrá comprenderlo -decodifi-
carto- ateniendose a esas mismas relaciones
. _En ei lenguaje, se relaciones entre ios .signos mismos, entre éstos y su
s1_gmficado Y e?tre los signos y los _de l?s En el castellano, por
eJempl?, el articulo precede al el adjetivo en general se pospone ai
sustantivo, pero puede precederlo; el signo que funciona como sujeto coordi-
na verbo. Estas .sory relaciones entre signos y se denominan sintácticas.
Sema?t1cas son las entre ios signos y los designados; v. gr. , las
que da un ?;ccionario . .Indicar cómo los argentinos usamos el
che • º . que tal expres1o;i es usada con intención difamante en tai contexto,
son relaciones se estaolcc?n entre determinados signos y la forma en que
son usados; constituyen rela-c1ones pragmáticas. ·
Las   que rigen !º.s 'signos de un lenguaje son de tres tipqs: sintácti-
cas, semar:ucas Y pragmat1cas. Las primeras establecen el orden y relación
e?tre los signos. Las la relación entre Jos signos y sus significa-
Las te.rceras,la relación entre los signos y los usuarios. La com11níca-
c1on por medio del lenguaje· se posibilita por el respeto a esas reglas.
El .est.udio de los signos io realiza la semiótica. Sus ramas son la Sintaxis.
Semanuca Y la Pragmática, cada una de las cuaics atiende a uno de los
rn1·eies de todo signo. Estas ramas pueden ser puras o descríptivas. El estudio
v. gr., las relaciones .ios signos del castellano -de un lenguaje na-
tural_.,- da lugar a una Smtax1s descriptiva. Si, en cambio, se investiga esas
relaciones en general, sin referencia especifica a una lengua, se hace Si:itaxis
pura.
Si se construye un lenguaje artificial, que a diferencia del lenguaje natu-
ral posea solo reglas sintácticas, se obtiene un lenguaje formal o simb1:.ilico. •
En él no hay relación con designados, únicamente se estabicccn rei <! cioncs
aceptables ent_re signos. Como veremos luego, el lenguaje matemútico y lógi-
co es de este tipo.
Desde el punto de vista de la pragmática, pueden distinnuirse usos del
lenguaje según la intención del hablante. Si pretende dar cu;nla de ia reali-
dad, describirla, brindar información, la expresión al uso in-
Por ejemplo: "La puerta está abierta", "El Paraná desemboca en
el no de la Plata".
Cuando la intención es próvocar, o prohibir una 'conduct" se
trata de un uso directivo. Por ejemplo: "¿Qué hora es?
11
1
"Se debe mas;i,car
con la boca cerrada".
, Puede tenerse intención de manifestar o provocar sentimientos
0
emo-·
c10nes
1

1
cuyo caso se. trata de un uso expresivo. Por ejemplo: "¡Qué
calor! , ,Cuánto te quiero!".
, se puede reconocer a qué uso del lenguaje corresponde una.
expreston teniendo en cuenta cuál es la intención que predomina. Ai prcgun-
1
En realidad,, tanto. los ienguaj es "nat.ura\cs" como "formales" son artilid'1b, pero el
proceso de formación del primero es espontáneo.
"'
..,
·'
!.
tar por algo se pretende obtener una respuesta, es un uso directivo, aún cuan-
do se tiene r¡ue brindar alguna información para provocar la respuesta apete-
cida. La decisión acerca de cuál es el uso que predomina se efectúa teniendo -
en cuenta el contexto en que la expresión se en.uncia.
¡:<.labrns y las feas.es poseen un sentido literal y un sentido emotivo.
Calificar R un hombre de "negro" puede ser sólo una descripción del color de
su piel (5cntido literal), pero para un miembro del Ku-Klux-Klan, tiene ade-
r.1ás una carga emotiva negativa muy fuerte. El sentido emotivo puede estar
presente, pese a que en el discurso predomina el uso informativo.
En el mo informativo pueden distinguirse los términos y las proposi-
ciones. l:o' términos formados por una o más palabras, senalan o indican un
objeto. No afirman ni niegan nada, sólo refieren a algo. Por ej.: "mesa",
"El Sn!llO de la Espada", "la rosa que cortaste", etc. Palabra y término no
son nociones idénticas. Puede haber dos palabras o conjunto de palabras di-
ferentes que sean el mismo término: v. gr. "Santo de la Espada" y "San
Martln''. Una misma palabra puede ser distintos términos, por ej. "yo"
(emitido por distintas personas); Las proposiciones son expresiones que dan
cuenta de !a realidad, informan, describen un estado de cosas, afirman o
niegan qul· !os hechos son de una manera u otra. Su característica principal
consiste t'a ser verdaderas o falsas. Al pretender dar cuenta de los hechos
bdto (verd:.deras) o fracasar (falsas) . Por ej.: "Todos los
hr:;mbres s0n fértiles"; "Juan es hermano de Maria"; "12+3= 15".
Fin¡¡Jmente, el lenguaje tiene una posibilidad. que lo enriquece, la
nutorrcjerencia. Con el lenguaje se puede hablar del lenguaje. Los términos
"01esa", "azul'', "yo"," Jorge", refieren a objetos extralingUisticos; es de-
cir, a objt,us reales o no, pero que no son signos lingüisticos. En cambio:
"t"sdrújt!la", "bimembre", "verdad", "bisílaba", son términos cuyos deno-
tados solt del lenguaje. Analicemos estas proposiciones:
1) La mesa es blanca,
2) 'Mesa' es bisllaba.
3) " 'Mesa' es bisilaba" es una proposición verdadera.
La primera proposii<ión habla de un objeto real. Los términos que se uti-
lizan en el\a se dice que son usados. La segunda proposición no se refiere al
objeto mesa, sino a la palabra 'mesa'. Cuando se hace referencia al signo
ei signe está mencionado. En eºhos casos se coloca entre comillas simples la
expresión mencionadt En la proposición 3 aparece entre comillas la proposi-
ción 2, porque se la está mencionando (pero entre comillas dobles porque ya
se han mado las simples; en nuestro ejemplo pára 'mesa').
Se consiciera que .cada una de estas proposiciones pertenecen a un len-
gunje distinto. Si bien en los· lenguajes naturales no están explícitas estas dis-
tindone,, se ha comprendido que la referencia al lenguaje mismo conviene
ha;:t"rle d·!5dc otro lenguaje. 'Resulta entonces que tenemos tres lenguajes.
Liamamos Lo al lenguaje al que pertenece la proposición 1; L ¡ al de la propo-
2 y L2 al de la proposición 3. Lo es un lenguaje objeto para L l • el cual
un porque menciona expresiones de· Lo:A su vez LJ es len-
guaje objeto para L1, que es un metalenguaje. Como además estos lenguajes
est:\:1 reladonndos -puesto que L ¡ se refieren Lo y n su vez Lz remite a L1-
20
-----
1
r
'
r
L
podemos decir que L
2
· - ··- ·
mular un enunciado Se observa que se puede for-
nuevo lenguaje s . enc1one a 2 y que será una proposición de un
infinito. ' era un mera-meta-metalenguaje. Así es posible continuar al
Las expresiones "lenguaje b · t " 11 • • "
es una fi o Je o Y metatenguilJe son relativas esto

Hf si Y sólo si hay otro
el .metalen u . q ace erenc1_a al pnmero. En éste se usan los signos, en
guaje t T g se me'!cwnan. S1 se está realizando un estudio sobre el len-
objetou de .gramática, el lenguaje del libro.es el lenguaje
Ob . ' e e enguaJe en que se estudia a éste es un metalcn u ·
tos que el lenguaje objeto es un lenguaje deg
L ' d. . for_mado por signos que se refieren a objetos extralingüísticos
o_s niveles metalingüíst icos parten ele un lenguaje objeto cual:

por ello pueden numerarse a partir del cero que corresponda a ese
enguaJe. '

1
Los de le'!g'.wje son los distintos lenguajes. Tener en cuenta estos
ni ve es e\ Jta contrad1cc1ones y paradojas en las formuiacíones.
1) La mesa es blanca L b ' -
2) 'M • b. . 0 o JCLO
, esa es 151Jaba L 1 t ¡ ·
3) '"!\! • b. ·¡ b ,, 1 e a engua1e
esa es 1s1 a a es una proposición ver-
dadera.
4 L
L2 l\.letametalenguajc
) as expresiones que hablnn de la verdad
0
falsedad de otras expresiones metalingüísticas
son mctalingüísticas.
LJ l'v!ctameta111ctalellgu;ijc
a un ejemplo de las contrndkcioncs a las
no los distintos niveles dei lenguaje. Un rev que
i:   rnsttgar a los Para ello instaló, a.lasa-
. ,una orca Y encargó a un Juez la siguiente tarea· toda erso
de la c!udad sería interrogada parn snbcr adónde

y si
e a a que menua,sería ahorcado. Como en el lugar elegido se abria'n dos

que conducian a A Y a B, el juez al preguntar podria obtener dos rcs-
¿A dónde va usted?
-Voy a A.
-Voy a B.
Ambas respuestas podrían ser verdaderas o falsas.
-VoyaA <
V
F
V

.F
c;itonces si habla dicho verdad, o no. De acuerdo al
verdade:a, no e:ra hclebci¡dia la ;espucsta. Si su contestación era
'e ·
1
a n ment1clo , crn ahorc;ido.
21
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lk
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I'

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t
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i
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¿A dónú:: va Ud.?
-VoyaA Juezdecide:
-------- F no ahorcarlo .
. v_J .
-VoyaB < .F ahorcario
Ún dia sale un hombre ci'e la ciudad, y al el juez por su desti-
no, comestó : "Voy a ser ahorcado".
El juez se encontró ante el siguiente problema paradójico: la respuesta
podía verdadera o falsa. Si lo ahorcaba, no había mentido; en consecuen-
cia, n0 ahorcarlo. Si no lo ahorcaba,había mentido y, por lo tanto, ha-
bla que ahorcarlo.
"Voy a ser
 
[
se lo ahorca- n.o hay que ahorcarlo
no se lo ahorca/.Sque ahorcarlo
¿Por qué se ha producido esta situación contradictoria? La decisión de
ahu;car o no al viajante se tomaba en base a la verdad o falsedad de su res-
-· pu•:.i!a. l.a respuesta ("Voy a A" o "Voy a B") pertenece al lenguaje objeto,
y la d·?cisi6n de su verdad o falsedad, pertenece al metalenguaje. Al respon-
de:- "Voy a ser ahorcado", se da una respuesta del metalenguaje a una pre-
r;unta lel!guaje objeto (ya que ser ahorcado, o no, dependía dci valor de
d-: su respuesta). Si a la pregunta "¿Qué hora es?" se respondiera:
"La respuesta a esa pregunta es una proposición de tres palabras", nadie
que se ha contestado a la pregunta. En otras situaciones la confu-
sión r.ntre niveles no es tan clara. Hay situaciones en que la diferencia de nive-
le5 l:nguaje provoca contradicciones, las cuales se evitan distinguiendo
esas nivcks.
Las nociones desarrolladas acerca del lenguaje nos permiten realizar una
  c!e e;pecificaciones para el tema de la ciencia.
La investigación científica busca dar cuenta de la realidad. Por ende.sus
resuitados serán expresados en un lenguaje predominantemente i11forr11atÍvo.
Además tratará de formular enuriciados e11101ivame111e ne111ros, es decir, en
los cuali:s no jueguen los sentimientos del investigador. Eliminará al máximo
las ambigiled2des y las vaguedades de los términos para garantizar exactitud y
'f:¡recbón. En consecuencia, los terminas serán unívocos. La aparición de la
expresión 'fuerza' en una novela puede estar cargada de emotividad y podra
ser comprendida de distinta manera por diferentes lectores; en cambio el mis-
rr.0 té1 mino usado en un trata'do de física-tendrá un solo significado, indepen-
dientemente del estado subjetivo de los lectores: un vector con determinada
direcdón e intensidad. Las expresiones del conocimiento científico son
proposiciones y por lo tanto verdaderas o falsas:
Las reglas sintácticas, semánticas y pragmáticas del·lcnguaje científico
están más especificadas y son menos laxas que en los lenguajes naturales. La
,.,
J. .t..
matemática y la lógica constituyen len ua' -"- · . .
son lenguajes formales pues se g Jes especiales creaaos ex profeso.
• construyen sól d. . '
. El fen.gua!e cien1ífico constituye una c d. iante reglas smtácticas.
wdad en c1enc1a. Por ser informaliv . on ICJ n el logro de la obje1i-
lo; posibilita su comprensión ne111ro Y exac-
en la decodificación Los proced" .
0
ª sub1et1v1dad en la enunciación y
, , . · 1m1entos y mét d · 'fi
mos luego, requieren que los enunciad d .. c1ent1 icos, como vere-
tarea de la ciencia la ve T e la c1enc1a sean controlados. Es
cuencia el lenguaje cientific'o estaºn icac1_ n_dY de sus teorías. En canse-
. const1tu1 o por u l ·
guaJe ··que toma al primero•como le . . n enguaJe y un metalcn-
acerca de la realidad estudi::J:.aje objeto. En el primero se informa Y
c:ones que permiten comprobar las ' en segun_do se enu.ncian las condi-
b1én su grado de verificación y va!·dpropóos1c1om¡s ael lengua1e objeto y tam-
L ·· . 1 ac1 n.
a la pregunta "¿Qué es ia c· .
7
,.
lenguaje, en tanto menciona al le . _ 1en71a . corresponde a un mcta-
habla también de teorías y Por generalización, se
teorías científicas constituyen una m;s. El de de las
que_ se hacen aquí pertenecen a un reílex1on_es sobre la ciencia
sofw de la ciencia es la disciplina medtate_onco. ep1s1emofogía ofifo-
encarga a de este tipo de reflexiones.
1 .. Caracterice y ejemplifique:
- signo - designado - denotado - se . . . . .
mánticas y pragmáticas _ Iengu . f   -. d1mens1ones sintóctic::is, sc-
tivo y expresivo _ término _. pro:;:s· j sunbó_lico • uso informativo, dircc-
guajc científico - cpistcmologia o n -f, endgualJe Y metalenguaje -len-
' oso 1a e a c1enc1a.
2. Detern;inar el denotado de Jos siguientes signos:
0
José ele San Martín
0
mesa
0
República Argentina
· • hipopótamo
0
ei actual. rey de Uruguay.
3. Deter:ninar el designado de los siguientes signos:
º luz roja en un semáforo
• triánguio
• alumno
• maceta
• mantel
4. Indicar en cada una de las si u. . .
· domina: · g ientes expresiones, qui; uso dei lenguaje pre-
¡¡) Jorge es ingeniero
c) Qué calor! ·
e) 2 + 3 = l 8
b) Hoy h:lce calor
d) Séquese el sudor
Q Es correcto ci rcsnltaJo cid
calculo
23
--· ·- ----.-
g) Debemos estudiar más
h) ¡,Dónde estudiaremos?
i) El triflugulo es polígono de
tres lad0s ' j) ¡Fuego!
5. Cu:'il de !a.; siguientes expresiones es término (T) Y cuál es_ (P).:
a) El tri:'H•gulo es escaleno b) El árbol de la esquina.
c) ¡Cuidado! d) Napoleón
e) ¿Cuúntas clílses faltan? f) Llueve Y truena
6
. Colocar co;nil\as simples-a las expresiones mencionadas en los siguientes
ejemplos:
a) Antes de b se escribe m
e) Des es un prefijo en desproli-
jo.
e) VerJallero y falso son térmi-·
nos
b) Geogra!ia proviene del griego
geo y graphos
d) ¿Cómo te va?, ¿es una pro-
posición?
BIBLIOGRAFÍA
ALSTON w. Filosoffa del lenguaje, Alianza Editorial, Madrid, 1978.
AY.ER,·A'. J • .'Lenguaje, Verdad y Lógica,   _Bs.As., _ ,
COLACll.Ll DE MURO, M. y J., Elementos de /og1ca moderna Jf1losofia,
Estiada, Bs. As. 1969.
COPI ¡ Introducción a la lógica, Eudeba, Bs. As., 1983. . . .
F.ERRATER MORA, J., Indagaciones sobre el lenguaje, Ahanza Edttonal,
Madrid, 1970. · d' · ¡
HOSPERS, J., Introducción al análisis filosófico, Alianza E nona '
M['.t!rid, 1980. , UNAM 1\-1' ·
MORRIS, CH., Fundamento de la teoría de los signos, ., · exi-
co, uss.
24
¡
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4. EL DISCURSO
La ciencia se manifiesta como un discurso sujeto a cienos usos. Tradi-
cionalmente se define al discurso como una secuencia de enunciados que
expresa un conjunto coherente de proposiciones. El discurso científico tiene
caracteristícas que lo diferencian específicamente de cualquier otro. Pero aun
este discurso especialmente riguroso está sujeto a ciertas condiciones que se
encuentran también en el decir cotidiano, literario, académico, periodístico,
político o religioso.
La palabra no surge azarosamE!lle. Dispone de mecanismos prefijados
para su producción. Se emite respetando ciertas sujeciones. El discurso se
perfila según un juego contrastador de permisiones y restricciones. La se-
cuencia de enunciados se configura segun mecanismos propios del ílujo mis-
mo de la expresión, del lugar se manifiesta y del sujeto portador del
discurso.
El discurrir que se manifiesta con palabras no es algo natural ni espontá-
neo. Acontece en un ma.-co que lo hace posible. Sigue tácitos acuerdos que
tienen que ver con el medio en que se habla , con el tema que se trata, con el
emisor y con los receptores. Para tratar de descubrir estas instancias seguire-
mos fundamentalmente Ja exégesis rcalirnda por Michcl Foucault en su bús-
queda de las condiciones de posibilidad de los discursos en general. Luego
nos referiremos a las peculiaridades del discurso científico.
La extraña paradoja.de la palabra es que se ha de usar de ella para hablar
de ella misma. El misterio insondable del discurso -de éste, por ejemplo- es
'que está constituido con Jas mismas sujeciones que trata de denunciar. Esta
reflexión trata de desenmascarar un ritual y desde el comienzo entra en el ri-
to. Trata de cumplir con lo mínimo que debe cumplir una reflexión sobre el
lenguaje. Está escrito para alumnos que deberán estudiarlo. Sigue cánones
más o menos establecidos. Utiliza determinado vocabulario. Concede y calla
-dentro de las condiciones tácitas, pero conocidas- para que n.o sea dema-
siado probl emático publicarlo. Intenta adecuarse a las reglas de juego como
para que sea posible leerlo. Y a pesar de todo se vuelve sobre sí mismo para
pensarse.
Nunca un discurso es totalmente original, nunca es totalmente imprevi-
sible. Es como si, desde siempre, se lo estuviera acunando para que un buen
día surja según un orden pre-establecido. Tiene su lugar. Busca su poder. ¿Qué
e,'i lo que busca el discurso sino algún tipo de poder?
No hay discurso ingenuo, no existe él di scurso neutro. Ningún discurso
es inocente. Todo discurso va en pos de un poder: hablo para que me
2.5
.... --- -·· ------ ----------------·
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quieran; h:!blo para que me obedezcan; hablo para que me consideren; aun-
que má> no sea hablo para que me escuchen. Siempre hay un deseo; de lo
contrario,· no hablaria. Imaginemos un ser feliz, totalmente satisfecho, sin
n:ngún tipo de necesidad, sin el más mínimo desequilibrio: ese ser no necesi-
taría hab12.r. ¿Qué es sino el deseo lo que acontece en el discurso?
· No hay discurso sin deseo. Si realmente se considerara que todo está
dicho, si se gozara de una especie de nirvana (plenitud con ausencia de todo
deseo) y si se estuviera totalmente equilibrado, entonces no se hablaría. El discur-
so es el lugar del deseo. Quien habla es siempre un ser en mayor o menor
medida insatisfecho.
Hay ambigüedad en el deseo. Es deseo de hablar; y según en qué circuns-
tanrias, es deseo de no tener que ser uno quien rompa el silencio.
ejemplo, comenzar a habiar ante un público numeroso, u hostil, o en una s1-
tuaciún de examen. En esos casos desearíamos, ya que el discurso circula, que
fluyera delante de nosotros y mansamente pudiéramos "embarcarnos" c:n él.
Pero no hay alternativa, tenemos que asumir la rotura del silencio. Ahí esta la
instilttción para tranquilizarnos y para censurarnos. Cada. institución nos
tranquiliza haciéndonos saber que nuestro discurso está en el orden de la le-
galidad, de las reglas y normas que la rigen. También nos coacciona y constri-
ñe r.-;arcándonos el rumbo que puede seguir nuestro discurso y señalando los pe-
ligros que acechan más allá de sus límites. LAS DOS CARAS DE LA MONEDA DEL
DISCURSO SON EL DESEO Y LA lNSTtTUCIÓN.
En toda sociedad la producción de la palabra está controlada, selec-
ci1)nada y distribuida por ciertos procedimientos. La función de tales proce-
dim1entos es evitar peHgros, tratar de manejar lo azaroso y <le esquivar la
terrible materialidad del discurso. La palabra pronuncíada o escrita tiene una
re:;lidud material, tiene peso propio. Esto no se da a causa de una "magia de
la palabra", sino porque hay.un orden y una práctica dei discurso. "Las pa-
labras duelen", hay que controlarlas. Un ejemplo de la materialidad de
pal:i.bras, aun de aquellas que no están avaladas por hechos, es lo ocumo
t!n EE.UU. en 1938. En esa oportunidad Orson Welles, en una em1s16n de su
programa radial, describió la llegada de Jos marcianos invadiendo la Tierra;
Hube escenas de pánico, corridas e histeria. Durante algunas horas se con-
modonó el país entero ... Y eran palabras, simplemente palabras. La mate-
rialidad del discurso se relaciona también con el deseo y con el poder. Está re-
gulado en la institución. Se trata de dominar al azar y esquivar el peso terrible
y de las palabras.
Hay distintos tipos de procedimientos restrictivos en la producción de
los discursos. Estos tipos son interiores y exteriores al discurso y prescrip-
para el sujeto que habla.
En to¿a soddad la
producción dd
disc:ir;o esta
25
CO"ntrolada
'''""""'''
Redistribuida
con la
función de
Conjurar poderes
Dominar lo ale.atorio
Esquivar la

Procedimientos de exclllsión externos
Un procedimiento de exciusión que Foucault llama "externo" es lo pro! ·-
b
.d N á . . i1
1 o.. o se est autonzado a hablar de cualquier cosa indiscriminadamente.
de lo que se p_uede habiar, no se puede decir todo. Lo que está permitido
decir en algunas circunstancias, no lo está en oiras. Cuando se emite un dis-
  és!e es recortado por una zona prohlbida. ·Pensemos en los distintos ti-
pos de ?iscurso;_ por un lado, el jurídico, el religioso, el científico, que exclu-
yen las rnforma11dades; por otro, el familiar, el de amigos íntimos, el de gru-
pos adolescentes, que excluyen las formaii.dades. Tanto en unos como en
otros hay objetos de los que se habla, o se lo hace con censura. Lo prohibi-
do son zonas celosamente cuidadas para asegurar un discurso sin sobresaltos
Hay tres tipos fundamentales de prohibiciones: .
• Tabú del objeto.
• Ritual de la circunstancia.
• Derecho privilegiado del sujeto que habla.
Estas prohibiciones f?rman una red móvil y cambiante. Se entretejen. Se
refuerzan entre ellas. Se d1st1enden o se estrechan. Las zonas más intrincad:is
en cuanto al dispositivo de lo prohibido se constituyen fundamentalmente,
alrededor de dos. temas: la sexualidad y la política. El tabú que se impone
3
estas panes del discurso hace pensar que la palabra encierra peligrosos
t?s. Aun en épocas de cierta permisión el tema de la sexualidad sufre cxclu-
S!Ones. Hay lugares en donde no se acepta hablar de este tema. Por ejemplo en
ciertos ámbitos universitarios, incluso en ci caso en que se hable con
categor_ízaciones se puede hablar de sexualidad en un curso de posgrado; pero se
no hacerlo _ante alumnos de primer aílo; tambii:n se puede hnbbr en
_Y   pero en un kngun.je aséptico_, y aburrido.
cuemon de que se informe, pero se mantenga alejado el deseo. 1-by dcstn-
cados inielectuales que se niegan a disertar en un panel donde linblar;in psicó-
logos que tocan temas sexuales. Aun esta expresamente excluido en ciertos
espectáculos, en algunas publicaciones, y en determinados círculos de fami-
liares y amigos. .
Otro tanto ocurre con ei discurso político. Hay lugares donde no es de
buen tono hablar de política; si surge el tema se trata de esquivarlo ekgn;i-
temente. Ya es proverbial la frase "con Fulano, mejor no h;iblar de
política". ., •
Las prohibiciones que recaen sobre algunos remas nos revelan que el dis-
curso es ci donde se juega el poder y el deseo. De lo contrario, ¿por qué
temer.le? El dtscurso traduce la lucha y 1ambién aquello por lo que se luch::i.
C::onviene que no siempre que se dice poder se está expresando domi-
nio. Hay discursos que entrañan dominio, es decir·, imperio sobre el otro. Pe-
ro también hay poder sin dominio. Poder como voluniad de hacer, de rcali-
zar:·de 1.ograr; El discurso no siempre es dominio, pero siempre es poder,
0
mejor dicho deseo de poder.
. _LJn segundo_ procedimiento de exclúsión externo es el que marca i::J scpa-
racton entre rawn y locura. En este caso no se trata de una prohibiciói!, ,;ino
de una limitación del discurso en ia cjue se marca una escisión. La razon
rechaza a la locura. Los dist:ursos circulan, con excepción del que
se excluye del circuito discursivo     Al del se
la desvaloriza. Es el decir anulado, el smsent100. loco 1 decimos, Y
con eso est:". todo dicho: nada tan aniquilador de un discurso que lograr con-
senso cuando se lo declara a alguien ioco. Pontificar que un discurso pertene-
ce a la sin-razón es negarle totalmente e\ sentido. Galileo, Colón, Wil.hel:n
fueron acusados de locos por sus opositores; es una m.anera co.mun oe
acallar al

dice cosas que no convienen. Aún hoy se descalifica a Nietzsche
apelando a su locura.
Pala'Cra de Joco: palabra anulada, desvalorizada, de ver?ad,
huérfana de importancia, sin valor jurídico, sin relig1oso, :i,n
inteiectual. Paradojalmente suele otorgársele un sentido oculto. Los
Jos locos dicen· la verdad." La desnuda ingenuidad del loco puede enunciar
un sab(lr que se Je oculta al sano. El discurso del loco son las dos fases de una
meda\!a:
0
no se le otorga ningún valor, o esconde una verdad En
cualq•.Jirr;, de los dos casos, no existe; puesto que no pertenece al ra-
cional. En la antigUedad los locos sagrados podian sab1duna, pe-
ro sus !nconexas palabras debían ser interpretadas por. el de la ra·
zón. En]:¡ Edad Media se trataba de silenciar al loco alejándolo. La nave de
Jos locos" se encargaba de poner distancia entre la palabra de la razón Y la de
. la locurn. . .
En siglo XVIII, ·cuando se comienza a encerrar. a los l?cos, tan: bien se
los comienza a escuchar, pero siempre marcando la d1feren.c1a. Pareci.era que
mientras k.s paiabras comíderadas racionales ingresan al y
las q1:r ccnstituycn t'\ decir de la sin-razón no alcanzan el
regresan n! ruido: Voces sin sentido que son escuchadas baJO c1ena cond1-
C:ón: "Y0 sov sar.o, te escucho, y es ese deambular tuyo, por palabr?s erra-
lo qu°e marca el abismo. Tu decir es alegórico, no tiene la
rrno. Si hay verdad, esta oculta. No has ingresado realmente en 01scurso ·
A partir del fin del siglo XIX parece que las cosas can;biado. Lapa-
labrn del loco se escucha atentamente. La actitud del psicoanalista es recepto·
ra. La palabra loca es ahora atendida y valorizada. f:s un rompecabezas al
que se le busca el significado. No por desordenada deja de una
figura que alguna vez fue coherente y que puede volver a se.rlo: con
rehacer pacientemente el discurso y nuevarr;en1e la sólo
esbozada por el loco. E! discurso de la sm-raz?n tiene desgarrones
qlle hay que para reinstalarlo en su veroad. De c.ualquier n;anera per-
manecen dos escindidos: el de la locura y el discurso calificado del
e;to es, de la racional. ..
Un tercer procedimiento de exclusión externo es la opos1c1ón entre lo
·verduderc: r /o falso. Cuando se considera la historia interna de la verdad se
·que ·no es otra. que la historia de la ciencia. En ella hay proposi-
ciones qu::: confrontan y resultan verdaderas o .. Pero son. ver-
daderas o falsas por razones objetivas. No hay arb1tranedad m en
aceptar Jo que a todas luces es verdadero y en rechazar lo falso. ins-
tancia lo que siempre perseguimos es la y sólo e? c1enc1a. La fi-
losofí3 es una busca de la Yerdad. Las rehgiones se dicen a si mismas verda?e-
ras. El ane puede llegar a definirse como la eclosión de la verdad. En la vida
cotidiami exigimos la verdad. En esta persecusión de la verdad no que
haya viol!ncia, ni exclusión, ni separacion alguna como hay en loprol11b1do Y
28
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en la oposición razón-locura. Pero si rios ubic;mos en otro plano en ci de 1
historia externa de la verdad, encontramos que cada época está' tenida
una "voluntad de verdad". Hay condiciones de posibilidad que preceden el
encuentro del hombre con la verdad. Por lo tanto no es la verdad ¡
0
que pri-
ma sino un tipo de verdad condicionado por razones históricas y coaccionado
por las instituciones. Le resultó inútil a Aristarco (siglo 11! a C.) proclamar
que la tierra gira alrededor del sol; eso es verdad para nosotros pero no
correspondía a Ja voluntad de verdad que regia en esa época. Algo simiiar ie
ocurrió a Copémico varios siglos después. Recién en la época de-Galileo se
empieza a vioientar penosamente la voluntad de verdad en astronomía, pre-
parando el terreno para que finalmente se comience a aceptar la proposición
"la Tierra gira alrededor del Sol" como verdadera. La Tierra y el Sol no cam-
bian, cambió ·la disposición de la comunidad científica y no científica para
aceptar ciertas proposiciones, cambió la voluntad de verdad.
Mendel, en el siglo XIX, trabajó sobre las leyes de la herencia; sus
conclusiones no fueron tomadas en cuenta, porque la voluntad de verdad de
la biología de entonces estaba regida por un saber anatómico. Si Mendcl hu-
biera hecho aseveraciones disparatadas sobre la forma ele los vegetales, se l<ls
hubiera considerado erróneas, pero, como se escapó de la voluntad de saber
de su momento, como habló de incidencias estadisticas en los elementos here-
ditarios, ni siquiera se lo cschuchó. Su discurso no se a venia con .. . disci:i-so
biológico vigente. Hubo que esperar que cambiara la disposición a de1r.rrni-
nado tipo de estudios , para que las l"cyes de se consideraran \·erc.bdc-
ras. No cambiaron las arvejillas con las que investigaba Mcndcl , cambiaron
las condiciones de posibilidad para leer la 1•e¡dad que revelaba .
Los cambios en la ciencia se pueden ver como el acceso a nuc:rns des-
cubrimientos, pero también cabe interpret;-,rlos a la luz ele una voluntad de
saber distinta. Cada período histórico y, dentro de él, cada disciplina se cons-
tituye según un plan que fija objetos posibles de estudio, método para acce-
der a esos objetos, y técnicas para manejarías. !·lay una demarcación de ver-
dades posibles. Es entre el abanico de posibilidades marcadas de antem;ino
que triunfa alguna de ellas. Las, que quedan íuera de esa figura ni siquiera son
consideradas. Esto no quiere decir que mueran para siempre. En muchos ca-
sos sólo se trata de esperar que una nuel'a voluntad de verdad arroje su luz
hacia otros ambitos, lo que puede llevar unos meses o aigunos siglos.
_,
Los dos sistemas de exclusion externa tratados al princ:ípio: lo prohibido
y la oposición razón-locura, confluyen en el tercero: la vo/1111/ad de vrrdnd.
Se prohibe o se permite, según los objetos hacia los que se tienda. Valga co-
mo ejemplo que en épocas de dictadura está prohibido hablar de libertad,
elecciones, o pluralismo. En épocas democráticas lo desprestigiado es defen-
der censuras, golpes de estado o totalitarismos. También encontramos la
impronta de la voluntad de saber en la manera de marcar los límites entre la
razón y la locura. Cuando se creía que la locura era el origen de la sabiduría,el
loco era sagrado. Cuando la voluntad de verdad marca que la locura no és-
conde sentid.o alguno, se la excluye. Cuando, como en· nuestra época, hay una
tendencia a encontrar la verdad en las fracturas del discurso, la está
atenta al decir desestructurado del loco (l:acan) . Aún cuando hay distintos
procedimientos en cada uno de los sistemas de exclusión, es el tercero, lavo-
29
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\untad de verdad, el que parece marcar la tónica de las incidencias externas en
la del discurso -lo prohibido, la oposición razón-
¡ cu;; la voluntad de verdad- contribuyen a que se encuentre lo que .se
0
' d t inadas Se le terne al poder, al az.ar,) ª
quiere encontrar: verdades pre· e errn d' d · lo delimita con los
la materialidad del discurso. En. la me J. a inofensivo más so-
controles pre-establecidos, se lo hace mampu a ' . '
dable o más cienú!ico.
. Lo prohibido
. . razón·
SJ$temas de exclusión -- locura
externos
Voluntad de verdad
Procedimientos de exclusión internos
Son: arbitrarios
modificables
históricos
insti t uciona!es
violentos
(la palabra es
siempre una \iolen-
cia que se le hace a
las cosas)
1 d . dirnientos de exclusión externa es con-
Si la función pri.ncipa e tos prloce. ternos se trata de dominar lo aleato·
jurar poderes y eludlf el .en os in U discurso espontáneo, íluido,
rio. que la

en toda su posible
salvaje, corre el nesgo. de . , t I alidad el pensamiento y la palaora.
ilnd. Hay que poner re elª :;caden;rniento prolijamente articula·
Ei lluir del nos los emergentes inesperados del azar. El
do de las propos;c1one.\ ta dar una muestra de lo que es el vuelco del pensa-
LJ,'ises de James oyce m en , sa en la mente del protagonista en un
miento. Trata de relatar todo; lo pa stá en un funeral y de pronto se Je
día de su vida. v.emos, Pº'. eiemp o, Le surgen ideas que apa·
cruza un pensan;1ento o soez, o la situación que está viviendo. Todos
rnntemente no tienen nana que ver con t' 'dad mental También
-. b t atendiendo a nuestra ac 1v1 ·
r· itlcmos compro ar es o, . . muy bien de decir aquello que surge
p·.)demos constatar que i:os c_u1oamos . E te cuidado tiene que ver con el
aleatoriamente en dominar la dimensión de lo
orden interno del 01scurso. n se
· v'sto de las irrupciones del azar. · .
procedimiento de exclusión interna es Se
· pr . hó ¡ uno mismo d1JO o escnb16. Se
Se reactualizan

. H di os que "se dicen" y desaparecen en e mismo m .
para siempre! En u ni
. d anunciarlo "Las palabras se: as eva e . . .
 
g111an o r • · · d' hos y van a seguir sien o
el ichos" más allá de su producción, contmuan ic . . . . .
d!ciws,. Se trata.de los textos jurldicos, religiosos, c1ent1ficos Y hteranos.
30
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Habria entonces discursos originales y discursos reiterados. Pero la sepa·
ración no es estática y dada de una vez y para siempre. Hay textos que termi-
nan por evaporarse en el tiempo y es su comentario el que permanece; otros
que perduran intactos; otros que coexisten. De todos modos, el juego conti·
núa. No hay posibilidad de marcar una linea rígida que divida a los textos orí·
gina!es por un lado y a los comentarios por el otro. La relación subsiste. Ade·
más es intrincada, móvil y cambiante.
Hay una doble función del comentario a·partir de un discurso de origen:
l) Funda una posibilidad para seguir hablando; 2) Dice "ahora" lo que esfa·
ba silenciado "antes". Cuando Sartre .:scribe su· versión de "Las Troyanas",
por un lado, sigue hablando del mismo terna que Eurípidcs, y por otro, hace
hincapié en un afán colonialista que el texto griego ocultaba o no decía y que
"por fin" se expresa en la versión sartreana.
El comentario diée por primera vez, lo que en última instancia ya estaba
dicho. En este comentario sobre un trabajo de Foucault, se pretende decir
ahora, en estas páginas, lo que ya dijo el filósofo. Lo nuevo no es lo que yo
estoy diciendo (ya lo dijo Foucault) lo nuevo es que el discurso retorna. Pero
retorna con menos riesgos. En ia medida en que comento el texto, digo otras
cosas, además de algunas citas literarias, pero estoy a salvo de io'imprevisto,
conjuro el azar del discurso, me dejo llevar por los carriles marcados por el
discurso original de 1970. El discurso ya fue enunciado y se repite ahora 16
años después, pero sin el peligro de una multiplicidad emergente. ¿Por que
no lo copio? Porque creo que lo aclaro con un vocabuiario más accesible.
Porque considero que lo ilustro con ejemplos. ¿Por qué no invento otro dis·
curso nuevo? Porque siguiendo sus palabras me siento protegida, tranquila,
guiada ... Sin embargo produzco un acontdimiento con su retorno. Digo por
primera vez lo que considero que él no dije) al decirlo por primera vez. Esta
repetición enmascarada permite decir otras cosas con la condición de que se;,
el mismo texto . . Pone a resguardo de ios peligros de un discurso totalmente
original. ,
Otro principio de exclusión, que tiene que ver con el anterior es ei auror.
Parece bastante claro que ai ·hacer comentarios, al repetir textos, al marcar
entreiíneas en discursos ya dichos, el comentador se pone a resguardo del
azar. Pero, ¿qué pasa con el que dice por primera vez?, ¿qué ocurre con ci
discurso que tiene algún grado de .originalidad? En este caso la protección an·
te ei imprevisto, ante el acontecimiento salvaje, ante la irrupción desconsidc·
rada, proviene dél principio de autor. Porque el autor es un foco de cohcrcn·
cia del discurso, es unidad, de· sign,ificaciones, es el que rinde cuenta·dc lama·
nera en que agrupa sus palabras, ._del sentido que les da. Los temas que elige,
el vocabulario y el estilo que perfila van creando un ámbito, el cual incluye lo
pronunciado y lo silenciado:EI autor, no corno subjetividad, no como el in-
dividuo que escribe o habla, sino,como principio de coherencia de un discur·
so es 1m proccdirnicnto de cxcius.ión por las palnbrns qHe no pronuncín, pnr
loS;temas que no toca, porque po.nga o no sutileza en el desarrollo de sus idc·
as. El autor protege al discurso. Reconocernos al autor en su estilo, en sus pa·
lnlmti, en sus 5ilencim. Cumple con del gr11m111\ qnó dnli·
- que: novela, cuento, poes\a:, ensayo, tratado, ele. Entra en el juego pre-
establecido por su epoca y por su temática. Al modificar, marca la diferencia
con todo lo que estaba dicho, y luego se atiene a esa diferencia. Es igual a si
31
i .
··· '
'
. ..,.
mismo. Se identifica.con su individualidad autora!. Excluye lo arbitrario.
El comentario encuentra su identidad en la repetición. El autor la en-
cuentra en Ja forma de su yo. Ambos excluyen el peligro de lo
procedirniento de exclusión interno del discurso son las disciplinas.
En ellas se da un espacio en el cual se puede formular y re formular nuevas pro-
posic!tmcs. Pero no cualquier tipo de proposiciones; los limites son claros, es-
tán determinados; excluyen mucho más de lo que permiten. En cualquier dis-
ciplir.a se encuentran objetos, mé!odos, proposiciones verdaderas, reglas, defl-
r.iciunes, lécnicas e instrumentos a disposición de quienquiera. El conjunto de
elementos que constituyen una disciplina no está ahí para encontrarle un senti-
do oculto (como en el comentario), tampoco para darle un foco de coherencia
(i:omo en el autor). El corpus que conforma la disciplina es anónimo, pero es
lo que se rrquiere para la formulación de nuevas proposiciones.
Las dis.:iplinas son férreos sistemas ·de exclusión del discurso. No están
c0nstituidas por todo lo que se puede decir sobre el. tema que les incumbe.
Ticn::n que responder al horizonte teórico afectado en cada momento históri-
co, par:: 1.o cual opera con las "verdades" enunciables sobre sus objetos de
estudio . ·--así como los errores útiles y sus supuestos instrumentales. Sólo
dentro cid l1orizonte teórico una proposición puede ser aceptada como verda-
der:i, e,; decir, cumple con todos los requisitos que la disciplina exige. Los tres
princip!os de exclusión internos dei discurso -comentario, autor y discipli-
na- que circulen nuevos discursos gracias a la repetición de textos,
a la fecundidad de los autores y al despliegue de las disciplinas. Así se mul-
tiplican las palabras reguladas con severas restricciones.
S
. d l '6 Comentario 1 M 1 • l' 1 l b
• r;temas e exc us1 n A t u tlp 1can as pa a ras
• t u or . .. d l
m ernos D' . .
1
. restnng1en o as
. 1sc1p ma
Pro'.Yrlimientos de exclusión del sujeto
Otro grupo di:: procedimientos de exciusi6n discursivo tiene que ver di-
rectamente con el sujeto que habla. Ya no se trata de conjurar poderes, corno
en los controles externos, ni de dominar lo azaroso, como en los internos. En
este plano, la restricción juega directamente sobre quién habla, en qué cir-
cunstancias, cómo y dónde se emiten los discursos. Si los dos primeros proce-
dimíentos de exclusión juegan sobre el discurso en sí mismo, el tercer conjun-
to de principios se dirige a los posibles sujetos emisores.
Este tercer grupo de procedimientos de exclusión tiene la fuñción de de-
terminar en qué condiciones utiliza el sujeto el discurso y qué reglas deben se-
guir. Con ello se logra que s6lo determinados individuos puedan acceder a
ckrtos discursos. Para ingresar en algunos discursos hay que estar calificado,
r:;ientras que otros permanecen abiértos a cualquier emisor. Por ejemplo, el
dlagi·tóstico de una enfermedad se efectúa sólo en el discurso médico, pero la
  de las vivencias producidas durante:una enfermedad reali-
zada cualquier individuo.
32
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La forma más evidente de este nü - ·· ci-'-- . .
Este califica al sujeto que habl
1
evo grupo es el rit11a/.
ciados emitirá según sea e su y que tipo de enun-
finen Jos gestos, el com m err?ganle, Para ello se de-
nadie lo hable tod , ;as y los signos. Aunque
terminadas situaciones. Si sir;:ilares de-
que se siente a escucharnos Nos so g d el _ps1coanat1sta esperamos
zara a levantar pesas en nuesira pres/p:en

SI el psicoanalista comen-
Faeultad de Ciencias Exactas nos 1 as1sttmos a una clase de fisica en la
utilizara sus horas de clase pa;a co si el profesor
go, levantar pesas y hablar de ar e del domingo. Sin embar-
gares. En una boda, cada partid a1 ntua_l esperado en otros lu-
tentes- se conducen i?s, y asis-
comportamientos esperados res d' a e,e nto. c_on los gestos Y
·los signos adecuados da ]las circunstancias y utilizando
L . ' 1cac1a e as palabras
os sujetos del discurso son controlad 1 .•
cuya función es producir y conse d' os por as sociedades de discurso
rvar 1scursos En esta · d d
escuchar las palabras o se silencian conf . . . s a es se hacen
cen el poder y ellos lo e' ercen en orr:ie a tos cntenos de los que ejer-
socied;des. Un de por las reglas que gobiernan
t1an o modificaban los poemas e. iscurso eran los rapsodas, repe-
orador y auditorio. El rapsoda se l?s papeles entre
complicados ejercicios de memoria q lf el del decir protegido por
modo la poesía era expresada pero reíener los textos; de ese
Se encuentran características simil 1 •
libros llegan a muchísimas pcrso ares en ü5 escritores actuales. Los
. nas pero son po'os ¡, q t' 1 •
y los med10s para escribir, ·publicar vender e uc a capacidad
El secreto téc:nico o científico es a ' l . Hay dtvulg:món y hay secreto.
hay acuerdo entre científicos y cebosalmente guardado. No obstante
car Y Jos que no. En varios   se publi-
cuentran recomendaciones·de no d'v
1
. d' . . Y Moo_erna se en-
cimientos. En nuestra época hay a;u urJar m iscn.mmadamente ciertos cono-
no de

pohllc.os func.lOnan como de discurso; son los' que
sie hace.n circular las pala?ras. Las sociedades de
dólar o b . d ., ... s _conviene o no revelar si se espera aumento del
Las sociedades de discurso
U . r.
na las· de discurso parece encontrarse en

  las la part icipación está restrin-
otros la difusión. Lo que sirve de n unlos el secreto, en Jos
na\ es el e . . . . n mente a os miembros del grupo doctri-
do las aceptando cier_tas reglas Y defendien-
cia del sujeto al grupo. e:s e. el qu_e Juega en la dependen-
mantiene la inclusión. De i\o

con lo se
sus palabras rayan en hereJºía Tunc'1on' 1 1 1 queda excIUido. Cuando
. ' ' an os mecanismos de re h p .
nece integrado respetando' \a orlod . L . . . e azo. erma-
dob\e: la dependencia dell'discurso ooctnna rr:ant1ene una sumisión
. os sujetos que hablan :-los que defien-
33
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_, t . - y la sumisión de los individuos a los discu;sos. Los grupos
en a c;OC nna . n rechazan Por ejemplo un grupo
doctrina!es vinculan Y prohiben, _integra y "nte en la medida en que
revolucionario es.trecha.la de otros grupos. Rechaza a
com¡:arten un mismo discurso.. ciados intolerables para la doctrina
aquellos individuos mai:eJan _enun .
que va a consi;!erar es del
. b d . ¡ ducación El sistema e uca 1 •
cuanto a la extensión a arca ª· ª e · forma olítica de ade-
tuido, entre otras cosas! por el saber Y :ª1os La educa-
cuadón social y1 Ja circulación de las pa-
ciór. se encarga e is • ¡ d' t' son formu-
Brinda las directivas para los edlucaddoresc.·1o!nªveas el discurso
d 1 d La impronta que a e uca .
e,: :uºe :f y los
Hay movilidad, por.el comph::ado mecams última ellas continúan
que pueden producir desfasa1e, aunqu.e en .

d6n están estrechamente vmcu a os en re s discursos según la calidad de
h:i.l:;la!ites en los discu'.sosl habla por excelencia: le otor-
los sujetos. La edu.caciél n es'.ª en la conformación de gru-
!iª rli<tinta categona a os sujetos, d
doctrinales, dispone los discursos según un saber y. un po er.
Ritual 1
. Distribuyen a los su-
/
Sociedades de d1scur- . t
/ / . ¡e os
. V so 1 en \os discursos Y
  de exclusión adecuan
cti:l rnjeto hablante úoctrí1rnle5 según la
, calidad del' sujeto.
· Educación
(adecuación social) ·· ·
Di;curso científico
· d' . d del discurso en gene-
Se han considerado las con .1c10nes discurso científico la conexión
ra\. Analizaremos ahora, dencia de los procedimientos de
con el deseo y el poder, as1 como a epen .
exclusión. . . . ·a se 'ueden detectar proposiciones,
Al recorrer la h1stona de la c1el)Cl t 'd incluso utilizadas con éxito a
cnn•:epciones y teori<1:5 que a estructuras de conocimiento
pe; ar de ciertos desaiustes t:oncos con inexactitudes respecto
ra·:íonal con supuestos o t t . s El hecho de que el agua no se
a la experiencia, o dentro mismo de as .eonap'i.stón era explicado por los aris-
á
d d' metros por las cañenas a T
6
t!evara m s e iez. . ,, d
1
líquidos Durante siglos se uti 12
to•élicos como "el al vacw e os .
i:

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el sistema ptolomeico para entender el universo. Hasta el siglo pasado se
practicaba indiscriminadamente la sangría para muchos tipos de enfermeda-
des. Por una inspiracíón onírica, Kekulé determinó la fórmula de ia estructu-
ra del benceno. En lo que concierne a los tres primeros ejemplos algunos epis-
temólogos dirían que la ciencia, en su ·progreso, supera las incongruencias.
Respecto al último ejemplo afirmarían que no importa cómo se llegó a des-
cubrirlo, lo importante es justificar su ·validez. Nosotros decirnos que el
hecho de que la ciencia haya funcionado y siga funcionando con esos elemen-
tos un tanto espurios para la razón, demuestra que en la ciencia existen ele-
mentos irracionales. Decir que hay elementos irracionales en la ciencia no es
negar ia racionalidad de la ciencia, así como dec;ir que hay partes del bosq ue
que no ardieron no es negar el incendio de un bosque. Tales elementos irra-
cionales pueden integrarse muy bien a la teoría y a la práctica de la ciencia .
Cuando los desajustes comienzan a molestar o a hacerse demasiado eviden-
tes, un cambio de perspectiva puede descubrirlos y reemplazarlos. Las nuevas
teorí as llevan implícitos desajustes que surgirán o no según el azaroso devenir
histórico. Estas modificaciones pueden ser interpretadas de la siguiente ma-
nera: si creemos que la razón es una, inmutable y universal,. diremos que hu-
bo desajuste de lo racional; si creemos que la racionali,dad es progresiva,
diremos que las variaciones muestran el avance de la racionaiidad; si, por
el contrario, creemos que· Ía razón depende de las fuerzas de poder que se·
juegan en cada época, direm.os que el sentido de racionalidad cambia. En
cualquier caso, considerar el conocimiento científico en su dimensión hum:i-
na, nos permite buscar en este, discurso p::irticular los elementos que encontr::i-
mos en el discurso en general.
Retomamos la problemática del deseo y del poder. Hay deseo en t:l dis-
curso científico, deseo .de inv,estigar, de saber, de encontrar respuestas a los
misterios de la naturaleza' y del hombre, de dominar la naturaleza, de bencfi-
:i la humanitl:itl . Deseo c.ic ser reconocido por los tlcmús, ue publicar , de
trascender, de triunfar .sobre sus rivales. Freud encuentra que " ci irnpuiso in-
cansable a una m:iyor perfección que se observa en una minori::i de inclivicl11os
pueJc cu111prc11dcrsc sin JlfkultaJ cu1nu rn11sccuc11cia de la 1 epi c-
si6n de los instintos, proceso .al que se debe lo m:ís v::ilioso de la civilizaci ón
humana" (1Hás allá del princ,ipio de placer, pág. 2528). Los instintos repri-
midos producen una fobia neurótica, la cual, en espirit us 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ilegiaclos d:i ori -
gen a inventos, descubr,imii:ntos, teorías y obras desracadas. Segun esta teoric.
el deseo reprimido .llcv.aría también a la búsqueda de logros en los domin ios
del saber.
Respecto del poder, •ei discurso no es solamente el medio por el cual se
obtiene cierto poder, sino también .aquello por lo que se lucha. El científico
quiere ser escuchado. , Comunica a la comunidad científica sus teor ias , y
cuando éstas son acep,tadas pasan a circular dentro del discurso científico.
Desde ese momento puede llegar a influir en la educación, en ia justicia, en la
política, en tc:idas la·s (éirtnas sociales, puede incluso tener dominio en otr3s
ciencias. Este poder no es unilateral, también los poderes provenientes de
otros ámbitos ejercen presiones sobre él. ¡
En nuestra época es tal el prestigio de :la ciencia que desde muchos secto-
res se disputa por el ni;ve\icientífico. Sectas religiosas pretenden ser "cientí fi-
cas". El mercado ofrece consumidor productos garantizados par si.: cienti-
35
. ----- -- ·
ficidad. l !?.y disciplinas que luchan por ser admitidas como científicas, epis-
que airadamente sostienen que el psicoanálisis, el marxismo y la
astrología no son ciencias, psicoanalistas, marxistas y astrólogos ·que se afa- -
na n pa ·a ,·;·reconocidos como científicos. Algún poder ha de haber en el dis-
cu::so <.:ic;;:ifico para que desde tantos ámbitos se pretenda pertenecer a él.
Ln c-ontrapnrtida del deseo en el discurso científico es la institución. Ella· -
y encausa el discurso. Este se enuncia en los institutos de investiga-
cit•nes, en las universidades, en las asociaciones y academias científicas. La
im titución es un sistema de coacción. Sobre el discurso científico pesa tarn-
bi{:n lo prohibido. Dentro'·de cada ciencia y en cada momento histórico se
pn:sentnn dispositivos determinantes de lo que se puede y no se puede hablar.
Se delimita un campo de objetos, de métodos y de técnicas, para mantenerse
de•Hro tlcl discurso cientlfico.
Ln c;cisión razón·locura rige para este tipo de discurso. El loco no puede
ha·:er ciencia ni hablar de ciencia. Es proverbial en la historia de la ciencia la
de un discurso mediante la acusación de locura: Colón, Gali-
lw, rréUd.
El tr:rna de !ns proposiciones verdaderas y falsas hacen la clc11cla 1nlrn1a.
dispone de medios para determinar la verdad o falsedad de las
;:>r<iptWC'Jllaes. Dispone de sistemas de exclusión para dejar "fuera de discur-
so'' a- proposiciones que no se encauzan en la voluntad de verdad.
• de ews procedimientos de exclusión son especialmente tratados por
lo$ <le la ciencia. '
Et w1m?11tario es un hilo conductor i:kla ciencia. Hay fórmulas, leyes,
rr.gla> qu.: se repiten sin apelar siquiera a su enunciación originaria; pasaron a
consti,\.i?r el acervo de la ciencia. Se actualizan, amplían o rechazan teorías ante-
rior::s n:::;liante el comentario. El murmullo constante de los comentarios en
cienc1:-, reC!dita el ·discurso científico y contribuye a su modificación por enri-
quecimiemo o refutación. El comentario científico posee características que
lo distiiiguen de otros tipos de discurso.
Si bien en ciencia la exigencia' de autor no es tan puntual como en litera-
tura, n·.· ·;-:prescinde de él. En la Edad Media la apelación al autor era la máxi-
ma garantía de seriedad. "¿Cómo no va a ser verdad si lo dice el Maestro
{Arist6i.:lcs)?". Actualmente no se acepta una teoria porque la enuncie un
autor prestigioso. A una teoría no se le exige que Ja haya enunciado Newton o
Einstein, sino que sea coherente, que sea factible de corroborarse con la expe-
rit!nch. · No obstante, el foco de coherencia que significa un autor está  
te en enunciados y teorías. Se sigue remitiendo a él, incluso sin haberse despo-
jado totalmente del halo de seguridad que parecen emitir algunos autores des-
ta.;atlos. También e¡¡ ciencia este pdncipio de exclusión funciona: cada autor
,. exduye de su obra objetos, temas, niodalidades, delimitando así su discurso.
Hay más disciplinas que ciencias, pero cada ciencia está encuadrada en
Por lo tanto lo que se ha dicho sobre las disciplinas en general,
vaie para las disciplinas científicas. Son sistemas anónimos constituidos por
errores y verdades que cumplen una función positiva. Marcan el horizonte te-
órico, es dedr lo que está en la verdad del discurso de cada época (voluntad
de vud:id), y posibilitan la producción de nuevas proposiciones, siempre y
cuando se enuncien respetando las exclusiones.
E! ritual, procedimíento propio del sujeto del discurso, acompaña al dis-
J6
1r1 l
¡

1·.
1
r

r
,.
i
curso científico. Pensemos en el d - . .. _·:...·__
la . or en meaico y e
1

s operac10nes quirúrgicas las invest· . n os rituales de la con l
de un científico que, dando 'una 'confe igac_iones. el
sacara los zapatos. Hipócrates d 'ó re.ncia.en un_a mstJtución importanteg
comportamiento de un "buen" mrnuc1osas Instrucciones en cuanto
que "no debe hacer". Es decir Jico._ Ses.abe cualquier científico
labras, sino también para ciertos e a exclusión rige no sólo para ciertas
cunstancias; todo lo cual YJ según las cir-
.. sociedades de discurso son es a eficacia de la palabra científica.
s10n a c1ert?s discursos cientificos. La ci?s de finen con prcci-
des, fundaciones, laboratorios, observ s mvestigación, facu:ta-
te sus secretos, dosifican lo que ucde a onos y manejan rigidamen-
no sólo y companirse. Sus sis-
ra cc1 ir quién puede entrar o no en la so . Hay mecanismos pa-
puedc trnnsmitir inform:ició11· por . lc1e a Y a quien, cuando,. cómo se Je
• • J • ' ' CJClllp o h N /\ s /\ ,
cma es cu_yas !nvestigaciones ·rcdituarán , 'b . ·. : ., o l::iboratorios mccli-
En ciencia es dificil difcrcn . gran económico.
rloc_tri11oles. Ln difercncln e:itt\ fnrre. sociedades de discurso Y t:m{Jos
rlst1ca de promover el ingreso den Os J:'.1 llpos llot:t1 ll!alcs tlc11c1J la r:11 :it:tc-
como en las sociedades de adl.1erentes al grupo. No los une cÍ
del grupo quien emite discursosso, smo !ªdependencia doctrinal. Es
en esta categoría algunas . a Jos postulado; básicos
c1olog1cas y a d · . asoc1ac1onc< médº r • • • · •
. ca em1as de ciencia el d' - ica, , ps1coanal1t1cas so-
conscgu1r adherentes y de '1cad?.1 n   las ideas cicntíÍi·c: ns , .
L d · e a ciencia ' · , .
a e ucac1ón.permite el 'acceso de los. . :.
curso, perC! marca su distr'ibudón su a -:-ualquier tipo de dis-
l?s poderes scilala el rumbo·de lo;·t º.prohibición. El j11ego de
eJemplo: ci:i estos momentos·en e. estud;o y de. invcstigar1ón. Por
fund1r !ª .ci,encia en todos los niveles. de 1 sociedades una voiuntarl de di-
se hace hincapié en la en los e, ludios
ciencia. y tecnología . enc1Ja c1ent1f1ca. La enseñanza de la
f}losof1a hay una tendencia a•ocu arsec1a en pl_anes de estudio. Hasta en
prob!ernáticas. Los mecanismos dº de la c1enc1a, en detrimento de otras
la primacía de lo científico. e isponen de la educación contribuyen a
DISCURSO CIENTIFICO:
- Deseo
- Poder
- Institución
- Prohibido
- Razón-locura
- Voiuntad de verdad
- Comentario
- Autor
- Disc!plinas
- Ritual
- Sociedades de discurso
- Grupos doctrinales
- Educación
37
• -1 1
r
/' 1
¡
1
1
1
1
' .,,.,.
Hemos hecho una separación artificial del deseo, del poder, de la institu-
ción y de los sistemas de exclusión de! discurso. En realidad todos estos ele-
mentos iuncionan interactuando entre si, oponiéndose, complementándose y
expandiéndose. El discurso cientlfico es un constitutivo más de la sociedad.
No eS(;ilpa al juego de las pulsiones sociales y se atiene a sus exclusiones.
Existe un esfuerzo renovado a través de la historia de la ciencia por "ob-
jeriviVir" el lenguaje científico. Leriche, un teórico de la roedicina, dice que si
se quiere definir la enfermedad hay que deshumanizarla. Hay que olvidarse
cfo que la sede de Ja enfermedad es un hombre. Cuanto más racional y cientí-
fico se pretende un lenguaje, más parco, alejado de toda emotividad y asépti-
co debe ser. En nuestra época esto se ·ha logrado. En el discurso científico no
deberá entrar el azar, no deberán irrumpir los instintos, se deberá excluir el
h:imor. No siempre fue así; Galileo mechaba sus textos científicos con anéc-
dotas, iranias, comentarios ad-hoc. Esto está prohibido hoy en el discurso
científico, salvo en algunos textÓs llamados de divulgación. . .
Foucault dice que "las palabras son siempre una violencia que se les
h;¡ce a las cosas". No debemos creer entonces que si pudiéramos reaimen-
te eliminar los sistemas de exclusión lograríamos recrear la realidad con
p<>labras. Tampoco tenemos pruebas de que el mundo sea cómplice de
nuestro conocimiento y se deje atrapar por él. Ni siquiera podemos saber
!'1 realidad tiene correlatos absolutos con nuestra razón como para que
é1ta nos dé totalmente cuenta de ella. Si pudiéramos incluir en el ·discurso lo
  no tendríamos seguridad de expresar así la realidad. En última ins-
tand.1, el conocimiento y el discurso colá.boran en la conformación de nuestro
mundo, es decir, no es esperable que un discurso salvaje y cristalino.nos refleje
al mundo tal cual es. Pero entendemos que tanto ei discurso en general, co-
mo el discurso científico en particular,pueden aspirar a una mayor iibertad, a
ür.;i soltura que permita entender la complejidad de los juegos negativos que
enrarecen el discurso, pero que a la vez lo constituyen. Podemos preguntar-
nos hasta qué punto las exclusiones del discurso -incluidas las del científi-
co- no están revelando el temor a los acontecimientos descarnados .
38
. '
l. ¡,Qué relación existe entre discurso y deseo?
2. ¿Qué relación existe entre diséurso y poder?
3. ¿Cómo se juega en el discurso la relación deseo-institución?
4. Desarrolle los procedimientos de exclusión externos del discurso.
5. Desarrolle los procedimientos de exclusión internos del discurso.
6. Desarrolle los procedimientos propios de! sujeto hablante.
7. ¿Qué relación hay entre los descubrimicºntos científicos y la 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.oll\ntad
de verdad?
8. ¿El discurso científico está regido por los procedimientos ele
sión? ¿Cómo?
9. Formule su opinión· sobre la relación discurso científico-des,eo., Fun-
daménteia.
1
¡
l
í.
f
t
t
r
f
t
¡
l
f.

i
t
f
l.
f
1
1
j
10. Formule su opinión sobr J . . : ..
daméntela. e a rclac1611 discurso científico-poder. !-un-
BIBLIOGRAFÍA
FOUCAUL T, /\J., "El orden del dº ..
;r;mcia, 2-12-70. iscurso ' Conferencia en el Colegio de
REUD, S., )vfás allá del princi io ¡
Nuc:1·a, Madrid, 1973. P e e placer, .Obras completas, Biblioteca
39

_._ -
5. EL CONOCIMIENTO
Hay cllstintos saberes, con diferentes grados de veracidad, confiabilidad
y extensh\n. Todos participan de las características generales del conocimien-
to. A. dlas nos dedicaremos en este apartado. Tornaremos la ya clásica
dc:s-:ripc:ón del acto de conocer realizada por Nico\ai Hartrnann (1882-1950),
aunque efectuaremos un comentario libre de esa descripción.
p¡¡ra que haya conocimiento son necesarios dos elementos. Por un lado
a:guicn que conoce: el sujeto cognoscente (la terminación "ente" /"ante" re-
fkrc: al c:ue realiza la acción: "amante" es "el que arna"; "cognoscente" es
"e\ qu;- conoce"). Por otro lado aquello que se conoce: el objeto cognoscible
(\:J tcrmíll:-d6n "ib\c" /"a ble" inclicn posibilidad: "cognoscible" es "lo que
r'1eck conocerse"). La relación que se entabla entre ambos e\cmcntos,en tan-
to tktcrminaclas caracteristicas, establece si se trata de un acto ele cono-
(er. Le. 1claci6n entre un y un objeto tnrnbién existe si"sc f;ibrica, v.gr.,
una rni::,a , pcrn esta relación no es la dci conocimiento.
En lll rr,laci6n cognoscitiva el sujeto capta, aprehende al objeto. Tal
¡,r:-rchcnsn produce cuondo queclíl como resultado, en el sujeto, una ima-
i:en. Esta se constituye con caractctlsticas captadas en el objeto por el f,\I·
j::to. Si"nónimo de "imagen" es "idea", "noción", "concepto". Pero sólo
habr3 conocimiento si la imagen repite (no materialmente, por supuesto) las
propi::dades del objeto. Es decir, si hay adecuación o coincidencia entre la
imagen y el objeto conocido. En tal caso, la imagen es verdadera. Puede atir-
marse que existe conoCimiento sola11ie11te cuando la imagen es verdadera. La
imagen expresada en el lenguage es una proposición.
¿.Quién conoce? El sujeto, en principio, es un hombre: un ser humano par-
ricuiar, con determinados conocimientos y experiencias previas, con un estado
afrctivo y con una estructura de personalidad, viviendo ciertas circunstancias.
Es e\ s:ijeto psicológico. Puede considerarse también que quien conoce es un
- grupo humano, por ej: la comunidad esauima\, los hombres de la Edad Media
lnduso es posible referirse a un   en general. Tal idea surge de consi'.
J;:rar que hay conocimientos que son adquiridos óe la misma manera y con
idéntico resultado por c11a/q11ier sujeto. El ejemplo clásico es el del científico.
Cuando alguien decide dedicarse seriamente a una ciencia, no creará sus pro-
p\os conceptos ni organizará arbitrariamente sus procedimientos
· e ide:n.s generales. Por el contrario, se atendrá a \os conceptos, ideas, experiencias
Y que definen la disciplina de su interés.
;.Qué se conoce? Se conocen objetos. Objeto es aquello que se presenta,
se enfrenta al (de "ob-yec111m", en latín: "yectum" es "arrojado"; el
40
1
1
¡
- CJJii% "'1·:COP.5'1?f S7")+1:.:..->Sl 5 1 1' f'E'tl
prefijo "ob" significa "hacia ade\ante'')."E . . .
cos nos rodean, aquéllos que oc I . n P!!nc1p10, se conocen Jos obje-
(ob3etos reales). También puede upahn un lugar en el espacio y en el tiempo
pensamientos, deseos, los estados mentales
f1c1les de conocer que los ob· t ). os ob1etos ps1qu1cos parecen má< d1·
t
· Je os externos al · L · - - -
encia tempero-espacial sujeto. as ideas no tienen ·
. . • pero son apreh 'bi ex1s-
se aplican a la realidad ens1 es. Los números, las figura<
Aun cuando observamos : pero no se presentan a nuestra experien:
c1_b1do ?ºcoincide con el e(' una cosa. rectanguiar, ei rectángulo per-
sus lados no serán geométnco (no tendrá únicamente dos
exa:=utud rectos). Sin embargo son tªa:e?te sus ángulos no serán con
posible conocer relacjones v pro b1én Objetos cognoscibles. Además es
. e· . cesas
• ¡, orno es Ja relación de .
Jetos (O) están "frente a frente"; están enf. Segun Hartmann, sujeto (S) y ob-
rentes. Aun cuando el ObJ- eto sea rentados , pertenecen a esferas di fe
t nuestros propi · . -
os, para ser cognoscibles es necesa . \d. . os _senum1entos o pensamicn-
. , no e istanc1am1ento entre sujeto y objeto.
La función del - · . SUJeto es conocer al b · .
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iertc en ObJºetde el su3cto . Es trrei:er,sible porque el
el ' f :i t · ' 111 n a mvcrsa En e
1
·
( , o ro Sl!Jcto h11mano éste t l '' .'. aso e e mtentar anrchcn-
lo ' · ' nm )il'J\ con ' 1C ·- (, • •
. con?ce. Pero se trata, en realidad el d '. '-· ser SllJCIO para) c¡u'irn
1as Y sm1ultancas . • e os relaciones cognoséiti1'as paralc-
I-lnc-e. fol!í1 r0ner en contnc10 a dos elemrnto .
conocer, )a que son como se l" . s rnfrrnt;ic\os en rl neto de
o independientes. El su3ºeto t_ IJO¡' trascendentes (cstú1111no mús all-'1 del olro)
- es e cneargatlo ¡ '
mismo). Para ello sale hasta l . '. te trascender (ir más allú ele si
· ¡ ' " ' e Objeto v E
SUJelO e permite aprehender las e t . . . regresa. ste movimiento clei
se ha modificado: posee ahora arac; enst1cas del objeto. Al volver el suJ'eto
' una Unf!gen {!). •
SALE
ESTA FUERA
VUELVE-----/
El sujeto es rece'Pfii·o es d .
t s • ecir capaz de ' b'
o .. trascender es sólo su acom¿d i ir las propiedades del obje-
rec1b1rlo. En la relación es moáijic a para poder aprehenderlo
manece idéntico. El objeto es ei o por e mientras que éste per'.
sei; ahora una imagen (las r:-0d1fica ai sujeto, quien po-
SUJelO es detenninado. s del objeto) que antes no poseía. El
41
Según esta descripción el sujeto, cuando conoce, se atiene ai objeto, y
obtiene una im:igen (I), la.cu¡il reíleja al objeto tal cual es. Sin embargo,
cabria preguncar: . . .
El sujeto, ¿es sólo receptivo y por ende, pasivo?. Por ej. un historiador, si
se atuviera a los datos que posee (imagen) se encontraría con una serie de
hechos, algunos sucesivos y otros simultáneos, entre los cuales pueden estar la
forma en que hizo sus empanadas la negra Maria el 22 de Mayo de 18iOjuñtó· · ······ -
con el Cal:>iido Abierto de ese día_. Sólo si el historiador selecciona esos hechos,
los º'ganiza, interpreta y relaciona (estableciendo qué es causa, qué es antece-
cente. etc .) podrá aprehender lo que denominará ''Revolución de Mayo".
El objeLo, ¿no se modifica en la.relación de conocimiento? Por ejemplo,
en la física clásica puede determinarse la trayectoria y velocidad de todo mó-
dl. Sin embargo, cuando se pretende observar un neutrón, al querer estable-
cer la   se modifica la velocitlad, y a la inversa. La presencia del
servad0r modifica aqu[ al objeto. Un test psicológico es una forma de cono-
u:r ciertos aspectos de la personalidad de un individuo (objeto). Pero al reite-
rar el mismo test a Ja misma persona; los resultados variarán.
  y objeto son independientes, están enfrentados? Para que haya
conocim;ento, el sujeto psicológico tiene que tener conciencia de Ja imagen
aprehendida. Quizá podría entenderse que el acto de conocer es justamente
un r.oner a01\c la conciencia aquello que·ya en realidad, de alguna manera, sa-
bemn;. Ttnemos ciertos "saberes" por nuestro trato cotidiano con las cosas;
v.gr., manP.¡amos el picaporte de Ja puerta con eficacia ("sabemos" cómo
hacerlo), at1nquc no nos hayamos nunca enfrentado al picaporte como objeto
ccgno5dbk. Si el picaporte se rompe, nos llama la atención y, entonces,
m!rada se dirige a él y lo aprehende ahora como un objeto con deter-
minadas rnrnctcrísticas. En- caso -de qüe ·esta· descripción· sea· cierta, hay una
r,•lación fami!i'.lr entre el sujeto y las cosas, que luego transformarse en
conocimlem'J. En consecuencia, no habría Ja separación entre sujeto y obje-
to (S y O) que Hartmann afirma . . ·- · ...
Si sólo hay conocimiento cuando I;i imagen es verdadera y Jo es si coinci-
de con el cbjrto; ¿cómo se determina la verdad de un conocimiento? ¿Que
grado de tiene que existir eñtre imagen y objeto para considerar la
V!Tda:l del conocimiento? y ¿cómo conocemos ese g_rado de adecuación?
No resulta fácil contestar unívocamente a la pregunta ''¿qué es el cono-
cimíemo?". Algunos datos qued'an claros, pero no· hay una solución total. La
historia dr. la filosofía muestra numerosos intentos para encontrar la respues-
ta. Parecidos problemas se presentan cuando se reflexiona acerca de un tipo
de conocimier.to: el conocimiento cientifico.
' , La de>cripdón del conocimiento nos remite de Ja ,·erdad. Ahora, se de-
shrollirá e5e tema; luego veremos el problema de la justificación dei conoci-
mi:!nto entonces estarémos en condiciones de tratar Ja cuestión dei
conocimiento científico. ·.
' . . .
1. Enumere sintéticamente Jos elementos, relación y caracteristicas del
acto a.:: c0noc.:r.
.
·( ..• ;•t.+ .... :::=.
_, - '·-lZ.. po ' _ ........ <
· •
¡
1
{
1
1
f

r
í:
..
r
i
i'
1
r:
t
l
r
¡,

1
2. ¿Considera que hay otros elementos que fuegan en el conocimiento y
que la descripción de Hartmann no toma? ¿Cuáles?
3. Sintetice con sus palabras los probiemas planteados por la descripción
tradicional del conocimiento.
. BIBLIOGRAFÍA
HARTMANN, N., Les príncipes d'1111e métaphysiqz;e de la connaissancc,
Aubier, París. 1945.
HOSPERS, J., Introducción al análisis filosófico, Alianza Editorial,
Madrid, 1980.
43
'.:
:. :
6. OTRA HISTORIA DE LA VERDAD"
t. Esrructura de la verdad
1. 1. 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er,d::id como adecuación
La es 'úiiá relación de coincidencia entre el pensamiento Y la cosa
a la que éste se refiere.
es una concordancia entre el juicio y ia realidad.
La verdad es una relación de adecuación entre el pensamiento o su expre-
si0n m::diante una proposición y la realidad a la que se refiere dicha proposición.
L:i. verdad de proposición c¿nsiste en su acuerdo con fa realidad.
Una oración es verdadera si designa un estado cosas e.xistente. La
ci(•n
0
proposición "la rosa es roja" es verdadera y si la rosa es rop.
füto nos parece tan obvio que casi no necesita tal vez porqu\! en
ur.a civilización científica como la nuestra se relaciona verdad con:
a) Objetividad
b) Comunicabilidad
e) Unicidad .
d) Conformidad con los principios lógicos
c) Correspondencia con lo real
n) Ln vercl!1tl ebJetlvíl, §e r;lí\m y distin
0
ta, se diferencia ele lo
que no es ella. Se presenta de igual modo a todos los SUJelós.
b)' Una experiencia inefable, que no se pueda expres:ir en una proposi-
cién, que no se pueda comunicar, no se considera verdadera. La 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erdad se Principio de no contradicción: "Ninguna.
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al mismo tiempo.
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que se enuncia y la realidad a la que se refiere. · .
demostración
Esta concepción de la verdad es inseparable La verificación
La experimentación
Porque si algo es verdad, se lo puede demostrar por medio de argumen-
tos o fundamentos que confinnen·su verdad. Además una proposición verda-
dera es susceptible de ser verificada, y la contrastación con la experiencia (ex-
perimentación) .es prueba saiisfáctoria.para reafirmar la verdad. La física se
rnnslituye en modelo (o crea el modelo) porque actúa e:-.perimentando, Ycri-
ficando y demosirando.
Esta concepción de la verdad como ade.::uación, como concord:!ncia
entre pensamiento y realidad, es la concepción imperante en este momento.
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erdad como una relación. aunque
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Si esta relación cumple ciertas condicíoncs, s.: produ-
ce la verdad.
PllOPOSICION 1 Rl2.i\LID:\D
 
proposiciones
2
· ACC[ÓN
ya establecidas.
) . Adecuación.
2. Eficacia.
L Cohercncin.
1:.ucstra de es entonces la de una relación. Es sugerente ouc

la noc1on comun de conocirnienio se cstablczrn como un;i re!:icfón
r ,
¡ 1
1 '
1
1
1
1
i
RELAC!ON:
Si esta reiación cumple ciertas condiciones,
se da el conocimíenro.
SUJETO
OBJETO
Pero hube épocas en que la verdad como relación no era obvia, como lo
es para n0sotros, ni siquiera se podía concebir un desdoblamiento entre lapa-
labra y la realidad, porque en la verdad, Ja palabra y la realidad constituían .
una unidad; dicho de otra manera: era la palabra verdadera la que instituia la
reillidad. , . .
Por un lado, se suele creer que la verdad es una, siemp.re ha sido y será la
misma, sin modificaciones. Por otro lado, la historia muestra que a distintos
de pensamiento corresponden 'distintas concepciones de verqad.
Foucault sostiene que no existe fragmento de verdad que no tenga que ver
con el poder. Las verdades se manlienen y siguen vigentes mientras, direcra o
índireclamenre, toral o parcialmente, están avO!adas por a/giín tipo de poder:
E;;ta afirmación no pretende referirse sólo a las verdades de la vida cotidiana,
sino también a las de las ciencias naturales, sociales y formales, Y en general a
todos los ámbitos humanos. La verdad tiene que ver con la política.
Entendemos por políticas las relaciones .de poder que se dan entre los
hombres. Estas relaciones no se limitan sólo a la forma de gobierno, al juego
<le las luchas partidarias o a los asuntos de estado, sino que se extienden a la
comunidad entera, a la sociedad. Se refieren al mundo, donde, por el solo
hecho de haber hombres, se establecen relaciones de poder¡ por lo tanto abar-
can h economía, la religión, el ejército, la justicia, la ciencia, el arte, ia edu-
cación y todo lo que tiene que ver con lá sociedad.
En el concepto de polis, encontramos el sentido originario de la palabra
"pc!\tica". Aristóteles considera que la esencia humana es ia racionalidad, Y
define al hombre como "animal poiítico". En Grecia no se podía imaginar al
hombre independientemente del ciudadano y es justamente en un contexto po-
lltíco en donde se constituye la raió·n. Se debía buscar el conocimiento por ci
conocimiento mismo, la búsqueda de la verdad se consideraba "desíntcresa-
d;i". Pero entre nosotros la razóri no se orienta a h·rnera contemplación co-
mo en sus inicios, sino que se ha vuelto experimental. Podemos preguntamos
si esta razón que esta ligada a la ciencia y a la verdad, sigue teniendo algo que
ver con lo politice o es absolutamente independiente de la dinámica sociai.
Afirmar que "son las práctiCas sociales las que generan verdades susten-
tadas en fuerzas de poder" es ir contra toda una tradición pedagógica, la cual
h;i pu::sto todos sus esfuerzos para hacernos creer.que la verdad es indepen-
diente del maestro que ·1a enseña y va:le por sí misma. Además ei maestro
debe propagar 1a verdad, corno si la verdad no fuera un compro-
· miso.
Intentaremos mostrar que la verdad, en tanto categoría mental, es soli-
daria con todo un sistema de pensamiento, y que.los sistemas de pensamiento
cambian, según van cambiando las relaciones de poder que los constituyen.
P:ittón en el siglo v a.C. institucionaiizó la verdad como la única, in-
mutable· y racional, pero no siempre la verdad fue racional. No sabemos
46
1
1
1

!
1
f.
¡
t.
¡
1
1
!
si siempre lo a seguir siendo. Aunque la verdad ha cambiado
·a traves '.iempo. En consecuencia la verdad tiene historia, incluso se le
puede atnbu1r una pre-historia .
. referencias griegas· acerca de Ja racionalidad, prove-
los JOnicos, y seguir las afirmaciones de la ciencia hasta nuestros
dias sena hacer una historia interna de la verdad. Aqui sólo trataremos de
algunos de la historia externa de la verdad, es decir, de las
sociales que produjeron con éxito ciertas formas de verdad en
detnmento de cualquier otra posible.
1.1. La Yerdad como transformadora de la realidad
E_n Grecia arcaica, '.1º había mediación entre ia palabra y ia cosa, porque
en el sistema que regía en esa sociedad io que valía era la pa-
.. '.1º tiene en este caso el sentido pragmático de dcslac:ir
la utlll_dad conoc1m1ento para la acción . Su eficacia consistía en constituir
la realidad misma con. la palabra; por ejemplo, si el poeta alaba a un oucrre-
ro, ese guerrero era la palabra del poeta le confería la reaiidad de'°valien-
te en cambio buscaríamos testimonios de su valentia). En el sistema de
pensamiento del griego arcaíc_o, la valentía ie era conferida al guerrero por!¡;
del poeta, _ya que a este una diosa lo inspiraba y le otorgaba verdad
?' a su pala,bra . _La Musa es una potencia religiosa c¡ue sqbrcpasa ::il
hombre Y_ cuando este siente su presencia tiene el poder de conferir realidad
con su decir. _La expresión .no es verdad eficaz porque diga cosas que
se con _la realidad, sino porque i11sta11ra la realidad con s1111a.
labra. En las   poeta es ei árbitro supremo, fiscaliza con su alabania 0
con su desap.robac1on : El poeta confirma el ser, da realidad. La gioria del
guerrero en el batalla fue la verdadera gloria es iit que
le º'.orga el poeta, inspirado por la diosa. El poeta griego entrega o niega la
glona, es maestr_o la verdad que no se pone en duda. Aletheia es
verdad en gnego, Y lo que se manifiesta, lo que se desocuita, lo que
se devela. este sentido lo opuesto a ia verdad es lo que queda velado, ocul-
to; en n_osotros es lo falso: Para el griego arcaico, mostrar lo
oculto, ci olvido; nosotros ,moslrar la verdad, impide io íaíso
(contrario a la verdad) o el error (creer que es verdad algo que no lo es).
Otro de la verdad de la Grecia arcaica es el rey de justicia.
Cuando el que administrar justicia, no investigab·a ·ñi buscaba test i-
El inspirado por potencias divinas, asistía a una ordalía entre el acu-
saao Y algu_na fuerza natural (por ejemplo, tirarlo al río con manos y pies ata-
do?) Y el resultado de esa prueba, el rey otorgaba la verdad (la culpa· o
la inocencia). El rey_ el ser inocente o ser culpable, su palabra es ver-
dadera es efic_az, dice la verdad, y al decirla la constituye en realidad.
. . Tamoien el era maestro de ia verdad en el sentido de ser e! dueño
de la El ao1vmo no _en_senaba ia verdad, no ia concedía a otro, sinG
que Ja Por _lo general. :1 po_der mántico era privilegio del rey, es decir
que comc1dian en el la autonoad ael mando político v el pod d' · ·
· \ ·
1
' d ' ; era 1vinalono·
pose_ia a mem?r.1a en e senti o de saber el pasado, ei presente 'I el futuro.
del ad1vmo es verdadera porc¡ue act11aliza lo que nombra, le confiere
realidad, produce lo real con ·su palabra.
47

Caracterfsticas de la verdad
nrcaica:

Amos de!ª verdad Rey
en grecw urcmca Adivino
• No se opone a lo falso, se opone al
olvido.
• Es eficaz.
• Tiene connotaciones mágico-reli-
giosas.
o Es privilegio de pocas personas.
En .estos sistemas vale .la
palabra eficaz.
El arte es para \os mortales una tregua en sus f:l :na-
estro de \a verdad, inspirado por las Musas, al pronunciar la mag1co-
rdigiosa le confiere ser (la actualiza, la realiza),_ desoculta al decir Y el que es-
cucha o\'ida lo demás, lo que queda oculto. . . . .
p'ero con el advenimiento de la escritura y con los can:o1os po11cos Y so-
ciales, r.os vamos a encontrar con otro sistema de de un mundo
inmerso en;:¡ mito, vamos a devenir en un mundo regido por el lagos (razón,
argumento, palabra).
1.3. ycrdad como prrsuasión
Los escribas que pasan al servicio de las dinastías n;icénicas,
tran:,rorman \a e;,ritur;i del palacio de Cnosos (lineal A),
de los nu.:1·os señores micénicos . . AI ca_:r elln;perto
nico su escritura (invas1on donca). .el siglo lX a. ·
los !:..-Íegos redescubren \a escritura; la tornan de los .. La. palabra
pasa a ser un elemento de tura cor;iún, .era de los
palacios, ahora se expande por la ciudad. La 1n:pla_ntac1on de la escntura
sibilita \a pllblicidad y \a dindgación de \os mas diversos aspectos de la vida
social y po\itica. . .
Se da un también con respecto a la Jerargu.ia. Esto se puede cap-
tar a de la lengua: comienzan a desaparecer los titulas de cargos eleva-
dos v de tenencia del suelo. .. .
/
. (\
·Háy una trnnsfo:mación en los "sabios", ya no se 01ngen a la P 1ys1s a
natur;:;.:cza divinizada), sino a los hombres; ahora se por la manera
d
· \os conflictos humanos tratando de racionalizar el desorden pa-
c . . ,
ta Ql"' nuca el orden de la ciudad. .
El deja de ai:ap::trar los poderes religiosos, politicos y guerreros, pos1-
,l·JSI.! nsí 11na redi:;trib11ción del poder.
Escritura (publicidad, divulgación)
TrnmíN1t1t1clo11és §ocilile3 quo ,tLengirn (tirn1p1mcen los titulas)
han en el nuevo Sabios (humanistas)
de pensamiento. Rey sin suma de potlcr.
48
1
l.
1
\
1
¡
l
i
1
!
Con el .. adv.enimiento de la polis (s. Vlll-VII ·1f.C.) se prepara el terreno
para la nueva estructura de la verdad, que llamaremos "verdad como per-
suasión". Los problemas públicos, los temas que tienen que ver con la comu-
nidad, lo relativo a la ciudad, ya no se trata en el secreto del palacio. sino
en el ágora, esto es en el centro, en la piaza pública; allí se da la ia
controversia, los debates. Los tópicos que ¡¡.ntes estaban reservados al guerre-
ro o al sacerdote, ahora se abren a la discusión de los ciudadanos. Comienza
política y lagos; porque de eso se trata, de ganar espacio
poltt1c_o por medio de la palabra. Se da una preeminencia de Ja palabra sobre
otros mstrurnentos de poder. La verdad va a ser la que logre convencer al
otro, la verdad es persuasión (peithó) . "
Acil no se busca verificar, sino persuadir. Al exponer nlgo a la luz del
día, se lo somete a juicio, y si se acepta, se convierte en verdad. Cuando ias
eran secretas, \as
1
rnanejaban sólo unos pocos privilegiados (poetas,
ad1vmos, reyes); cuando las verdades pasan a ser públicas son dominio co-
mún . Los que manejan mejor esas i'...::-:::.:;úanas ios capaces de
persuadir con ellas, i .. ..:cpcndientemente de su adecu::ición a la realidad. Pero
si no se convence al otro, aparece la falsedad.
Se descubre la ambigüedad de ia palabra. La palabra puede tener un cs-
doble y ambiguo: dice algo para referirse a otra cosa. La :imbigücd:id
comienza a ser problema en Hesíodo (Vlll a.C.); su pensamiento está en el pa-
saje del mito al logos.
Punto de partida de la refkx!on
No hay verdad sin persuasión.< sobre el lenguaje como instrumento.
(Ambigüedad de la palabra)
Poder de b palabra sobre ei otro.
Sistema de pensamiento mítico
Palabra prendida a una red de valo-
res simbólicos.
Verdad-eficacia
Nuevo marco mental
Palabra pnra convencer.
Verdad-persuasión
Al secularizarse la palabra, se dcsncraliza también la verdad, perdiendo
su condición de mágico-religiosa. La verdad cambió de amo. Ahora los ma-
estros de la verdad van a ser los que sepan utilizar ci lagos. Este ya no existc-
cn comunión con la realidad, sino que se hn constituido en \lllíl rcaiid::trl
autónoma sometida a sus propias leyes. El logos se independiza , el discurso
vale por sí mismo.
La pocsla también se seculariza. / poeta yn 110 le intcrc::1 rcvcl::ir l:i
verdad, sino jugar con la·doxa (opinión, apariencia, parecer). Sim6nidcs (S.
VI a.C.) se dice a si mismo "m::testro de cnr,::iílo, de ilusiún", clicc también
que In pocsla es el mlc tlc e11gni'i:tr co11 lit•   Tml•J i::.111 1•1e;1m111t:í;1 ;d
sofista, maestro de la duplicidad, artlficc del cngnílo sutil, scíior tic las pa-
labras, filósofo del lenguaje.
49
¡·.
r
i
1
1
1
1
¡
1

¡
l
!
'
1
¡·
1
¡
r
·· .
La verdad ha pasado:
De lo mítico-religioso a lo ______,,racional. ·
De la eficacia sobre lo real a____. la persuasión
De la noción de oculto a la de-- falsedad.
1.4. L11 ycrdad platónica
A esta .concepción de la verdad sofística se va a oponer enérgicamente
Platón. El sofista, en la visión de este pensador, juega con las palabras, olvi-
dando que el lagos tiene una función fundamental y superior. La finalidad
dei logos consiste en expresar la realidad única e inmutable. Ai coincidir el
discurso con la realidad, se hace verdadero. La verdad entonces se caracteriza
ror s'!r tínica e inmutable. La razón se identifica con esa verdad. La tarea del
filósofo es la búsqueda desinteresada de la verdad racional. El discipulo de
Platón, Aristóteles, describe así verdad y falsedad: "Decir de lo que es que no
o de lo que no es que es, es falso; mientras que decir de lo que es que es; o
d<: lo que no es que no es, es verdadero". Estarnos nuevamente en nuestro
punto de partida: la verdad es adecuación y es objetiva, y además iínica y co-
¡,Qué ha pasado para que se produjera este cambio en el concepto de ver-
municable.
ú,u.17 Si bien hasta ahora hemos esquematizado el proceso histórico griego,
. que destacar.aigunos aspectos. Al siglo V a.C. se lo ha denorrúnado
S!glo de Oro de Atenas. Esta denominación corresponde al esplendor logrado
p0r la hegemonía del poder ateniense en todo el Mediterráneo, 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irtiéndo-
se 1\tcnas en capital de un imperio comercial y naval. Como consecuencia de
e0 se produce una acumulación de riquezas. El poderío obtenido permite la
confrontación con otras civilizaciones, con las que el comercio hace entrar en
coritucto. Los equilibrios de poder politice sufren una serie de cambíos, con pre-
chrn1111io de lo tratando de compensar desigualdades por
i.neclio de aparentes distribuciones del poder formal del estado. Todo ello oca-
:aona una gran movilidad social. En eSta situación los sofistas desarrollan sus en-
Pero en la segunda mitad del siglo V a.C. comienza la decadencia ate-
niense. Tal decadencia significa la ihiciaci6n de la pérdida de hegemonía. Se
instama la competenc¡a con otras formas de cultura. ;Pareceria correcto in-
terpretar Cl pensamiento platónico como un inten:o :de convertir el propio
ideario en verdad única e inmutable, coincidente con la realidad, más allá de
t0da apariencia. Esteintento estarla al servicio de rescatar la hegemonia per-
dicfa.. '·
Proceso histórico de la verdad:

/p d'.
Í aeta, a ¡ymo, rey
\ V2rdad-eficaz
50
Simónides, sofistas
Verdad-persuasión
Filosofia, ciencia
Verdad-adecuación
.(Wilqj¡
t
t
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1
l
Sistema de pensamiento:
M/TICO RACIONAL
A .. I \
mb.iguo inmutable
Sofistas Platón Amos de la verdad
2· Correlaciones que fundc111 verdades .
Dijimos que la verdad tiene relación
ncrse ninguna verdad que no se su t t con el. po9er, ya que no puede impo-
tablecer reiaciones entre las fo sen algun llpo de poder. Es posible e<-
cstructura arcaica donde se soclia es y las formas de la verdad: en 1-a
· · ' ra 1z:a e poder t · · · ·
s1on de la verdad· luego en la d'd , amo1en se centraliza la posc-
ríodo sofista- s;n más'1·as me 1 a en que se descentraliza el poder -pP-
1
personas que pueden · 1 -
e poder se debilita, se trata de def . manejar a \:erdad; cuando
coincidiendo ésta con la de Jos que rnstaurando la verdad absoluta ,
T . aun detentan el poder
anlo la forma como ei contenid d · · · ·
prácticas sociales. Foucault llama" r' o . e la se relacionan con las
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O saber revicr-
cuentes, cuestionarniento de la d .
1
icas, en . m:nos culturales consc-
dc los roles en la familia ucalc1 n ¡ d; las pracl!cas
persona\_ etcétera. '.. 1 en as re ac1ones con los niños, selección de
Si nos ubicamos en el Rcnacimient b . .
condicionaron y a la vez fueron e d' .ºo dscrvamos practicas sociaics que
E . ' on 1c1ona as por nuevas f d
.n esa epoca se asiste al surgimiento de práctlcas ue armas e sabrr.
c1onan con las heredadas de la Ed . M d. . q se oponen y se rela-
produce ei fortalecimiento del t tad Se.na1emos: en primer lugar se
y de ia nobiez:a, con el apo o de 1 ea en. del poder eclesiástic.o
que va adquiriendo la acciln d' \bu?uesia •. en segundo lugar, el prest1g10
quez:a) a los burgueses frente a\rec a   que otorga beneficios (ri-
actividades agrícolas tierras de la .nobleza dedicada a
" as, por u timo, mientras en el Medio-
i
r ¡ ¡ ·I•
:'-:,
. '
· .. ·
1:
evo 3e rechazaba Ja usura como inmoral, ahora se valoriza la utilidad lograda
por medios económicos. Correlativamente la ciencia experimental que tiene
sus in;d'Js en el Renacimiento (Copémico, Galileo), establece un dominio de
sabe¡- (física) que crea nuevos objetos (fenómenos físicos experimentables y
  nuevos conceptos (ley, verificación, mensura) y nuevas técni-
cas   experimentación), todo ello con la posibilidad de aplicación
práctica, con el fin de dominar la naturaleza (tecnología).
Pcdría pensarse que esta dinámica creadora de distintos.dominios de sa-
ber, relación a determinadas prácticas sociales, se unifica o encuentra su
hilo crn1ductor en el sujeto. El sujeto de conocimiento como algo dado de una
vez y p¡¡ra siempre, como sustancia (que subyace, que permanece), podria ar-
tietilar toda esta dinámica dándole un fundamento a las distintas formas de
wrdad. Sin embargo no es así. No existe un sujeto que permanezca idéntico a
si mi;:no a través de los cambios históricos. El sujeto se constituye también
en el pioceso de generación de saberes. No hay sujeto previo a los sistemas de
pens:u;;iento, sino que un sujeto, mejor dicho, los sujetos, son emergentes de
la; p;;'icticas sociales. Ejemplificando: Goethe muestra en las primeras esce-
nas ch: fausto, al sujeto de conocimiento previo a la modernidad (aunque en
cm ya se encuentran eiementos posteriores). Puede compararse a
un rnusto encerrado en su gabinete e interpretando textos, con Galileo o
lt'o:1:1rdo experimentando. Los diferentes sujetos están en correspondencia
.r.C1r. los nuevos dominios de saber. Hasta el siglo pasado, ei médico alienista
enr:crr::iba a la persona que hoy llamamos "neurótica"; ahora el psicoanalista
dial.:i:p con ella. Tanto el médico como el paciente cambiaron. Se han consti-
tuido nuevos sujetos. En realidad no hay sujeto, sino sujetos. Hay sujetos su-
jeiadus a las formas sociales que los constituyen.
se genera la dinámica de los nuevos dominios de saber?
las formas sociales de las que surgen nuevas verdades, están sustentadas
en poderes que las harán posibles. La única manera de que un saber se sosten-
g, es que se vincule a un espacio de poder que le permita ser aceptado y ad-
consenso. El poder no es solamente el tradicionalmente llamado "polí-
t1c0", hay una urdimbre de micro-poderes que subyacen en la sociedad y sus-
-tl:n:an sus conocimientos, retroalimentándose. El saber entraña un poder, y
todo poder reivindica un saber. Por ejempio si durante siglos se sostuvo que
!?. 1::rra era el centro del universo, no era solamente porque esa verdad estaba
aval<!da por la ciencia de entonces, sino también por el poder de la Iglesia,
.la c:ue creía en la concepción de todo el universo girando alrededor del
h0111bre, y por el poder político, que se regía por un centro alrededor del cual
;cdo giraba (monarca, señor feudal, etc.).
poderes, que tejen uña especie de entramado, en el que se dan las
formas sociales generadoras de saberes, favorecen también la producción de
cl:;cursos. Cada dominio de saber elabora su discurso. Pero los discursos no
S0:1 est;ibics: los discursos' circulan, pasan de' un ambito a otro, se intercam-
1:-ian, como cuando el discurso de la ciencia se inserta en las leyes jurídicas
--2.legar insania para lograr que se rebaje una sentencia- o los de la justicia
::·cnetran en la economía -=-regimentar una fábrica como si fuera una cárcei-
o los de la religión en lo jurídico -en la Edad Media se adoptan formas jurí- _
dicas en laSórdencs religiosas. Estos discursos del saber, estos dis-
52
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cursos verdaderos son en instan . ;- .
imprimen en el sujeto.' sino que c1a, discursos P.oder, que no se
. . yen un nuevo tipo de sujeto.
3. Modos de buscar la verdad
Hemos relacionado el problema de la v d d .
tableciendo nexos entre los mecan· d. er ª con las formas sociales, es-
ahora agregaremos que· estas rela e y los dominios del saber,
también el modo de llegar a ella y ciones sólo _ la verdad, sino
• •
1
. • eremos como a traves de¡ h' .
1 pnv1 eg1ado ciertas practicas como vál"d a 1stona se ian
esas prácticas que son producto d 1 as yara acceder a la verdad y cómo
d
. . . e mecanismos de poder
nuevas 1sc1plinas y nuevas cienci·a , . . , a su vez generan
· · s, nuevos equilibrios s · ·
1
. .
1nstanc1a, nuevas verdades Co .d ocia es, en ultima
· ns1 eraremos tres de ellas:
La prueba
La indagación
El examen
3. 1. La prueba
Prueba es una razón o argumento o hecho .
de mostrar la verdad
0
falsedad d ' '.P.c'.r medio del cual se preten-
S d e una propos1c1on
. e puc e demostrar algo por medio de la d , : . . .
rnam ficslo lo que es
0
por med" .
1
. • • en la cual se hace
T ' 'º de a cxplic11ac16n de f d
. anta la ciencia como la filosofía tT 1 sus un amemos.
f1rrnatorio de sus afirmaciones S iz;n a prueba como elemento con-
cual se establece la relación ent. e e emostrar racionalmente, con lo
• r re prmc1p1a y consecue ·
e.1ec:ro. La demostración empírica se h neta, o entre causa y
reaiidad. Otro modo de es acc .contrastando una hipótesis con la
camcnte, estab!tcer relaciones y de hechos, nbstraer simbóii-
no hay con1radicciones se obt . o11clus1ones; s1 hay coherencia sí
• uva una prueba fo ¡ E ¡ · · •
prueb_a al p:oceso mediante el cual se estable 1 rma . og1ca se llama
cuenc1a de c1er1as premisas Proba d ce a conclus1011 corno consc-
t T · res emostrar que Ja con ¡ · ·
a, ut1 izando reglas de inferencia para obtenerla. c usJOn es correc-
Encontramos la prueba como mét d
n:omentos históricos: Grecia arcaica y la en dos
c1a tomaremos un pequeño fragmento de la Ilí e Para v1su.aliza.rla en Gre-
en una carrera de carros uno de lo . ada. hay una d1scus1on porque
de haber cometido una· acusa :il que llegó
locada un testigo en el · Jugar del d ·r· os del torneo habían co-
El d
, . esa 10, sm embargo no 1 . 1 .
. acusa o rns1s1e en que.no comet ió irre u! . se o cita a testigo.
dice al presunto infractor que colo g andad, entonces el agraviado le
· que su mano sobre la c b d ¡ ·
JUre por Zeus que no cometió irreguiarid d , a eza e caballo Y
te desafio. Se produjo la prueba d l. e ac1;sado retrocede frente a es-
no se atrevía a mentir a lo a ta. Quien le había mentido a los
puede revelar la verdad mediante porque en este caso el dios mismo
. la prueba como forma jurídica de .
d1a, reaparece alrededor del siglo XII E al comienzo de la Edad /\!e-
bién se dirimían los coníliclo ·d. ne antiguo derecho gerrn{111ico tam-
. . . s por me 10 de la prueba .
t1go, n1 indagación, ni rcnfesión lo d ' . ' ; no se cons1cleraba tes-
; que eterminaba el triunfo cia la prucb:i .
53
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....
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No habla noción de culpa o inoéencia, sino de dailo Y reparación. La acción
penal rcvcstia las características de un duelo, entre el presunto agraviado o Ün
pariente (no era indispensable que se presentara el ofendido), y quien era acu-
sado de haber producido el daño (también podía ser otra persona que lo _
representara). La autoridad no in.tervenia, era una contienda entre indivi-
duos .. Sc produda una ritualización de la guerra. Existía la posibilidad de ter-
minar esa lucha por medio de un acuerdo o transacción, .poniendo fin al
coníli::to mediante un pago. El vencedor prueba con su fríunfo, tener razón.
Habla distintos tipos de prueba: una era demostrar el prestigio de los liti-
gantes; en ésta ganaba el que era capaz de hacer valer su importancia social,
su; iníluencias. Otra forma de prueba era la verbal: se pronunciaba una serie
de fórmulas, y el éxito dependía de articularlas correctamente; un olvido o un
.error gramatical significaba perder el proceso. Un tercer tipo de prueba era la
crdalla, en la que se sometía al acusado a una lucha con su propio cuerpo o
con elementos naturales, como caminar sobre brasas o resistir bajo el agua.
También se practicaban los "juicios de Dios", en los que el acusado o los
contrincantes estaban sujetos a que se dieran ciertas condiciones totalmente
·ajenas a lo que se litigaba, o a sus propias fuerzas, y de ellas dependía el
triunfo o la derrota.
Esta manera de producir verdad parece haberse escapado totalmente de
lo que se buscaba. Se pretende buscar la verdad, y en realidad lo que tri un fa
e!. la fuerza, o la habilidad, o la casualidad, o el prestigio; sin embargo hay
f.:•rm;is culturales que se manejan con ei sistema de la prueba: podemos conside-
r11r a los sistemas de la ciencia y lafilosojia como elaboraciones racionales de la
pnieba y la demostración. Sistemas que determinan cómo producir la verdad, en
qué condiciones y con qué tipos de reglas. También la aiquimia respondía a un
sistema de pruebas, consistente en saber qué invocaciones hacer, qué princi-
pio; respetar, cómo actuar. Otrd dominio de saber regido por esta forma ju-
ridica de la prueba era la universidad medieval, en la que se manifestaba el
saber a través de rituales . La disputalio era un enfrentamiento entre dos riva-
le5, que por medio de armas verbales y procesos retóricos trataban de "pro-
bar" su sabiduría. En estos enfrentamientos valían más la cantidad de auto-
res prestigiosos citados que un estudio riguroso sobre el tema disputado.
Hacia ei siglo Xll desaparece ei recurso de la prueba en pleitos, a causa de
que esa manera de litigar daba lá posibilidad de acumular riquezas, ya que uno
dt: los contrincantes podía terminar el litigio pagando (con aromas,   etc.),
fue aprovechadó por los más pocterosos,que instrumentaron ia manera de or-
d<!nar y controlar los pleitos judiciales, sacando ¡iartido en la intervención.
Ya no es un ·enfrentamiento entre individuos, porque se deben someter a un
- poder exterior (el del señor o réy), además aparece ei procurador que repre-
• sen ta al soberano lesionado. Si hubo daño, quien maneja la justicia se siente
afi:ctado. Aparece la noción de infracción y de culpa, ésta se puede pagar me-
diante una multa. No se aplica la prueba (lucha) porque ni el rey, que simbo-
liza al ofendido, ni el procurador, que simboliza al rey, van a arriesgar ia vida
en cada litigio. Se comienza a gestar una nueva forma de generar verdad: la
indagación.
54
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1 3.2. La indagación
. La es un metodo confi
Se sigue un nilo conductor a través de .rmar o refutar una proposición
la verdad. Indagar es avcri uar y señales tratando de en:
relac1on entre si y que nos guían h;cia lo cadenando elementos que guarden
da.ga se conduce por medio de una hípót queremos encontrar. El oue in-
:o?re ello construye otra para seguir de confirmarla; si lo .iogra,
des1s la rcformula Y sigue invesi-º' el cas? de que aiguna hipó-
;¡ P?r as c1enc1;¡s en generai y por las ci . ?- La indag;¡ción es uliliza-
lmos en distintos dominios d acucas en especial. Enconl;;¡.
a reso1uc10n de problemas en la VJ·da er, que van desde ia filosofia
renses ( · · ó · ' ' cot1 iana p d • "
U n de crímenes, robos et ) '. asan o l='Or las fo-
no de JOs testimonios más ant: c . .
de la verdad como indagación con con12mos, acerca de la
rasgos su tram;¡, apcland , a de Eciipo. Seguiremos a
9UJere decir "encuentro, o ªn la n?c1 6n de símbolo, que en
1nsrrumenro de poder e1· . b .• con uenc1a, panes que <e J' untan" e -
• s1m 010 po ·bT . - · orno
en dos-pilftes un objelo y qu:1ai' Jta que alguien que tenía-'un secreto
ianza'. le eniregara una oarte la . separarse de una persona de s11 con-
mcnsa1e, le daría al men.sajcro la ru.,·iera que enviarie un
des corroboraría la auienticidad d ria m1taa,. la coincidencia de las dos mira-
varios fragmentos ue mensaJe. En la obr:i de Sófocles en-
Ja verdad a lravés de la JUntarse, van dando la confirmaci Ón de
lvlecanismo de indagación de ia verdad:
EEdniTpobticne que afroniar, como monarca,
e as.. . ei siguiente ¡iroblcma:
[Hay
Cual es la causa
Hubo un asesinaio
¿Quién fue asesinado?
[Layo J
¿Quién sabe la verdad?
Apolo
(luz)
¿Quifo lo maJó?
[ ? J
¿Por boca de quién
Tircsias
(sombra, es ciego)
C . La se orienta hacia los testigos· " -
onnto, esclavo del monte Citerón. - , ocasta, Ed1po, escJ;wo de
:a::;:c:;:
Yocasla
Edipo
Lo malaron en una encrucijada ]
- . Yo maié en un;¡ encrucij;¡cfa_j
' ..
• Verdad casi completa: el asesinara de Layo.
Edipo
Sabe quién mató ai rey ]
No sabe que mató al padre
o ,\parecen más testigos:
Esclavo de Corinto
(}-1urió Polibio
Esclavo del Citerón
¡--;re envié al palacio de
cuando eras niño
No era tu padre
Eres hijo de Layo
y de Yocasta
Juego de la verdad completo, se encontraron todos los fragmentos, se rc-
est1 u-:1ura el símbolo:
--
;'
_______ :...-_ - - -- - --,
....
....
/r
1
l Profccfa del Dios - Palabras del adivino
....
....
'
' I
\
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'
'
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'
Testimonio de Yocasta - Testimonio de Edipo
Testimonio dd
esclavo de Co-
Testimonio del
esclavo del Ci-
terón
'
'
\
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1
1
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rinto
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............ ________ --- - - --- -
• Por medio de la INDAGACION se llegó a la verdad: Edipo es i¡ufpable.
La indagación como procedimi"ento jurídico desaparece al comienzo de
la Eóad .Media, comienza a nuevamente .d.el s,.   La
ir.d¡igación era utilizada por la Iglesia, en lo que se llamaba .v1s.11a110 · eran
'visitas dd obispo a sus comunidaÓes religiosas, en las que inaagaba
bicnf.s materiales y espirituales, si algo no funcionaba bien, su in-
para .determinar las responsabilidades e incluso castigar ª}. cul-
pablP.. El poder judicial adopta esta forma de buscar la verdad por meG10 de
preguntas y testimonios.
La nueva estructura política que se da en esa época hizo posible que se
instrumentara un método más racional de buscar la verdad, los mecanismos
p0Hticos y sociales posibilitaron este cambio. Un elemento para tener en
56
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l
1
l
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1
!
cuenta, es que este método surge en la Iglesia, la cual constituye desde el s. x el
ú.nico cuerpo económico y político coherente de Europa. En el juego de reia-
oones de poder cabe destacar el hecho de que la indagación torno practica juridi-
ca está impregnada de categonas religiosas: lo que antes era "daño", ahora es
"infracción", "culpa", es decir algo muy parecido a "pecado". Hay una re-
lación entre infracción a la ley y falta religiosa.
A partir de esta riueva forma de producir yerdad, se tam-
bién las relaciones de poder. Hacia final de la Edad l'vkdia se imponen formas
de indagación como modelo general del saber; aparecen dominios de saber
que procuran establecer la verdad, mediante la indagación: geografía, astro-
nomía, técnicas de viaj es, medicina, botánica, zoología. Hay un gran movi-
miento cultural que hace eclosión en el Renacimiento. La indagación es una
forma política de ejercicio del poder, es una forrn:o rl
0
1a verdad v
de transmitirla, es una forma .. Jcr las relaciones entre las determína'-
cionP< nnlíH""·
0
-:::::n1co-sociales y los dominios. de conocimiento.
3.3. El examen
El examen es un medio de evaluar la ce :?.ico según ciertos Da-
Antes de examinar se d;:;ermina!l ·¡os límites de Jo que
se quiere medir. El examen es un método de buscar la \·erdad que requiere
se .fijen las n?rm.as que hay que cumplir p::::.ra S\I El que exa-
mrna tiene una finalidad: comprobar si lo ex::.minado satisface o no los re-
quisitos que se deben cumplir par-a. obter.er un resultado positivo; dicho resul-
tado está en relación con pautas

por eso Ja norma es un ele-
mento inseparable del examen. Es necesario estipc1lar qué es lo que se re-
quiere para aprobar.
El examen es Ja forma de acceder a la verdad propia de nuestra época. Se
con1cnz6 n ::-: :::
1
:- ;:- ..... ..,,.
1
"' :' • ... •1'-'--· =·· .... : ...... _ ............... .., .....
tituyeron las prácticas sociales y los dominios de saber, propios de nuestra so-
ciedad contemporánea.
Partiendo de ciertas prácticas penales se han constituido verdades, tipos
de conocimiento, ciencias y disciplinas en las que subyacen poderes <le los que
emergen sujetos sujetados a todos esos dominios de saber y poder.
Hay distintas vertientes que se originan a partir del siglo XVIII en Euro-
pa, pero que van a confluir en una misma noción de sociedad. Una so-
ciedad en la que el individuo es considerado en función de su peligrosidad po-
tendal; no se tiene en cue11td lo que e! indi\·idllo realmente es, sino lo que
puede llegar a ser; no se lo ve a 1a IUL . '.:.-;.,fracciones reales sino de las vir-
tuales. Debido a esto el individuo no. puede ser oena-
les, porque todavía no las infringió, sino por una serie de poderes latern1c:s ,
taies como la poiicía, las instítuciones de vigil<:>.ncia y control, de educación,
- de psiquiatría, de psicología, medicina, laborales, etc. Cualquiera puede ser
un infractor. Se realizan los controles en función de la peligrosici;:iJ potencial
dei individuo.
57
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f .. ..,, •: :.
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.:
\
hos:pital
SOCIEDAD DISCIPLINARIA
Red de vigilancia y control
SUJETO
\
\
Hay un teórico, _que en cierto modo prevíó esta sociedad de vigilancia:
Jeremías Dentham imaginó una construcción de forma circular, en medio de
.la cual habla una torre con postigos semi-cerrados, para que se pudiera ver al
exterior pero que no permitía que se viera al que estaba dentro de la torre; en
el anillo habla pequenas celdas, en las que se encontraban encerrados un niño
esr.ud:ando, o un prisionero pagando su culpa, o un loco delirando, o un
obrero trnbajando; a esta construcción se la llarnana panóptico. Es como
si' esta cu"nstrucción se hubiera extendido a toda nuestra sociedad, vivimos en
una sociedad panóptica.
En esta sociedad panóptica ya no se busca la verdad por medio de ia in-
. dc.gacióri, como forma predominante. Esta sociedad se apoya en ei examen.
La bcfagaciñn le ha dejado lugar a la vigilancia. Los encargados de vigilar son
las c;•1e tienen algún tipo de poder: maestro, profesor, jefe, médico, director
prisión, etc. Quien ejerce el poder puede vigilar, y también puede consti-
truir un saber sobre aquellos a quien vigila. Puede vigilar y puede castigar.
Este saber no se caracteriza por conocer si algo pasó o no pasó, o si
ocun ió realmente; de Jo c¡ue se trata es de determinar si un individuo cumpie
o n0 con las reglas estip•: ;adas, s·i manifiesta señales de progreso, si todo está
normal. Alrededor de la norma se origina el examen. Con el examen como
determinante de normalidades ya no se accede a ias grandes ciencias de obser-
vución propias de la indagación; sino a las ciencias sociaics, a las ciencias hu-
manas como la psiqúiiitría, Ja sociología, la criminología y el psicoanálisis.
Vi;n;rnqs vertientes, en Inglaterra y en í-rancia, que partiendo de di s-
tintas pr6dlcas, clcscmbocatt cil ltt ttl!Stlltt fornrn:dc vigilnncln. /\I finíll del
s. XVIII, en Inglaterra las leyes eran ian·scveras, sobre todo para las clases ba-
- q1Je se formaron. grupos de personas para controlarse entre ellas. Trata-
• ban de evitar faltas;que provocaran que el peso de la ley cayera sobre ellas.
Era.< grupos de vjgilancia espontánea, : de origen y funcionamiento religíoso.
l'tu:ikl:J.mente a estas agrupaciones se formó una sociedad dirigida por un
oliispu y algunos aristócratas.con caracterlsticas laicas, cuyos fines eran esen-
cialmente moralizantes . También surgieron grupos de carácter paramilitar
como re:.puesta a las primeras agitaciones sociales. La burguesía y la aris-
tocrncia se autodefendían y lateralmente recibían apoyo estatal. Por último esta-
ban los grupos · de autodefensa, con connotaciones económicas. Por un lado
58
f
¡
f.
f
había mucha b ..
po reza, Y por el otro se com · al
gran escaia. Se forma una es . - .. a macenar mercadería en
sitos y los barcos anc'1ados epecl ie de pohc1a privada para preservar los depó-
- n os puertos.
DESPLAZAMIENTO DE LOS GRUPOS DE VIGILANCIA
..
Grupos de ricos autodefendién-
dos e
(fines económicos)
Grupos de aristócratas y obispos
para reforzar el poder penal
(fines religiosos y morales)
Grupos de autodefensa de la
pequeña burguesía
(espíritu religioso y civil)
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