Number: 12989 Question: The speed for minimum glide angle occurs at an angle of attack that corresponds to: (assume

zero thrust) A B C D CLmax. (CL/CD)max. (CL³/CD²)max. (CL/CD²)max.

Number: 4551 Question: The speed for minimum glide angle occurs at an angle of attack that corresponds to: (assume zero thrust; ^ … denotes power of …) A CLmax. B (CL/CD^2)max C (CL^3/CD^2)max D (CL/CD)max.

12989 - B

4551 - D

3. From a polar curve of the entire aeroplane one can read: A B C D the minimum CL/CD ratio and the minimum drag. the maximum CL/CD ratio and maximum lift coefficient. the minimum drag coefficient and the maximum lift. the minimum drag and the maximum lift.

Number: 12963 Question: Which of the following parameters can be read from the parabolic polar diagram of an aeroplane? A The minimum glide angle and the parasite drag coefficient. B The aspect ratio of the wing and the induced drag coefficient. C The minimum rate of descent and the induced drag. D The induced drag and the parasite drag. The polar diagram's axes are Cl and Cd. Where the line crosses the Cl=0 axis there is no lift, and therefore no induced drag, so Cd at that point is from parasite drag only. Angle of glide is Cl/Cd, the lift/drag ratio. If the lift/drag ratio is 20:1 then the glide angle is 1 in 20. The tangent to the curve from the Cl/Cd origin shows the best Cl/Cd ratio, and thus the best glide angle you can get. Rate of descent would depend on what speed you were doing down the hill and that is not shown on the polar diagram. The polar diagram shows coefficients only. To get real world data you have to add in all the other bits of the lift and drag equations like S and rho and V.

xxx - B

12963 - A

Number: 3415 Question: The point in the figure corresponding to CL for minimum horizontal flight speed is: A B C D Point c Point b Point a Point d

3415 - D

Number: 3416 Question: Assuming zero thrust, the point on the diagram corresponding to the value for minimum sink rate is: A B C D Point a Point b Point d Point c Minimum sink rate occurs at Vmp. Although the drag is more than at Vmd the fact that it is a lot slower means that your rate of descent is low.

Maximum range occurs at Vmd where you get the best CL for the least CD, so that will be at the point of tangency. On the polar diagram the only points that can be read directly are the top of the curve, which is CL max or critical alpha, CD min where the graph is furtherest to the left, and the best L/D ratio which is found at the tangent to the curve from the origin. You can assume two other points with some accuracy. The best EAS/drag speed occurs at a speed faster than Vmd so that must be a smaller angle of attack, or smaller CL so that must be below the point of tangency to the graph. Vmp is always slower than Vmd so must be at a higher angle of attack or CL so it must be between the point of tangency and CL max.

Number: 3417 Question: Assuming zero thrust, the point on the diagram corresponding to the minimum glide angle is: A Point A It is at the best L/D ratio or where Cl/Cd is max, but B Point D that occurs at point (B) the tangent to the curve from C Point C the origin. D Point B

3416 - D

3417 - B

Number: 3418 Question: Which point in the diagram gives the lowest speed in horizontal flight? A Point c B Point b C Point a D Point d

Number: 16574 Question: The point in the diagram giving the lowest speed in unaccelerated flight is: A point 4. B point 1. C point 3. D point 2.

3418 - D

16574 - A

Number: 14963 Question: Given: theta = pitch angle. gamma = flight path angle. alpha = angle of attack. no wind, bank or sideslip. The relationship between these three parameters is: A B C D alpha = gamma - theta. gamma = alpha - theta. theta = gamma - alpha. theta = gamma + alpha.

14963 - D

C nowhere.alpha curve of a positive cambered aerofoil intersects with the vertical axis of the Cl . B below the origin. Number: 14589 Question: The lift coefficient Cl versus angle of attack curve of a negatively cambered aerofoil section intersects the vertical axis of the graph: A nowhere. B below the origin. which statement is+L7901 correct? I.A 14589 . C at a negative angle of attack.D 15691 .alpha graph: A in the origin. A nose down pitching moment exists when the lift coefficient equals zero. A I is incorrect and II is incorrect. D at a positive angle of attack.C 15983 . The angle of attack has a negative value when the lift coefficient equals zero. Number: 15691 Question: A positively cambered aerofoil will generate zero lift: A at zero angle of attack.B . B it can never generate zero lift. D I is incorrect and II is correct. 144 . D above the origin. C nowhere. Number: 15983 Question: Regarding a positively cambered aerofoil section. II. C I is correct and II is correct. B below the origin.C 14588 . Number: 14588 Question: The lift coefficient Cl versus angle of attack curve of a symmetrical aerofoil section intersects the vertical axis of the graph: A at the origin. D above the origin.Number: 144 Question: The Cl . B I is correct and II is incorrect. D above the origin. C at the origin.

II.D . I is correct and II is correct. The pitching moment is zero when the lift coefficient equals zero. II. which statement is correct? I. which statement is correct? I. I is incorrect and II is correct. I is incorrect and II is incorrect. I is incorrect and II is correct.Number: 14594 Question: Regarding a positively cambered aerofoil section. II. I is correct and II is incorrect.B 14595 . A B C D I is incorrect and II is incorrect. The angle of attack has a positive value when the lift coefficient equals zero. The angle of attack has a positive value when the lift coefficient equals zero. I is correct and II is correct. The angle of attack has a positive value when the lift coefficient equals zero. 14594 . I. A nose up pitching moment exists when the lift coefficient equals zero. A nose up pitching moment exists when the lift coefficient equals zero. Number: 14595 Question: Regarding a symmetric aerofoil section. A B B C I is correct and II is incorrect.

B the speed will have increased by 30 kt. Assuming the angle of attack remains constant initially and the load factor reaches a value of approximately 1. load factor will be 1g Furthermore Lift is proportional V^2 and lift is also proportional to load factor It follows that Load factor is proportional to V^2 New LF / Original Load Factor = (new speed / original speed)^2 New speed = 300 x SQRT (1.B . Note: The aircraft is in steady level flight so the original D the speed will have decreased by 30 kt.Number: 14923 Question: An aeroplane in straight and level flight at 300 kt is subjected to a sudden disturbance in speed.2 / 1) = 329 kt The speed therefore increases by 30 kt 14923 . question asking you to determine the change in speed.2: This question is based on load factors and speed with the A the speed will have decreased by 60 kt. C the speed will have increased by 60 kt.

B increase to 1.44 The LF will therefore initially increase to 1.44. C increase to 1.44 if the angle of attack remains constant. D remain unchanged.B . Load Factor is proportional to lift which is in turn proportional to V^2 LFnew / LForiginal = (Vnew / Voriginal)^2 LFnew = LForiginal x (120 / 100)^2 = 1 x 1. the load factor will initially: A increase to 1. since the angle of attack does not change. 16325 .21.Number: 16325 Question: An aeroplane flying at 100 kt in straight and level flight is subjected to a disturbance that suddenly increases the speed by 20 kt.2^2 = 1.10. Assuming the angle of attack remains constant.

Number: 12943 Question: What is the effect on induced drag of an increase in aspect ratio? A Induced drag increases. B increasing lift and drag. xxxxx . has the effect of: A increasing lift and critical angle of attack.C 12943 . B Tip vortices can be diminished by vortex generators. Number: 10130 Question: Which of the following wing planforms gives the highest local lift coefficient at the wing root? A Positive angle of sweep B Rectangular C Tapered D Elliptical Number: 2357 Question: High aspect ratio. as compared with low aspect ratio. because the effect of tip vortices increases. B Induced drag decreases. D decreasing induced drag and critical angle of attack. B remain constant only for a wing consisting of symmetrical aerofoils. D The flows on the upper and lower surfaces of the wing are both in wing tip direction.A 10130 . C Tip vortices and induced drag decrease with increasing angle of attack. Number: 13215 Question: If the aspect ratio of a wing increases whilst all other relevant factors remain constant.D 13215 . C decrease. C Induced drag increases. because the effect of tip vortices decreases. because a larger aspect ratio increases the frontal area.Number: xxx Question: Which statement is correct? A The flow on the upper surface of the wing has a component in wing root direction. D remain constant.D . D Induced drag decreases. C increasing induced drag and decreasing critical angle of attack. because a larger aspect ratio causes more downwash.B 2357 . the critical angle of attack will: A increase.

D 2065 .A 2064 . when an aeroplane enters ground effect: A the induced angle of attack increases. D the effective angle of attack increases. C induced drag increases. C when a higher than normal angle of attack is used.D 16838 . D the lift is increased and the drag is decreased. B at a speed approaching the stall. C drag and lift are reduced. B the induced angle of attack is increased. B the effective angle of attack decreases.Number: 16805 Question: When an aeroplane enters ground effect: A the effective angle of attack is decreased. D when the height is less than twice the length of the wing span above the surface. Number: 2065 Question: Floating due to ground effect during an approach to land will occur: A when the height is less than halve of the length of the wing span above the surface. Number: 16838 Question: Assuming constant IAS. Number: 2064 Question: What will happen in ground effect ? A a significant increase in thrust required B the wing downwash on the tail surfaces increases C the induced angle of attack and induced drag decreases D an increase in strength of the wing tip vortices 16805 .C .

C the effective angle of attack decreases. The angle between effective airflow and the horizontal flow that was the relative airflow is called the induced angle of attack. D I is incorrect.Number: xxx Question: Which statement about an aeroplane entering ground effect is correct? I. Number: 14637 A I is incorrect. II is incorrect. II. On entering ground effect induce flow reduces and the induced angle of attack decreases. The induced angle of attack decreases. A B downwash does not change. C the effective angle of attack decreases. II is correct. The B I is correct. induced drag increases. The angle between the chord line and effective airflow is the effective angle of attack. 5-D 14662 . The fig shows three airfoils. The downwash angle increases. The centre airfoil shows how the induced flow now deflects the relative air flow and we get what is called the effective airflow. flow. which is equal to the down wash angle. Refer to fig 11-3-8. ie no induced C I is correct. Lift increases and induced drag and down wash reduce.D . B induced drag increases. II is correct. when an aeroplane enters ground effect: A downwash does not change. Number: 14662 Question: Assuming constant IAS. with an increase in the effective angle of attack. top one shows 2 dimensional flow. II is incorrect. D downwash reduces. D downwash reduces.

D . D the induced angle of attack reduces. C the effective angle of attack decreases. B induced drag increases. when an aeroplane enters ground effect: A the effective angle of attack does not change. B induced drag increases. A the effective angle of attack does not change. D the induced angle of attack reduces 14660 .Number: 14660 Question: Assuming constant IAS. C the effective angle of attack decreases.

Number: xxx Question: An aeroplane accelerates from 80 kt to 160 kt at a load factor equal to 1. The induced drag coefficient (i) and the induced drag (ii) alter with the following factors: A (i) 1/16 (ii) 1/4 Load Factor - The ratio of the weight of an aircraft to the load imposed by lift. B (i) 1/4 (ii) 2 The correct symbol for load factor is (n), but is colloquially known as (g). C (i) 4 (ii) 1/2 D (i) 1/2 (ii) 1/16

Watch the difference between coefficients of drag (or lift) and the actual values for drag and lift. The coefficient of induced drag is proportional to the square of the coeficient of lift. This is because the more lift you need the greater the downwash and all the other factors that generate induced drag. Now write angle of attack in place of the coeficient of lift, and consider level flight. In level flight, from the lift formula, as you speed up alpha goes down, proportionally as the square of increasing IAS. But the “coefficient” of induced drag is proportional to alpha squared, and as alpha is decreasing as the square of IAS the coefficent of induced drag is decreasing as the fourth power of IAS. But the actual induced drag is the coefficient times the square of increasing IAS, and this now makes the actual induced drag decrease as the square of IAS So with the IAS doubling in level flight the coefficient of induced drag, Cdi, is down 1/16, but the actual induced drag is down 1/4.

Number: xxx Question: Increasing dynamic pressure will have the following effect on the total drag of an aeroplane: A total drag increases across the whole speed range. B at speeds below the minimum drag speed, total drag decreases. C at speeds above the minimum drag speed, total drag increases. D total drag decreases across the whole speed range. Number: xxx Question: Increasing dynamic pressure will have the following effect on the drag of an aeroplane (all other factors of importance remaining constant): A at speeds greater than the minimum drag speed, drag increases. B drag decreases across the whole speed range. C drag increases across the whole speed range. D none.

Number: xxx Question: The frontal area of a body, placed in a certain airstream is increased by a factor 3. The shape will not alter. The aerodynamic drag will increase with a factor: A 6. B 9. C 1.5 . D 3. Number: xxx Question: The aerodynamic drag of a body, placed in a certain airstream depends amongst others on: A The cg location of the body. B The weight of the body. C The specific mass of the body. D The airstream velocity.

Number: xxx Question: A body is placed in a certain airstream. The airstream velocity increases by a factor 4. The aerodynamic drag will increase with a factor: A 12 . B 4. C 8. D 16 . Number: xxx Question: A body is placed in a certain airstream. The density of the airstream decreases to half of the original value. The aerodynamic drag will decrease with a factor: A 4. B 8. C 1.4 . D 2.

Number: xxx Question: Assuming no compressibility effects, induced drag at constant IAS is affected by: A aeroplane mass. B engine thrust. C altitude. D outside air temperature.

Number: xxx Question: The induced angle of attack is: A the angle between the local flow at the wing and the horizontal tail. B the angle by which the flow over the wing is deflected when landing flaps are set. C caused by the fuselage and is greatest at the wing root. D the angle by which the relative airflow is deflected due to downwash.
The effect of these vortices is to create more down wash behind the wing than up wash in front ofthe w ing. This results in the effective air Flow (EAF) being inclined to the relative airftow (RAF) by an angle called the induced angle of attack (ai).

Number: xxx Question: What is the effect of high aspect ratio of an aeroplane's wing on induced drag? A It is reduced because the effect of wing-tip vortices is reduced. B It is increased because high aspect ratio produces greater downwash. C It is unaffected because there is no relation between aspect ratio and induced drag. D It is increased because high aspect ratio has greater frontal area.

S = WING AREA, sq. m (b x c) b = SPAN, m c = AVERAGE CHORD, m

AR = ASPECT RATIO AR = b/c AR = b²/S

Aspect ratio is the ratio of wing span to wing chord.

Number: xxx Question: If flaps are deployed at constant IAS in straight and level flight, the magnitude of tip vortices will eventually : (flap span less than wing span) A decrease. The clue is maintaining level B increase. C increase or decrease, depending on the initial angle of attack. flight.............if you deploy flap to stay level you will have to REDUCE A of A D remain the same. and decrease induced drag ......................... decreasing the tip vortices.

Number: xxx Question: Excluding constants, the coefficient of induced drag (CDi) is the ratio of : A CL and b (wing span) B CL and CD C CL²and S (wing surface) D CL² and AR (aspect ratio)

Number: xxx Question: Which statement concerning the local flow pattern around a wing is correct?

A

By fitting winglets to the wing tip, the strength of the wing tip vortices is reduced which in turn reduces induced drag. B Sweepback reduces drag since, compared with a straight wing of equal area, the span increases. C Vortex generators on the wing partially block the spanwise flow over the wing leading to a reduction in induced drag. D Slat extension, at a constant angle of attack and nomal extension speeds, will increase the lift coefficient, which will also increase the induced drag coefficient.

Number: xxx Question: An aeroplane transitions from steady straight and level flight into a horizontal co-ordinated turn with a load factor of 2, the speed remains constant and the: A angle of attack increases by a factor of 1/4. B induced drag increases by a factor of 4. To expand a little, total drag has increased, but total drag C total drag increases by a factor of 4. is the sum of profile drag and induced drag, so the D lift increases by a factor of 4. increase in total drag is due to the increase in induced drag not to any increase in profile drag. Profile drag depends on speed squared, and the speed has not changed. Induced drag depends on the square of the lift co-efficient, which has changed. That is why on take-off, when the lift co-efficient is a maximum, induced drag is by far the greater part of total drag

The speed at which total drag is a minimum (V md) occurs when the induced and parasite drag are equal 17. C upper surface via the leading edge to the lower wing surface. B lower to the upper surface via the wing tip. Number: xxx Question: Which one of the following statements about the lift-to-drag ratio in straight and level flight is correct? A At the highest value of the lift/drag ratio the total drag is lowest. C The highest value of the lift/drag ratio is reached when the lift is equal to the aircraft weight. It varies between aeroplane types. Di/Dp = 1/2. At a load factor of 1 and the aeroplane's minimum drag speed.Number: xxx Question: The span-wise flow on an unswept wing is from the: A upper surface via the trailing edge to the lower wing surface. what is the ratio between induced drag Di and parasite drag Dp? A B C D Di/Dp = 1. D lower surface via the trailing edge to the upper wing surface. D The highest value of the lift/drag ratio is reached when the lift is zero. B The lift/drag ratio always increases as the lift decreases. . Di/Dp = 2.

Decreasing. then increasing. The value of the parasite drag in straight and level flight at constant weight varies linearly with the: A B C D square of the angle of attack. 20. The speed at which total drag is a minimum (V md) occurs when the induced and parasite drag are equal 19. square of the speed. Which line represents the total drag line of an aeroplane? A B C D Line b Line d Line c Line a . How does the total drag vary as speed is increased from stalling speed (VS) to maximum IAS (VNE) in a straight and level flight at constant weight? A B C D Increasing. angle of attack. Decreasing. then decreasing. Which one of the bodies in motion (all bodies have the same cross section area) will have lowest drag? A B C D Body b Body c Body d Body a 21.18. Increasing. speed.

If a horizontal flight is considered the axis X shows A B C D the total drag. Increases with increasing speed and decreasing mass. . the parasite drag. the lift force. Decreases with decreasing speed and decreasing mass. Increases with increasing speed and increasing mass.22. the induced drag. The diagram shows the parameter X versus TAS. What is the effect on induced drag of mass and speed changes? (all other factors of importance remaining constant) A B C D Decreases with increasing speed and decreasing mass. 23.

60. if an aircraft is in level flight then Lift = Weight. Therefore the only factor we can change is Cl.SPEED 1.5 x 0. Whilst maintaining straight and level flight with a lift coefficient CL = 1 what will be the new approximate value of CL after the speed is increased by 30%? A B C D 0.50. Just for ease. 169%. The change in lift coefficient will be: x 4.5 x 10 x (200 x 200) x2 = 400000 But we know that the aircraft is maintaining level flight and therefore Lift cannot change. If we multiply Cl on the right by 0. L = CL x Vsquared (all other factors remaining constant) So CL = L/Vsquared We dont know the lift but at Vs we can assume unity so CL = 1/(1. 0. 77%.30. If you visualise the CL curve then CLmax (or Vs) will be at critical alpha or the very peak of the graph. would be: A B C D 59%. if we double the speed to 200 and leave everything else the same we have: Lift = 1 x 0. expressed as a percentage of its maximum (CLmax). lift does not change as it is only balancing against weight (which for this example you can assume to be constant). Rho = 10.5 x 10 x (100 x 100) x 2 = 100000 Now. Cl = 1 and V = 100.25 we can ensure that Lift remains at 100000.0 x 0. We can't modify S (only engineers do that) and Rho remains the same as there is nothing to say that the air density has changed. 1.3 VS. Hence we need to modify something on the right hand side of the equation so that lift remains at the value of 100000. You MUST understand that in straight and level flight. the lift coefficient. To determine the percentage you need to rearrange the lift formula.3Vs is faster than Vs so it must be at a smaller CL. So if density remains the same.3)squared and then x100 to get a percentage =59% . 0. if IAS doubles TAS doubles too. An aeroplane maintains straight and level flight while the IAS is doubled. So to start with we have: Lift = 1 x 0. 0.25 x 2. shall we say that S = 2. 2. 130%.25. So if we just put some figures in as an example.RELATION LIFT .0 Remember. In straight and level flight at a speed of 1. 3. In the scenario given this is the case.

00. what will be the new approximate value of CL after the speed is increased by 41%? A B C D 0. what will be the new value of CL after the speed has doubled? A B C D 1.30. 0. 130%.25.00. 5. 0.4.25. 0.3 times its basic stalling speed. . 59%. 6. 0. 2. 0.50. 169%. Whilst maintaining straight and level flight with a lift coefficient CL = 1.60.50. the coefficient of lift as a percentage of the maximum lift coefficient (CLmax) would be: A B C D 77%. Whilst maintaining straight and level flight with a lift coefficient CL=1. When an aeroplane is flying at an airspeed which is 1.

67 KCAS. whilst maintaining speed and altitude. An aeroplane has a stall speed of 78 KCAS at its gross weight of 6850 Ibs. The maximum bank angle attainable without stalling in a steady co-ordinated turn. What is the stall speed when the weight is 5000 Ibs? A B C D 91 KCAS. The speed at which total drag is a minimum (V md) occurs when the induced and parasite drag are equal . 78 KCAS. is approximately: A B C D 30°. Given an initial condition in straight and level flight with a speed of 1.4 VS. 44°. 60°. 57 KCAS.1. 32°. 2.

30. If the mass is increased to 2000 kg. are flying steady level co-ordinated 20 degree bank turns. the lift coefficient of A is less than that of B. the turn radius of A is greater than that of B. Two identical aircraft A and B. with the same mass. 2.41. 1. 1. If the TAS of A is 130 kt and that of B is 200 kt: A B C D the rate of turn of A is greater than that of B. 5.00.3. the new value of the stall speed will be: A B C D 150 kt. . The stall speed in a 60° banked turn increases by the following factor: A B C D 1. 200 kt. 4. the load factor of A is greater than that of B. 141 kt. 123 kt.07. An aeroplane has a stall speed of 100 kt at a mass of 1000 kg.

82 kt. When the aeroplane is flying a level co-ordinated turn with a load factor of 1. 19%. 7. the stall speed is: A B C 141 kt. 150 kt. . 31%. 52%. An aeroplane has a stall speed of 100 kt.5.6. By what approximate percentage will the stall speed increase in a horizontal co-ordinated turn with a bank angle of 45°? A B C D 41%.

3878 . 70 kt. 200 kt.A . the stall speed is: A B C D 141 kt.Number: 3878 Question: An aeroplane has a stall speed of 100 kt at a load factor n=1. In a turn with a load factor of n= 2. 282 kt.

An increase in wing loading will: A B C D increase sensitivity to turbulence. 12. temperature. The stall speed: A B C D does not depend on weight. increase CLmax. 120 kt. decreases with an increased weight. . at what speed will the aeroplane stall if the load factor is 2? A B C D 72 kt. (below approximately 10000 ft) density. 85 kt. 66 kt. 10. weight. Stall speed (IAS) varies with: A B C D altitude. increases with the length of the wingspan. If the stall speed of an aeroplane is 60 kt. increases with an increased weight. increase the stall speed. decrease the minimum glide angle. 11.9.

of a strongly swept back wing (2) will: A B C D (1) move aft. II is correct. I is incorrect. The centre of pressure on a strongly swept back wing moves forward as the angle of attack approaches and exceeds the critical angle of attack. 13. (2) move aft. A B C D I is correct. Which of the following statements about the stall of a straight wing aeroplane is correct? A B C D The horizontal tail will stall at a higher speed than the wing. Shock stall. (2) move forward. II. Just before the stall the aeroplane will be have an increased nose down tendency. II is correct. The nose down effect is the result of increasing downwash. Entering the stall the centre of pressure . II is incorrect. 14. II is incorrect. I is correct.. Which of these statements about the effect of wing sweep on centre of pressure location are correct or incorrect? I. 12. The centre of pressure on a straight wing moves aft as the angle of attack approaches and exceeds the critical angle of attack.11. (1) move aft. Deep stall. due to flow separation. A jet aeroplane cruises buffet free at constant high altitude. . Which type of stall is most likely to occur if this aeroplane decelerates during an inadvertant increase in load factor? A B C D Accelerated stall. I is incorrect. Buffeting is the result of tailplane flow separation. (2) not move. Low speed stall.of a straight (1) wing and . (1) not move (2) move forward. (1) move aft.

the rate of turn of A is greater than that of B. Two identical aircraft A and B.15. the lift coefficient of A is less than that of B. with the same mass. If the TAS of A is 130 kt and that of B is 200 kt: A B C D the turn radius of A is greater than that of B. . the load factor of A is greater than that of B. are flying steady level co-ordinated 20 degree bank turns.

An aircraft in a climbing turn therefore tends to overbank more than in a steady level turn. nose up tendency and/or lack of elevator response. tendency to increase speed after initial stall. increase sensitivity of elevator inputs. Dangerous stall characteristics. pitch down and yaw. 18. excessive wing drop and deep stall. distinct aerodynamic buffet. angle of attack of the left wing is larger than the angle of attack of the right wing. Thus. . This makes the net coefficient of lift higher than on the inner wing.16. thereby producing greater lift. in large transport aeroplanes that require stick pushers to be installed. the relative airflow comes downward to meet the wings. When a strongly swept-back wing stalls and the wake of the wing contacts the horizontal tail. include: A B C D pitch down and increase in speed. 17. thereby reducing their angles of attack and hence their coefficients of lift. angle of attack of both wings is the same. The faster moving outer wing is subject to a smaller reduction in angle of attack. Its increased velocity further enhances the lifting capability of the outer wing. an aircraft describes an upward spiral path. Climbing Turns During climbing turns. the effect on the stall behaviour can be a(n): A B C D nose down tendency. utilise the ailerons to maintain the desired angle of bank. If necessary. During a climbing turn to the right the: A B C D angle of attack of the left wing is smaller than the angle of attack of the right wing. stall angle of attack of the left wing will be larger than the corresponding angle for the right wing.

a turbulent boundary layer is better able to resist a positive pressure gradient before it separates. The air particles become intermingled and move in a random. 20. A laminar boundary layer is thicker than a turbulent one. the mean speed and friction drag increases. in which the streamlines break up. the boundary layer flow can be either laminar or turbulent in nature. irregular pattern. . The turbulent boundary layer is a layer of disturbed or turbulent airflow. the mean speed increases and the friction drag decreases.19. A turbulent boundary layer becomes laminar at the transition point. in which the air particles do not intermingle. the boundary layer gets thicker and the speed decreases. Behind the transition point in a boundary layer: A B C D the boundary layer gets thinner and the speed increases. A turbulent boundary layer produces less friction drag than a laminar one. 21. The laminar boundary layer is a very thin layer of smooth airflow. Which statement is correct about the laminar and turbulent boundary layer : A B C D friction drag will be equal in both types of layers separation point will occur earlier in the turbulent layer friction drag is lower in the laminar layer friction drag is lower in the turbulent layer The boundary layer is the layer of air between the surface and the free stream velocity in which local retardation takes place. the turbulent boundary layer creates greater drag than the laminar boundary layer. Notably. Like the main airflow. It consists of a series of laminations or smooth regular streamlines. Which of these statements about boundary layers is correct? A B C D Compared with a laminar boundary layer.

deploying a slat does not. Deploying a Krueger flap will form a slot. deploying a Krueger flap does not.C . deploying a Krueger flap does not. Deploying a slat will increase critical angle of attack.Number: 987 Question: Which of the following statements about the difference between Krueger flaps and slats is correct? A B C D Deploying a Krueger flap will increase critical angle of attack. 987 . Deploying a slat will form a slot. deploying a slat does not.

2. The high lift device shown in the figure is a A B C D Slotted flap Krueger flap Slat Fowler flap 4. After take-off the slats (when installed) are always retracted later than the flaps. 3. B Because SLATS EXTENDED gives a large decrease in stall speed with relatively less drag. Why? A Because VMCA with SLATS EXTENDED is more favourable compared with the FLAPS EXTENDED situation. The high lift device shown in the figure below is a A B C D Slotted flap Fowler flap Slot or slat Krueger flap 2-B 3-C 4-D . C Because FLAPS EXTENDED gives a large decrease in stall speed with relatively less drag.

. B Flap extension has no effect on the minimum rate of descent as this is only affected by TAS. 6. slats. D Flap extension reduces the maximum lift/drag ratio thus reducing the minimum rate of descent. Which statement is correct? A Flap extension reduces the stallspeed.5. 7. 3. What increases the stalling angle of attack? Use of: A B C D spoilers. Place these configurations in order of increasing critical angle of attack: A B C D 1. Clean wing. 1. fuselage mounted speed-brakes. 1. 3. Flaps only extended. 3. 2. Given the following aeroplane configurations: 1. the minimum rate of descent and the minimum angle of descent. 3. which increases the maximum glide distance. 3. flaps. 2. 2. 1. 2. C Spoiler extension increases the stallspeed. 2. Slats only extended.

8. A slat will

A B C D

increase the lift by increasing the wing area and the camber of the aft portion of the wing. prolongs the stall to a higher angle of attack. provide a boundary layer suction on the upper surface of the wing. increase the camber of the aerofoil and divert the flow around the sharp leading edge.

9. A plain flap will increase CLmax by

A B C D

increasing the camber of the aerofoil. centre of lift movement. increasing angle of attack. boundary layer control.

10. For most jet transport aeroplanes, slat extension has:

A B C D

the same minor effect on stall speed as flap extension. a minor effect on stall speed whereas flap extension has a significant effect. a greater effect on stall speed than flap extension. the same significant effect on stall speed as flap extension.

1. Ignoring downwash effects on the tailplane, extension of Fowler flaps, will produce:

A B C D

no pitching moment. a nose-up pitching moment. a nose-down pitching moment. a force which reduces drag.

2. On a wing fitted with a "fowler" type trailing edge flap, the "Full extended" position will produce:

A B C D

an increase in wing area only. an increase in wing area and camber. an unaffected wing area and increase in camber. an unaffected CD, at a given angle of attack.

3. When flaps are extended whilst maintaining straight and level flight at constant IAS, the lift coefficient will eventually:

A B C D

increase. remain the same. first increase and then decrease. decrease.

Remember CL can be changed either by changing angle of attack or by changing the camber. (a couple of others as well, but as a pilot you can't directly control them) As the question specifies straight and level flight and at a constant IAS then you have to generate the same lift, so CL must stay constant. Lowering the flaps will increase the camber (and in some aircraft the wing area as well) so the CL WILL increase. You have to keep the CL constant, so you will have to reduce the angle of attack to achieve that. The Cl increases when you extend flaps, BUT the question states that you are maintaining straight and level flight.. what do you have to do when you extend the flaps? You have to lower the nose to maintain level flight.. thus Cl remains the same..

4. When flaps are deployed at constant angle of attack the lift coefficient will:

A B C D

vary as the square of IAS. remain the same. decrease. increase.

5. Trailing edge flap extension will:

A B C D

decrease the critical angle of attack and decrease the value of CLmax. increase the critical angle of attack and increase the value of CLmax. increase the critical angle of attack and decrease the value of CLmax. decrease the critical angle of attack and increase the value of CLmax.

6. What is the most effective flap system?

A B C D

Fowler flap. Split flap. Single slotted flap. Plain flap.

7. Deploying a Fowler flap, the flap will:

A B C D

just move aft. move aft, then turn down. just turn down. turn down, then move aft.

8. A slotted flap will increase the CLmax by:

A B C D

decreasing the skin friction. increasing the critical angle of attack. increasing only the camber of the aerofoil. increasing the camber of the aerofoil and re-energising the airflow.
The slotted flap is similar to the plain flap except that when deflected, a slot forms between the flap and main wing. This allows high pressure air below the wing to flow through the slot and re-energise the boundary layer over the upper surface of the flap. The combination of variable geometry and boundary layer control thus increases the wing's lift performance beyond that of the plain flap at all angles of attack.

9. In order to maintain straight and level flight at a constant airspeed, whilst the flaps are being retracted, the angle of attack must be:

A B C D

increased. increased or decreased depending on type of flap. decreased. held constant.

10. An aeroplane has the following flap settings: 0°, 15°, 30° and 45°. Slats can also be selected. Which of the following selections will most adversely affect the CL/CD ratio?

A B C D

Flaps from 15° to 30°. Flaps from 30° to 45°. The slats. Flaps from 0° to 15°.

11. An aeroplane has the following flap positions: 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°. Slats can also be selected. Generally speaking, which selection provides the highest positive contribution to the CLMAX?

The flaps from 15° to 30°. The slats from the retracted to the take-off position. The flaps from 30° to 45°. The flaps from 0° to 15°.
12. Compared with the clean configuration, the angle of attack at CLmax with trailing edge flaps extended is:

A B C D

smaller. unchanged. smaller or larger depending on the degree of flap extension. larger.

13. Flap extension at constant IAS whilst maintaining straight and level flight will increase the:

A B C D

lift and the drag. level flight and S does not change then CL doesn't change either. lift coefficient and the drag. Fowler flaps increase S, but this does not increase CL for level flight. Strictly, with Fowler flaps CL required for level flight goes stall speed. maximum lift coefficient (CLmax) and the drag. down.

Slightly tricky. From 1/2CL S rho Vsquared, if you maintain IAS in

CL max available increases with all types of flap - after all, flap is called a "high lift device". So will drag. The pilot adjusts attitude and power to maintain speed and S&L

14. Which type of flap is shown in the picture?

A B C D

Plain flap Fowler flap Double slotted flap Split flap

15 Which type of flap is shown in the picture?

A B C D

Single slotted flap Fowler flap Plain flap Split flap

16. From an initial condition of level flight the flaps are extended at a constant pitch attitude. The aeroplane will subsequently:

A B C D

maintain level flight. start to bank. start to sink. start to climb.

17. From an initial condition of level flight the flaps are retracted at a constant pitch attitude. The aeroplane will subsequently:

A B C D

start to climb. start to bank. maintain level flight. start to sink.

1 Question: When an aeroplane with the centre of gravity forward of the centre of pressure of the combined wing / fuselage is in straight and level flight, the vertical load on the tailplane will be: A B C D downwards because it is always negative regardless of the position of the centre of gravity. downwards. zero because in steady flight all loads are in equilibrium. upwards.

2 Question: The pitching moment versus angle of attack line in the diagram, which corresponds to a CG located at the neutral point of of a given aeroplane at low and moderate angles of attack is: A B C D line 4. line 1. line 3. line 2.

A couple of basics you must first grasp... First off, what is the Neutral Point? The Neutral Point is the position of the CG that gives the aircraft neutral longitudinal static stability. Now do you know about CM/alpha diagrams? If not, you need to make sure you go back to your notes and get to grip with this... Now the answer to this particular question is in Line 2, the horizontal line that shows neutral longitudinal static stability.

3 Question: Which line in the graphic of Cm versus angle of attack graph shows a statically stable aeroplane? A B C D Line 2. Line 1. Line 4. Line 3.

Line 4. Number: 16575 Question: Where on the curve in the diagram does the aeroplane exhibit static longitudinal stability? A The whole curve. Number: 5 Question: Where on the curve in the diagram does the aeroplane exhibit neutral static longitudinal stability? to exhibit . zeigen A B C D The whole curve.D . Point 2. C Point 2. Line 1.aufweisen. Line 2. 4-C 5-D 16575 . Part 1. Part 3. D Part 1. B Part 3.4 Question: Which line in the diagram illustrates an aeroplane which is statically longitudinally stable at all angles of attack? A B C D Line 3.

but we should use M/sec) Change in speed: Squared: X Change: Percentage: 390 36% 60 3600 0. An increase of 10kt from the trimmed position at low speed has more effect on the stick force than an increase of 10kt from the trimmed position at high speed. in this calculation) (I also left it in Kts.” Is incorrect. If you trim nose up. and that is in the same sense you would expect with a speed increase. If you assume a CL of 0. Which of these statements about the stick force stability is correct? A B C D Stick force stability is not affected by trim. As you increased speed the pull force would increase. the forward pressure would increase as the elevator become more effective. You can calculate the difference of a 10 kt change at low speed and high speed to prove the answer.7 Question: The CG of an aeroplane is in a fixed position forward of the neutral point. you would have to keep a forward pressure on the stick to maintain straight and level. If the CG is ahead of the neutral point we will have a stable configuration. and therefore stick forces. so that is an unstable stick force. so an increase in speed would require a push Answer “Aeroplane nose up trim decreases the stick force stability. and fly straight and level. Maintaining a steady speed above the trim speed requires a pull force. Answer “Stick force stability is not affected by trim. So trim does affect stick force stability. L = CL x V2 (no change in the ½ ρ or S so we can leave them out.3 in straight and level and substitute changes of speed maintaining the same angle of attack. as it will not affect this specific calculation.” Is incorrect. “ Is incorrect. If you increase speed. Aeroplane nose up trim decreases the stick force stability. then you will see that the percentage change in lift. It goes about the percentage change in lift. so stick force stability increases. which is not what you would expect.3 750 17% 70 4900 1080 120 14400 1470 130 16900 4320 5070 . will be greater at lower speeds. Answer” Increase of speed generates pull forces. If you trimmed nose down you would require a pull force to keep the nose up.

8 Question: The value of the manoeuvre stability of an aeroplane is 150 N/g. The stick force required to achieve a load factor of 2,5 from steady level flight is: A B C D 375 N. 225 N. 150 N. 450 N.

Adding 1.5G to get from 1G to 2.5G, at a rate of 150N/G, answer 1.5 x 150 = 225N

9 Question: The stick force per g of a heavy transport aeroplane is 300 N/g. What stick force is required, if the aeroplane in the clean configuration is pulled to the limit manoeuvring load factor from a trimmed horizontal straight and steady flight? A B C D 450 N. 1125 N. 825 N. 750 N.

1. When a jet transport aeroplane takes off with the CG at the forward limit and the trimmable horizontal stabiliser (THS) is positioned at the maximum allowable nose down position for take-off:

A B C D

there will be a tendency to over-rotate. rotation will be normal using the normal rotation technique. rotation will require a higher than normal stick force. early nose wheel raising will take place.

2. When a jet transport aeroplane takes off with the CG at the aft limit and the trimmable horizontal stabiliser (THS) is positioned at the maximum allowable nose up position for take-off:

A B C D

there will be a tendency to under-rotate. rotation will require higher than normal stick force. rotation will be normal using the normal rotation technique. early nose wheel raising will take place.

3. When a jet transport aeroplane takes off with the CG at the forward limit and the trimmable horizontal stabiliser (THS) is positioned at the maximum allowable nose up position for take-off:

A B C D

early nose wheel raising will take place. rotation will be normal using the normal rotation technique. rotation will require a higher than normal stick force. there will be a tendency to over-rotate.

4. Comparing the differences between a horizontal trimmable stabiliser and an elevator trim tab, which of these statements are correct or incorrect? I. The effects of a trim tab runaway are more serious. II. A jammed trim tab causes less control difficulty.

A B C D

I is correct, II is incorrect. I is correct, II is correct. I is incorrect, II is incorrect. I is incorrect, II is correct.

5. Which of these statements about a trimmable horizontal stabiliser is correct?

A B C D

Because take-off speeds do not vary with CG position, the need for stabiliser adjustment is dependent on flap position only. At the aft CG limit, stabiliser trim is adjusted fully nose up to obtain maximum elevator authority at rotation during take-off. A trimmed aeroplane with an aft CG requires the stabiliser leading edge to be lower than in the case of a forward CG in the same condition. A trimmed aeroplane with an aft CG requires the stabiliser leading edge to be higher than in the case of a forward CG in the same condition.

6. When comparing an elevator trim system with a stabiliser trim system, which of these statements is correct?

A B C D

an elevator trim produces lower trim drag an elevator trim is more suitable for aeroplanes with a large CG range. an elevator trim is able to compensate larger changes in pitching moments. an elevator trim is more sensitive to flutter.

2. Which three aerodynamic means decrease manoeuvring stick forces?

A B C D

Spring tab - trim tab - mass balancing weight. Servo tab - horn balance - spring tab. Spring tab - horn balance - bobweight. Servo tab - trim tab - balance tab.

3. The tab in the figure represents:

A B C D

a balance tab . an anti-balance tab. a servo tab. a trim tab.

4. The tab in the figure represents:

A B C D

a control tab. an antibalance tab. a balance tab that also functions as a trim tab. a trim tab.

jams - klemmt 5. An aeroplane has a servo tab controlled elevator. What will happen if the elevator jams during flight?

A B C D

Only the tab is left functioning. It is not connected to the The pitch control forces double. elevator but works in the unnatural sense to drive the Pitch control is lost. elevator in the natural sense, so with the elevator locked Pitch control sense is reversed. you only have very limited control from the tab only and in The servo-tab now works as a negative trim-tab. the unnatural sense - and, of course, you have no trim or balance function left.

6. Which statement about a primary control surface controlled by a servo tab, is correct?

A B C D

Due to the effectiveness of the servo tab the control surface area can be smaller. The servo tab can also be used as a balance tab. The position is undetermined during taxiing, in particular with tailwind. The control effectiveness of the primary surface is increased by servo tab deflection. The function of a servo tab is very different from a balance tab. With a servo tab control system movement of the pilot’s flight controls moves the servo tab. The servo tab at the trailing edge of the main flying control surface produces a aerodynamic force to move the control surface. The servo tab is displaced in the opposite direction in which the flight control surface moves. ie if you wish to pitch the aircraft nose up, servo tab is deflected down and moves the elevator up. The system requires airflow from leading edge to trailing edge, when taxiing in a tailwind the effectiveness of this type of control is reduced.

7. What is the fundamental difference between a trim tab and a servo tab?

A The purpose of a trim tab is to reduce continuous stick force to zero, a servo tab only reduces stick force. B The functioning of a trim tab is based on aerodynamic balancing, whereas a servo tab is usually adjusted via a screwjack. C A trim tab is automatically adjusted when its particular control surface moves, whereas a servo tab is moved
The trim tab is used to trim the aircraft, which is reducing stick force required to hold an attitude to zero. The spring tab is a system used to reduce control forces over the whole operating range

2. When the cg position is moved forward, the elevator deflection for a manoeuvre with a given load factor greater than 1 will be:

A B C D

smaller. unchanged. dependent on trim position. larger.

3. What is the effect of an aft shift of the centre of gravity on (1) static longitudinal stability and (2) the required control deflection for a given pitch change?

A B C D

(1) reduces (2) increases. (1) increases (2) increases. (1) increases (2) reduces. (1) reduces (2) reduces.

4. Which statement in respect of a trimmable horizontal stabiliser is correct?

A B C at D

5. An example of differential aileron deflection during initiation of left turn is:

A B C D

Left aileron: 2° down. Right aileron: 5° up. Left aileron: 5° down. Right aileron: 2° up. Left aileron: 5° up. Right aileron: 2° down. Left aileron: 2° up. Right aileron: 5° down.

6. When a turn is initiated, adverse yaw is:

A B C D

a momentary yawing motion opposite to the turn due to an incorrect differential aileron movement. the tendency of an aeroplane to yaw in the opposite direction of turn mainly due to the difference in aileron form drag. the tendency of an aeroplane to yaw in the same direction of turn due to the different wing speeds. the tendency of an aeroplane to yaw in the opposite direction of turn mainly due to the difference in induced drag on each wing.

yawing motion generated by rudder deflection causes a speed increase of the inner wing. Landing gear extended. which generates a yawing moment.7. this causes: A B C D a roll to the left. When are outboard ailerons (if present) de-activated? A B C D Flaps (and slats) retracted or speed above a certain value. Yaw is followed by roll because the: A B C D rudder is located above the longitudinal axis and when it is deflected. an increase in lift on the left wing. This causes a difference in lift between both wings. The speed difference between both wings generates the desired rolling moment. which increases the lift on that wing so that the aeroplane starts to roll in the same direction as the yaw. Landing gear retracted. rolling motion generated by rudder deflection causes a speed increase of the outer wing which increases the lift on that wing so the aeroplane starts to roll in the direction of the turn. which suppresses adverse yaw. 11 If the nose of an aeroplane yaws left. the part of the wing on which they are mounted: A B C D experiences a reduction in lift. . experiences extra drag. In addition there is a local increase in drag. stalls. a roll to the right. 10. -> increase the lift on that wing -> aeroplane starts to roll in the same direction as the yaw. Landing with a strong and gusty crosswind. 9. to avoid over-controlling the aeroplane. is forced downwards as a reaction to the increased drag. which generates the desired rolling moment. which increase the lift on that wing so that the aeroplane starts to roll in the same direction as the yaw. which generates the desired rolling moment. Approach. In what phase of flight are the outboard ailerons (if fitted) not active? A B C D Cruise. it causes a rolling moment in the same direction as the yaw. 8. until lift-off. Flaps (and/or slats) extended or speed below a certain value. a decrease in relative airspeed on the right wing. Yawing motion generated by: -> rudder deflection -> speed increase of the outer wing. When roll spoilers are extended. Take-off. yawing motion generated by rudder deflection causes a speed increase of the outer wing.

The sequence which correctly represents blade twist at the given sections is: A B C D Sequence 4 Sequence 1 Sequence 3 Sequence 2 This graphic is a propeller blade. For this question use the reference. For this question use the reference. 2. Blades are twisted along their length so the angle they meet the air is the same from root to tip. The diagram that correctly represents the propeller in the feathered position is: A B C D Diagram 4 Diagram 1 Diagram 3 Diagram 2 . This makes sequence 4 correct.1.

I is incorrect. A propeller with a large blade angle is referred to as being in coarse pitch. I is correct. II is incorrect I is correct. A propeller with significant blade twist is referred to as being in coarse pitch. II is incorrect.3. II is correct. 4. A propeller with little blade twist is referred to as being in fine pitch. I is correct. II. Which statement is correct? I. I is correct. II is incorrect. II is correct. II is incorrect. to twist . A B C D I is incorrect.verdrehen . II is correct. Which statement is correct? I. II. A propeller with little blade twist is referred to as being in fine pitch. II is correct I is incorrect. A B C D I is incorrect.

figure 2. The variation of propeller efficiency of a fixed pitch propeller with TAS at a given RPM is shown in: A B C D figure 4. figure 1.2. figure 3. .

The diagram that correctly represents the aerodynamic forces acting on a propeller in normal flight is: A B C D Diagram 3 Diagram 4 Diagram 2 Diagram 1 thrust is the component of the total aerodynamic force on the propeller parallel to the rotational axis.3. For this question use the reference. .

diagram 1. . A rotating propeller blade element produces an aerodynamic force F that may be resolved into two components: . diagram 2. . A windmilling propeller: A B C D improves the glide performance of an aeroplane. The diagram representing a windmilling propeller is: A B C D diagram 3. produces neither thrust nor drag. diagram 4. produces drag instead of thrust. Use graphic at reference. has a greater blade angle than a feathered propeller.a force R generating a torque absorbed by engine power. 5.4.a force T perpendicular to the plane of rotation (thrust).

. A rotating propeller blade element produces an aerodynamic force F that may be resolved into two components: .6. . The diagram representing a rotating propeller blade element during reverse operation is: A B C D Diagram 4 Diagram 3 Diagram 2 Diagram 1 Reverse Pitch An aerodynamic brake position used for braking and sometimes ground manoeuvring. Feathered When the chord line of the blade is parallel to the airflow. Ground Fine Pitch The minimum torque position for ground operation and is sometimes referred to as superfine pitch.a force T perpendicular to the plane of rotation (thrust).a force R generating a torque absorbed by engine power. therefore preventing wind milling. It is achieved by accelerating air forward by the blade going into a negative angle. Coarse Pitch The maximum cruising pitch in normal operation. Flight Fine Pitch The minimum pitch obtainable in flight. For this question use the reference.

increase and the rate of descent will increase. As the aircraft is descending at a constant IAS in the glide the TAS will decrease and the A of A will increase. This is what the question asks.A 16318 . This will reduce the drag and thus the L/D ratio. 15800 . decrease and the rate of descent will decrease. decrease and the rate of descent will decrease. increase and the rate of descent will decrease. decrease and the rate of descent will increase.Number: 15800 Question: If the propeller pitch of a windmilling propeller is decreased during a glide at constant IAS the propeller drag in the direction of flight will: A B C D increase and the rate of descent will increase. reducing the glide angle and decreasing the rate of descent. increase and the rate of descent will decrease. decrease and the rate of descent will decrease. increase and the rate of descent will decrease. Number: 16319 Question: During a glide with idle power and constant IAS.B .B 16319 . but it is useful to go a stage further and identify the effect on the A of A. If the rpm lever is pulled rearwards the pitch will increase further. increase and the rate of descent will increase. if the RPM lever of a constant speed propeller is pulled back from its normal cruise position. Number: 16318 Question: If the propeller pitch of a windmilling propeller is increased during a glide at constant IAS the propeller drag in the direction of flight will: A B C D decrease and the rate of descent will increase. the propeller pitch will: A B C D decrease and the rate of descent will increase. In this question the aircraft is in the cruise with a coarse pitch.

. increase and the rate of descent will increase. As the aircraft is descending at a constant IAS in the glide the TAS will decrease and the A of A will increase. This will reduce the drag and thus the L/D ratio. reducing the glide angle and decreasing the rate of descent. 2. the propeller pitch will: A B C D decrease and the rate of descent will decrease. decrease and the rate of descent will decrease. During a glide with idle power and constant IAS. increase and the rate of descent will decrease. If the rpm lever is pulled rearwards the pitch will increase further. 3. decrease and the rate of descent will increase. increase and the rate of descent will decrease. decrease and the rate of descent will decrease. If the propeller pitch of a windmilling propeller is decreased during a glide at constant IAS the propeller drag in the direction of flight will: A B C D decrease and the rate of descent will increase. Coarse Pitch = The maximum cruising pitch in normal operation. increase and the rate of descent will increase. In this question the aircraft is in the cruise with a coarse pitch. if the RPM lever of a constant speed propeller is pulled back from its normal cruise position. If the propeller pitch of a windmilling propeller is increased during a glide at constant IAS the propeller drag in the direction of flight will: A B C D increase and the rate of descent will decrease.1. increase and the rate of descent will increase. decrease and the rate of descent will increase.

decrease and the rate of descent will increase. so rate of descent will increase. Assuming that the RPM remains constant throughout. remain constant at a fixed value irrespective of any airspeed changes. The RPM lever is the prop lever.4. So with the throttle at idle. increase with increasing airspeed. if you push the RPM lever (prop lever) forward you are forcing the blades to go to the full fine pitch position . increase and the rate of descent will decrease. The difference between a propeller's blade angle and its angle of attack is called: A B C D the effective pitch. propeller slip. increase and the rate of descent will increase. the helix angle. the angle of attack of a fixed pitch propeller will: A B C D remain constant at a fixed value only if the airspeed decreases. .decreasing the blade angle (pitch) At idle that presents a big flat face to the air so a lot of drag. Blade Angle = Angle of Attack + Helix Angle Helix Angle = Blade Angle Angle of Attack 6. 5. the propeller angle. The throttle only controls the butterfly in the carb. With the throttle open then it would have minimum drag therefore maximum RPM. If the RPM lever of a constant speed propeller is moved forward during a glide with idle power and whilst maintaining constant airspeed. decrease with increasing airspeed. the propeller pitch will: A B C D decrease and the rate of descent will decrease.

7. increase and the rate of descent will increase. 9. The diagram the letter which correctly represents the Angle of Advance (Helix Angle) is: A B C D B C A D Blade Angle = Angle of Attack + Helix Angle Helix Angle = Blade Angle Angle of Attack . decrease and the rate of descent will decrease. decrease and the rate of descent will increase. 8. decrease and the rate of descent will decrease. For this question use the reference. If you increase the propeller pitch during a glide with idle-power at constant IAS the lift to drag ratio will A B C D increase and the rate of descent will increase. increase and the rate of descent will decrease. If you decrease the propeller pitch during a glide with idle-power at constant IAS the lift to drag ratio will A B C D decrease and the rate of descent will increase. increase and the rate of descent will decrease.

angle 2. Use graphic at reference. If this is a practice forced landing DO NOT FORGET to run the lever forward for the overshoot! . But there is much straight drag from the prop. Use graphic at reference. increase and the rate of descent will increase. What happens. if you need every last yard to reach your chosen field pull the prop lever right back. though. 11. gliding with the prop at the cruise setting would keep engine rpm up. not correctly indicated in the diagram. So. angle 1. is that the windmilling effect lessens and the prop slows down. If you pull back the RPM lever of a constant speed propeller during a glide with idle power and constant speed. The blade angle of a rotating propeller blade element shown in the annex is: A B C D angle 3. 12. not correctly indicated in the diagram. angle 3. The angle of attack of a rotating propeller blade element shown in the annex is: A B C D angle 2. the prop is windmilling. decrease and the rate of descent will increase. angle 1. keeping the hydraulics and electrics going.10. If your engine is out. and pulling back to coarse will give less straight drag and a reduced rate of descent. decrease and the rate of descent will decrease. the propeller pitch will: A B C D increase and the rate of descent will decrease.

I is incorrect. A coarse pitch propeller is less efficient during take-off and in the climb. II is correct. A cruise propeller has a greater geometric pitch when compared with a climb propeller. A B C D I is correct. I is correct. II is correct. II is incorrect. but more efficient in the cruise. II is incorrect.Number: 14823 Question: Which of these statements about propellers is correct or incorrect? I. I is incorrect. II. when compared with a fine pitch propeller. Slip = Geometric Pitch .Effective Pitch 14823 .B .

Asymmetric blade effect increases when the angle between the propeller axis and airflow through the propeller disc increases. pitching and yawing.Asymmetric Blade Effect The thrust asymmetry between the two blades causes the aircraft to yaw to the left on take-off. high speed. . the inclination of the propeller axis to the relative airflow. then the asymmetry of the thrust causes a pitching moment. Given an aeroplane with a propeller turning clockwise as seen from behind. pitch the aeroplane nose up. I is incorrect. roll the aeroplane to the left. Conversely. 2. large angles of climb. II is incorrect. 1. Gyroscopic precession of the propeller is induced by: A B C D pitching and rolling. 3. increasing RPM and rolling. Asymmetric propeller blade effect is mainly induced by: A B C D large angles of yaw. 4. increasing RPM and yawing. roll the aeroplane to the right. II is correct. Which statement about a propeller is correct? I. if an aircraft is flying yawed. II is incorrect I is correct. II. Asymmetric blade effect increases when engine power is increased. the torque effect during the take off run will tend to: A B C D pitch the aeroplane nose down. I is correct. A B C D I is incorrect. II is correct.

II is incorrect. is correct i. I is incorrect. II is correct. II. II is incorrect. Which statement is correct? I.Pitch down produces left yaw. Which statement is correct? I. With respect to the gyroscopic effects of precession acting upon the clockwise rotating propeller of a single acting aeroplane (when viewed from behind): i. Which statement is correct? I. I is incorrect. II is incorrect. II. 9. II is incorrect. Which statement is correct regarding the gyroscopic effect of a clockwise propeller on a single engine aeroplane? I. I is correct. is incorrect i. II. Propeller gyroscopic effect is most noticeable during low speed flight at low propeller RPM. I is incorrect. II is correct I is incorrect. 8.Left yaw produces pitch up. I is correct. II. Propeller gyroscopic effect occurs during aeroplane yaw changes. II is correct. II is correct 7. is correct 6. II is correct.5. A B C D I is correct. Propeller gyroscopic effect occurs during flight at constant aeroplane attitude. A B C D i. The effect of right yaw is pitch down. A B C D I is correct. is correct ii. A B C D I is incorrect. II is correct. II is correct. II is incorrect I is incorrect. I is correct. is incorrect ii. Propeller gyroscopic effect is most noticeable during low speed flight at high propeller RPM. is incorrect ii. I is incorrect. II is correct I is incorrect. II is incorrect I is correct. Propeller gyroscopic effect is most noticeable during low speed flight at high propeller RPM. . II is incorrect. I is correct. Propeller gyroscopic effect occurs during aeroplane pitch changes. II is incorrect. is incorrect i. A B C D I is correct. The effect of pitch up is right yaw ii. is correct ii.

2. slip indicator neutral. low temperature. a four engine jet aeroplane with wing mounted engines experiences an engine failure. 4. 6. 5. high temperature. as per usual. this would involve the aircraft slipping. . The wind will already cause a yaw into wind. 5. 2. 3. But why would this deflect the ball? The wings (and therefore the instrument and the central portion of the tube) are level. The right outboard engine. 6. 5. turn indicator neutral. It is certainly possible to achieve straight asymetric flight with level wings by use of rudder. 3. In general. So there is no mechanism to cause the ball to be deflected. 2. As you say. that has experienced a left engine failure and continues afterwards in straight and level cruise flight with wings level? A B C D turn indicator neutral. During the take-off roll with a strong crosswind from the left. 1. The balls weight is acting towards the Earth. The combination that regroups all of the correct statements is A B C D 1. forward CG location. so if outboard goes then the thrust on the right will aggravate the yaw to the left.ungünstig 1. high altitude. The greatest control problem is caused by the loss of which engine? A B C D The right inboard engine. slip indicator left of neutral. The left inboard engine. 4. low altitude. 3. leaving the ball deflected by lagging behind. so the tube isn't being snatched away sidewayds. aft CG location. Yes the worst scenario is an outboard engine failure on the into wind wing. slip indicator left of neutral. Which statement is correct about an aeroplane. turn indicator left of neutral.1. 6. Again. So outboard left in this case. and is opposed by the ball being held up by the bottom edge of the central part of the tube. so it isn't. The aircraft is not accelerating laterally. 3. turn indicator left of neutral. slip indicator neutral. 4. no unbalanced forces. The left outboard engine. 2. It can get to the point where you have insufficient rudder authority to keep straight. directional controllability with one engine inoperative on a multi-engine aeroplane is adversely affected by: adversely {adv} .

4. 2. the loss of directional control is due to asymmetric thrust i. 2. In general. 6. 5. With one engine inoperative on a multi-engine aeroplane. once again resulting in less thrust being produced from the remaining live engine(s). . 4. the turning-moment at high thrust settings. if the temperature is high. the air density is reduced. therefore resulting in a lesser turning-moment. The combination that regroups all of the correct statements is: A B C D 2. 4. 6. at high altitude.9. 5. 5. low altitude. high temperature. 1. 6.e. 4. Likewise. Hence. forward CG location. directional controllability with one engine inoperative on a multi-engine aeroplane is favourably affected by: 1. 1. low temperature. the thrust will be less . high altitude.reducing the turning-moment at high power. aft CG location. 3. 3.

because the engine thrust decreases. als V1. 13127 . ist das Flugzeug schneller. and the real benefit of reduced max thrust when you are hot and high is that less rudder will be needed to keep straight. Obviously Vmcg has to be down to. Entscheidungsgeschwindigkeit. No point in having Vmcg much below that.B 4552 . B. Takeoff Decision Speed.B . decreases. The VMCG speed is calculated at the maximum thrust available. Number: 4552 Question: How does VMCG change with increasing field elevation and temperature? A B C D increases. or you couldn't control the continuing takeoff after engine out. because VMCG is expressed in IAS which decreases with constant TAS and decreasing density.Number: 13127 Question: For a given aeroplane which two main variables determine the value of VMCG? A Engine thrust and rudder deflection. Remember the question does say which 2 variables will affect it? VMCG Minimum Control Speed – Ground minimale Kontrollgeschwindigkeit beim Startlauf am Boden. decreases. Geschwindigkeit. Entscheidungsgeschwindigkeit bei Triebwerksausfall beim Start. Yes thrust will reduce with altitude if not supercharged. V1 gilt für größere Flugzeuge. bis zu der ein Startabbruch möglich ist (z. at most. D Air density and runway length. Vmcg is certified in the worst case. bis zu der bei Ausfall eines kritischen Motors der Start abgebrochen werden kann. because at a lower density a larger IAS is necessary to generate the required rudder force. die auch nach einem Triebwerksausfall eine ausreichende und genau definierte Steigleistung haben. B Airport elevation and temperature. Asymmetric thrust is balanced by rudder forces. dann muss es auch bei einem Triebwerksausfall starten. VMCG Minimum Control Speed – Ground minimale Kontrollgeschwindigkeit beim Startlauf am Boden. Decision Speed for Take-off Engine Failure. Less thrust. B737 ca. for before V1 you are going to shut down the live engine(s) and there will be no asymmetric thrust. The VMCG is calculated at full rudder deflection so that is not a variable. At full rudder deflection if you fly faster you get more correcting force: Fly slower and you get less. because VMCG is related to V1 and VR and those speeds increase if the density decreases. Startabbruchgeschwindigkeit. wenn das Flugzeug den Start fortsetzten soll – gilt nicht für leichte Zweimots The definition of VMCL is the minimum control speed at which it is possible to maintain directional control in the landing configuration with an angle of bank of not more than 5'. 150 kt). wenn das Flugzeug den Start fortsetzten soll – gilt nicht für leichte Zweimots V1 Critical Engine Failure Speed. V1. Minimum control speeds are the speeds at which the rudder forces just balance the asymmetric thrust. C Engine thrust and gear position. and you can balance that with full rudder at a lower speed. increases.

II is incorrect. II is incorrect. II is incorrect. VMCG Minimum Control Speed – Ground minimale Kontrollgeschwindigkeit beim Startlauf am Boden. VMCG is determined with the gear down. the lateral deviation from the runway centreline may be not more than 30 ft. II is correct. 3. The combination that regroups all of the correct statements is: A B C D 1.D . 4. I is correct. Number: 3854 Question: 6. I is incorrect. II is correct. wenn das Flugzeug den Start fortsetzten soll – gilt nicht für leichte Zweimots Number: 14680 Question: Which of these statements about VMCG determination are correct or incorrect? I.D 3854 . Because the value of VMCG must also be applicable on wet and/or slippery runways. VMCG is determined with the flaps in the landing position. the CG should be on the aft limit. A B C D I is incorrect. VMCG may be determined using both lateral and directional control. VMCG is determined by using rudder and nosewheel steering 4. II is incorrect I is incorrect. Because it must be possible to abort the take-off even after the nosewheel has already been lifted off the ground. During VMCG determination. I is correct. 4. 2. In order to simulate a wet runway. VMCG Minimum Control Speed – Ground minimale Kontrollgeschwindigkeit beim Startlauf am Boden. 1. 3.Number: 14681 Question: Which of these statements about VMCG determination are correct or incorrect? I. wenn das Flugzeug den Start fortsetzten soll – gilt nicht für leichte Zweimots 14681 . II. During VMCG determination the aeroplane may not deviate from the straight-line path by more than 30 ft.B 5314 . II is correct. I is correct. 2. I is incorrect. Because nosewheel steering has no effect on the value of VMCG. II is correct. 2. Number: 15314 Question: Consider the following statements about VMCG: 1. 3. 3. nose wheel steering may not be used during VMCG determination.A 14680 . A B C D I is correct. Why is VMCG determined with the nosewheel steering disconnected? A B C D Because the nosewheel steering could become inoperative after an engine has failed. II. During VMCG determination.

although more bank reduces VMCA. 5. britisches Englisch: VMCA. The speed is established with failure of the critical engine. not more than 5 degrees of bank towards the live engine and the aircraft in the most critical configuration for approach. The speed is established with failure of the critical engine. too much bank may lead to fin stall. bei der das Flugzeug unter näher spezifizierten Bedingungen geflogen und gesteuert werden kann. the gear is either up or down. britisches Englisch: VMCA. sideslip is zero. maximum take-off thrust was set and is maintained on the remaining engines.Number: 12972 Question: VMCA is certified with a bank angle of not more than 5° towards the operating engine (live engine low) because: A B C D at 5° bank (live engine low). US-Englisch: VMC 12972 . 4. Minimum Air Control Speed (siehe: Rotieren) – minimale Geschwindigkeit.D . bei der das Flugzeug unter näher spezifizierten Bedingungen geflogen und gesteuert werden kann. US-Englisch: VMC Number: 15099 Question: VMCA is the minimum speed at which directional control can be maintained when. the aeroplane is either in or out of ground effect. not more than 5 degrees of bank towards the live engine and the aircraft in the most critical configuration for approach. 2. 1. the slip indicator at 5° bank (live engine low) is centred. The combination that regroups all of the correct statements is: A B C D 3. 3. flaps are in any position. VMCA Minimum Control Speed – Airborne. 4 and 5 are correct. Minimum Air Control Speed (siehe: Rotieren) – minimale Geschwindigkeit. amongst others: 1. a sudden engine failure occurs on the most critical engine. more than 5° bank (live engine low) would not reduce VMCA.C 15099 . VMCA Minimum Control Speed – Airborne. 1 and 2 are correct. 3 and 5 are correct. 2 and 4 are correct. 2.

I is incorrect. II is correct. VMCL is the minimum control speed in the landing configuration. maintain the airspeed above VMCL. II The speed VMCL can be limited by the available maximum roll rate.Propeller on the failed engine (propeller aircraft only) in the position it achieves without pilot action. A B C D I is correct. II is incorrect. Number: 13072 Question: Which of the following statements is correct? I When the critical engine fails during take-off the speed VMCL can be limiting. II is correct.D 13072 . I is incorrect. VMCL must be established with the: .C 13071 . II is correct. D minimum speed during landing with all engines operating.with landing gear down. II. A B C D I is correct. I is incorrect. II is correct. II is incorrect. VMCL Minimum Control Speed for Landing Approach.If the critical engine fails during the approach and landing phase of flight. A B C D I is incorrect. II is incorrect. flaps up and all engines operating. II is correct.B . I is incorrect. C minimum control speed approach and landing.B 4548 . I is incorrect. The definition of VMCL is the minimum control speed at which it is possible to maintain directional control in the landing configuration with an angle of bank of not more than 5°. I is correct. whilst maintaining a 3' glide slope . I is correct. B maximum speed in the landing configuration. Number: 4548 Question: Which of the following statements is correct? I When the critical engine fails during take-off the speed VMCL can be limiting. II The speed VMCL is always limited by maximum rudder deflection. II is incorrect. II is incorrect. but VMCA and VMCG both decrease with increasing altitude. II is correct.Go-around power/thrust setting on the operating engine VMCL is a fixed value for a given aircraft. which is the minimum control speed during the approach and landing. I is correct.Centre of gravity as far aft as possible and the aircraft at its maximum landing weight . 14876 . II is incorrect.Aircraft in its most critical landing configuration and all engines operating . The speed VMCL is always limited by maximum rudder deflection. Minimum Control Speed in Landing Configuration (alle Motoren funktionieren) – siehe: VMCG Number: 13071 Question: Which of the following statements is correct? I. Number: 14876 Question: VMCL is the: A minimum control speed . I is correct.

Which of the following statements is correct? I VMCL is the minimum control speed in the landing configuration. 1310.D 13010 . whilst maintaining a 3' glide slope .Centre of gravity as far aft as possible and the aircraft at its maximum landing weight . II is correct. which is the minimum control speed during the approach and landing. A B C D I is correct. II The speed VMCL can be limited by the available maximum roll rate.Aircraft in its most critical landing configuration and all engines operating . II is incorrect. A B C D I is incorrect. I is incorrect. The definition of VMCL is the minimum control speed at which it is possible to maintain directional control in the landing configuration with an angle of bank of not more than 5°. I is incorrect. but VMCA and VMCG both decrease with increasing altitude. II is incorrect. VMCL must be established with the: . I is incorrect. I is correct. 13073.Go-around power/thrust setting on the operating engine VMCL is a fixed value for a given aircraft. II is incorrect.B . 13073 .Propeller on the failed engine (propeller aircraft only) in the position it achieves without pilot action. II is correct. II is correct. II is incorrect. II The speed VMCL can be limited by the available maximum roll rate. Which of the following statements is correct? I When the critical engine fails during take-off the speed VMCL can be limiting. II is correct. I is correct. I is correct. maintain the airspeed above VMCL.If the critical engine fails during the approach and landing phase of flight.

VS . Number: 14916 Question: Which factor should be taken into account when determining VA? A B C D The limit load factor. hopefully you will be able to recover before VD.Maximum design speed for maximum gust intensity.A .Number: 14616 Question: The stall speed line in the manoeuvring load diagram runs through a point where the: A B C D speed = VB. The safety factor.C 14916 . VC is a design speed NOT an operating speed. VD is the design dive speed.Unaccelerated stall speed in the clean configuration VA . If you go there the wings will come off. VB . load factor = gust load factor. speed = VS. speed = VA. The ultimate load factor. The calculation factor. speed = 0. the speed WILL increase.Maximum design cruising speed. 14616 .Maximum design manoeuvring speed and is the highest speed where the aircraft will stall before it exceeds the maximum load factor. The reasoning behind that is. load factor = 0. It is a given JAR25 requirement. Vc . but may not be greater than VC (the design cruise speed). and you get a disturbance nose down. that if you are flying at VMO/MMO. VMO/MMO may be equal to. load factor = limit load factor. load factor = +1.

D 16811 .B . Sturm {m} onset Number: 4375 Question: Which of the following statements is true? A Flap extension in severe turbulence at constant speed moves the centre of pressure aft. buffet onset limitations normally become limiting. 15033 . C Flap extension in severe turbulence at constant speed increases both the stall speed and the structural limitation margins. which increases the structural limitation margins. the correct relationship between stall speed. VA <= VS * 1/n. des Winters] Angriff {m} Einsatz {m} [Start / Einleitung eines Vorgangs].Number: 15033 Question: Assuming no compressibility effects. Eintritt. D By increasing the flap setting in severe turbulence at constant speed the stall speed will be reduced and the risk for exceeding the structural limits will be decreased. VA >= VS * SQRT (n). Number: 16811 Question: The significance of VA for jet transport aeroplanes is reduced at high cruising altitudes because: A B C D the engine has insufficient thrust to reach the limit load factor. the elevator deflection is limited to prevent exceeding the limit load factor. limit load factor (n) and VA is: A B C D VA <= VS * SQRT (n). Attacke.C 4375 . to buffet stoßen schlagen ankämpfen Beginn {m} Anfang {m} Ausbruch {m} [einer Krankheit] Einsetzen {n} [einer Krankheit. at high altitudes the bank angle is normally limited to 15° to prevent exceeding the limit load factor. des Alters. VA >= VS * 1/n. B Flight in severe turbulence may lead to a stall and/or structural limitations being exceeded.

Number: 13211 Question: How does VA (EAS) alter when the aeroplane's mass decreases by 19%? A B C D 4.5 for working out Va the answer for Va is Vs1g times sq root 2.5. for small changes. Aber auch unterhalb der Manövergeschwindigkeit gilt das nur für die einmalige Betätigung eines der drei Ruder (Höhen-. Diese wird VB oder VRA (RA wie rough air) bezeichnet und ist auf dem Fahrtmesser mit einem grünen (unterhalb von VRA) bzw. 13211 . Because the lift equation has Vsq in it the reduction in Vs1g is proportional to sq root of the change in mass It is a quirk of the mathematics that. Die Manövergeschwindigkeit VA wird oft mit der maximalen Geschwindigkeit in unruhiger Luft verwechselt. umso höher ist VA . Indicated Air Speed. the sq root of the proportional change is approximately half the original figure. so a 20% reduction in mass gives a 10% reduction in Va. wiederholte Ausschläge oder kombinierte Vollausschläge mehrerer Ruder gleichzeitig können die Struktur durchaus auch unterhalb der Manövergeschwindigkeit überlasten. Je schwerer ein Flugzeug. Maximum Manoeuverspeed.oder Seitenruder). IAS). a. Abhängigkeit vom Fluggewicht Die VA wird auch bei kleinen Flugzeugen in Abhängigkeit vom Fluggewicht angegeben. inside 20%. bei der durch plötzliche volle Ruderausschläge die Struktur des Flugzeuges bis zur Grenze des Zulässigen belastet wird. Manövergeschwindigkeit (VA) Die Manövergeschwindigkeit (engl.36% reduction. da sie die Flugzeugstruktur überlasten würden. Quer. denn mit mehr Treibstoff in den Tanks und folglich höherem Gewicht widersteht das Flugzeug wegen der Massenträgheit den aerodynamischen Kräften besser. Once you set Cn at 2.ein niedriges Fluggewicht eine eher niedrige Manövergeschwindigkeit. Dabei spielt auch die Verteilung der Masse zwischen tragenden und nicht tragenden Teilen (also den Flügeln mit den Tanks einerseits und dem Cockpit andererseits) eine Rolle. 19% reduction. in der Luftfahrt als VA abgekürzt) ist die Fluggeschwindigkeit (engl. Bedeutung: Volle Ruderausschläge sind oberhalb der Manövergeschwindigkeit nicht zulässig. Diese Feinheiten werden in den Handbüchern zu Kleinflugzeugen aber meist nicht berücksichtigt. Design Maneuvering Speed o.D . If you reduce aircraft mass you get a new lower Vs1g and therefore a new lower Va. gelben (oberhalb von VRA) Bogen gekennzeichnet. . No change 10% reduction. .Ein hohes Fluggewicht bedingt dabei eine hohe Manövergeschwindigkeit.

42+(3x0.45 The lift coefficient (CL) of an aeroplane in steady horizontal flight is 0. 50.3=0. 66 15.C 14109 .9 1.079.45 0.D 11017 .155 = 0.42. In this case it increases by 3 x 0.1. 55.35. If a vertical gust instantly changes the angle of attack by 2 degrees. The load factor will be: A B C D 2.35.42+0.451 211 .9 1. Mathematically it looks like: (0.155 NEW CL 0. in which case you have to subtract the original LF from the new one.508 / OLD CL 0. 75 35. the load factor will be: A B C D 0. or n=L/W.3. Beware some questions ask for the change of load factor. 55. An increase in angle of attack of 1 degree increases CL by 0. 56.42. 65 25. Number: 14109 Question: The lift coefficient (CL) of an aeroplane in steady horizontal flight is 0.71 1. So for the calculation the Cl after the event is 0. An increase in angle of attack of 1 degree would increase CL by 0.079.74 1.Number: 211 Question: The shape of the gust load diagram is also determinated by the following three vertical speed in ft/s (clean configuration) : A B C D 25. A vertical up gust instantly changes the angle of attack by 3 degrees. If a vertical gust instantly changes the angle of attack by 2 degrees. An increase in angle of attack of 1 degree would increase CL by 0. Weight does not change.49 0.079 x 2 = 0.C . the load factor will be: 1 deg increase = 0.1 =0.35 + 0.35 = 1.72. Divide this by the original Cl to get the answer. All other factors being equal lift and weight can be expressed as changes of Cl for the purpose of the calculation. and so the Cl required is the same after the event as before (when considering the calculation).49 LF is lift / weight.1)) / 0. 66 Number: 11017 Question: The lift coefficient (CL) of an aeroplane in steady horizontal flight is 0. However lift increases as per the conditions in the question.

Number: 16247 Question: An aeroplane maintains straight and level flight at a speed of 2 * VS. If a vertical gust causes a load factor of 2, the load factor n caused by the same gust at a speed of 1.3 VS would be:

A B C D

n = 1.3. n = 1.65. n = 4. n = 1.69.

It is 1 x 1.3/2 = 0.65 in normal steady flight you have 1g already, so just add 1 + 0.65 and you will get 1.65

Number: 14305 Question: VRA is:

A B C D

a speed just below Mach buffet. a speed just above low speed buffet. the stall speed in turbulent conditions. the recommended turbulence penetration airspeed.

Die Manövergeschwindigkeit VA wird oft mit der maximalen Geschwindigkeit in unruhiger Luft verwechselt. Diese wird VB oder VRA (RA wie rough air) bezeichnet und ist auf dem Fahrtmesser mit einem grünen (unterhalb von VRA) bzw. gelben (oberhalb von VRA) Bogen gekennzeichnet.

16247 - B

14305 - D

Number: 14673 Question: Which of these statements about the gust load factor on an aeroplane are correct or incorrect? I. When the mass decreases, the gust load factor increases. II. When the altitude decreases, the gust load factor increases.

A B C D

I is correct, II is correct. I is correct, II is incorrec I is incorrect, II is correct. I is incorrect, II is incorrect.
Abhängigkeit vom Fluggewicht
Die VA wird auch bei kleinen Flugzeugen in Abhängigkeit vom Fluggewicht angegeben. - Ein hohes Fluggewicht bedingt dabei eine hohe Manövergeschwindigkeit, - ein niedriges Fluggewicht eine eher niedrige Manövergeschwindigkeit.
Je schwerer ein Flugzeug, umso höher ist VA , denn mit mehr Treibstoff in den Tanks und folglich höherem Gewicht widersteht das Flugzeug wegen der Massenträgheit den aerodynamischen Kräften besser. Dabei spielt auch die Verteilung der Masse zwischen tragenden und nicht tragenden Teilen (also den Flügeln mit den Tanks einerseits und dem Cockpit andererseits) eine Rolle. Diese Feinheiten werden in den Handbüchern zu Kleinflugzeugen aber meist nicht berücksichtigt.

Number: 14674 Question: Which of these statements about the gust load factor on an aeroplane are correct or incorrect? I. When the mass increases, the gust load factor increases. II. When the altitude increases, the gust load factor increases.

A B C D

I is correct, II is correct. I is correct, II is incorrect. I is incorrect, II is incorrect. I is incorrect, II is correct.

Number: 14675 Question: Which of these statements about the gust load factor on an aeroplane are correct or incorrect? I. When the wing area increases, the gust load factor increases. II. When the EAS increases, the gust load factor decreases.

A B C D

I is correct, II is incorrect. I is incorrect, II is correct. I is correct, II is correct. I is incorrect, II is incorrect.

14673 - A

14674 - C

14675 - A

1. The point in the diagram giving the lowest speed in unaccelerated flight is:

A B C D

point 4. point 1. point 3. point 2.

2. From a polar curve of the entire aeroplane one can read:

A B C D

the minimum CL/CD ratio and the minimum drag. the maximum CL/CD ratio and maximum lift coefficient. the minimum drag coefficient and the maximum lift. the minimum drag and the maximum lift.

3. Which of the following parameters can be read from the parabolic polar diagram of an aeroplane?

A B C D

The minimum glide angle and the parasite drag coefficient. The aspect ratio of the wing and the induced drag coefficient. The minimum rate of descent and the induced drag. The induced drag and the parasite drag.
The polar diagram's axes are Cl and Cd. Where the line crosses the Cl=0 axis there is no lift, and therefore no induced drag, so Cd at that point is from parasite drag only. Angle of glide is Cl/Cd, the lift/drag ratio. If the lift/drag ratio is 20:1 then the glide angle is 1 in 20. The tangent to the curve from the Cl/Cd origin shows the best Cl/Cd ratio, and thus the best glide angle you can get. Rate of descent would depend on what speed you were doing down the hill and that is not shown on the polar diagram. The polar diagram shows coefficients only. To get real world data you have to add in all the other bits of the lift and drag equations like S and rho and V.

Number: 14489 Question: During a straight steady climb: 1 - lift is less than weight. 2 - lift is greater than weight. 3 - load factor is less than 1. 4 - load factor is greater than 1. 5 - lift is equal to weight. 6 - load factor is equal to 1. Which of the following lists the correct statements ?

A B C D

1 and 6 1 and 3 2 and 4 5 and 6

To answer this question it is helpful to draw a diagram of the forces acting on the aircraft whilst it is in the climb, and resolve them accordingly. If you do this, you can see that the lift vector is acting at 90 degrees to the flight path. (The flight path being at an angle to the horizon) However, the weight vector will always act straight down, or at 90 degrees to the horizon. So only a part of this weight vector is acting in the direction opposite to the lift. (The other part of the weight vector acts in the same direction as the drag) Therefore, in order to keep the forces balanced, so the aircraft isn't accelerating: Lift = The part of the weight vector acting perpendicular to the flight path. To be completely mathematical L=W cos(gamma); where gamma is the flight path angle to the horizontal. So you can see that lift is now a fraction of the weight, so lift is less than weight. And mathematically this is shown because cos(gamma) can only have a value between 0 and 1. With it equalling 1 when gamma is zero (ie horizontal flight) and 0 when gamma is 90 degrees (ie full on vertical climb) The load factor bit comes from the definition of load factor, which is Lift/Weight. Now we've already determined that Lift is less than Weight in steady climb, so this fraction has a numerical value less than one. Again being mathematical, you can say from Lift = Weight x Cos(gamma) Lift/Weight = Cos(gamma) hence Load factor = Lift/Weight = Cos (gamma) And once again you can see that load factor can range from zero to one, with it equalling one, only in straight and level flight.

14489 - B

1. The lift of an aeroplane of weight W in a constant linear climb with a climb angle (gamma) is approximately:

A B C D

W / cos.gamma. W * (1-tan.gamma). W * (1-sin.gamma). W * cos.gamma.

Lift by definition act 90 deg to the relative airflow. So to calculate the lift you must consider the forces at right angles to the airflow. That is what the lift = Wcos Gamma

Number: 13137 Question: An aeroplane climbs to cruising level with a constant pitch attitude and maximum climb thrust, (assume no supercharger). How do the following variables change during the climb? (gamma = flight path angle)

A B C D

gamma remains constant, angle of attack remains constant, IAS decreases. gamma decreases, angle of attack increases, IAS remains constant. gamma decreases, angle of attack remains constant, IAS decreases. gamma decreases, angle of attack increases, IAS decreases.

If you are holding a constant pitch angle it means the angle between the longitudinal axis and the horizontal is constant. (constant nose position) If you are at max thrust at MSL, the thrust will decrease as you climb, so will have to increase the angle of attack to hold the nose position constant. That means the IAS will decrease. The gamma angle is the flight path inclination and that will decrease as well. At somepoint the thrust will be so low that you can only maintain S&L at the stalling angle of attack, so gamma will be zero and angle of attack and pitch angle will be the same.

3. A 50 ton twin engine aeroplane performs a straight, steady, wings level climb. If the lift/drag ratio is 12 and the thrust is 60 000N per engine, the climb gradient is: (assume g = 10m/s2)

A B C D

24% 3.7% 12% 15.7%

50 000 x10 = 500 000n drag =500 000/12=41666n Climb gradient = (Thrust -drag)/ weight X100 Thrust = 120 000 (dont forget the plane has 2 engines so (120 000 - 41666)/500000= 0,156 climb gradient = 0,1566x100 = 15,6 %

3. Given: Aeroplane mass: 50 000kg Lift/Drag ratio: 12 Thrust per engine: 28 000N Assumed g: 10m/s² For a straight, steady, wings level climb of a four-engine aeroplane, the one engine inoperative climb gradient is:

A B C D

8.5%. 8.0%. 2.9%. 9.7%.

9%. the all engines climb gradient is: A B C D 8.5%. wings level climb of a three-engine aeroplane.7% . 9. 8.0%. steady. 50000 x 10 = 500000N The drag is the lift required divided by 12 500000/12 = 41666N The angle of climb SIN THETA = T-D/W x 100 to express as a percentage.7%. Given: Aeroplane mass: 50 000kg Lift/Drag ratio: 12 Thrust per engine: 30 000N Assumed g: 10m/s² For a straight. Put the mass into Newtons. (90000-41666/500000) x 100 = 9.5. 2.

7. steady. 7. 4.7%.0%.0 %.5%. steady.3 %. the one engine inoperative climb gradient is: A B C D 7.5 %. 6. Given: Aeroplane mass: 50 000kg Lift/Drag ratio: 12 Thrust per engine: 21 000N Assumed g: 10m/s² For a straight. wings level climb of a four-engine aeroplane. the all engines climb gradient is: A B C D 4. wings level climb of a four-engine aeroplane. Given: Aeroplane mass: 50 000kg Lift/Drag ratio: 12 Thrust per engine: 21 000N Assumed g: 10m/s² For a straight. 8.7 %. 6.6.3%. . 8.

0.83. the load factor is equal to: A B C D 1.98. When an aeroplane performs a straight steady climb with a 20% climb gradient. .8. 0. Angle of climb = 12° (20%).02. Refer to diagram 'Forces in a climb' . Assume W = 1 in level flight = lift Load Factor is ratio of Lift in Manoeuvre: Lift in Level Flight. 1.PoF p5.3 Lift = Wcos(angle of climb).

The lift is approximately: A B C D 28000 N. An aeroplane with a mass of 4000 kg is performing a co-ordinated level turn at a constant TAS of 160 kt and a bank angle of 45°. 56000 N. .9. 14000 N. 98000 N.

3354 metres. at a constant TAS of 300 kt.1. 80000 N.A . 60000 N. 1-A 175 . and a bank angle of 45°. 50000 N. You only take the square root if you are trying to find the new stalling speed. Its turning radius is: (given: g= 10 m/s²) A B C D 2381 metres. 300kts is 153 m/s (about 1/2 is close enough for kts to m/s). Speed needs to be in m/s. Number: 175 Question: An aeroplane is in a level turn. 9000 metres. in a horizontal co-ordinated 45 degrees banked turn? A B C D 70000 N. What is the approximate value of the lift of an aeroplane at a gross weight of 50000 N. "n" (load factor) = 1/Cos bank angle. 4743 metres. 153^2/(10*tan45)=23716/10=2341 so 2381 is the closest answer. This question asks about the lift being generated. You are taking the square root of the load factor which is incorrect.

R = Vsqu/A refers to acceleration toward the centre. or Load Factor is 1(g)/cos AOB 13465 . From the normal diagram you can see that geometrically.Number: 13465 Question: What is the approximate radius of a steady horizontal co-ordinated turn at a bank angle of 45° and a TAS of 200 kt? A B C D 1. the acceleration toward the centre.5 km. g and N. N. First off. but the aircraft mass is determined. so acceleration and force are equivalent.D . Lift and CPforce). 2 km. and A. In a level turn. the formula for motion in a circle. so A = gTan AOB. A. 10 km. N is acceleration in the aircraft vertical. Because the aircraft is banked N is factored into one g vertically to hold the aircraft level. 1 km. purely geometrically. Again. aka Load Factor. and R = Vsqu/gTan AOB. It is now a second stage to find LF. Tan AOB is A/g. there are two accelerations acting on the aircraft. Pure geometry! The diagram in our notes labels the arrows as forces (weight.

Approximately how long does it take to fly a complete circle during a horizontal steady co-ordinated turn with a bank angle of 45° and a TAS of 200 kt? A B C D 95 s.1415 x 1060 m = 6660 m speed = distance / time --> time = distance / speed TAS = 200 kts = 103 m/s 6660 / 103 = 63 sec. . The formula to calculate the circumference of a circle is: C = 2 x Pi x r = 2 x 3.4. 125 s. 650 s. 65 s.

50°. 1.94371º We know “n” = 1 ÷ Cos bank angle. You require the bank angle to be able to work out the load factor because in a turn the load factor = 1/ Cos bank angle The formula for bank angle is Tan bank angle = TAS squared / g x radius You have to convert the TAS into SI units so 200 x 0. so “n” = 1. The bank angle is: (assume g = 10 m/s2) A B C D 30°. 1.1.4 kt. The load factor (n) is approximately: A B C D 1. 45°. 2. The turn radius is 2000 m. An aeroplane is in a steady horizontal turn at a TAS of 194. 6. The turn radius is 1000 m.8.515 = 103 m/s 103 squared / 10 x 2000 = 0. 60°.4.1319792 . An aeroplane performs a steady horizontal turn with a TAS of 200 kt.5.0.53045 That is the tan value so the bank angle is 27.

. 13 km. The same aeroplane with the same bank angle and speed. you will often see questions that require you to have that knowledge. An aeroplane performs a steady co-ordinated horizontal turn with 20 degrees of bank and at 150 kt TAS. 8. but at a lower mass will turn with: A B C D a larger turn radius. the same turn radius. 7 km. level. a smaller turn radius. What is the approximate diameter of a steady. If you look at the formula for radius and rate of turn you will see that weight does not appear? The ability for an aircraft to turn is independent of weight.7. co-ordinated turn with a bank angle of 30 degrees and a speed (TAS) of 500 kt? A B C D 17 km. 23 km. a higher turn rate.

Two identical aeroplanes A and B. are flying steady level co-ordinated 20 degree bank turns. 10. If V is high CL must be low and vice versa. Lift is the same. . are flying steady level co-ordinated 20 degree bank turns. with the same mass. with the same mass. If the TAS of A is 130 kt and the TAS of B is 200 kt: A B C D the rate of turn of A is less than that of B. the load factor of A is greater than that of B. the turn radius of A is greater than that of B.09. Two identical aeroplanes A and B. If the TAS of A is 130 kt and the TAS of B is 200 kt: A B C D the lift coefficient of A is less than that of B. the load factor of A and B are the same. the lift coefficient of A is greater than that of B. the turn radius of A is greater than that of B. the rate of turn of A is less than that of B.

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Varies with the square root of the absolute temperature.000 ft and then decreases with increasing altitude.D. 16327 . D. Initially remains constant until approximately 25.000 ft? A.TRANSONIC AERODYNAMICS PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT 02-01 The Mach number definition (23 Questions) Number: 16327 Question: How does the Mach number change during a climb at constant IAS from sea level to 40.C.02-00 . C. B.000 ft and then increases with increasing altitude. . D. Increases with increasing altitude. Initially remains constant until approximately 25. Increases always if the density of the air decreases. C. Decreases with increasing altitude. B. 16331 . Is independent of altitude. Doubles if the temperature increases from 9° to 36° Centigrade. Number: 16331 Question: Which statement with respect to the speed of sound is correct? A.

TAS remains constant. lift coefficient increases.Number: 16275 Question: Assuming ISA conditions and a descent below the tropopause at constant Mach number and aeroplane mass. . IAS decreases. The airflow everywhere around the aeroplane is supersonic. Number: 16757 Question: Which of these statements about the transonic speed range is correct ? A. D. B. C. B. C. The airflow everywhere around the aeroplane is subsonic. D.5 and ends at Mcrit. 16275 . The transonic speed range starts at Mcrit and extends to Mach numbers above M = 1.B. 16757 . the: A. lift coefficient decreases.B. The transonic speed range starts at M = 0.

Unfortunately it is not. 1044 . M= a / TAS B. D.Number: 1043 Question: Compressibility effects depend on: A. IAS. although we often cite 300kt as the point at which we first notice things going wrong it is in fact M0.D. increase or decrease. B. M= TAS / a Number: 1045 Question: If the altitude is increased and the TAS remains constant in the troposphere under standard atmospheric conditions. like the difference between CAS and EAS followed by the formation of pressure waves and shockwave. These all depend on Mach number.C. 1043 . Mach Number.C. and at higher Mach numbers we begin to see the effects of D. Right back at the beginning we said we would treat air as an incompressible fluid. 1045 .4 Number: 1044 Question: The formula for the Mach Number is: (a= speed of sound) A. M= TAS * a D. TAS. increase. M= IAS / a C. not change. B. EAS. C. the Mach number will: A. our mistake. C. . depending on the type of aeroplane. decrease.

first increase. Number: 1047 Question: The speed of sound is determined only by: A.B. humidity. pressure. then decrease. . B. Number: 2344 Question: An aeroplane is descending at a constant Mach number from FL 350. climbing at a constant Mach Number up the tropopause the TAS will: A. D. decrease. density. C.D. 1047 . 1046 .Number: 1046 Question: Assuming ISA conditions.C. remain constant. D. It decreases as pressure increases. It remains constant. temperature. C. 2344 . increase. B. It decreases as altitude decreases. D. What is the effect on true airspeed? A. B. It increases as temperature increases. C.

C. B.D . 320 kts D. CAS.D. TAS of the aeroplane and the speed of sound at sea level. C. 500 kts C. decrease initially and increase subsequently. C. B.8 and the TAS is 400 kt.Number: 3113 Question: The flight Mach number is 0. 600 kt. 3113 . IAS of the aeroplane and the speed of sound at sea level. D. increase initially and remain constant subsequently. 320 kt.8 and the TAS is 400 kts.A. The speed of sound is: A. 500 kt.B. Number: 13213 Question: if the Mach number is 0. 480 kt. Number: 12995 Question: The Mach number is the ratio between the: A. 480 kts Number: 13100 Question: During a climb at a constant IAS. remain constant. B. 13213 . Number: 13249 Question: In the transonic range the aeroplane characteristics are strongly determined by the: A. Mach number. TAS. IAS. the Mach number will: A. D. D. D. 600 kts B. increase. C. 13100 . 12995 . TAS of the aeroplane and speed of sound of the undisturbed flow. what is the speed of sound? A. 13249 .C. IAS of the aeroplane and the speed of sound of the undisturbed flow. B.

. Number: 3875 Question: Which statement with respect to the speed of sound is correct? A. B. Increases always if the density of the air decreases. B. Number: 1410 Question: The Mach number is the ratio between the: A.C. D. at which both subsonic and supersonic local speeds occur. Is independent of altitude. 600 kt. Number: 15426 Question: if the Mach number is 0. D. B. between the buffet onset Mach number and the Mach number corresponding to total supersonic flow. at which only supersonic local speeds occur.Number: 13007 Question: A transonic Mach number is a Mach number: A. 13007 . 384 kt. IAS of the aeroplane and the speed of sound of the undisturbed flow. D. 15426.D. 560 kt. D. Doubles if the temperature increases from 9° to 36° Centigrade. C. C. TAS of the aeroplane and the speed of sound at sea level. 3875 . in the range between Mcrit and MMO.B. Varies with the square root of the absolute temperature. TAS of the aeroplane and the speed of sound of the undisturbed flow.B. 750 kt. IAS of the aeroplane and the speed of sound at sea level. what is the speed of sound? A. C. 1410 .8 and the TAS is 480 kt. C. B.

B. B.D. implies both subsonic and supersonic speeds exist in the flow around the aeroplane. both subsonic and supersonic speeds exist in the flow around the aeroplane. it starts at Mcrit and extends to Mach number equal to 1 C. it starts at a Mach number equal to 1. D.Number: 14578 Question: Regarding the transonic speed range: A. ends at M = 1. . ends at Mcrit. 14578 . C. D. it starts at a Mach number just above 1. ends at a Mach number just above M = 1. 14579 .C. Number: 14579 Question: The subsonic speed range: A.

The airflow everywhere around the aeroplane is supersonic. D. 14580 . The airflow around the aeroplane is transonic. hypersonic range. subsonic range. C. supersonic range. The supersonic speed range starts at M = 1 and ends at Mcrit. C. transonic range. Number: 15003 Question: The speed range from approximately M=1. D.Number: 14580 Question: Which of these statements about the supersonic speed range is correct? A.3 to approximately M=5 is called the: A. . B.B. B.B. 15003 . The supersonic speed range starts at a Mach number below M = 1 and extends to Mach numbers above M = 1.

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16275 .02-00 . the: A. TAS remains constant.TRANSONIC AERODYNAMICS PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT 02-02 Normal shock waves . IAS decreases.B . C. lift coefficient increases. D.(67 Fragen) Number: 16275 Question: Assuming ISA conditions and a descent below the tropopause at constant Mach number and aeroplane mass. lift coefficient decreases. B.

The static pressure decreases. The static temperature increases. C. thin aerofoils and dihedral of the wing. thin aerofoils and sweepback of the wing. C.Number: 16450 Question: Behind a normal shock wave on an aerofoil section the local Mach number is: A. B. Which of the following statements is correct? A.D. C. lower than before but still greater than 1. 206 . . 16450 . D. The velocity increases. B.C. B. positive cambering of the aerofoil and sweepback of the wing. thick aerofoils and dihedral of the wing. higher than before. D. Number: 204 Question: Air passes a normal shock wave. less than 1. The static temperature decreases. D. equal to 1. 204 .D. Number: 206 Question: Two methods to increase the critical Mach number are: A.

II is incorrect. "Tuck under" is caused by an aft movement of the centre of pressure of the wing. II is correct. II is correct. I is incorrect. A. C. II. "Tuck under" is caused by a reduction in the downwash angle at the location of the horizontal stabiliser.A. I is incorrect. . B. I is correct. II is incorrect. D.Number: 952 Question: Which of these statements about "tuck under" are correct or incorrect? I. I is correct. 952 .

65 to M higher than 0. M= 0. M= 0. M= 0.C. M= 0.84 C. Its flight Mach range between low-speed buffeting and high-speed buffeting goes from: A.84 ANSWER (c) 962 .69 to M higher than 0.84 B.84 D.Number: 962 Question: An A 310 aeroplane weighing 100 tons is turning at FL 350 at constant altitude with a bank of 50 degrees.72 to M higher than 0.74 to M= 0. .

Higher up. It remains constant at lower altitudes but decreases at higher altitudes due to compressibility effects. It remains constant. IAS is slightly higher than EAS. D. Number: 1018 Question: What data may be obtained from the Buffet Onset Boundary chart? A. because the density decreases. Whatever EAS and IAS/CAS are doing. Basically.Number: 1017 Question: How does stall speed (IAS) vary with altitude? A. C. The values of the Mach number at which low speed and shock stall occur at different weights and altitudes. at very high altitude Mach effects come in at EAS as low as the 1g stall speed. It increases with increasing altitude. because of compressibility. so IAS stall speed is a little higher. The values of the Mach Number at which low speed and Mach Buffet occur at different weights and altitudes. 1017 . B. D. 1g stall speed in EAS stays constant. C. It remains constant at lower altitudes but increases at higher altitudes due to compressibility effects. See the buffet boundary charts in the notes.D 1018 . Additionally. The values of MMO at different weights and altitudes. The values of Mcrit at different weights and altitudes. B. reducing available CLmax and further raising the 1g stall speed. the higher you go the greater TAS you get for any EAS or IAS.D .

C. (1) thick and (2) small. (1) thick and (2) large. Accelerated stall. D. B. an increase in speed and a tendency to pitch up. somewhere on the fin. (1) thin and (2) large. somewhere about the airframe Mach 1 is reached locally. loss of lift. Deep stall.D . 1019 . the resulting shockwave causes flow separation. B.B 1023 . D. the critical angle of attack is reached.. D. Number: 1022 Question: When the Mach number is slowly increased in straight and level flight the first shock waves will occur: A. Shock stall.B 1021 . Low speed stall. buffeting of the aeroplane and a tendency to pitch up. (1) thin and (2) small. D. B. on the lower surface of the wing.A 1022 . straight and level flight) buffeting . D. buffeting of the aeroplane and a tendency to pitch down. Number: 1023 Question: The consequences of exceeding Mcrit in a swept-wing aeroplane may be: (assume no corrective devices. Number: 1021 Question: During which type of stall does the angle of attack have the smallest value? A. B. C. on the upper surface at the wing root. C.stoßend A. C. Shock Stall is when the airflow over the wing becomes supersonic.. C.A 1020 . somewhere on the horizontal tail.Number: 1019 Question: Mcrit is the free stream Mach Number at which: A. engine unbalance and buffeting. shock stall occurs. Mach buffet occurs. Number: 1020 Question: Which of the following (1) aerofoils and (2) angles of attack will produce the lowest Mcrit values? A. B.

turbulence may induce Mach buffet. D. results from flow separation at the underside of the aerofoil. A common characteristic of shock wave induced separation is the D. TAS. increasing severity of buffet intensity with increasing Mach number. a sudden necessary bankangle may exceed the limit load factor.stoß B. D. In fact.A . Mach number. C. B. reaches its maximum value. The aircraft's manoeuvring capability (load factor) is also reduced. Mach buffet will occur immediately. B.D 1032 . occurs when the lift coefficient. as a function of Mach number. This is called the shock stall. Number: 1033 Question: In the transonic range the aeroplane characteristics are strongly determined by the: A. results from flow separation behind the bow wave. IAS. CAS. turbulence may exceed the limit load factor. although with increasing angles of attack the stall will occur at a lower Mach number.Number: 1026 Question: The maximum acceptable cruising altitude is limited by a minimum acceptable loadfactor because exceeding that altitude: A.C 1033 . Number: 1032 Question: Shock stall: A. occurs as soon as Mcrit is exceeded. buffet . 1026 . C. C. it is possible that the maximum angle of attack may not be achievable due to this severe buffet intensity. It differs from a conventional low-speed stall because it normally occurs at low angles of attack.

3. The airspeed is low and oscillates up and down. buffet . you will enter a spiral dive within 178 seconds! In cloud you'll see the height loss and the speed increase. From a steep turn. and increases the airspeed. The aircraft's manoeuvring capability (load factor) is also reduced. The "g" forces remain low. Height is lost at an increasing rate. Shock stall. C. C. 2. If you fly into cloud without the training and the instruments to fly blind. throttle back. The "g" force is increasing. 1. B. To recover from the spiral dive you must do the following: 1. 2. Tuck under. Speed instability.. If we let the nose drop. D.is probably responsible for more deaths than the dreaded spin. it is possible that the maximum angle of attack may not be achievable due to this D. The natural tendency is to pull back on the control column. severe buffet intensity. In a spin.. increases the "g" force.. In fact. Ease out of the dive.. 2. Entry into poor weather without instrument capability.stoß Number: 1035 Question: Which of the following flight phenomena can occur at Mach numbers below the critical Mach number? A. . B.. The speed is increasing rapidly. 3. 2. Dutch roll.Number: 1034 Question: Which of the following flight phenomena can only occur at Mach numbers above the critical Mach number? A common characteristic of shock wave induced separation is the increasing severity of A.B 1035 .. Dutch roll. the speed will increase and height will be lost rapidly.B . There are two ways in which spiral dives are often entered: 1. Mach buffet. 1034 . The Spiral Dive. Roll the wings level with coordinated rudder control. The steep turn is controlled by reference to the Earth's horizon. But this deepens the spiral. Spiral dive recognition and recovery You will recognise the spiral by the following: 1. Elevator stall. Reduce the power. It is the one manoeuvre that will break any aeroplane ever built. 3. Mach buffet. The rate of descent (height loss) is steady. buffet intensity with increasing Mach number.

the effective chord (parallel to the aircraft's longitudinal axis) is lengthened. frequent pitch trim changes are required. vortex generators. dihedral of the wings.Number: 1036 Question: The Mach trim system will: A. control surface deflection. local sonic flow. would be supersonic.C 1037 .0 you are not supersonic. buffet. Wing section design features used to increase MCRIT include: B. At M1. pump the fuel from tank to tank. you are just "sonic" (moving at the same as C.D 1040 . Careful design not only delays the shock stall. a shock wave. tuck under. depending on the Mach number. adjust the stabiliser. depending on the Mach number.0". 1036 .D 1039 . » Maximum thickness well aft D. C. but at Mcrit it is not yet. Number: 1039 Question: The critical Mach number of an aeroplane is the free stream Mach number that produces the first sign of: By definition Mcrit is "the freestream Mn at which the first point on the A. » Low thickness/chord ratio C. a split second later the flow D. keep the Mach number automatically constant. It is operational at high Mach numbers in the transonic speed range. Number: 1037 Question: The Mach trim system will prevent: A. but also significantly reduces the severity when it occurs. adjust the elevator trim tab. speed as the LSS) If you were accelerating. Number: 1040 Question: The critical Mach Number of an aeroplane can be increased by: A. B. buffeting. but the wing's thickness remains unchanged. sweepback of the wings. If a wing has sweep back. B.D . depending on the Mach number. shock stall. This is carried out by a variable incidence tailplane. D. which is automatically positioned by a Mach trim system. aerofoil reaches M1. C. MACH TRIM To guard against nose tuck under. supersonic flow. » Small leading edge radius of curvature Wing Planform has the most significant effect on MCRIT. Dutch roll. B. This system is designed to aid aircraft longitudinal stability and ensures that the forward stick forces increase proportionally with increasing Mach number. D.

D. fly at a higher Mach number. In order to increase the buffet margin to 0. locally. margin .Number: 1042 Question: In transonic flight the ailerons will be less effective than in subsonic flight because: A. D. it is possible that the maximum angle of attack may not be achievable due to this severe buffet intensity. at which the aeroplane has zero buffet margin. aileron deflection only partly affects the pressure distribution around the wing.Rand. at which there is subsonic flow over all parts of the aeroplane. fly at a larger angle of attack. fly at a lower altitude and the same Mach number.D 2351 .4g incremental the pilot must: A. 1042 .A 2345 .schrittweise. above which. C. C. Grenze [Rand] B. B. Because of the effect of the aileron on pressure distribution it will not be felt ahead of the shockwave. In fact.stoß C. B. The aircraft's manoeuvring capability (load factor) is also reduced.D . that provides a buffet margin of 0. Number: 2345 Question: A jet aeroplane is cruising at high altitude with a Mach number. aileron down deflection moves the shock wave forward. D.3g incremental. buffet . behind the shock wave pressure is lower. incremental . Number: 2351 Question: The critical Mach number of an aeroplane is the Mach number: A. supersonic flow exists somewhere over the aeroplane. aileron deflection only affects the air in front of the shock wave. zunehmend A common characteristic of shock wave induced separation is the increasing severity of buffet intensity with increasing Mach number. extend the flaps to the first selection. at which there is supersonic flow over a part of the aeroplane.

incidence tailplane. D. If a wing has sweep back.D 2354 .Number: 2353 Question: The Mach-trim function is installed on most commercial jets in order to minimize the adverse effects of: A. uncontrolled changes in stabiliser setting. the swept back wing has the advantage of: Wing section design features A. but also significantly reduces the severity when it occurs. D. The airflow changes from subsonic to supersonic. D. The airflow expands when passing the aerofoil. It is operational at high Mach numbers in the transonic speed range. lower than before but still greater than 1. B. greater strength. To guard against nose tuck under. MACH TRIM B. higher critical Mach number. This is carried out by a variable C. Careful design not only delays the shock stall.B 2356 . higher than before. » Maximum thickness well aft » Small leading edge radius of curvature Wing Planform has the most significant effect on MCRIT.B . the effective chord (parallel to the aircraft's longitudinal axis) is lengthened. Number: 2354 Question: When comparing a rectangular wing and a swept back wing of the same wing area and wing loading (assume all other factors of importance remain constant). Number: 2356 Question: Which statement is correct about a normal shock wave? A. increased longitudinal stability. C. 2353 . used to increase MCRIT include: B. The airflow changes from supersonic to subsonic. The airflow changes direction. D. Number: 3114 Question: When the air has passed through a normal shock wave the Mach number is: A. changes in the position of centre of pressure.C 3114 . increased drag due to shock wave formation. which is automatically positioned by a Mach trim system. lower stall speed. compressibility effects on the stabiliser. less than 1. but the wing's thickness remains unchanged. C. frequent pitch trim changes are required. » Low thickness/chord ratio C. This system is designed to aid aircraft longitudinal stability and ensures that the forward stick forces increase proportionally with increasing Mach number. equal to 1. B.

C 3116 .A . decrease.Number: 3115 Question: When the air is passing through a shock wave the static temperature will: A. decrease and beyond a certain Mach number start increasing again. decrease. decrease and beyond a certain Mach number start increasing again. stay constant. increase. C. stay constant. C. increase. 3115 . B. Number: 3116 Question: When the air is passing through a shock wave the density will: A. D. B. D.

C . Number: 3123 Question: Compared with an oblique shock wave at the same Mach number a normal shock wave has a: OBLIQUE SHOCK WAVE A. B.A 3119 . decreased. wave. except that the airflow changes direction into a corner and its velocity C. kinetic energy in the flow is converted into heat energy. 3117 . the friction in the boundary layer is higher. C. An oblique shock wave is a compression wave and is similar to a normal shock B. higher compression. not affected. temperature and density all increase. D. smaller expansion. the static pressure decrease is comparatively high.C 3123 . increased. D. B.Number: 3117 Question: When air has passed through a shock wave the local speed of sound is: A. decreased and beyond a certain Mach number start increasing again. smaller compression. the speed reduction is too high. higher expansion. As the air passes through an oblique shock wave its pressure. Number: 3119 Question: The loss of total pressure in a shock wave is due to the fact that: A. decreases to a lower supersonic value. D. C.

move slightly aft in front of a downward deflecting aileron. B.C . We think the total temperature must also be higher. higher total temperature. be situated at the greatest wing thickness when the aeroplane reaches the speed of sound. You have a loss of velocity (speed) which is dynamic pressure. C. D. Total pressure is Dynamic pressure + static pressure The static pressure will recover back to the original. At M1 the shockwave has moved to the trailing edge When the aileron is deflected down the airflow over the top increases and the shockwave moves aft in the increased flow. higher total pressure. We believe there are two correct answers. The top shock will be at its weakest at Mcrit. reach its highest strength when flying at the critical Mach number. it is only just forming 2. but although the dynamic pressure also recovers a bit. it can never recover back to the original because some of it changed to temperature.D 13058 . so that one is worth an appeal. move forward as Mach number is increased. higher loss in total pressure. Number: 13058 Question: A shock wave on a lift generating wing will: A. The shockwave moves aft as M increases 3. lower static temperature. C. 3124 . 1. D. B.Number: 3124 Question: Compared with an oblique shock wave at the same Mach number a normal shock wave has a: A. Therefore the total pressure must have decreased.

A 13134 . a shock wave on the upper surface of the wing will: A. move towards the trailing edge. that is always normal to the local flow. In three dimensions. D. C.C 13230 . D. disappear. these spheres are enclosed within a cone. 13112 . across which the pressure drops suddenly. the disturbances emanating from the moving body expand outward as spheres and not circles. Number: 13230 Question: In supersonic flight. move towards the leading edge. not move.C . that is always normal to the surface. across which the temperature drops suddenly. If the source of the disturbance is a wing. the Mach lines generate two oblique plane waves forming a wedge. within a conical zone. B. Number: 13134 Question: A normal shock wave is a discontinuity plane: A. all disturbances produced by an aeroplane are: A. B. D. The region ahead of the oblique shock wave is not affected by the disturbances and is called the zone of silence. in front of the aeroplane. B. dependent on the Mach number. C.Number: 13112 Question: As the Mach number increases in straight and level flight. When the speed is above Mach 1. MACH CONE Only the region behind the oblique shock wave is affected by disturbances and is sometimes referred to as the zone of action. called the Mach cone and it is within the Mach cone that disturbances are felt. dependent on the Mach number. outside a conical zone. C. very weak and negligible.

somewhere on the horizontal tail.A . C. Number: 15814 Question: What is the effect of aeroplane mass on shock wave intensity at constant Mach number? A. Number: 15601 Question: The sonic boom of an aeroplane flying at supersonic speed is created by: A. B. As speed increases above Mcrit. D. on the upper surface at the wing root. B. Mcrit is always greater than 1. Flight at any speed above Mcrit causes severe vibration of the aeroplane. D. B. on the lower surface of the wing. aerodynamic heating. shock waves around the aeroplane. Shock waves cannot occur at speeds below Mcrit. Decreasing mass increases shock wave intensity at below standard temperatures.D 115601 . parasite drag decreases rapidly.D 15923 . 12973 . C.D 15814 . B. Increasing mass increases shock wave intensity. C. A change in mass does not influence shock wave intensity. Number: 15923 Question: Which of these statements about Mcrit is correct? A. D.Number: 12973 Question: When the Mach number is slowly increased in straight and level flight the first shock waves will occur: A. the expansion flow behind the aeroplane. the centre of pressure. which is moving aft on the aerofoil. C. D. somewhere on the fin. Decreasing mass increases shock wave intensity.

3 is called the: A. a shock wave appears on the upper surface. D.B 1353 . B.A 1673 . Eventually.B 1352 . initially remains constant but at higher altitudes decreases. 2069 .A . a "supersonic bell" appears on the upper surface. C. lower side of the wing. leading edge of the wing. D. Vs1g is a constant EAS but the well known compressibility correction means that displayed as an IAS it becomes slowly higher and higher as you climb. Number: 1673 Question: The critical Mach number of an aerofoil is the free stream Mach number at which: A. Number: 1352 Question: The regime of flight from the critical Mach number up to approximately M = 1. initially remains constant but at higher altitudes increases. remains constant until the tropopause but at higher altitudes increases. subsonic range. At Vs you are at max alpha and the airflow over the wing is peaking at much higher speeds than Mfs. B. transonic range. remains constant regardless of altitude. B. at very high altitude shockwave effects begin to downgrade achievable max alpha and Vs1g creeps even higher. upper side of the wing. sonic speed (M=1) is first reached on the upper surface. trailing edge of the wing. Number: 1353 Question: Just above the critical Mach number the first evidence of a shock wave will appear at the: A. the maximum operating temperature is reached. B. the stall speed (IAS): A. C. hypersonic range. supersonic range.Number: 2069 Question: As altitude increases. D. C. C. D.

attachment of the shock wave on the trailing edge of the wing.B 1356 . but only during approach. separation of the boundary layer at the shock waves. B.Number: 1355 Question: Shock induced separation results in: A. D. constant lift. this is not acceptable. increasing lift. Yes. 1355 . Yes. Yes. Number: 1357 Question: Is a transport aeroplane allowed to fly at a higher Mach number than the 'buffet-onset' Mach number in 1g flight? A. B. appearance of the bow wave. C. Number: 1356 Question: In the transonic range lift will decrease at the shock stall due to the: A. decreasing lift. This is called the shock stall. C. if you want to fly fast at very high altitudes. It differs from a conventional lowspeed stall because it normally occurs at low angles of attack. No. D. first appearance of a shock wave at the upper side of the wing. C. although with increasing angles of attack the stall will occur at a lower Mach number. decreasing drag. B.C . this causes no problems. D.C 1357 .

D. 1411 . Free Stream Mach Number (MFs) is the Mach number of the airflow sufficiently remote from the aircraft so as not to be affected by it.C 3859 . D. is a discontinuity plane in an airflow. in which the temperature drops suddenly.Number: 1411 Question: A normal shock wave: A.0 . to maintain the value of lift you must reduce angle of attack. so that: Number: 3474 Question: What is the influence of decreasing aeroplane weight on Mcrit at constant IAS? A. decreases. remains constant. is a discontinuity plane in an airflow. C. which is always normal to the surface. If you fly an aircraft at the same speed but at a lower weight. is independent of the angle of attack. Mcrit increases as a result of compressibility effects. Mcrit decreases as a result of flying at a greater angle of attack. Therefor the aircraft Mfs can be increased before the airflow over the wing would reach M 1. B. Number: 3859 Question: Whilst flying at a constant IAS and at n = 1. in which the pressure drops suddenly.D 3474 . is a discontinuity plane in an airflow. B. D.D . C. At a reduced angle of attack the air is accelerated less over the upper surface of the wing. Mcrit increases as a result of flying at a smaller angle of attack. Mcrit decreases. increases. By definition this is an incresae in Mcrit. C. B. can occur at different points on the aeroplane in transonic flight. as the aeroplane mass decreases the value of Mcrit: A.

largely independent of the actual shape. only below the critical Mach number. TRANSONIC AREA RULE The Whitcomb area rule. only at the critical Mach number. D. induced drag. C. is a design technique used to reduce an aircraft's drag at transonic and supersonic speeds. only above the critical Mach number. form drag. wave drag.A . This is one of the most important operating speed ranges for commercial and military fixed-wing aircraft today. Number: 3501 Question: Tuck under will happen: A. D. skin friction drag.Number: 3500 Question: The application of the area rule on aeroplane design will decrease the: A.D 3501 . B. B. C.75 and 1.2. Cross-sectional area distribution along the body determines wave drag. also called the transonic area rule. particularly between Mach 0. above or below the critical Mach number depending on the angle of attack. 3500 .

Careful design not only delays the shock stall. but also significantly reduces the severity when it occurs. D. an increase in wing aspect ratio. C. but the wing's thickness remains unchanged.Number: 3502 Question: High speed buffet is induced by A. have a low thickness to chord ratio. Wing section design features used to increase MCRIT C.D 3425 . D. have a large leading edge radius. B. D. B. a T-tail. a shift of the centre of gravity. If a wing has sweep back. the effective chord (parallel to the aircraft's longitudinal axis) is lengthened. positive dihedral of the wings. have a large camber. Number: 3426 Question: The critical Mach number can be increased by: A. B. boundary layer separation due to shock waves. expansion waves on the wing upper side.B 3426 . C. boundary layer control. Number: 3425 Question: To increase the critical Mach number a conventional aerofoil should: A. sweepback of the wings. 3502 . be used with a high angle of attack.D . include: » Low thickness/chord ratio » Maximum thickness well aft » Small leading edge radius of curvature Wing Planform has the most significant effect on MCRIT.

fit the engine intakes better to the fuselage. The rule was that the total cross-sectional area of an airplane should smoothly increase and then decrease. The area rule for transonic drag minimization was postulated and demonstrated by NACA engineer Richard Whitcomb. C. aerospace contractors in a confidential Research Memorandum in September 1952. Whitcomb sketches out the principle behind his Transonic Area Rule. This is done to: A.S. At the blackboard in the 1950s. The result was that the fuselage cross section needed to be reduced beginning at the point of attachment of the leading edge of the wing and indented as necessary to compensate for the cross sectional area of the wing at each successive fuselage station going aft. increase the strength of the wing root junction. improve the low speed characteristics.Number: 3427S Question: Some aeroplanes have a 'waist' or 'coke bottle' contoured fuselage. sin mu = 1/M C. apply area rule. B.B . Sin2Mu = 1/M D. D. The theory was provided to U. sin mu = M 3427 S . Tan Mu= 1/M B. A "coke bottle fuselage" is needed when a plane is designed to achieve trans-sonic or super-sonic speeds. which cut drag by reducing variations in a plane's total cross-sectional area Number: 14157 Question: What is the relation between the mach angle (mu) and the corresponding mach number ? A.B 14157 .

The question refers to total pressure. C. I is correct. The static temperature in front of an oblique shock wave is lower than behind it. However the dynamic reduces as velocity decreases through the shock wave and pressure energy due to the movement of the air is converted to heat energy in the shock wave.A 14668 . The total pressure in front of an oblique shock wave is higher than behind it. D. Static pressure rises in the oblique shock wave and will still be higher behind the shock wave than in front of it. The static pressure in front of an oblique shock wave is lower than behind it. I is incorrect. II is incorrect. II. II. A.Number: 14667 Question: Which of these statements about an oblique shock wave are correct or incorrect? I.C . 14667 . I is correct. The result is TOTAL PRESSURE goes down behind a shock wave. B. D. Static plus dynamic. I is incorrect. I is incorrect. II is correct. II is correct. II is correct Number: 14668 Question: Which of these statements about an oblique shock wave are correct or incorrect? I. II is correct. I is correct. C. I is correct. B. I is incorrect. II is incorrect. II is incorrect. A. II is incorrect. The density in front of an oblique shock wave is lower than behind it.

Static plus dynamic.Number: 14669 Question: Which of these statements about an oblique shock wave are correct or incorrect? I. I is incorrect. A. I is incorrect. II is incorrect. The density behind an oblique shock wave is higher than in front of it. I is correct. I is correct. I is incorrect. The local speed of sound behind an oblique shock wave is higher than in front of it. I is correct. II is incorrect. Number: 14670 Question: Which of these statements about an oblique shock wave are correct or incorrect? I. II is correct. B. II is incorrect.A 14670 . C. Static pressure rises in the oblique shock wave and will still be higher behind the shock wave than in front of it. The result is TOTAL PRESSURE goes down behind a shock wave. However the dynamic reduces as velocity decreases through the shock wave and pressure energy due to the movement of the air is converted to heat energy in the shock wave. II. Number: 14671 Question: Which of these statements about an oblique shock wave are correct or incorrect? I. II. II is incorrect. II is correct. A. The total pressure behind an oblique shock wave is lower than in front of it. The Mach number in front of an oblique shock wave is lower than behind it. B. 14669 . The question refers to total pressure. I is correct. II is incorrect. D. I is incorrect. II is correct. I is incorrect. The Mach number behind an oblique shock wave is lower than in front of it. D. C. C.D . B. I is correct. The local speed of sound in front of an oblique shock wave is higher than behind it. II is correct. II is correct. I is correct. II is incorrect.D 14671 . I is incorrect. II. II is correct. A. D.

(2) decreases. (1) increases.Number: 14672 Question: Which of these statements about an oblique shock wave are correct or incorrect? I. I is incorrect.4 B. how do (1) static pressure. C. C. II is incorrect.A 15179 . I is correct.7 Number: 15179 Question: When supersonic airflow passes through an oblique shock wave. The static pressure behind an oblique shock wave is higher than in front of it. I is incorrect. B.0 C. D. (3) decreases. (3) decreases. The static temperature behind an oblique shock wave is higher than in front of it. B. (1) increases.2 D. (3) increases. II is correct. 1. and (3) local speed of sound change? A. II is incorrect. (2) increases. Number: 15344 Question: What is the value of the Mach number if the Mach angle equals 45°? A. 0. (1) remains constant. D. 14672 .D . II. (2) decreases. 1. (2) increases. I is correct. (2) density. (1) decreases. II is correct. A. 2. (3) increases.A 15344 .

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A decrease. No effect. flow separation occurs behind the shock wave. C. Shock stall is a stall due to flow separation caused by a shock wave. An increase.02-00 . D. 16495 . D.B . B. Number: 16663 Question: Which of these statements on shock stall is correct? A. because Mcrit is not relevant when considering stick force stability.A 16527 . Shock stall is a stall due to flow separation at high angles of attack. of the existence of a shock wave being located at the trailing edge of the wing. C. Shock stall is caused by sudden loss of lift due to a rise in load factor. B. the bow wave appears. D. lift will decrease because: A.Means to avoid the effects of exceeding Mcrit (23 Fragen) Number: 16495 Question: What is the effect of exceeding Mcrit on the stick force stability of an aeroplane with sweptback wings without any form of stability augmentation? A. Number: 16527 Question: When shock stall occurs.TRANSONIC AERODYNAMICS PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT 02-03 . No effect. due to shock wave formation in the wing root area.D 16663 . Mcrit is reached. due to loss of lift in the wing root area. because stick force stability is independent of Mach number. B. C. CLmax does not change as the Mach number increases.

Shock stall. remains unchanged. B. remains constant regardless of altitude. 16618 .Number: 16618 Question: If IAS remains constant.A . the stall speed (IAS): A. B. C. stick force per g strongly decreases at low Mach numbers. Number: 13113 Question: As altitude increased. B. Low speed stall. the resulting shockwave causes flow separation.. B.D 1028 . decreases. C. decreases as altitude increases and increases as altitude decreases. stick force stability is independent of the airspeed and -altitude.C 13156 . C. D. Number: 1028 Question: Vortex generators on the upper side of the wing surface will: A. increase critical Mach number. decrease critical Mach number. Number: 1029 Question: Vortex generators on the upper side of the wing: A. assuming the temperature remains constant. initially remains constant and at higher altitudes increases. increases. at transonic Mach numbers the aeroplane demonstrates unconventional elevator stick force characteristics.D 1029 . increase the magnitude of the shock wave. D. at high airspeed and low altitude the aeroplane demonstrates unconventional elevator stick force characteristics. C. initially remains constant and at higher altitudes decreases. and delaying its separation. D. D. C. enabling it to overcome the adverse pressure gradient caused by the shock wave. if: A. They operate by forcing high-energy air into the boundary layer. C. decrease shock wave induced flow separation. remains constant until the tropopause and at higher altitudes increases. D. B. Deep stall. Accelerated stall. Number: 13132 Question: During which type of stall does the angle of attack have the smallest value? A. D. VORTEX GENERATORS These are small wing-like surfaces. increase wave drag. which are fitted in front of the control surface and project vertically upward into the airstream. loss of lift.B 13113 .D 13132 . decrease the span wise flow at high Mach numbers.. increase the critical Mach number. Number: 13156 Question: An aeroplane should be equipped with a Mach trimmer. the effect of decreasing aeroplane mass is that Mcrit: A. Shock Stall is when the airflow over the wing becomes supersonic. decrease wave drag. B.

the Mach number must be limited. D. an increase in static directional stability. improves static longitudinal stability as the nosedown pitching C. B. a decrease in static directional stability. CLMAX will increase due to shock stall. at the Mach number at which shock wave induced boundary layer separation occurs. Number: 13239 Question: In the event of failure of the Mach trimmer: A. shifted from approximately 25% to about 50% of the chord. This may however lead to high trim drag or greater control effectiveness if a reduction in manoeuvrability is to be avoided. shifted slightly forward.D 15637 . The downwash acting on the tailplane also results in an increased effective angle of attack. not moved. a pitch up input of the stabiliser. As the Mach number increases the centre of pressure of the wing will move aft. B. much more thrust from the engines. the aeroplane mass must be limited. AC to 50% chord increases the wing contribution and B. Number: 15637 Question: What will happen if a large transport aeroplane slowly decelerates in level flight from its cruise speed in still air at high altitude? A. when the Mach number has increased to Mcrit. C. when the stall angle of attack is exceeded. C.D . its aerodynamic centre will have: A. Number: 15652 Question: The movement of the aerodynamic centre of the wing when an aeroplane accelerates through the transonic range causes: As you move from subsonic to transonic the movement of the A. D. an increase in static longitudinal stability. B.Number: 13164 Question: An aeroplane is flying through the transonic range whilst maintaining straight and level flight. shifted aft by about 10%. the speed must be kept constant. This movement requires: A. An accelerated stall. directly after exceeding Mcrit. D. High speed buffet.C 13239 . D. C. the centre of gravity must be moved aft. C. 13164 . Number: 13232 Question: Mach buffet occurs: A. C. B. Number: 12970 Question: When an aerofoil section has accelerated from subsonic to supersonic speeds. B. a stability augmentation system to improve dynamic stability. a higher IAS to compensate the nose down effect. Stick shaker activation or low speed buffeting.A 12970 . D.C 13232 . D.C 15652 . a decrease in static longitudinal stability. effect about the CG is increased.

decrease due to increasing Mcrit. loss of lift. in supersonic flow only.Number: 15694 Question: Shock induced separation can occur: A. further aft. Number: 15801 Question: When altitude increases. independent of angle of attack. 15694 .A .A 15801 . undetermined since there is no defined centre of pressure location at supersonic speeds. behind a strong normal shock wave. increase due to decreasing Mcrit. B. at high Mach numbers. only at low angles of attack. the stall speed (IAS) will: A. only at high angles of attack. D. decrease due to decreasing temperature and decreasing Mach number. C. increase due to increasing compressibility effects as a result of increasing Mach number. B. C. identical. B. Shock Stall is when the airflow over the wing becomes supersonic. C... at high Mach numbers. D. the resulting shockwave causes flow separation. further forward.C 15947 . Number: 15947 Question: The position of the centre of pressure on an aerofoil of an aeroplane cruising at supersonic speed when compared with that at subsonic speed is: A. D.

D 14304 . exceedance of Mcrit. C. D.A 15012 . Low speed buffet. compressibility effects. Critical Mach number. C. Mach buffet. D. increase the effectiveness of the spoiler due to increase in parasite drag.D 3499 . which are fitted in front of the control surface and project vertically upward into the airstream. D. C. B.Number: 15882 Question: The increase in stall speed (IAS) with increasing altitude is due to: A. VORTEX GENERATORS These are small wing-like surfaces. an increase in TAS. They operate by forcing high-energy air into the boundary layer. Initial Mach buffet speed. C. B. its aerodynamic centre: A. and delaying its separation. B. D. the larger angle of attack necessary in lower-density air to obtain the same lift as at sea level. Number: 3499 Question: Vortex generators mounted on the upper wing surface will: A. Number: 14304 Question: Which type of buffet will occur if a jet aeroplane slowly accelerates in level flight from its cruise speed in still air at high altitude? A. Flutter speed buffet. enabling it to overcome the adverse pressure gradient caused by the shock wave. C. Number: 15109 Question: When the speed over an aerofoil section increases from subsonic to supersonic. Accelerated stall buffet. does not move. B. Number: 15012 Question: What is the highest speed possible without supersonic flow over the wing? A. moves aft by approximately 10% of the chord. decrease the stall speed by increasing spanwise flow on the wing. D. 15882 . decrease the shock wave induced separation. Tuck under speed. B. decrease the interference drag of the trailing edge flaps. moves from approximately 25% to about 50% of the chord.C 15109 .A . M = 1. moves slightly forward.

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B. in a traffic avoidance manoeuvre? A.TRANSONIC AERODYNAMICS PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT 02-02 New Questions . The lower Mach number increases and the higher Mach number decreases. C.74 and M = 0.g. 16847 .88.B .(12 Fragen) Number: 16847 Question: From the buffet onset graph of a given jet transport aeroplane it is determined that at FL 310 at a given mass buffet free flight is possible between M = 0. In what way would these numbers change if the aeroplane is suddenly pulled up e. The lower Mach number decreases and the higher Mach number increases. D.02-00 . Both Mach numbers decrease. Both Mach numbers increase.

increased to 202 knots but. C.Number: 10131 Question: The speed range between high. based on the 1. C.3 will cause a Mach number at which accelerated low speed stall occurs. since the same angle of attack is used.and low speed buffet: A. Thus a doubling of weight increases the stall speed not by a factor of 2 but by 1. unaffected as Vs always occurs at the same angle of attack. a manoeuvre with a load factor of 1.B 4566 . In this case the difference is 135 ÷ 120 = 1.3 will cause permanent deformation of this aeroplane. If the mass of the aeroplane is increased to 135000 kg the value of 1. Number: 4566 Question: In order to provide an adequate "buffet boundary" at the commencement of the cruise a speed of 1.3Vs will be A.125 and the stall speed increases by the square root of that. not just in proportion. D.3 will cause Mcrit to be exceeded. increases during a descent at a constant IAS. increased to 191 knots.3 will cause buffet onset. B.3 g margin? At this altitude: A.3Vs is used. D. is always positive at Mach numbers below MMO. increases during climb. drag will increase and air distance per kg of fuel will decrease. D. a manoeuvre with a load factor of 1. exceeding a load factor of 1. The stall speed increases as the square root of the weight change. C. Number: 12950 Question: What is the significance of the maximum allowed cruising altitude.A 12950 . 1. drag and range will remain the same. a manoeuvre with a load factor of 1. Question NOT USED in UK exams 1031 . increased to 191 knots. At a mass of 120000 kg this is a CAS of 180 knots. decreases during a descent at a constant Mach number.061. drag will decrease and air distance per kg of fuel will increase.C .414. B. B.

which results in a higher value of Mcrit. Disadvantages 1) A reduction in the coefficient of lift. Increasing wing sweepback increases the drag divergence Mach number. A. II is correct. Increasing wing sweepback increases the drag divergence Mach number. A. and delays the transonic drag rise. Number: 14666 Question: Which of these statements about wing sweepback are correct or incorrect? I. II is incorrect. I is correct. which is particularly dangerous during takeoff and landing. II is incorrect. This reduces the thickness/chord ratio of the wing. Increasing wing sweepback increases Mcrit. II. II is correct. II. I is incorrect. I is correct.Number: 16096 Question: Which of these statements about wing sweepback are correct or incorrect? I. D. the effective chord (parallel to the aircraft's longitudinal axis) is lengthened.D 114666 . 2) Wing tip stalling leading to pitch-up 3) Low aspect ratio leading to increased induced drag at high angles of attack. If a wing has sweep back. I is incorrect. II is correct. C. B. C. 16096 . I is correct. I is incorrect. II is correct. which increases stall speed. II is incorrect. I is correct. Increasing wing sweepback decreases Mcrit. II is incorrect. B. but the wing's thickness remains unchanged. I is incorrect.A . D.

a decrease in the critical Mach number. will be free of Mach buffet in the transonic range. D. Sweepback is mainly intended to increase static directional stability. it allows a wing of increased relative thickness to be used for approximately the same cruise Mach number. a sharper pointed nose. a larger nose radius. The point of maximum thickness is positioned close to the trailing edge and the upper surface has a very slight curvature.C 15570 . Number: 15629 Question: A supercritical wing: A. a sharper pointed nose. negative camber and a flatter upper surface. will develop no transonic flow just above Mcrit. D. a larger nose radius.A 15527 . a decrease in stall speed. typical shape characteristics of a supercritical aerofoil section are: A. an increase in the critical Mach number. will develop no noticeable shock waves when flying just above Mcrit.B 15549 . improved Dutch roll damping at cruise altitude. Sweepback increases speed stability at Mach numbers above Mcrit. B. This ensures that the localised Mach number remains just above the critical Mach number and results in a fiattish pressure distribution over the majority of the upper surface. C. SUPERCRITICAL WINGS To reduce the severity of the shock stall and allow aircraft to travel faster. 13057 . C. C. A disadvantage of sweepback is that it decreases Mcrit. C. B.D .A 15629 . always cruises at Mcrit. Number: 15570 Question: In comparison to a conventional aerofoil section. B. a lower value of Mcrit at the same relative thickness. Number: 15549 Question: One advantage of a supercritical wing aerofoil over a conventional one is: A. some modern jet transport category aircraft have supercritical wings. Number: 15527 Question: The effect of increasing angle of sweep is: A. flatter lower surface and negative as well as positive camber. an increase in longitudinal stability. B. B. D. Sweepback provides a positive contribution to static lateral stability.Number: 13057 Question: Which statement concerning sweepback is correct? A. D. C. flatter lower surface and positive camber at the rear of the aerofoil section. D. flatter upper surface and negative as well as positive camber. that there is no need for spoilers.

dihedral. sweepback. sweepback. dihedral and thin aerofoils. Whitcomb sketches out the principle behind his Transonic Area Rule. The rule was that the total cross-sectional area of an airplane should smoothly increase and then decrease.Number: 16723 Question: Mcrit is increased by: A. thin aerofoils and area ruling.B . B. The result was that the fuselage cross section needed to be reduced beginning at the point of attachment of the leading edge of the wing and indented as necessary to compensate for the cross sectional area of the wing at each successive fuselage station going aft. aerospace contractors in a confidential Research Memorandum in September 1952. C. The theory was provided to U. which cut drag by reducing variations in a plane's total cross-sectional area 6723 .S. At the blackboard in the 1950s. D. sweepback. thin aerofoils and supercritical aerofoil sections. The area rule for transonic drag minimization was postulated and demonstrated by NACA engineer Richard Whitcomb. A "coke bottle fuselage" is needed when a plane is designed to achieve trans-sonic or super-sonic speeds. area ruling and high aspect ratio.

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C. B. . Decreases with increasing altitude.03-00 . C.D. Initially remains constant until approximately 25. Varies with the square root of the absolute temperature. D.000 ft and then decreases with increasing altitude. B. Is independent of altitude. 16331 . 16327 . Increases with increasing altitude. Increases always if the density of the air decreases. D.000 ft and then increases with increasing altitude.000 ft? A. Initially remains constant until approximately 25.C. Number: 16331 Question: Which statement with respect to the speed of sound is correct? A.SUPERSONIC AERODYNAMICS PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT 03-00 Oblique Shock waves . Doubles if the temperature increases from 9° to 36° Centigrade.(20 Fragen) Number: 16327 Question: How does the Mach number change during a climb at constant IAS from sea level to 40.

Number: 16757 Question: Which of these statements about the transonic speed range is correct ? A. C. The transonic speed range starts at Mcrit and extends to Mach numbers above M = 1. B. 16757 . D. lift coefficient decreases. The airflow everywhere around the aeroplane is subsonic. C. TAS remains constant.Number: 16275 Question: Assuming ISA conditions and a descent below the tropopause at constant Mach number and aeroplane mass.B. . B. 16275 .5 and ends at Mcrit. The airflow everywhere around the aeroplane is supersonic. lift coefficient increases. The transonic speed range starts at M = 0. the: A. D.B. IAS decreases.

M= TAS * a D. our mistake. D. . depending on the type of aeroplane. B. 1044 . M= TAS / a Number: 1045 Question: If the altitude is increased and the TAS remains constant in the troposphere under standard atmospheric conditions. These all depend on Mach number. Mach Number. TAS. Right back at the beginning we said we would treat air as an incompressible fluid. IAS. increase. C.C. decrease.Number: 1043 Question: Compressibility effects depend on: A. increase or decrease. although we often cite 300kt as the point at which we first notice things going wrong it is in fact M0. M= IAS / a C. like the difference between CAS and EAS followed by the formation of pressure waves and shockwave. C. EAS. the Mach number will: A. B. and at higher Mach numbers we begin to see the effects of D. M= a / TAS B.4 Number: 1044 Question: The formula for the Mach Number is: (a= speed of sound) A. 1045 . Unfortunately it is not.D. not change.C. 1043 .

C. D. climbing at a constant Mach Number up the tropopause the TAS will: A. It decreases as pressure increases. It remains constant. first increase. decrease. C.C. increase. B. 1047 . What is the effect on true airspeed? A.B.D. D. . It decreases as altitude decreases. It increases as temperature increases. Number: 2344 Question: An aeroplane is descending at a constant Mach number from FL 350. density. B. 2344 . C. humidity.Number: 1046 Question: Assuming ISA conditions. pressure. Number: 1047 Question: The speed of sound is determined only by: A. B. temperature. 1046 . then decrease. remain constant. D.

480 kts Number: 13100 Question: During a climb at a constant IAS. D.D. TAS of the aeroplane and the speed of sound at sea level. the Mach number will: A. 500 kts C.B. Number: 12995 Question: The Mach number is the ratio between the: A. C. D. B.C.8 and the TAS is 400 kts. 320 kts D.8 and the TAS is 400 kt. 12995 . Mach number. 13100 . TAS. 600 kt.D . 500 kt.Number: 3113 Question: The flight Mach number is 0. IAS of the aeroplane and the speed of sound of the undisturbed flow. decrease initially and increase subsequently. remain constant. C.A. C. The speed of sound is: A. Number: 13249 Question: In the transonic range the aeroplane characteristics are strongly determined by the: A. C. IAS of the aeroplane and the speed of sound at sea level. 600 kts B. IAS. B. what is the speed of sound? A. TAS of the aeroplane and speed of sound of the undisturbed flow. D. CAS. D. 320 kt. increase. B. 3113 . 480 kt. increase initially and remain constant subsequently. 13213 . 13249 . Number: 13213 Question: if the Mach number is 0. B.

what is the speed of sound? A. 15426. B. between the buffet onset Mach number and the Mach number corresponding to total supersonic flow. IAS of the aeroplane and the speed of sound of the undisturbed flow. D. C. B. C. at which only supersonic local speeds occur.D. IAS of the aeroplane and the speed of sound at sea level. Varies with the square root of the absolute temperature. 3875 . 600 kt.8 and the TAS is 480 kt.Number: 13007 Question: A transonic Mach number is a Mach number: A. TAS of the aeroplane and the speed of sound at sea level. 13007 . B. C. in the range between Mcrit and MMO.C. . 560 kt. Is independent of altitude. D. C.B.B. Doubles if the temperature increases from 9° to 36° Centigrade. 750 kt. Number: 1410 Question: The Mach number is the ratio between the: A. Number: 15426 Question: if the Mach number is 0. B. D. TAS of the aeroplane and the speed of sound of the undisturbed flow. Increases always if the density of the air decreases. Number: 3875 Question: Which statement with respect to the speed of sound is correct? A. D. 1410 . at which both subsonic and supersonic local speeds occur. 384 kt.

B. it starts at a Mach number equal to 1. ends at a Mach number just above M = 1. it starts at Mcrit and extends to Mach number equal to 1 C. Number: 14579 Question: The subsonic speed range: A. 14579 .Number: 14578 Question: Regarding the transonic speed range: A. implies both subsonic and supersonic speeds exist in the flow around the aeroplane. it starts at a Mach number just above 1. B. 14578 . ends at Mcrit. D. C. ends at M = 1.D. . D. both subsonic and supersonic speeds exist in the flow around the aeroplane.C.

The airflow around the aeroplane is transonic. Number: 15003 Question: The speed range from approximately M=1. transonic range. The supersonic speed range starts at M = 1 and ends at Mcrit. supersonic range. B.B. The supersonic speed range starts at a Mach number below M = 1 and extends to Mach numbers above M = 1. subsonic range.Number: 14580 Question: Which of these statements about the supersonic speed range is correct? A. C. C. 15003 . B. 14580 . D. . The airflow everywhere around the aeroplane is supersonic. D.B.3 to approximately M=5 is called the: A. hypersonic range.

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The angle of incidence is fixed. B. The elevator is the primary control surface for control about the lateral axis and is operated by a forward or backward movement of the control wheel or stick. longitudinal axis and the horizontal plane. longitudinal axis. C. Number: 933 Question: Rotation about the lateral axis is called: A. vertical axis. but the angle of attack changes in flight. B. speed vector axis and the longitudinal axis. B. C. C. which is usually situated close to the throttle. Number: 934 Question: Rolling is the rotation of the aeroplane about the: A. Similarly for any given pitch angle. D. pitching. Number: 12990 Question: The pitch angle is defined as the angle between the: A. D. D. D. The elevator is the primary control surface for control about the longitudinal axis and is operated by a left or right rotation of the control wheel.B 933 . Likewise. chord line and the horizontal plane.B 12990 .D . The elevator is used only to trim an aeroplane and is normally operated by a dedicated control wheel. longitudinal axis and the chord line. The elevator is the primary control surface for control about the longitudinal axis and is operated by a forward or backward movement of the control wheel or stick.D 934 . wing axis.CONTROL (8 Fragen) Number: 16809 Question: Which statement about elevators is correct? A. rolling. For any given angle of attack. B. yawing. C. 16809 . lateral axis. the angle of attack can also vary. slipping. the pitch angle can vary.05-01 . do not confuse the 'Pitch Angle' or 'Pitch Attitude' of the aircraft with the angle of attack.

B.D 14635 . rolling. Number: 14586 Question: An aeroplane's bank angle is defined as the angle between its: A. the pitch angle can vary. Likewise. B. speed vector and the horizontal plane. The angle of incidence is fixed. pitching.Number: 14574 Question: An aeroplane's pitch angle is defined as the angle between its: A. B. lateral axis and the horizontal plane. B. yawing.C . lateral axis and the horizontal plane. Number: 14634 Question: Rotation around the longitudinal axis is called: A. but the angle of attack changes in flight. For any given angle of attack. 14574 . D. C. yawing. Similarly for any given pitch angle.A 14586 . longitudinal axis and the horizontal plane. rolling. speed vector and its longitudinal axis. D. pitching. D.A 14634 . slipping. the angle of attack can also vary. longitudinal axis and the horizontal plane. do not confuse the 'Pitch Angle' or 'Pitch Attitude' of the aircraft with the angle of attack. slipping. speed vector and longitudinal axis. D. speed vector and the horizontal plane. C. Number: 14635 Question: Rotation around the normal axis is called: A. C. C.

Aeroplane nose up trim increases the static longitudinal stability. the cockpit trim indicator presents: A. D.D 12954 . B.B 1415 . nose-down. Varying the angle of incidence has the same effect as moving the elevator. Number: 12954 Question: What is the effect of elevator trim tab adjustment on the static longitudinal stability of an aeroplane? A. but is aerodynamically more efficient. neutral. B. The Variable Incidence Horizontal Stabiliser provides pitch trim on most transport category aircraft. particularly at high airspeeds. C.C 15734 . Number: 15734 Question: In straight flight. D.Number: 13241 Question: In straight and level flight. C. an elevator trim is able to compensate larger changes in pitching moments. the elevator and trim tab do not move. the elevator is deflected further downwards and the trim tab further upwards. as speed is reduced: A. D. both elevator and trim tab are deflected further upwards. C. Depends on the value of stick force/g. D. C. nose-left. which of these statements is correct? A.D 15573 . C. the elevator and trim tab do not move. the elevator is deflected further downwards and the trim tab further upwards. B. B. the elevator is deflected further upwards and the trim tab further downwards. an elevator trim is more suitable for aeroplanes with a large CG range. Aeroplane nose down trim increases the static longitudinal stability. a stabiliser trim is able to compensate larger changes in pitching moments. B.D . as speed is reduced. a stabiliser trim is more sensitive to flutter. the elevator is deflected further upwards and the trim tab further downwards. nose-up. Number: 15573 Question: When comparing a stabiliser trim system with an elevator trim system. and can provide a considerable trim range. 13241 . Number: 1415 Question: If the elevator trim tab is deflected up. D. both elevator and trim tab are deflected further upwards. No effect. whilst trimming to keep the stick force zero: A.

The elevator deflection (compared with the stabiliser position) is always zero. D. C. D. The Variable Incidence Horizontal Stabiliser provides pitch trim on most transport category aircraft. Number: 3887 Question: When a jet transport aeroplane takes off with the CG at the forward limit and the trimmable horizontal stabiliser (THS) is positioned at the maximum allowable nose down position for take-off: A. To give you that feel there will always be some angle between the control surface and the tail plane. choose a higher landing speed than normal and/or use a lower flapsetting for landing. if possible. Varying the angle of incidence has the same effect as moving the elevator. B. but the moment you move it out of the trimmed position you must experience the air load on the control surface. except if is at absolute zero. use the Mach trimmer until after landing. B. D. particularly at high airspeeds. but is aerodynamically more efficient. rotation will be normal using the normal rotation technique. so you do have feedback from the controls. When trimmed you will have no forces on the stick. The elevator is always deflected slightly downwards in order to have sufficient remaining flare capability. 3882 . there will be a tendency to over-rotate. C. C. and can provide a considerable trim range. early nose wheel raising will take place. B. Number: 3476 Question: What should be usually done to perform a landing with the stabiliser jammed in the cruise flight position? A. At a forward CG the elevator is deflected upward and at an aft CG the elevator is deflected downward. relocate as many passengers as possible to the front of the cabin. The position depends on speed.A 3887 . choose a lower landing speed than normal.Number: 3882 Question: What is the position of the elevator in relation to the trimmable horizontal stabiliser of a power assisted aeroplane that is in trim? A.A 3476 .D . the position of slats and flaps and the position of the centre of gravity. rotation will require a higher than normal stick force. In the power assisted hydraulic controls you move the control surface then the hydraulics assist you.

C. B. At a forward CG. D. Elevator deflection is zero. effectiveness of trim tabs is insufficient for those aeroplanes. the pilot does not feel the stick forces at all. as speed is increased.B 14485 . C. This is because: A. position of the aeroplane''s centre of gravity.B 14310 . C. centre of gravity position of the fuel. the position of flaps and slats and the position of the centre of gravity. the elevator is deflected further upwards and the trim tab further downwards. Number: 14485 Question: In straight flight. Number: 14310 Question: What is the position of the elevator in relation to the trimmable horizontal stabiliser of an aeroplane with fully hydraulically operated flight controls that is in trim? A. D. Number: 14306 Question: The most important factor determining the required position of the Trimmable Horizontal Stabiliser (THS) for take off is the: A. The elevator is always deflected slightly downward in order to have sufficient remaining flare capability. the elevator is deflected further downwards and the trim tab further upwards. B. the elevator is deflected upward and at an aft CG.C .Number: 3477 Question: In general transport aeroplanes with power assisted flight controls are fitted with an adjustable stabiliser instead of trim tabs on the elevator. total mass of the aeroplane. C. trim tab deflection increases VMO. The position depends on speed. the elevator and trim tab do not move.D 14306 . both elevator and trim tab are deflected further downwards. mechanical adjustment of trim tabs creates too many problems. D. B. stall speed. B. it is deflected downward. D. whilst trimming to keep the stick force zero: A. 3477 .

C. a higher than normal landing speed is required. D. In most cases. Number: 14597 Question: When a jet transport aeroplane takes off with the CG at the forward limit and the trimmable horizontal stabiliser (THS) is positioned at the maximum allowable nose up position for take-off: A. B. early nose wheel raising will take place.D 14597 .C . D. 14311 . No effect with a forward CG. no effect. C. there will be a tendency to over-rotate. B. No effect when landing on a high elevation runway. rotation will require a higher than normal stick force. rotation will be normal using the normal rotation technique. In most cases.Number: 14311 Question: What is the effect on landing speed when a trimmable horizontal stabiliser jams at high IAS? A.

C . 14598 . II is incorrect. II is incorrect. I is incorrect. D. D. II. I is incorrect.A 14659 . there will be a tendency to under-rotate. rotation will be normal using the normal rotation technique. C. early nose wheel raising will take place. A jammed trim tab causes less control difficulty. I is correct. I is correct. II is correct. which of these statements are correct or incorrect? I. rotation will require higher than normal stick force.Number: 14598 Question: When a jet transport aeroplane takes off with the CG at the aft limit and the trimmable horizontal stabiliser (THS) is positioned at the maximum allowable nose up position for take-off: A. II is correct. A. The effects of a trim tab runaway are more serious. C. Number: 14659 Question: Comparing the differences between a horizontal trimmable stabiliser and an elevator trim tab. B. B.

an elevator trim is more suitable for aeroplanes with a large CG range. a stabiliser trim is less sensitive to flutter. an elevator trim produces lower trim drag B. A trimmed aeroplane with an aft CG requires the stabiliser leading edge to be higher than in the case of a forward CG in the same condition. which of these statements is correct? A. At the aft CG limit. B. Number: 14691 Question: When comparing a stabiliser trim system with an elevator trim system. C.Number: 14682 Question: Which of these statements about a trimmable horizontal stabiliser is correct? A.D 14692 . B. D. A trimmed aeroplane with an aft CG requires the stabiliser leading edge to be lower than in the case of a forward CG in the same condition. 14682 . C. stabiliser trim is adjusted fully nose up to obtain maximum elevator authority at rotation during take-off. a elevator trim is able to compensate larger changes in pitching moments. C. an elevator trim is less suitable for aeroplanes with a large CG range. D.D 14690 . D. an elevator trim is more suitable for aeroplanes with a large CG range. which of these statements is correct? A. the need for stabiliser adjustment is dependent on flap position only. an elevator trim is more sensitive to flutter. a stabiliser trim is not as capable to compensate large changes in pitching moments. Because take-off speeds do not vary with CG position. Number: 14690 Question: When comparing an elevator trim system with a stabiliser trim system. an elevator trim is able to compensate larger changes in pitching moments. an elevator trim is able to compensate larger changes in pitching moments. B. Number: 14692 Question: When comparing a stabiliser trim system with an elevator trim system. C. an elevator trim is more suitable for aeroplanes with a large CG range. a stabiliser trim is more sensitive to flutter. which of these statements is correct? A.B .C 14691 . D.

3888 . below the hinge. B. C.C . D.05-07 . behind the hinge. above the hinge.CONTROL (1 Fragen) Number: 3888 Question: When flutter damping of control surfaces is obtained by mass balancing. these weights will be located with respect to the hinge of the control surface: A. in front of the hinge.

to lack . tab down.D 1002 . depend on: A. static pressure. At high IAS it behaves like a fixed extension of the elevator. Servo Tab is directly controlled by the pilot through a pivot point and movement of the tab supplies the hinge moment necessary to move the main control surface. dynamic pressure.B 2363 . D. total pressure.CONTROL (17 Fragen) Number: 16469 Question: What is the primary input for an artificial feel system? A. D. D. Number: 2355 Question: Which kind of ''tab'' is commonly used in case of manual reversion of fully powered flight controls? A.D 2355 . To prevent over-controlling and overstressing the aircraft. that the control forces experienced represent those of a manually contro lled aircraft. B.Pitot-static Q-feel units. C. so C. Its main purpose is to increase stick force per g. control surface up). stabiliser position. Balance tab. At high IAS it behaves like a servo tab. Artificial feel systems normally also incorporate a self-centring mechanism. C.fehlen This is because the amount of airfiow passing over the tab is too low to produce the necessary hinge moment and hence the required defiection. incorporated in the control system. TAS.spring units. Spring tab. Anti-balance tab. Static pressure. static pressure. At low IAS it behaves like a servo tab. IAS.e.A . Servo tab. so that the flight deck controls automatically return to their neutral positions when released. Mach number. stabiliser position. On transport category aircraft feel forces are provided by . provided by an elevator feel system. centralising the control surfaces. some form of artificial feel is B.05-06 . 16469 . B. In practice. the servo tab lacks effectiveness at low airspeeds when large control defiections are required. C. B. . . D. elevator deflection. Movement of the tab causes the control surface to move to a new position of equilibrium in a direction of travel opposite to that of the tab (i. elevator deflection. Number: 1002 Question: Stick forces.or a combination of both. Number: 2363 Question: Which statement is correct about a spring tab? A.

Spring tab .trim tab .fehlen This is because the amount of airfiow passing over the tab is too low to produce the necessary hinge moment and hence the required defiection.balance tab. D. Movement of the tab causes the control surface to move to a new position of equilibrium in a direction of travel opposite to that of the tab (i. D. C.C 12975 . tab down. to lack . B. 13087 . the servo tab lacks effectiveness at low airspeeds when large control defiections are required.e. B. an anti-balance tab. C.horn balance . Servo tab . trimming is superfluous. a balance tab .D 15514 . they only function in combination with an elevator trim tab. a part of the aerodynamic forces is still felt on the column. In practice. Number: 12975 Question: When power assisted controls are used for pitch control: A. control surface up).horn balance . C.bobweight. Horn Balance B. aerodynamic balancing of the control surfaces is meaningless. Servo tab . a servo tab.trim tab .A .Number: 13087 Question: Which three aerodynamic means decrease manoeuvring stick forces? A. Number: 15514 Question: The tab in the figure represents: A. Spring tab . Servo Tab is directly controlled by the pilot through a pivot point and movement of the tab supplies the hinge moment necessary to move the main control surface.mass balancing weight. D.spring tab. a trim tab.

horn balance. C. and mass balance. a control tab. Balance Tabs They are connected to the tailplane by a mechanical linkage that causes them to move in the opposite direction to the control surface Number: 3849 Question: When power assisted controls are used for pitch control: A.B . and power assisted control. C. a part of the aerodynamic forces is still felt on the column. a trim tab. D. a balance tab that also functions as a trim tab. servo tab. aerodynamic balancing of the control surfaces is meaningless. they only function in combination with an elevator trim tab.Number: 15524 Question: The tab in the figure represents: A. D. 15524 .D 3849 . B. B. D. spring tab. B. seal between the wing trailing edge and the leading edge of control surface. C.D 3861 . an antibalance tab. spring tab. mass in the nose of the control surface. trimming is superfluous. horn balance and mass balance. Number: 3861 Question: Examples of aerodynamic balancing of control surfaces are: A. balance tab. servo tab.

D. B. when taxiing in a tailwind the effectiveness of this type of control is reduced. Fowler flaps. The servo-tab now works as a negative trim-tab. to decrease stick forces.Number: 3870 Question: An aeroplane has a servo tab controlled elevator.D . Only the tab is left functioning. so with the elevator locked you only have very limited control from the tab only and in the unnatural sense . B. horn balance. to decrease the effective longitudinal dihedral of the aeroplane. to obtain mass balancing. servo tab is deflected down and moves the elevator up. With a servo tab control system movement of the pilot’s flight controls moves the servo tab. The control effectiveness of the primary surface is increased by servo tab deflection. C. The servo tab at the trailing edge of the main flying control surface produces a aerodynamic force to move the control surface. C. What will happen if the elevator jams during flight? jams . horn balance.and. you have no trim or balance function left. D. The answer would make sense if it said "a seal between the wing trailing edge and the leading edge of the control surface". upper and lower rudder. Horn Balance Number: 3657 Question: Examples of aerodynamic balancing of control surfaces are: A. is correct? A.klemmt A. The servo tab is displaced in the opposite direction in which the flight control surface moves. The use of wing "trailing edge" is confusing Number: 3654 Question: Which statement about a primary control surface controlled by a servo tab. upper and lower rudder. to prevent flutter. B. of course.D 3654 . C. seal between wing's trailing edge and leading edge of a control surface. in particular with tailwind. Due to the effectiveness of the servo tab the control surface area can be smaller. but even that would be a bit untidy because in a seal balance the seal is in the gap between the wing housing for the control and the leading edge of the control. The system requires airflow from leading edge to trailing edge. D. 3870 . The position is undetermined during taxiing. weight in the nose of the control surface. Number: 3880 Question: A horn balance in a control system has the following purpose: A. D. Pitch control is lost. The pitch control forces double. ie if you wish to pitch the aircraft nose up. seal between wing's trailing edge and leading edge of a control surface. The function of a servo tab is very different from a balance tab. C. Pitch control sense is reversed. B. It is not connected to the elevator but works in the unnatural sense to drive the elevator in the natural sense. The servo tab can also be used as a balance tab.D 3657 .C 3880 .

artificial feel system.C . B. B. 14857 . servo tab and spring tab. Number: 15068 Question: Artificial feel is required: A. C. Servo tab. D. control forces are reduced by: A. balance tab. a trim tab and spring tab. a horn balance. when the flight control surfaces are fitted with control tabs or trim tabs. control surfaces with increased area behind the hinge. control surfaces with increased area. servo tab. artificial feel system. bobweight. Mass balance. spring tab and mass balancing. when there is a trimmable stabiliser. with power assisted flight controls. C. mass balancing. Number: 14858 Question: In general. Balance tab.B 14858 . B. Horn balance. C. forward shift of the CG and a servo tab.B 15068 . with fully powered flight controls. a servo tab. horn balance. D.Number: 14857 Question: Which aerodynamic design features can be used to reduce control forces? A. D. a balance tab.

C. which increases the lift on that wing so that the aeroplane starts to roll in the same direction as the yaw. D. this causes: A. 16637 . B. C. Number: 178 Question: If the nose of an aeroplane yaws left.C 961 . rolling motion generated by rudder deflection causes a speed increase of the outer wing which increases the lift on that wing so the aeroplane starts to roll in the direction of the turn. C.D 13212 . Pitching and adverse yaw. Rolling and yawing. a roll to the right. a roll to the left. B. a decrease in relative airspeed on the right wing. B.C . B. Pitching and rolling. symmetrical spoiler deflection and/or elevator deflection. C.D 16726 . an increase in lift on the left wing. yawing motion generated by rudder deflection causes a speed increase of the outer wing.CONTROL (5 Fragen) Number: 16637 Question: Yaw is followed by roll because the: A. elevator deflection and/or slat extension. it causes a rolling moment in the same direction as the yaw. D. Number: 961 Question: Which moments or motions interact in a dutch roll? A. aileron deflection and/or rudder deflection.A 178 . this causes: A. D. speed brake extension or wing flap deflection. which increase the lift on that wing so that the aeroplane starts to roll in the same direction as the yaw. Number: 13212 Question: If the nose of an aeroplane yaws left. B. a decrease in relative airspeed on the right wing.05-05 . Number: 16726 Question: Rotation about the longitudinal axis of an aeroplane can be achieved by: A. a roll to the right. D. D. a roll to the left. Pitching and yawing. C. an increase in lift on the left wing. rudder is located above the longitudinal axis and when it is deflected. yawing motion generated by rudder deflection causes a speed increase of the inner wing.

normal axis. Number: 16303 Question: Outboard ailerons (if present) are normally used: A. yaw axis.A . lateral axis. in low speed flight only. Number: 1001 Question: During initiation of a turn with speedbrakes extended. B. on the downgoing wing only. B. where it is more fiexible. 16415 . on the upgoing wing only. when the landing gear is up. at transonic and supersonic speeds only. upward on the upgoing wing and downward on the downgoing wing. D. downward on the upgoing wing and upward on the downgoing wing.A 1001 . and use an inboard aileron/spoiler combination above fiap retraction speeds to provide the necessary roll control.05-04 .D 16303 .CONTROL (19 Fragen) Number: 16415 Question: The function of ailerons is to rotate the aeroplane about the: A. the roll spoiler function induces a spoiler deflection: A. D. On aircraft fitted with two sets of ailerons. (inboard and outboard). as the airspeed increases the aerodynamic loads on the ailerons tend to twist the wing at the tips. longitudinal axis. D. C. C. some aircraft use the technique of locking the outboard ailerons in the faired or neutral position. in high speed flight only. C. B. To overcome this tendency.

outboard ailerons in the faired or neutral position. Number: 13162 Question: An aeroplane is provided with spoilers and both inboard and outboard ailerons.A . ailerons and flaps. some aircraft use the technique of locking the D. Number: 3110 Question: Flaperons are controls which combine the function of: A. C. D.Number: 2364 Question: How is adverse yaw compensated for during entry into and roll out from a turn? A. these are flaperons. D. Differential aileron deflection.A 13162 . Right aileron: 5° up. wing at the tips. Anti-balanced rudder control. flaps and elevator. as the A. B. D. To overcome this tendency. but these are not called flaperons. inboard ailerons and roll spoilers. increase the lift co-efficient. D. Right aileron: 2° down. C. Some commercial aircraft have ailerons that droop when flaps are extended to B.B 3110 . Roll control during cruise is provided by: On aircraft fitted with two sets of ailerons. Right aileron: 2° up.C 13125 . inboard and outboard ailerons. Right aileron: 5° down.A 3109 . Left aileron: 5° down. ailerons and elevator. outboard ailerons only. C. an anti-balance tab. a differential aileron. Number: 13125 Question: An example of differential aileron deflection during initiation of left turn is: A. B. outboard ailerons and roll spoilers. Left aileron: 2° up. a balance tab. airspeed increases the aerodynamic loads on the ailerons tend to twist the B. Horn-balanced controls. C. Left aileron: 5° up. flaps and speed brakes. B. Servo tabs. Number: 3109 Question: One method to compensate adverse yaw is: A. Left aileron: 2° down. (inboard and outboard). 2364 . There are some other aircraft (mainly military) that have split ailerons that can act as speed brakes as well. a balance panel. where it is more fiexible. and use an inboard aileron/spoiler combination above fiap retraction speeds to provide the necessary roll control. C.

To overcome this tendency. aileron secondary effect. On aircraft fitted with two sets of ailerons. changing the wing drag and the two wings therefore produce different lift values resulting in a moment about the longitudinal axis. which generates a yawing moment. Take-off.D . some aircraft use the technique of locking the outboard ailerons in the faired or neutral position.Number: 13236 Question: In what phase of flight are the outboard ailerons (if fitted) not active? A. and use an inboard aileron/spoiler combination above fiap retraction speeds to provide the necessary roll control. 13236 . which generates a rolling moment. the part of the wing on which they are mounted: A. (inboard and outboard). where it is more fiexible. Approach.A 15608 . to avoid over-controlling the aeroplane. In addition there is a local increase in drag. The speed difference between both wings generates the desired rolling moment. stalls. causing sideslip. D. C. Landing with a strong and gusty crosswind. B.B 12974 . which generates the desired rolling moment. B. experiences a reduction in lift. Cruise. changing the wing camber and the two wings therefore produce different lift values resulting in a moment about the longitudinal axis. D. Number: 12974 Question: When roll spoilers are extended. B. which generates the desired rolling moment. Number: 15608 Question: Aileron deflection causes a rotation around the longitudinal axis by: A. D. as the airspeed increases the aerodynamic loads on the ailerons tend to twist the wing at the tips. is forced downwards as a reaction to the increased drag. experiences extra drag. C. This causes a difference in lift between both wings. until lift-off. C. which suppresses adverse yaw.

B. Left aileron: 2° down. as the airspeed increases the aerodynamic loads on the ailerons tend to twist the wing at the tips. B. Right aileron: 5° down. C. Flaps (and/or slats) extended or speed below a certain value. On aircraft fitted with two sets of ailerons. Right aileron: 5° up. D. is required to achieve the required roll rate.D . the tendency of an aeroplane to yaw in the opposite direction of turn mainly due to the difference in aileron form drag. D. Flaps (and slats) retracted or speed above a certain value. D. Number: 3835 Question: When are outboard ailerons (if present) de-activated? A. Turn co-ordination. C.A 3869 . Left aileron: 2° up.B 1416 . 15554 . Number: 1416 Question: Differential aileron deflection: A. D. a momentary yawing motion opposite to the turn due to an incorrect differential aileron movement. C. Right aileron: 2° down. Left aileron: 5° up. Adverse yaw. entgegengewirkt C. the tendency of an aeroplane to yaw in the same direction of turn due to the different wing speeds.Number: 15554 Question: When a turn is initiated. Number: 3869 Question: Which phenomenon is counteracted with differential aileron deflection? A. where it is more fiexible. is required to keep the total lift constant when ailerons are deflected. Landing gear retracted. increases the CLmax. Aileron reversal. the tendency of an aeroplane to yaw in the opposite direction of turn mainly due to the difference in induced drag on each wing. and use an inboard aileron/spoiler combination above fiap retraction speeds to provide the necessary roll control.A 3835 .entgegengearbeitet . C. Left aileron: 5° down. equals the drag of the right and left aileron. Right aileron: 2° up. B. (inboard and outboard). adverse yaw is: A.C 1417 . Landing gear extended. B. Number: 1417 Question: An example of differential aileron deflection during initiation of left turn is: A. counteracted . Sensitivity for spiral dive. some aircraft use the technique of locking the outboard ailerons in the faired or neutral position. D. B. To overcome this tendency.

To overcome this tendency. Symmetrically deflected spoilers. the servo tab also serves as a trim tab. only the outboard aileron are active. Asymmetrically extended leading edge flaps. only the spoilers will be active. some aircraft use the technique of locking the outboard ailerons in the faired or neutral position. In general the maximum downward elevator deflection is larger than upward. The rudder. In this case: A. On some aeroplanes. C. as the airspeed increases the aerodynamic loads on the ailerons tend to twist the wing at the tips. C. 3830 . Hydraulically powered control surfaces do not need mass balancing. only the inboard ailerons are active. B. not the ailerons.D 3504 .Number: 3830 Question: Which of the following statements concerning control is correct? A.B 14914 . Number: 3504 Question: A jet aeroplane equipped with inboard and outboard ailerons is cruising at its normal cruise Mach number. On aircraft fitted with two sets of ailerons. The ailerons. and use an inboard aileron/spoiler combination above fiap retraction speeds to provide the necessary roll control. D. B. Number: 14914 Question: What are the primary roll controls on a conventional aeroplane? A. where it is more fiexible. D. the inboard and outboard ailerons are active. D. (inboard and outboard). B.C . C. In a differential aileron control system the control surfaces have a larger upward than downward maximum deflection.

3868 . in comparison to a location beneath the wing. less influence of thrust changes on longitudinal control.darunter . C.CONTROL (2 Fragen) Number: 3868 Question: An advantage of locating the engines at the rear of the fuselage. B.unterhalb B. one fitted with jet engines and the other with counter rotating propellers. is : A. easier maintenance of the engines. The same yaw tendency for both aeroplanes regardless of left or right engine failure.05-03 . what happens following an engine failure? A. D. beneath .C 3490 . a wing which is less sensitive to flutter. More roll tendency for the propeller aeroplane. Less roll tendency for the propeller aeroplane. The same roll tendency for both aeroplanes. less influence on lateral/directional stability characteristics such as dutch roll.A . Number: 3490 Question: Given two identical aeroplanes with wing mounted engines. C. D.

The forward CG limit is mainly determined by the amount of pitch control available from the elevator. If the aft CG limit is correctly chosen.05-02 . Number: 929 Question: The centre of gravity moving aft will: A. larger at high IAS when compared to low IAS.A 929 . increase the elevator up effectiveness C. Number: 16821 Question: Which statement is about CG limits is correct? A. decrease the elevator up effectiveness B. the same at all speeds. increase or decrease the elevator up effectiveness. D.CONTROL (14 Fragen) Number: 16412 Question: The elevator deflection required for a given manoeuvre will be: A. B. not affect the elevator up or down effectiveness 16412 . larger for an aft CG position when compared to a forward position. C. depending on wing location D. The forward CG limit is determined by stability considerations only. larger for a forward CG position when compared to an aft position. C. B.B . The aft CG limit is determined by the maximum elevator deflection available.D 16821 . D. the forward CG limit is automatically determined as well.

A 15921 . Number: 10133 Question: What is the effect of an aft shift of the centre of gravity on (1) static longitudinal stability and (2) the required control deflection for a given pitch change? A. C. because the thrust line is below the: exhibits . C. B.A 13146 .Number: 957 Question: When the cg position is moved forward. centre of pressure. drag line of action. B. C. the CG moves forward. neutral point. (1) reduces (2) reduces. larger. flaps are retracted at constant IAS. D. 957 . D. (1) increases (2) reduces. dependent on trim position. CG. D.D . C. Number: 13146 Question: A jet transport aeroplane exhibits pitch up when thrust is suddenly increased from an equilibrium condition.A 10133 . D. aeroplane longitudinal manoeuvrability increases when: A. Number: 15921 Question: For a given elevator deflection. IAS decreases. unchanged. (1) increases (2) increases. the elevator deflection for a manoeuvre with a given load factor greater than 1 will be: A. smaller. the CG moves aft.aufwisen A. B. (1) reduces (2) increases. B.

decrease with engines located on the rear fuselage.C . independent of angle of attack. C. B.Number: 15874 Question: What kind of horizontal control surface is shown in the figure? A. Number: 3506 Question: How does positive camber of an aerofoil affect static longitudinal stability ? It has A. 15874 D 3506 . increase with podded engines located beneath a low-mounted wing. because the lift vector rotates forward at increasing angle of Number: 14591 Question: Low speed pitch-up can be caused by a significant thrust: A. no effect. D. because the centre of pressure shifts rearward at increasing angle of attack D. positive effect. negative effect. B. C. increase with engines located on the rear fuselage. positive effect. Elevator. C. Canard. Frise type control.B 14591 . because the lift vector rotates backward at increasing angle of attack. All-flying tail. because camber of the aerofoil produces a constant pitch down moment coefficient. B. D. decrease with podded engines located beneath a low-mounted wing.

IAS increases. B. B. aeroplane longitudinal manoeuvrability decreases when: A.B 14653 . the same at all speeds. the CG moves aft.D 14980 . smaller at high IAS when compared to low IAS. the same for all CG positions. B. to improve the aerodynamic efficiency of the vertical fin. Just as winglets improve the efficiency of a wing by reducing tip vortices. D. to decrease the susceptibility to deep stall. the CG moves forward C. that it does not require a de-icing system. Number: 14652 Question: For a given elevator deflection.B . C. IAS increases.Number: 14651 Question: The elevator deflection required for a given manoeuvre will be: A.C 14652 . C. D. flaps are retracted at constant IAS. larger for an aft CG position when compared to a forward position. Number: 14980 Question: One advantage of mounting the horizontal tailplane on top of the vertical fin is: A. D. the CG moves forward. Number: 14653 Question: Aeroplane manoeuvrability increases for a given control surface deflection when: A. to decrease fuel consumption by creating a tail-heavy situation. B. a horizontal stabiliser at the top of the fin will do the same to the fin. D. 14651 . flaps are retracted at constant IAS. IAS decreases. C.

D 934 . speed vector axis and the longitudinal axis. which is usually situated close to the throttle.B 933 . the angle of attack can also vary. pitching. The elevator is the primary control surface for control about the longitudinal axis and is operated by a left or right rotation of the control wheel. C. Number: 12990 Question: The pitch angle is defined as the angle between the: A. chord line and the horizontal plane. The elevator is the primary control surface for control about the longitudinal axis and is operated by a forward or backward movement of the control wheel or stick. The elevator is used only to trim an aeroplane and is normally operated by a dedicated control wheel. wing axis. longitudinal axis. C. longitudinal axis and the chord line. vertical axis. B. 16809 . D. D. B. D. B. longitudinal axis and the horizontal plane.B 12990 . Likewise. slipping. lateral axis. The elevator is the primary control surface for control about the lateral axis and is operated by a forward or backward movement of the control wheel or stick. Number: 933 Question: Rotation about the lateral axis is called: A. C. D.05-01 . but the angle of attack changes in flight. rolling. Similarly for any given pitch angle. do not confuse the 'Pitch Angle' or 'Pitch Attitude' of the aircraft with the angle of attack. B. For any given angle of attack.CONTROL (8 Fragen) Number: 16809 Question: Which statement about elevators is correct? A. the pitch angle can vary. Number: 934 Question: Rolling is the rotation of the aeroplane about the: A. The angle of incidence is fixed. C.D . yawing.

C . speed vector and longitudinal axis. rolling. speed vector and the horizontal plane. longitudinal axis and the horizontal plane. C. longitudinal axis and the horizontal plane. lateral axis and the horizontal plane. 14574 .Number: 14574 Question: An aeroplane's pitch angle is defined as the angle between its: A.A 14634 . C.A 14586 . pitching. speed vector and its longitudinal axis. slipping. C. the angle of attack can also vary. Similarly for any given pitch angle. yawing. speed vector and the horizontal plane. but the angle of attack changes in flight. D. D. the pitch angle can vary. Number: 14635 Question: Rotation around the normal axis is called: A. pitching. rolling. slipping. B.D 14635 . Number: 14586 Question: An aeroplane's bank angle is defined as the angle between its: A. B. Likewise. yawing. B. lateral axis and the horizontal plane. C. do not confuse the 'Pitch Angle' or 'Pitch Attitude' of the aircraft with the angle of attack. B. For any given angle of attack. The angle of incidence is fixed. D. Number: 14634 Question: Rotation around the longitudinal axis is called: A. D.

B. If the aft CG limit is correctly chosen. depending on wing location D. increase the elevator up effectiveness C. B. not affect the elevator up or down effectiveness 16412 . the same at all speeds. Number: 16821 Question: Which statement is about CG limits is correct? A.D 16821 . decrease the elevator up effectiveness B. D. The forward CG limit is mainly determined by the amount of pitch control available from the elevator.05-02 . the forward CG limit is automatically determined as well. larger for a forward CG position when compared to an aft position. The aft CG limit is determined by the maximum elevator deflection available. Number: 929 Question: The centre of gravity moving aft will: A. C. The forward CG limit is determined by stability considerations only. larger at high IAS when compared to low IAS.A 929 .B .CONTROL (14 Fragen) Number: 16412 Question: The elevator deflection required for a given manoeuvre will be: A. C. larger for an aft CG position when compared to a forward position. increase or decrease the elevator up effectiveness. D.

C. because the thrust line is below the: exhibits . C. flaps are retracted at constant IAS. C. D. dependent on trim position. D. 957 . the elevator deflection for a manoeuvre with a given load factor greater than 1 will be: A. larger. centre of pressure. (1) increases (2) reduces. Number: 13146 Question: A jet transport aeroplane exhibits pitch up when thrust is suddenly increased from an equilibrium condition. CG. B. the CG moves forward. unchanged. B.A 13146 . D. (1) increases (2) increases.A 10133 . the CG moves aft. B. drag line of action.A 15921 . Number: 15921 Question: For a given elevator deflection. IAS decreases.aufwisen A.D .Number: 957 Question: When the cg position is moved forward. Number: 10133 Question: What is the effect of an aft shift of the centre of gravity on (1) static longitudinal stability and (2) the required control deflection for a given pitch change? A. B. smaller. neutral point. aeroplane longitudinal manoeuvrability increases when: A. (1) reduces (2) reduces. (1) reduces (2) increases. C. D.

Number: 15874 Question: What kind of horizontal control surface is shown in the figure? A. decrease with podded engines located beneath a low-mounted wing. Elevator. positive effect. B. increase with engines located on the rear fuselage. All-flying tail. 15874 D 3506 . no effect. because the lift vector rotates forward at increasing angle of Number: 14591 Question: Low speed pitch-up can be caused by a significant thrust: A. because camber of the aerofoil produces a constant pitch down moment coefficient. D. D.B 14591 . Frise type control. C. Canard. C.C . negative effect. independent of angle of attack. because the centre of pressure shifts rearward at increasing angle of attack D. decrease with engines located on the rear fuselage. increase with podded engines located beneath a low-mounted wing. C. positive effect. because the lift vector rotates backward at increasing angle of attack. B. Number: 3506 Question: How does positive camber of an aerofoil affect static longitudinal stability ? It has A. B.

to decrease fuel consumption by creating a tail-heavy situation. IAS increases. the CG moves forward C. IAS increases.B 14653 . D. Number: 14653 Question: Aeroplane manoeuvrability increases for a given control surface deflection when: A. IAS decreases. C.D 14980 . C. D. Number: 14980 Question: One advantage of mounting the horizontal tailplane on top of the vertical fin is: A. the CG moves forward. flaps are retracted at constant IAS. larger for an aft CG position when compared to a forward position.B .C 14652 . the same at all speeds. to improve the aerodynamic efficiency of the vertical fin. B. the CG moves aft. C.Number: 14651 Question: The elevator deflection required for a given manoeuvre will be: A. flaps are retracted at constant IAS. Number: 14652 Question: For a given elevator deflection. D. to decrease the susceptibility to deep stall. a horizontal stabiliser at the top of the fin will do the same to the fin. 14651 . Just as winglets improve the efficiency of a wing by reducing tip vortices. B. B. the same for all CG positions. B. that it does not require a de-icing system. smaller at high IAS when compared to low IAS. D. aeroplane longitudinal manoeuvrability decreases when: A.

less influence of thrust changes on longitudinal control.unterhalb B. More roll tendency for the propeller aeroplane. The same roll tendency for both aeroplanes. what happens following an engine failure? A. Number: 3490 Question: Given two identical aeroplanes with wing mounted engines. C. one fitted with jet engines and the other with counter rotating propellers. C. is : A. B.darunter . easier maintenance of the engines. Less roll tendency for the propeller aeroplane.A . beneath . D.C 3490 . in comparison to a location beneath the wing. D. less influence on lateral/directional stability characteristics such as dutch roll. a wing which is less sensitive to flutter. The same yaw tendency for both aeroplanes regardless of left or right engine failure. 3868 .05-03 .CONTROL (2 Fragen) Number: 3868 Question: An advantage of locating the engines at the rear of the fuselage.

as the airspeed increases the aerodynamic loads on the ailerons tend to twist the wing at the tips. downward on the upgoing wing and upward on the downgoing wing. when the landing gear is up. To overcome this tendency. in low speed flight only. C. B. C.A . (inboard and outboard). On aircraft fitted with two sets of ailerons. B.CONTROL (19 Fragen) Number: 16415 Question: The function of ailerons is to rotate the aeroplane about the: A. in high speed flight only. lateral axis.A 1001 . upward on the upgoing wing and downward on the downgoing wing. C. at transonic and supersonic speeds only. B. 16415 .D 16303 . some aircraft use the technique of locking the outboard ailerons in the faired or neutral position. yaw axis. Number: 16303 Question: Outboard ailerons (if present) are normally used: A.05-04 . D. and use an inboard aileron/spoiler combination above fiap retraction speeds to provide the necessary roll control. longitudinal axis. D. normal axis. Number: 1001 Question: During initiation of a turn with speedbrakes extended. D. on the downgoing wing only. where it is more fiexible. on the upgoing wing only. the roll spoiler function induces a spoiler deflection: A.

inboard and outboard ailerons. C. a balance tab. Number: 13125 Question: An example of differential aileron deflection during initiation of left turn is: A. airspeed increases the aerodynamic loads on the ailerons tend to twist the B. ailerons and elevator. B. a balance panel. (inboard and outboard). Roll control during cruise is provided by: On aircraft fitted with two sets of ailerons. C. Number: 3110 Question: Flaperons are controls which combine the function of: A. Right aileron: 5° up. D.C 13125 . flaps and speed brakes.Number: 2364 Question: How is adverse yaw compensated for during entry into and roll out from a turn? A. inboard ailerons and roll spoilers. Left aileron: 5° down. Left aileron: 2° up. Number: 3109 Question: One method to compensate adverse yaw is: A. Left aileron: 5° up. C. some aircraft use the technique of locking the D. Horn-balanced controls. Right aileron: 2° up. outboard ailerons in the faired or neutral position.B 3110 . Right aileron: 2° down. To overcome this tendency. 2364 . C. outboard ailerons only. where it is more fiexible. Differential aileron deflection. Left aileron: 2° down. increase the lift co-efficient. as the A. ailerons and flaps. There are some other aircraft (mainly military) that have split ailerons that can act as speed brakes as well. but these are not called flaperons. Right aileron: 5° down. an anti-balance tab. a differential aileron. outboard ailerons and roll spoilers.A . Servo tabs.A 3109 .A 13162 . these are flaperons. B. D. D. wing at the tips. C. Some commercial aircraft have ailerons that droop when flaps are extended to B. B. Anti-balanced rudder control. Number: 13162 Question: An aeroplane is provided with spoilers and both inboard and outboard ailerons. D. flaps and elevator. and use an inboard aileron/spoiler combination above fiap retraction speeds to provide the necessary roll control.

D. which generates the desired rolling moment. C. Number: 12974 Question: When roll spoilers are extended. stalls. which generates a yawing moment. (inboard and outboard). This causes a difference in lift between both wings. which suppresses adverse yaw. which generates a rolling moment. B. causing sideslip. experiences a reduction in lift. Cruise.Number: 13236 Question: In what phase of flight are the outboard ailerons (if fitted) not active? A. Number: 15608 Question: Aileron deflection causes a rotation around the longitudinal axis by: A. Approach. experiences extra drag. changing the wing drag and the two wings therefore produce different lift values resulting in a moment about the longitudinal axis. C. changing the wing camber and the two wings therefore produce different lift values resulting in a moment about the longitudinal axis. Landing with a strong and gusty crosswind. until lift-off. and use an inboard aileron/spoiler combination above fiap retraction speeds to provide the necessary roll control.B 12974 . to avoid over-controlling the aeroplane. as the airspeed increases the aerodynamic loads on the ailerons tend to twist the wing at the tips. 13236 . B. the part of the wing on which they are mounted: A. Take-off. To overcome this tendency. D. On aircraft fitted with two sets of ailerons. B.D . C. is forced downwards as a reaction to the increased drag. some aircraft use the technique of locking the outboard ailerons in the faired or neutral position.A 15608 . where it is more fiexible. In addition there is a local increase in drag. which generates the desired rolling moment. aileron secondary effect. The speed difference between both wings generates the desired rolling moment. D.

and use an inboard aileron/spoiler combination above fiap retraction speeds to provide the necessary roll control. adverse yaw is: A. Right aileron: 2° down. Right aileron: 2° up.D . Landing gear extended. D. Number: 1417 Question: An example of differential aileron deflection during initiation of left turn is: A. increases the CLmax. Turn co-ordination.Number: 15554 Question: When a turn is initiated. Left aileron: 5° up.A 3835 . equals the drag of the right and left aileron. where it is more fiexible. counteracted . (inboard and outboard). Number: 3835 Question: When are outboard ailerons (if present) de-activated? A.B 1416 . B. Flaps (and/or slats) extended or speed below a certain value. Left aileron: 5° down. a momentary yawing motion opposite to the turn due to an incorrect differential aileron movement. Left aileron: 2° up. D. B. C.A 3869 . C. Left aileron: 2° down. the tendency of an aeroplane to yaw in the same direction of turn due to the different wing speeds. Adverse yaw. Number: 3869 Question: Which phenomenon is counteracted with differential aileron deflection? A.entgegengearbeitet . On aircraft fitted with two sets of ailerons. Number: 1416 Question: Differential aileron deflection: A. D. Right aileron: 5° down. B. is required to keep the total lift constant when ailerons are deflected. D. To overcome this tendency. some aircraft use the technique of locking the outboard ailerons in the faired or neutral position. is required to achieve the required roll rate. C. C. Sensitivity for spiral dive. entgegengewirkt C. as the airspeed increases the aerodynamic loads on the ailerons tend to twist the wing at the tips. Aileron reversal. the tendency of an aeroplane to yaw in the opposite direction of turn mainly due to the difference in induced drag on each wing. 15554 . B. Flaps (and slats) retracted or speed above a certain value. Right aileron: 5° up.C 1417 . D. the tendency of an aeroplane to yaw in the opposite direction of turn mainly due to the difference in aileron form drag. B. Landing gear retracted.

B. some aircraft use the technique of locking the outboard ailerons in the faired or neutral position. C. The ailerons. The rudder. not the ailerons. only the outboard aileron are active. (inboard and outboard). To overcome this tendency. In this case: A. 3830 . D. the inboard and outboard ailerons are active. Hydraulically powered control surfaces do not need mass balancing. In general the maximum downward elevator deflection is larger than upward. B. In a differential aileron control system the control surfaces have a larger upward than downward maximum deflection. only the inboard ailerons are active. On aircraft fitted with two sets of ailerons. and use an inboard aileron/spoiler combination above fiap retraction speeds to provide the necessary roll control. Number: 14914 Question: What are the primary roll controls on a conventional aeroplane? A. Asymmetrically extended leading edge flaps.D 3504 . C. Number: 3504 Question: A jet aeroplane equipped with inboard and outboard ailerons is cruising at its normal cruise Mach number. as the airspeed increases the aerodynamic loads on the ailerons tend to twist the wing at the tips. where it is more fiexible. On some aeroplanes. C. D.B 14914 . the servo tab also serves as a trim tab. B.Number: 3830 Question: Which of the following statements concerning control is correct? A. only the spoilers will be active. D. Symmetrically deflected spoilers.C .

elevator deflection and/or slat extension. Number: 13212 Question: If the nose of an aeroplane yaws left. Pitching and yawing. B. C. symmetrical spoiler deflection and/or elevator deflection. D. C. Pitching and rolling. C. B. D. a decrease in relative airspeed on the right wing. C. Rolling and yawing. D. speed brake extension or wing flap deflection.05-05 . Pitching and adverse yaw. Number: 178 Question: If the nose of an aeroplane yaws left. which increase the lift on that wing so that the aeroplane starts to roll in the same direction as the yaw. aileron deflection and/or rudder deflection. this causes: A. an increase in lift on the left wing. an increase in lift on the left wing. which increases the lift on that wing so that the aeroplane starts to roll in the same direction as the yaw. 16637 . D.CONTROL (5 Fragen) Number: 16637 Question: Yaw is followed by roll because the: A. a roll to the right. B.D 13212 . yawing motion generated by rudder deflection causes a speed increase of the inner wing. rudder is located above the longitudinal axis and when it is deflected.A 178 . a decrease in relative airspeed on the right wing. this causes: A.C . Number: 16726 Question: Rotation about the longitudinal axis of an aeroplane can be achieved by: A. B. C. Number: 961 Question: Which moments or motions interact in a dutch roll? A. B. rolling motion generated by rudder deflection causes a speed increase of the outer wing which increases the lift on that wing so the aeroplane starts to roll in the direction of the turn. yawing motion generated by rudder deflection causes a speed increase of the outer wing. a roll to the right. D.D 16726 .C 961 . it causes a rolling moment in the same direction as the yaw. a roll to the left. a roll to the left.

dynamic pressure. D. Number: 2355 Question: Which kind of ''tab'' is commonly used in case of manual reversion of fully powered flight controls? A.spring units.e. depend on: A. tab down. to lack . some form of artificial feel is B. D. C. B. At high IAS it behaves like a fixed extension of the elevator. B. At high IAS it behaves like a servo tab. D. . D.Pitot-static Q-feel units. C. Number: 2363 Question: Which statement is correct about a spring tab? A. control surface up). 16469 .B 2363 . so that the flight deck controls automatically return to their neutral positions when released.fehlen This is because the amount of airfiow passing over the tab is too low to produce the necessary hinge moment and hence the required defiection. . In practice. To prevent over-controlling and overstressing the aircraft. Artificial feel systems normally also incorporate a self-centring mechanism. the servo tab lacks effectiveness at low airspeeds when large control defiections are required.CONTROL (17 Fragen) Number: 16469 Question: What is the primary input for an artificial feel system? A. stabiliser position. On transport category aircraft feel forces are provided by . Movement of the tab causes the control surface to move to a new position of equilibrium in a direction of travel opposite to that of the tab (i. elevator deflection. Servo tab. TAS. IAS. At low IAS it behaves like a servo tab.05-06 .A .D 1002 . Its main purpose is to increase stick force per g. that the control forces experienced represent those of a manually contro lled aircraft. Balance tab. static pressure.D 2355 . provided by an elevator feel system. centralising the control surfaces. elevator deflection. Mach number. Anti-balance tab. incorporated in the control system. Spring tab. B. total pressure.or a combination of both. so C. Static pressure. Number: 1002 Question: Stick forces. Servo Tab is directly controlled by the pilot through a pivot point and movement of the tab supplies the hinge moment necessary to move the main control surface. static pressure. C. stabiliser position.

mass balancing weight.D 15514 .Number: 13087 Question: Which three aerodynamic means decrease manoeuvring stick forces? A. Spring tab . Number: 15514 Question: The tab in the figure represents: A.balance tab.e. Spring tab . 13087 . trimming is superfluous. control surface up). Horn Balance B.fehlen This is because the amount of airfiow passing over the tab is too low to produce the necessary hinge moment and hence the required defiection. aerodynamic balancing of the control surfaces is meaningless. B. they only function in combination with an elevator trim tab. C. Servo tab . D.trim tab .horn balance . C. to lack . a part of the aerodynamic forces is still felt on the column. D. the servo tab lacks effectiveness at low airspeeds when large control defiections are required. In practice. C.horn balance . B. Movement of the tab causes the control surface to move to a new position of equilibrium in a direction of travel opposite to that of the tab (i. Servo tab .A .spring tab.trim tab . a servo tab.bobweight. D. an anti-balance tab. a trim tab. Servo Tab is directly controlled by the pilot through a pivot point and movement of the tab supplies the hinge moment necessary to move the main control surface. tab down. a balance tab .C 12975 . Number: 12975 Question: When power assisted controls are used for pitch control: A.

servo tab. Balance Tabs They are connected to the tailplane by a mechanical linkage that causes them to move in the opposite direction to the control surface Number: 3849 Question: When power assisted controls are used for pitch control: A. horn balance. C.Number: 15524 Question: The tab in the figure represents: A. D. seal between the wing trailing edge and the leading edge of control surface. servo tab. a trim tab. spring tab. they only function in combination with an elevator trim tab. C. horn balance and mass balance.D 3861 .D 3849 . Number: 3861 Question: Examples of aerodynamic balancing of control surfaces are: A. and mass balance. mass in the nose of the control surface. B. 15524 . a balance tab that also functions as a trim tab. a part of the aerodynamic forces is still felt on the column. D.B . B. spring tab. balance tab. C. and power assisted control. aerodynamic balancing of the control surfaces is meaningless. D. a control tab. an antibalance tab. trimming is superfluous. B.

servo tab is deflected down and moves the elevator up. to obtain mass balancing. to decrease the effective longitudinal dihedral of the aeroplane. to prevent flutter. but even that would be a bit untidy because in a seal balance the seal is in the gap between the wing housing for the control and the leading edge of the control. upper and lower rudder. Pitch control sense is reversed. It is not connected to the elevator but works in the unnatural sense to drive the elevator in the natural sense. The use of wing "trailing edge" is confusing Number: 3654 Question: Which statement about a primary control surface controlled by a servo tab. C. The function of a servo tab is very different from a balance tab. The system requires airflow from leading edge to trailing edge. The answer would make sense if it said "a seal between the wing trailing edge and the leading edge of the control surface". horn balance. ie if you wish to pitch the aircraft nose up. so with the elevator locked you only have very limited control from the tab only and in the unnatural sense . weight in the nose of the control surface. Number: 3880 Question: A horn balance in a control system has the following purpose: A. D.C 3880 . B. D. you have no trim or balance function left. Horn Balance Number: 3657 Question: Examples of aerodynamic balancing of control surfaces are: A. Fowler flaps.Number: 3870 Question: An aeroplane has a servo tab controlled elevator. The pitch control forces double. of course. when taxiing in a tailwind the effectiveness of this type of control is reduced. The servo tab at the trailing edge of the main flying control surface produces a aerodynamic force to move the control surface. C. The servo-tab now works as a negative trim-tab.and. 3870 .klemmt A. to decrease stick forces. With a servo tab control system movement of the pilot’s flight controls moves the servo tab. is correct? A. Due to the effectiveness of the servo tab the control surface area can be smaller.D 3657 . The position is undetermined during taxiing. The control effectiveness of the primary surface is increased by servo tab deflection.D 3654 . D. in particular with tailwind. The servo tab is displaced in the opposite direction in which the flight control surface moves. D. B. What will happen if the elevator jams during flight? jams . The servo tab can also be used as a balance tab. C. C.D . B. Only the tab is left functioning. seal between wing's trailing edge and leading edge of a control surface. upper and lower rudder. seal between wing's trailing edge and leading edge of a control surface. horn balance. B. Pitch control is lost.

horn balance. mass balancing. C. Number: 14858 Question: In general. 14857 . D. C. bobweight. with fully powered flight controls. when there is a trimmable stabiliser. a horn balance. control surfaces with increased area behind the hinge. Balance tab. Mass balance.C . when the flight control surfaces are fitted with control tabs or trim tabs.B 15068 . B. D. Number: 15068 Question: Artificial feel is required: A. artificial feel system. control forces are reduced by: A. Servo tab. B. balance tab. C. servo tab and spring tab. D. a servo tab. B. a balance tab. artificial feel system. control surfaces with increased area. with power assisted flight controls. forward shift of the CG and a servo tab.Number: 14857 Question: Which aerodynamic design features can be used to reduce control forces? A.B 14858 . spring tab and mass balancing. a trim tab and spring tab. servo tab. Horn balance.

C. above the hinge. behind the hinge.C . below the hinge. D. 3888 . in front of the hinge. these weights will be located with respect to the hinge of the control surface: A.CONTROL (1 Fragen) Number: 3888 Question: When flutter damping of control surfaces is obtained by mass balancing. B.05-07 .

B. D. nose-left. neutral. the elevator is deflected further downwards and the trim tab further upwards. the cockpit trim indicator presents: A. C. C. B. but is aerodynamically more efficient. a stabiliser trim is more sensitive to flutter. as speed is reduced. C. the elevator and trim tab do not move. whilst trimming to keep the stick force zero: A. No effect.B 1415 . nose-down. Number: 15573 Question: When comparing a stabiliser trim system with an elevator trim system. both elevator and trim tab are deflected further upwards. B. Aeroplane nose up trim increases the static longitudinal stability. a stabiliser trim is able to compensate larger changes in pitching moments. an elevator trim is more suitable for aeroplanes with a large CG range. D. which of these statements is correct? A. Aeroplane nose down trim increases the static longitudinal stability. particularly at high airspeeds. C. B. Number: 15734 Question: In straight flight. 13241 .D 15573 . The Variable Incidence Horizontal Stabiliser provides pitch trim on most transport category aircraft. both elevator and trim tab are deflected further upwards. the elevator is deflected further upwards and the trim tab further downwards. D.D . the elevator is deflected further downwards and the trim tab further upwards. D. D. the elevator is deflected further upwards and the trim tab further downwards. nose-up.Number: 13241 Question: In straight and level flight. Number: 1415 Question: If the elevator trim tab is deflected up. Number: 12954 Question: What is the effect of elevator trim tab adjustment on the static longitudinal stability of an aeroplane? A.C 15734 . and can provide a considerable trim range. C. Varying the angle of incidence has the same effect as moving the elevator.D 12954 . Depends on the value of stick force/g. as speed is reduced: A. B. the elevator and trim tab do not move. an elevator trim is able to compensate larger changes in pitching moments.

The position depends on speed. but is aerodynamically more efficient. D. the position of slats and flaps and the position of the centre of gravity. choose a lower landing speed than normal. if possible. B. choose a higher landing speed than normal and/or use a lower flapsetting for landing. early nose wheel raising will take place. relocate as many passengers as possible to the front of the cabin. The elevator is always deflected slightly downwards in order to have sufficient remaining flare capability. 3882 .A 3887 . C.D . D. C. C. and can provide a considerable trim range. The Variable Incidence Horizontal Stabiliser provides pitch trim on most transport category aircraft.Number: 3882 Question: What is the position of the elevator in relation to the trimmable horizontal stabiliser of a power assisted aeroplane that is in trim? A. except if is at absolute zero. there will be a tendency to over-rotate. Varying the angle of incidence has the same effect as moving the elevator. use the Mach trimmer until after landing. To give you that feel there will always be some angle between the control surface and the tail plane. Number: 3887 Question: When a jet transport aeroplane takes off with the CG at the forward limit and the trimmable horizontal stabiliser (THS) is positioned at the maximum allowable nose down position for take-off: A. B. At a forward CG the elevator is deflected upward and at an aft CG the elevator is deflected downward. rotation will be normal using the normal rotation technique. B.A 3476 . but the moment you move it out of the trimmed position you must experience the air load on the control surface. Number: 3476 Question: What should be usually done to perform a landing with the stabiliser jammed in the cruise flight position? A. so you do have feedback from the controls. In the power assisted hydraulic controls you move the control surface then the hydraulics assist you. particularly at high airspeeds. D. When trimmed you will have no forces on the stick. The elevator deflection (compared with the stabiliser position) is always zero. rotation will require a higher than normal stick force.

stall speed. as speed is increased. D. At a forward CG. position of the aeroplane''s centre of gravity. Number: 14310 Question: What is the position of the elevator in relation to the trimmable horizontal stabiliser of an aeroplane with fully hydraulically operated flight controls that is in trim? A. both elevator and trim tab are deflected further downwards. whilst trimming to keep the stick force zero: A. B. B. The elevator is always deflected slightly downward in order to have sufficient remaining flare capability. trim tab deflection increases VMO. B. the elevator is deflected upward and at an aft CG.D 14306 . the elevator and trim tab do not move. D. the position of flaps and slats and the position of the centre of gravity. C. centre of gravity position of the fuel. the elevator is deflected further downwards and the trim tab further upwards. it is deflected downward. the elevator is deflected further upwards and the trim tab further downwards. the pilot does not feel the stick forces at all. Number: 14306 Question: The most important factor determining the required position of the Trimmable Horizontal Stabiliser (THS) for take off is the: A. C. C. This is because: A.B 14485 . C.Number: 3477 Question: In general transport aeroplanes with power assisted flight controls are fitted with an adjustable stabiliser instead of trim tabs on the elevator. mechanical adjustment of trim tabs creates too many problems. Number: 14485 Question: In straight flight. Elevator deflection is zero. The position depends on speed.C . D. 3477 . D.B 14310 . B. effectiveness of trim tabs is insufficient for those aeroplanes. total mass of the aeroplane.

In most cases. C. Number: 14597 Question: When a jet transport aeroplane takes off with the CG at the forward limit and the trimmable horizontal stabiliser (THS) is positioned at the maximum allowable nose up position for take-off: A. No effect with a forward CG. rotation will be normal using the normal rotation technique. B. C. early nose wheel raising will take place. there will be a tendency to over-rotate. In most cases. rotation will require a higher than normal stick force. a higher than normal landing speed is required. No effect when landing on a high elevation runway. 14311 . D.Number: 14311 Question: What is the effect on landing speed when a trimmable horizontal stabiliser jams at high IAS? A.C . B. no effect.D 14597 . D.

C. D. which of these statements are correct or incorrect? I. II is incorrect. A jammed trim tab causes less control difficulty. II is correct. rotation will require higher than normal stick force.Number: 14598 Question: When a jet transport aeroplane takes off with the CG at the aft limit and the trimmable horizontal stabiliser (THS) is positioned at the maximum allowable nose up position for take-off: A. II is correct. B. A. II is incorrect. The effects of a trim tab runaway are more serious. I is correct. C. there will be a tendency to under-rotate. II. D. 14598 . I is incorrect.C . I is incorrect. early nose wheel raising will take place. rotation will be normal using the normal rotation technique. I is correct. B. Number: 14659 Question: Comparing the differences between a horizontal trimmable stabiliser and an elevator trim tab.A 14659 .

A trimmed aeroplane with an aft CG requires the stabiliser leading edge to be higher than in the case of a forward CG in the same condition. D. which of these statements is correct? A. an elevator trim is more suitable for aeroplanes with a large CG range. Number: 14691 Question: When comparing a stabiliser trim system with an elevator trim system. which of these statements is correct? A. a elevator trim is able to compensate larger changes in pitching moments. D. C. Number: 14692 Question: When comparing a stabiliser trim system with an elevator trim system. a stabiliser trim is less sensitive to flutter. B. a stabiliser trim is not as capable to compensate large changes in pitching moments. an elevator trim is more suitable for aeroplanes with a large CG range. an elevator trim is able to compensate larger changes in pitching moments. A trimmed aeroplane with an aft CG requires the stabiliser leading edge to be lower than in the case of a forward CG in the same condition.D 14690 . an elevator trim produces lower trim drag B.Number: 14682 Question: Which of these statements about a trimmable horizontal stabiliser is correct? A. a stabiliser trim is more sensitive to flutter. C. B. stabiliser trim is adjusted fully nose up to obtain maximum elevator authority at rotation during take-off. B. the need for stabiliser adjustment is dependent on flap position only. an elevator trim is less suitable for aeroplanes with a large CG range. Because take-off speeds do not vary with CG position. D. Number: 14690 Question: When comparing an elevator trim system with a stabiliser trim system.B . an elevator trim is more suitable for aeroplanes with a large CG range. C.D 14692 . an elevator trim is more sensitive to flutter. At the aft CG limit. 14682 . C. D. an elevator trim is able to compensate larger changes in pitching moments.C 14691 . which of these statements is correct? A.

II is correct. OBLIQUE SHOCK WAVE An oblique shock wave is a compression wave and is similar to a normal shock wave. B. I is correct. I is incorrect. but the energy loss still has to be overcome by the aircraft engines. C. The density behind an oblique shock wave is lower than in front of it. A. II is incorrect. The wave angle depends on the Mach number of the approaching flow and the angle of the wedge. II. I is correct. As the air passes through an oblique shock wave its pressure. II is incorrect. The local speed of sound behind an oblique shock wave is lower than in front of it. D. temperature and density all increase. 16083 .B . I is incorrect. except that the airflow changes direction into a corner and its velocity decreases to a lower supersonic value.07-00 NEW QUESTIONS PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT 07-01 New Questions (20 Questions) Number: 16083 Question: Which of these statements about an oblique shock wave are correct or incorrect? I. This type of shock wave is weaker than the normal shock wave. II is correct.

D . I is incorrect. II is correct.D 16185 . II is incorrect. When the EAS decreases. II is incorrect. II is incorrect. B. A.66 ft/sec. 16165 . I is correct. the gust load factor decreases. The total pressure in the undisturbed airflow is higher than in the throat.25 ft/sec. D. C. The dynamic pressure in the undisturbed airflow is lower than in the throat. Speed VD (design dive speed) +/. I is correct. I is correct. I is incorrect. D. which statement is correct? I. When the wing area decreases. II is incorrect. I is incorrect.Number: 16165 Question: Which of these statements about the gust load factor on an aeroplane are correct or incorrect? I. II is correct.50 ft/sec. II. the gust load factor decreases. II. C. GUST LOAD Speed VB (max gust intensity speed) +/. B. Speed VC (design cruise speed) +/. I is incorrect. Number: 16185 Question: Considering subsonic incompressible airflow through a Venturi. II is correct. I is correct. A. II is correct.

Therefore. which statement is correct? I. II is incorrect. is correct? I. C. (ref: Fig.21). This results in a reduction in the amount of induced downwash behind the wing and increases the wing's effective angle of attack Upwash and downwash are reduced. I is incorrect. A. C. II is incorrect. I is correct. and the pitching moment because of changes to the effective angle of attack of the tailplane. Number: 16192 Question: Which statement. I is correct. 5. II. The total pressure in the throat is higher than in the undisturbed airflow. I is incorrect. GROUND EFFECT Ground effect occurs because the surface alters the airflow pattern around the wings. In addition. 5. B. I is incorrect. II is incorrect. the surface restricts the formation of the wingtip vortices. II is correct. I is correct. D.Number: 16187 Question: Considering subsonic incompressible airflow through a Venturi. about an aeroplane leaving ground effect at constant angle of attack. II is correct. A. II is correct. 16187 . I is correct. (Ref: Fig. Primarily. I is incorrect. The lift coefficient CL decreases. The induced drag coefficient CDi decreases.12). D. causing the effective angle of attack of the wing to increase.D . II.D 16192 . The dynamic pressure in the throat is higher than in the undisturbed airflow. II is incorrect. when an aircraft is "in ground effect" lift will generally be increased and induced drag (CD) will be decreased. B. the reduced downwash will effect both longitudinal stability because of CP movement. II is correct.

D . I is incorrect. C. The speed at which total drag is a minimum (V md) occurs when the induced and parasite drag are equal Limit load factors are based on the maximum weight of the aircraft.Number: 16194 Question: Which of these statements about induced drag are correct or incorrect? I. A. II is incorrect. II. B. II is incorrect. II is correct. Induced drag decreases as angle of attack decreases. 16194 . I is correct. I is correct. II is correct. I is incorrect. At constant load factor. D. induced drag increases with decreasing aeroplane mass.

which statement is correct? I. Flutter is caused by the combined effects of . B. manually operated control surfaces are generally mass balanced. thus altering the period of vibration and the liability to fiutter. B. II is incorrect. A.MASS BALANCE . These additional weights are usually installed internally along the leading edge of the control surface. A trim tab is less suitable for jet transport aeroplanes because of their large speed range. I is correct. II is correct. II.changes in the pressure distribution around the control surface FLUTTER . I is incorrect. inside the horn balance.B . Occurrence of flutter is independent of IAS. Aero-elastic coupling affects flutter characteristics. To help eliminate fiutter in flight. II is correct. I is correct. 16196 . may ultimately lead to structural failure. II is correct. II.C 16199 . C. A trim tab is a more powerful means of trimming. D. D. Attaching weights forward of the hinge line brings the centre of gravity of the control surface to the hinge-line. II is incorrect. I is correct. C. the resultant oscillations quickly increase in amplitude. If these forces become coincident and act in phase with each other. II is incorrect. II is correct. and the forces due to the elastic nature of the aircraft structure itself (aeroelastic forces). I is correct. II is incorrect. I is incorrect.Number: 16196 Question: Which of these statements about flutter are correct or incorrect? I. I is incorrect. I is incorrect. or on an arm attached to the surface Number: 16199 Question: Comparing the differences between a horizontal trimmable stabiliser and an elevator trim tab. A.with changing angles of attack (aerodynamic forces). and if left unchecked.

The initial tendency of the nose of the aeroplane is to move to the left. II is incorrect. B. I is incorrect. except that the airflow changes direction into a corner and its velocity decreases to a lower supersonic value. temperature and density all increase. II is incorrect. I is correct. II.D 16206 . II is incorrect. with the relative airflow coming from the left. II is correct. B. C. I is incorrect. I is incorrect. The wave angle depends on the Mach number of the approaching flow and the angle of the wedge. Number: 16206 Question: Which of these statements about an oblique shock wave are correct or incorrect? I.B . but the energy loss still has to be overcome by the aircraft engines. I is correct. A. on an aeroplane that exhibits both directional and lateral stability? I. D. The initial tendency of the left wing is to move down.Number: 16203 Question: Which of these statements are correct or incorrect regarding a sideslip. II is incorrect. As the air passes through an oblique shock wave its pressure. A. 16203 . II is correct. I is incorrect. D. This type of shock wave is weaker than the normal shock wave. C. The density behind an oblique shock wave is higher than in front of it. II. I is correct. I is correct. II is correct. The local speed of sound behind an oblique shock wave is lower than in front of it. OBLIQUE SHOCK WAVE An oblique shock wave is a compression wave and is similar to a normal shock wave. I is correct.

B. A. II. Assuming no flow separation. The strength of wing tip vortices decreases as the aspect ratio increases. the strength of wing tip vortices increases as the angle of attack increases. m c = AVERAGE CHORD. m AR = ASPECT RATIO AR = b/c AR = b²/S 16216 . sq. C. I is incorrect.Number: 16216 Question: Which of these statements about the strength of wing tip vortices are correct or incorrect? I. II is incorrect. m (b x c) b = SPAN. II is correct. I is incorrect. I is correct. II is incorrect. ASPECT RATIO S = WING AREA. D. I is correct.A . II is correct.

positive. D. This is a very desirable characteristic. if the centre of pressure coincides with the centre of gravity. favored in the design of low cost. In comparison. low speed airplanes. its stall characteristics in some respects are inferior to the rectangular wing. It is. The tapered airfoil is desirable from the standpoint of weight and stiffness.D 3857 . Note that it is possible for the trailing edge of the inboard portion of the rectangular wing to be stalled while the rest of the wing is developing lift. B.Number: 71 Question: The lift coefficient of a symmetrical aerofoil section at zero angle of attack is: A. While it is true that the elliptical wing provides the best lift coefficients before reaching an incipient stall. It is also comparatively difficult to construct. though as we shall see. therefore.A . and is usually quite stable. In order to preserve the aerodynamic efficiency of the elliptical wing. but again is not as efficient aerodynamically as the elliptical wing. Tapered. The elliptical wing is the ideal subsonic planform since it provides for a minimum of induced drag for a given aspect ratio. and lateral control may be difficult because of poor aileron effectiveness. C. positive. zero. rectangular and tapered wings are sometimes "tailored" through use of wing twist and variation in airfoil sections until they provide as nearly as possible the elliptical wing's lift distribution. Elliptical. Number: 3857 Question: Which of the following wing planforms gives the highest local profile lift coefficient at the wingroot ? A. Positive angle of sweep. Rectangular. negative. 71 . and along with simplicity of construction is the reason why this type of wing is so popular in light airplanes. B. the rectangular wing has a tendency to stall first at the wing root and provides adequate stall warning. C. adequate aileron effectiveness. despite certain structural and aerodynamic inefficiencies. D. Stall progression patterns for various wing planforms are graphically depicted in Figure 17-13. it gives little advance warning of a complete stall.

Left yaw about the vertical axis and right roll about the longitudinal axis.Number: 6641 Question: Left rudder input will cause: A. B. C. 6641 . C. The horizontal component of weight. Right yaw about the vertical axis and left roll about the longitudinal axis. The horizontal component of lift. The down going wing experiences a decrease in angle of attack. Left yaw about the vertical axis and left roll about the longitudinal axis. The vertical component of lift. The angle of attack depends on whether the aeroplane changes speed. The down going wing experiences an increase in angle of attack. C. D. B.C . Centrifugal force.A 6645 . The down going wing has no angle of attack. Number: 6642 Question: If a turbulent gust causes an aeroplane to roll: A. B. D.B 6642 . Number: 6645 Question: Which forces produce the necessary normal acceleration to make an aircraft turn? A. Right yaw about the vertical axis and right roll about the longitudinal axis. D.

C. Move up relative to the elevator chord line. D. C. Remain in line with the elevator. Enables the pilot to maintain control in case of hydraulic failure. B. Relieve stresses on the hydraulic actuators.A .D 6654 . D. Relieve stresses on the trim tab. 6652 . Remain in line with the tailplane. Move down relative to the elevator chord line. Number: 6654 Question: Deflecting the elevator up. B.Number: 6652 Question: The reasons for having a trim system on a powered assisted flying controls is: A. Enables the stick force to be reduced to zero. will cause the tab to: A. when the trim tab is in neutral.

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6655 . C. B. Less trim drag and maximum elevator authority retained.C .07-00 NEW QUESTIONS PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT 07-02 New Questions (20 Questions) Number: 6655 Question: What is the advantage of a variable incidence tailplane over a fixed incidence tailplane with elevator and trim tab? A. Increased flight stability and less weight. D. Elevator movement is restricted at high speed. Linkages and mechanism less complicated.

B. Early nose wheel raising will take place. 6658 . C. so that more effort is required when the pilot attempts to move the control column to the rear. D. If the THS position is just within the limits of the green band.Number: 6658 Question: An aircraft is equipped with an all flying tailplane which has a combined anti-balance and trimming tab. The rotation will require extra stick force. so that less effort is required when the pilot attempts to move the control column to the rear. The tab moves down. Which of the following statements is most correct? A. Rotation will be normal. so that less effort is required when the pilot attempts to move the control column to the rear. The tab moves down. so that more effect is required when the pilot attempts to move the control column to the rear. Number: 6659 Question: Which statement about a jet transport aeroplane is correct during take-off with the CG at the forward limit and the trimmable horizontal stabiliser (THS) positioned at the maximum allowable aeroplane down position? A. the take off warning system will be activated.C . The tab moves up.A 6659 . D. The tab moves up. The top of the trim wheel is moved forward. B. C.

Depends on aeroplane mass and pressure altitude. B. A stabiliser trim is more suitable to cope with the large trim changes generated by the high lift devices on most jet transport aeroplanes. Number: 6667 Question: The manoeuvring speed VA.Maximum design manoeuvring speed and is the highest speed where the aircraft will stall before it exceeds the maximum load factor. A stabiliser trim runaway causes less control difficulty. II is incorrect. but dependent on pressure altitude. D. I is incorrect. D. B. Is independent of aeroplane mass. which of these statements are correct or incorrect? I. VA .Number: 6661 Question: Comparing the differences between a horizontal trimmable stabiliser and an elevator trim tab. I is incorrect. 6661 . Depends on aeroplane mass and is independent of pressure altitude. II.C . I is correct. II is correct. A. II is incorrect. expressed as indicated airspeed of a transport aeroplane: A. C.D 6667 . C. Is a constant value. II is correct. I is correct.

manoeuvres may be performed safely provided that the limit load factor is not exceeded. Manoeuvres at speeds above point A therefore have the potential to cause permanent deformation to the structure or structural failure if the ultimate load is exceeded.Number: 6668 Question: When flying at speeds above VA: A.B . The aircraft may self-destruct in a turn.5 but at 2. There is of course a safety factor on the airframe of 1·5 so complete failure of the structure will not occur at the load factor of 2. C. This does not mean that any manoeuvre at a speed greater than point A will always cause structural damage. B. Full elevator deflection may result in damage to the airframe or structural failure. 6668 . An overspeed warning will be activated.75.5 x 1.5 = 3. The aircraft cannot be stalled. D.

I is incorrect. Which of the following correctly describes the increase in positive G felt by the aircraft? A. D. Less at altitude. 10% lower.C 6677 . Vertical gusts will affect the load factor (n) by changing the angle of attack of the wing. 6671 .D 6673 . More with a swept wing. When the slope of the lift curve versus angle of attack curve decreases. A. II. II is incorrect. II is incorrect. Number: 6677 Question: Which of these statements about the gust load factor on an aeroplane are correct or incorrect? I. B. More with a high aspect ratio straight wing. C. Number: 6673 Question: An aircraft flying at a given EAS is subjected to a positive gust of 50kt EAS. 4.36% lower. the gust load factor decreases. I is correct. II is correct. I is correct. I is incorrect. When the wing loading decreases. the gust load factor decreases. D. II is correct. 19% lower. C.Number: 6671 Question: By what percentage does VA (EAS) alter when the aeroplane's weight decreases by 19%? A. D. More at high aircraft weight. B. B. C. No change.A .

Angle of Attack is the angle between the relative airflow and the blade section chord line. B. 6683 . Decrease when the TAS decreases. Remain constant when the TAS increases. Increase when the TAS decreases.Number: 6683 Question: For a given RPM of a fixed pitch propeller. the blade angle of attack will: A. Remain constant when the TAS decreases. C. D.B .

D. Increase the power absorption capability. B. 6686 . Produce an increased load on the right wheel due to torque reaction. Increase the propeller efficiency. C. Produce an increased load on the right wheel due to gyroscopic effect. Give the aircraft greater range. D. if all else is the same: A. B. Produce an increased load on the left wheel due to torque reaction. Number: 6691 Question: A propeller rotating anti-clockwise when viewed from the front. Increase the propeller solidity. Produce an increased load on the left wheel due to gyroscopic effect. during the take-off ground roll will: A.Number: 6686 Question: Increasing the camber on propeller blades will.A 6691 .C . C.

Increasing the torque and gyroscopic effects. Cancelling out the torque and gyroscopic effects. D. B. 6694 . striking the fin on the left side. No effect. B.entgegensetzen Number: 6695 Question: In a single engine a/c with clockwise rotating propeller. counter . D. Increasing the torque but decreasing the gyroscopic effect.D 6697 . Yaw to left. The slipstream. Higher helix angle. Yaw to right. B. Higher lift on the right wing. C. D. Nose down pitch (tail up) Asymmetric Blade Effect C. Decreasing the torque but increasing the gyroscopic effect.D . C. asymmetric blade effect causes: A. The torque effect. at the start of the take off run. Number: 6697 Question: For a tail wheel aircraft with a right handed propeller.D 6695 . a left yaw is generated due to: A.Number: 6694 Question: Counter rotating propellers have the effect of: A.

Compressive. Tensile. Thrust. shear. D.C . drag. 6699 . lift and weight. shear and torsional.Number: 6699 Question: An aircraft in flight is affected by loads. tensile. These may be classified as: A. C. bending. B. shear and torsional. twisting and stretching. Compressive.

the aircraft should be flown with the IAS at which: A.BEST RATE OF CLIMB Vy . The best ratio of thrust / drag is prevailing.PROPELLER AEROPLANE VMD VMP Blue Area . The best lift / drag ratio is prevailing. C.Velocity for Minimum Drag .Velocity für Minimum Power Required .Exces Thrust available 6700 .TURBOJET AEROPLANE Vy .PROPELLER AEROPLANE Vx . The best ratio of speed / drag is reached.D . The power excess is maximal. D.BEST ANGLE OF CLIMB Vx . Vy . B.Number: 6700 Question: In order to climb with the speed for maximum climb rate.TURBOJET AEROPLANE Vx .

Number: 6703 Question: Ignoring thrust effects in a steady straight climb at a climb angle 'gamma'. W / cos gamma D. the lift of an aeroplane with weight W is: A. W * (1-tan gamma) B.B . W * cos gamma C. W * (1-sin gamma) 6703 .

D. CL MAX.C .Number: 6704 Question: The maximum glide range of an aircraft will depend on wind and: A. B. Speed for minimum power required. 6704 . C. Minimum Lift / Drag ratio. The ratio to lift to drag which varies according to angle of attack.

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the greater the angle of bank. D. Increase thrust. the greater the centripetal force and the greater the total lift requirement.D . To maintain a steady balanced turn at a constant altitude. Increase angle of attack.07-00 NEW QUESTIONS PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT 07-03 New Questions (20 Questions) Number: 6707 Question: What action must the pilot take to maintain altitude and airspeed when turning in a jet aircraft? A. Increase angle of attack and thrust. B. 6707. Decrease the turn radius. C.

TAS and angle of bank. The radius of turn depends upon the weight and load factor. The lift force provides a centripetal force and a force that opposes the weight of the aircraft.C 6711 . The centrifugal force directly balances the weight of the aircraft. Number: 6711 Question: During a correctly balanced turn: A. C. D. C. The lift force balances the aircraft weight. The rate of turn depends upon the weight. 6708 . B. The radius of turn depends only upon load factor.B . D. B.Number: 6708 Question: In a steady turn at constant height: A. The rate of turn depends upon the TAS and angle of bank. The thrust is a component of the centrifugal force.

If the TAS of A is 130 kt and the TAS of B is 200 kt: A. The turn radius of A is greater than that of B. The lift coefficient of A is less that that of B. B.D . are flying steady level co-ordinated 20° bank turns. The rate of turn of A is greater than that of B. 6712 . with the same mass.Number: 6712 Question: Two identical aeroplanes A and B. C. The load factor of A is greater than that of B. D.

II is incorrect. I is incorrect. I is correct. II is incorrect. For a given engine and propeller blade shape. A. A. Right yaw produces pitch up. Propeller noise remains the same when the blade tip speed increases. C.B . II is correct. B. C. II is incorrect. a decrease in the number of propeller blades allows for a reduction in propeller noise.Number: 16157 Question: Which statement about propeller noise is correct? I. I is incorrect. II is correct. II.A 16158 . Pitch up produces left yaw. D. D. B. I is correct. II. I is correct. II is correct. I is incorrect. I is incorrect. Number: 16158 Question: Which statement is correct regarding the gyroscopic effect of a clockwise rotating propeller on a single engine aeroplane? I. II is incorrect. I is correct. 16157 . II is correct.

II.A .C 16163 . which statement is correct? I. A. The dynamic pressure in the undisturbed airflow is the same as in the throat. II is correct. A. The total pressure in the undisturbed airflow is higher than in the throat. I is correct. C. I is incorrect. I is correct. II is incorrect. The speed in the undisturbed airflow is the same as in the throat. II is incorrect. II is correct. 16161 . II is incorrect. D. The static pressure in the undisturbed airflow is lower than in the throat. I is correct. I is incorrect. C. II.Number: 16161 Question: Considering subsonic incompressible airflow through a Venturi. D. II is correct. Number: 16163 Question: Considering subsonic incompressible airflow through a Venturi. which statement is correct? I. I is incorrect. I is correct. B. I is incorrect. II is correct. II is incorrect. B.

sq. II is incorrect.Number: 16166 Question: Which of these statements about the strength of wing tip vortices are correct or incorrect? I. m (b x c) b = SPAN. ASPECT RATIO S = WING AREA. The strength of wing tip vortices decreases as the aspect ratio increases. II is correct. m AR = ASPECT RATIO AR = b/c AR = b²/S 16166 . II. D. I is incorrect. m c = AVERAGE CHORD. II is incorrect. I is correct. I is incorrect. I is correct. the strength of wing tip vortices decreases as the angle of attack decreases. A. II is correct. Assuming no flow separation. C.C . B.

II is incorrect. D. causing the effective angle of attack of the wing to increase. when an aircraft is "in ground effect" lift will generally be increased and induced drag (CD) will be decreased. Therefore. This results in a reduction in the amount of induced downwash behind the wing and increases the wing's effective angle of attack Upwash and downwash are reduced.21). (ref: Fig. A. C. I is correct. I is correct. I is incorrect. the surface restricts the formation of the wingtip vortices. The lift coefficient CL decreases.B . B. is correct? I. In addition. 5. Primarily. about an aeroplane leaving ground effect at constant angle of attack. II. II is incorrect. 5.Number: 16191 Question: Which statement.12). I is incorrect. 16191 . Ground effect occurs because the surface alters the airflow pattern around the wings. II is correct. II is correct. the reduced downwash will effect both longitudinal stability because of CP movement. The induced drag coefficient CDi remains constant. (Ref: Fig. and the pitching moment because of changes to the effective angle of attack of the tailplane.

I is incorrect. I is correct.Number: 16201 Question: Comparing the differences between a horizontal trimmable stabiliser and an elevator trim tab. A. II is incorrect. II is correct. A jammed stabiliser trim causes less control difficulty. II.A . II is incorrect. I is incorrect. C. B. 16201 . I is correct. D. which of these statements are correct or incorrect? I. The effects of a stabiliser trim runaway are more serious. II is correct.

D 728 . II is incorrect. I is incorrect. II is correct. D. Number: 728 Question: The effect of a high wing with zero dihedral is as follows: A. The initial tendency of the nose of the aeroplane is to move to the left. The initial tendency of the left wing is to move down. with the relative airflow coming from the right.A . Negative dihedral effect C. II is incorrect. I is incorrect.Number: 16218 Question: Which of these statements are correct or incorrect regarding a sideslip. II is correct. I is correct. Its only purpose is to ease aeroplane loading 16218 . B. C. on an aeroplane that exhibits both directional and lateral stability? I. II. A. Positive dihedral effect B. I is correct. Zero dihedral effect D.

1. B. place these bodies in order of increasing pressure drag. place these bodies in order of decreasing pressure drag. 2.D 15299 . 2. 3. 3. 3.D . 1. 1. 2. C. B. 2. 1. 4. The correct answer is: A. 1. 3. 4. 4. 3. 15390 . D. 3. 2. D. 2. 3. 4. 3. 4. 4. 1. 1. 4. 4. C. The correct answer is: A.Number: 15390 Question: Assuming all bodies have the same cross-sectional area and are in motion. 2. 1. Number: 15299 Question: Assuming all bodies have the same cross-sectional area and are in motion. 2.

the Fowler flap gives the greatest increase in lift of the flaps considered. a zap flap. B. a Krueger flap.Number: 6585 Question: The type of flap which extends rearward from the trailing edge of the wing as it is lowered is called: A. 6585 . a split flap. Because of the combined effects of increased area and camber. a fowler flap. and also gives the least drag because of the slot and the reduction of thickness : chord ratio.A . D. C.

Just below 1. Rotation about the longitudinal axis. and D. Exactly 1.0 M B.0 M the turbulent wake behind the shock wave. Due to aileron deflection and is motion about the lateral axis.C 6643 . is called wave drag Number: 6643 Question: Roll is: A. Well above 1.Number: 6598 Question: The least energy loss through a normal shockwave occurs when the local Mach number is: A. Rotation about the normal axis.B . 6598 . Just above 1. Rotation about the longitudinal axis due to speed brake selection.0 M loss across the shock wave. B. D. C.0 M The combined effect of the energy C.

and not deployed as speed brakes.A . Right spoiler extended. right spoiler retracted. B. During take off only. When flaps are in landing configuration only. D. D. left spoiler retracted. Left spoiler extended. Number: 6646 Question: In an aircraft fitted with spoilers for lateral control. At high speeds. but left spoiler extended further. C. outer ailerons are used: A. At low speed. C. B. a roll to the right is initiated by: A.D 6646 . Both spoilers extended. 6644 . Right spoiler extended.Number: 6644 Question: When inner and outer ailerons are mounted.

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6649 . B.D . provided by a seal from the wing to the trailing edge of the aileron. The down going aileron moving through a smaller angle than the up going aileron. Longitudinal trim is less affected by changes in thrust. C.B 6653 . An external balance. with a sea from the wing to the leading edge of the aileron. Easier maintenance access. C. D. An internal balance (the leading edge of the aileron is housed within a box inside the wing trailing edge. Wings can have a lighter form of construction. vented to atmosphere.07-00 NEW QUESTIONS PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT 07-04 New Questions (20 Questions) Number: 6649 Question: Aerodynamic balance can be obtained by: A. The wing is less likely to suffer from flutter. B. D. A weight mounted forward of the control surface hinge line. Number: 6653 Question: Which of the following is an advantage of engines mounted on the rear fuselage over those mounted in wing pods? A.

B. tab down. C. Feel feedback in a control system. control surface up).e. A reduction in the pilots effort to move the controls against high air loads. Balance tab. Constant spring tension to a trim system. to lack . B. At low airspeeds. The spring tension is such that the tab does not come into operation until the stick force exceeds a predetermined value. Anti-balance tab. Servo Tab is directly controlled by the pilot through a pivot point and movement of the tab supplies the hinge moment necessary to move the main control surface. Reduced control surface loads at all speeds. Movement of the tab causes the control surface to move to a new position of equilibrium in a direction of travel opposite to that of the tab (i.fehlen This is because the amount of airfiow passing over the tab is too low to produce the necessary hinge moment and hence the required defiection. This is to provide: A. Spring tab. Spring Servo Tab overcomes the low-speed problems associated with a servo tab by including a spring box in the system. 6656 . At higher airspeeds. D. Number: 6657 Question: Which kind of tab is commonly used in case of manual reversion of fully powered flight controls? A.Number: 6656 Question: Some airplanes have spring tabs mounted into the control system. the servo tab lacks effectiveness at low airspeeds when large control defiections are required. Servo tab. the springs compress and the tab moves by way of the pivot point in the opposite direction to the control surface.D . D. In practice.C 6657 . the spring tension prevents movement of the servo tab and any control input by the pilot moves the control surface and tab as one piece. providing the necessary aerodynamic assistance. C.

with changing angles of attack (aerodynamic forces). may ultimately lead to structural failure.changes in the pressure distribution around the control surface . D. There will be a tendency to under-rotate. Attaching weights forward of the hinge line brings the centre of gravity of the control surface to the hinge-line. Occurs at high angles of attack. Early nose wheel raising will take place.C . Rotation will be normal using the normal rotation technique.Number: 6660 Question: When a jet transport aeroplane takes off with the CG at the aft limit and the trimmable horizontal stabiliser (THS) is positioned at the maximum allowable nose up position for take-off: A. Provides additional lift for take-off and landing in the event of engine failure. C. manually operated control surfaces are generally mass balanced. thus altering the period of vibration and the liability to fiutter. and if left unchecked. Is a means of predicting the critical safe life of the wing. Rotation will require higher than normal stick force. Number: 6663 Question: Control surface flutter: A. inside the horn balance. the resultant oscillations quickly increase in amplitude. To help eliminate fiutter in flight. If these forces become coincident and act in phase with each other. B. B. D. or on an arm attached to the surface 6660 . These additional weights are usually installed internally along the leading edge of the control surface. Flutter is caused by the combined effects of .B 6663 . C. and the forces due to the elastic nature of the aircraft structure itself (aeroelastic forces). Is a destructive vibration that must be damped out within the flight envelope.

whereas the torsional stiffness of a wing remains constant with speed. VMO cannot be exceeded. Twisting of the wing above reversal speed. If climbing at VMO. it is possible to exceed MMO. Similarly. VMO is normally expressed as lAS.B . but is stated as a Mach number and is the high altitude limiting speed since it is achieved before limiting lAS in the less dense air. but is normally strong enough to prevent any distortion at low airspeeds. B. B. If climbing at VMO. 6664 . the Mach number will increase. Neither A nor C. If climbing at MMO. C. any aileron defiection may cause the wing to twist about its torsional axis. care should be taken not to exceed VMO. If descending at MMO. AEROELASTIC DISTORTION (AILERON REVERSAL) During high-speed fiight. D. Fries type ailerons at low angles of attack. Mach number is decreasing. The actual torsional rigidity of a wing depends on its structure.D 6665 . Indicated Airspeed is increasing. in a climb and descent? A.Maximum operating speed limit. MMO is the same as VMO. Aileron power. Number: 6665 Question: What is the relationship of VMO and MMO. This is because the wing is flexible and the ailerons are near the wingtips. C. where the wings are less rigid. when descending at MMO. In the climb and maintaining a constant lAS. therefore MMO may be exceeded. D. VMO I MMO .Number: 6664 Question: Aileron reversal can be caused by: A. Both A and C. increases as the square of forward airspeed. however.

D. a safety factor of 50 percent is added. VA will be: A. I is incorrect. Number: 6672 Question: An aircraft is flown at 20% below its normal weight. D.2 G CATEGORY LIMIT LOAD Normal 3. II Is incorrect. the limit load factor in normal category is: A.4 G C. including spins) 4. 10% lower. II is correct. +6.4 to –1. When the mass decreases. 10% higher.Number: 6669 Question: On FAR 23 airplane. B.52 Utility (mild acrobatics. 20% lower. Because of this. C. I is correct. II.Maximum design manoeuvring speed and is the highest speed where the aircraft will stall before it exceeds the maximum load factor. II is incorrect.D . the limit load factor is reduced.0 NORMAL . +3. Number: 6674 Question: Which of these statements about the gust load factor on an aeroplane are correct or incorrect? I.76 Acrobatic 6. B. 4.000 pounds.8 to –1. When the altitude increases. To the limit loads given above.A 6672 . II is correct. 6669 . A.0 G D. the gust load factor increases. VA . +3.8 G B.For airplanes with gross weight of more than 4. C. the gust load factor increases. I is incorrect. I is correct. 20% higher.D 6674 .0 to –3.

Low forward speeds. increase. the angle of attack is B. high. During take-off. increase. the angle of attack During cruise conditions. Rest to case engine starting. Maximum speed for high performance. decrease. C. decrease. D. increase.Number: 6679 Question: With a fixed pitch propeller increasing speed will … propeller alpha and increasing power and therefore propeller RPM will … propeller alpha. increase. is large because the airspeed is small and so forward airspeeds are limited to C. decrease.A . Number: 6680 Question: A typical fixed pitch propeller (C-172) is designed to achieve its optimum angle of attack at: A. B. such as during take off. decrease. A.D 6680 . 6679 . Cruise speed. low and the rotational velocity is prevent engine overspeed. D.

Coarse pitch to achieve the highest possible thrust. Alpha Range The fiight operating range. therefore preventing wind milling. Reverse Pitch An aerodynamic brake position used for braking and sometimes ground manoeuvring. B. It is achieved by accelerating air forward by the blade going into a negative angle. C. Beta Range From fiight fine pitch to reverse pitch which is the ground operating range and is hydromechanically controlled by a flight deck power lever. Flight Fine Pitch The minimum pitch obtainable in flight. Fine pitch to ensure that the engine can develop its maximum power. Coarse pitch to ensure the best angle of attack is achieved. D. 6681 . Ground Fine Pitch The minimum torque position for ground operation and is sometimes referred to as superfine pitch. from flight fine pitch to coarse pitch. Coarse Pitch The maximum cruising pitch in normal operation.C . Feathered When the chord line of the blade is parallel to the airflow. Fine pitch to ensure minimum aerodynamic drag is generated.Number: 6681 Question: A variable pitch propeller during take-off will move towards: A.

Windmilling. C. 6684 . B. Ground Fine Pitch The minimum torque position for ground operation and is sometimes referred to as superfine pitch. WINDMILLING BLADE SECTION Reducing the rotational velocity (rpm) while maintaining the airspeed eventually causes the blade angle of attack to become negative. B.C 6685 .A . Number: 6685 Question: With a propeller feathered: A. Feathered When the chord line of the blade is parallel to the airflow. Stopped in coarse pitch. Stopped in fine pitch. Used during a powered glide. therefore preventing wind milling. D. There will be minimum left to drag ratio. C. Coarse Pitch The maximum cruising pitch in normal operation. There will be minimum drag on the propeller. When this occurs. The best windmilling speed is achieved. D. Flight Fine Pitch The minimum pitch obtainable in flight. The engine will turn over just fast enough to lubricate it.Number: 6684 Question: The greatest drag produced by the variable pitch propeller on a piston engine will occur when the propeller is: A. the total reaction acts in a rearward direction and its components alter their orientation.

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B. Reduce the RPM of the engine. Feather the propeller. D. Propeller RPM. C. Decrease the angle of attack of the propeller. Number: 6693 Question: The first action in the event of propeller runaway (overspeed conditions). Number: 6692 Question: Which of the following would change the magnitude of the gyroscopic precession effect of the propeller? A. The Aerodynamic Centre. D. B. Reduce the propeller area.07-00 NEW QUESTIONS PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT 07-05 New Questions (20 Questions) Number: 6689 Question: The propeller noise can be minimised by: A. B. D. Increase number of blades. D. Close the throttle. C. The Aft limit. Propeller blade angle. Push the RPM. C. The C of G. weight. thrust and drag in level flight act through: A. The C of P.D 6692 . Reduce the RPM lever setting.D 6693 . Number: 6698 Question: The four forces of lift.D . Rate of roll. TAS. 6689 .C 6698 . B. should be to: A. Lever fully forward. C.

Number: 6702 Question: In a steady climb: A. If the angle of climb is 20°.B . Thrust equals drag plus the weight component perpendicular to the flight path and lift equals the weight component along the flight path. B. B. Thrust equals drag plus the weight component along the flight path and lift equals the weight component perpendicular to the flight path. Equal the centrifugal force. C. D. C. lift equals weight times sin (20°). Equal the weight. Equal the centrifugal force minus the weight. D. Equal the resultant of weight and centrifugal force. Number: 6709 Question: In a steady banked turn the lift will: A. 6702 . Thrust equals the weight component along the flight path and lift equals the sum of the components of drag and weigh along the flight path.D 6709 .

Engine thrust and rudder deflection. D. Air density and rudder deflection. C. Zweimots 67113 . Engine thrust and air density. wenn das Flugzeug den Start fortsetzten soll – gilt nicht für leichte D. VMCG . because it must balance the weight and generate the centripetal force. B. Greater than in straight and level flight. Number: 6714 Question: Which are the two most important parameters to determine the value of VMCG? A. Equal to the aeroplane weight. B.Number: 6713 Question: In a steady co-ordinated horizontal turn. lift is: A. because it must generate the centrifugal force. Engine thrust and flap setting.A .Minimum Control Speed – Ground C. greater than in straight and level flight. Greater than in straight and level flight because it must balance the centripetal force.C 6714 . minimale Kontrollgeschwindigkeit beim Startlauf am Boden.

only operating at high speed. a form of aerodynamic balance. thus reducing the overall stick force. Balance Tabs They are connected to the tailplane by a mechanical linkage that causes them to move in the opposite direction to the control surface Inset Hinge Horn Balance The inset hinge places the hinge-line inside the control surface. This is known as control surface overbalance. used to increase feel.Number: 6648 Question: The following is true concerning a balance tab. This reduces the length of the moment arm and therefore the size of the hinge moment.B . 6648 . a form of mass balance. It is: A. B. D. C.

changes in the pressure distribution around the control surface . may ultimately lead to structural failure. and if left unchecked.Number: 6651 Question: When flutter damping of control surfaces is obtained by mass balancing. C. may ultimately lead to structural failure. Flutter is caused by the combined effects of . Above the hinge. D. Combination of fuselage bending and wing torsion.D 6662 . B. Below the hinge. These additional weights are usually installed internally along the leading edge of the control surface. B. Attaching weights forward of the hinge line brings the centre of gravity of the control surface to the hinge-line. Aerodynamic wing stall at high speed. Combination of bending and torsion of the wing structure. If these forces become coincident and act in phase with each other. thus altering the period of vibration and the liability to fiutter.with changing angles of attack (aerodynamic forces).B . these weights will be located with respect to the hinge of the control surface: A. Flutter is caused by the combined effects of . Behind the hinge.changes in the pressure distribution around the control surface . the resultant oscillations quickly increase in amplitude. manually operated control surfaces are generally mass balanced. and if left unchecked. Combination of roll control reversal and low speed stall. 6651 . C. If these forces become coincident and act in phase with each other. D. inside the horn balance.with changing angles of attack (aerodynamic forces). and the forces due to the elastic nature of the aircraft structure itself (aeroelastic forces). To help eliminate fiutter in flight. or on an arm attached to the surface Number: 6662 Question: Wing flutter may be caused by a: A. In front of the hinge. the resultant oscillations quickly increase in amplitude. and the forces due to the elastic nature of the aircraft structure itself (aeroelastic forces).

At too fine and angle of take off.D 6682 . B. Feathered When the chord line of the blade is parallel to the airflow. B. Number: 6696 Question: A propeller rotating clockwise as seen from the rear tends to rotate the aircraft to the: A. D. Left around the vertical axis. Right around the vertical axis. At too course of an angle of take off. Ground Fine Pitch The minimum torque position for ground operation and is sometimes referred to as superfine pitch.D . C. and to the right around the longitudinal axis. and to the left around the longitudinal axis. Right around the vertical axis. At too coarse an angle in the cruise. Left around the vertical axis. The airplane can destroy itself when in a bank. and to the right around the longitudinal axis. therefore preventing wind milling. Number: 6682 Question: A fixed pitch propeller is usually: A. At its optimum angle on take off. Coarse Pitch The maximum cruising pitch in normal operation. 6670 . The aircraft can not stall. D. D. A full elevator deflection could cause a structural damage. C. VA .D 6696 . B. and to the left around the longitudinal axis. Flight Fine Pitch The minimum pitch obtainable in flight.Maximum design manoeuvring speed and is the highest speed where the aircraft will stall before it exceeds the maximum load factor. An overspeed warning will be indicated.Number: 6670 Question: If an aircraft is flying at a speed above VA: A. C.

C. B. D. Remain the same. B. Altitude in the shortest time. Drag. thrust and weight.B . Increase. lift and drag. drag and weight. Lift. Altitude in the shortest distance. Altitude in the shortest distance and time. the forces acting on an aircraft are: A.A 6710 . C.Number: 6701 Question: Flying at the maximum rate of climb speed (Vy) you will obtain maximum: A. 6701 .A 6705 . the stalling speed will: A. Altitude at maximum boost setting. Number: 6705 Question: During the glide. D. C. B. Number: 6710 Question: In a level banked turn. weight and thrust. Lift. Decrease. very inversely with wing loading. D. Thrust.

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The region ahead of the oblique shock wave is not affected by the disturbances and is called the zone of silence. 6576 . called the Mach cone and it is within the Mach cone that disturbances are felt. When the speed is above Mach 1.07-00 NEW QUESTIONS PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT 07-06 New Questions (96 Questions) Number: 6576 Question: A wing stalling angle: A. in front of the normal shockwave. In three dimensions. D. any disturbance around a body affects the flow only: A. provided that the aircraft configuration is not altered Number: 6601 Question: In supersonic flight. Unaffected by a turn. Decreased in a high rate of turn. Increased in a high rate of turn. Decreased in any turn. within the Mach cone. these spheres are enclosed within a cone. Only the region behind the oblique shock wave is affected by C. B.C 6601 . In front of the body.D . outside the Mach cone. C. the disturbances emanating from the moving body expand outward as spheres and not circles. regardless of the airspeed.16° in any phase of night. disturbances and is sometimes referred to as the zone of action. MACH CONE B. Most light aircraft tend to stall when the wing reaches an angle of attack of approximately 15 . D.

10% C. 19% 6561 .Number: 6561 Question: The continuity equation states: If the area of a tube is increasing. 41% B. B. Increasing. 45% D. D.C 6578 . Sonic.D . Number: 6578 Question: What is the percentage increase in stall speed in a 45° bank turn? A. C. Not changing. Decreasing. the speed of the subsonic and incompressible flow inside is: A.

50000 N. D. By what percentage does the lift increase in a steady level turn at 45o of bank. 80000 N. 60000 N.41 = 70500 12957 .000N x 1. 70000 N. straight and level: C. compared to B.Number: 12957 Question: What is the approximate value of the lift of an aeroplane at a gross weight of 50000 N.C . in a horizontal co-ordinated 45 degrees banked turn? A.41 = 41% 50. 1 ÷ cos 45 = 1.

40-50% Number: 6614 Question: Dynamic longitudinal stability requires: A.D . it may increase the landing distance due to a higher Vth with: A. Positive static longitudinal stability. A variable incidence (trimming) tailplane. C. 10-20% D. A small CG range. B. 30-40% B. D. 6594 .Number: 6594 Question: If ice is present on the leading edge of the wings.D 6614 . 5-10% C. An effective elevator.

5) VA . For a symmetric aerofoil. CI = 0 C. D. lift is increased. For a symmetric aerofoil. VS= VA SQRT(3. For an asymmetric aerofoil.Number: 208 Question: The relationship between the stall speed VS and VA (EAS) for a large transport aeroplane can be expressed in the following formula: (SQRT= square root) A. if angle of attack is greater than 0. B. if angle of attack = 0. Drag is increased. if angle of attack = 0.B 6570 . Drag and lift are both increased. Drag is decreased. CI = 0 B. Number: 6575 Question: When an aeroplane is in ground effect: A.5) D. C. if angle of attack = 0.Maximum design manoeuvring speed and is the highest speed where the aircraft will stall before it exceeds the maximum load factor. Va= VA SQRT(3. Drag and lift are both reduced.Unaccelerated stall speed in the clean configuration C.75) B. lift is decreased. CI = 0 D. VS= VA SQRT(2. CI is not equal to 0 208 .75) VS . VA= VS SQRT(2. For an asymmetric aerofoil with positive camber. Number: 6570 Question: Which statement is correct about the CI and angle of attack? A.D 6575 .B .

sequence 2. sequence 3. D.Number: 16657 Question: The correct sequence of cross-sections representing propeller blade twist is: A. the blade angle reduces toward the tip) so that all blade sections along the entire The blades twist more at the root than the tip to maintain a constant angle of attack along the complete blade. Blade Angle = The angle between the chord line of each section and plane of rotation. WIG ROOT BLADE ANGLE AGLE OF ATTACK GROß CONSTANT WING TIP KLEIN CONSTANT 16657 .A . e. C. The propeller blades twist from the hub to the tip (i. sequence 4. sequence 1. B.

C 6630 . C. Reduce longitudinal stability. Dihedral of the wing. D. It is increased because high aspect ratio produces greater downwash. Yaw D. B. Pitch B. C. Turn 6572 . It is reduced because the effect of wing-tip vortices is reduced.Number: 6572 Question: What is the effect of increasing wing aspect ratio on induced drag? A.C 6620 . Increase the angle of attack. C. Tip tanks. Number: 6630 Question: Which of the following features will reduce lateral stability? A. It is increased because high aspect ratio has greater frontal area. Increase longitudinal stability. D. Roll C. Number: 6639 Question: Rudder controls: A. It is unaffected because there is no relation between aspect ratio and induced drag. Anhedral of the wing.C . B. D. B.A 6639 . Streamlining the wing root. Have no effect on longitudinal stability. Number: 6620 Question: Moving the C of G of an aircraft aft inflight will: A.

normally the point of maximum thickness Number: 16310 Question: Which of these statements about weight or mass is correct? A. B. the flow over the wing continues to accelerate and eventually reaches a sonic value at a particular point on the wing. All of the above.B 16310 . The weight of an object is independent of the acceleration due to gravity. Reduce the transonic variations in drag coefficient. In the SI system the unit of measurement for weight is the kilogram. Delay the onset of shockwave formation.Number: 6610 Question: Reducing the thickness/chord ratio on a wing will: A. D.D . C. B. Reduce the transonic variations in lift coefficient. Wing section design features used to increase MCRIT include: » Low thickness/chord ratio » Maximum thickness well aft » Small leading edge radius of curvature With increasing Mach number. In the SI system the unit of measurement for weight is the Newton. The mass of an object depends on the acceleration due to gravity. 6610 . C. D.

The blade angle is usually set so that the speed for maximum efficiency is close to the cruising speed. B. The highest efficiency obtained by a propeller is 85% to 88%.Number: 15826 Question: A typical curve representing propeller efficiency of a fixed pitch propeller versus TAS at constant RPM is: A.D . diagram 3. diagram 1. the efficiency is relatively low and only a small proportion of the power being delivered by the engine is used to propel the aircraft. C. diagram 2. At any other airspeed. 15826 . diagram 4. Maximum efficiency occurs at one airspeed and one particular blade angle of attack. D.

A very sharp leading edge. A more cambered top surface.Number: 6611 Question: Compared to a normal transonic airfoil section a supercritical section has: A. Wing section design features used to increase MCRIT include: » Low thickness/chord ratio » Maximum thickness well aft » Small leading edge radius of curvature With increasing Mach number. the flow over the wing continues to accelerate and eventually reaches a sonic value at a particular point on the wing. D. B. A flatter bottom surface. C. A flatter top surface.A . normally the point of maximum thickness 6611 .

sequence 4. Pdyn + 1/2 * rho * IAS^2 = constant B. Pstat + 1/2 * rho *TAS^2 = constant D. sequence 1. sequence 2. D.Number: 6562 Question: Bernoulli's equation is: (note: rho is density. C. The propeller blades twist from the hub to the tip (i. 6562 . The blades twist more at the root than the tip to maintain a constant angle of attack along the complete blade. Ptot is total pressure) A.C 16665 .D . Pstat is static pressure. Pstat + 1/2 * rho * IAS^2 = constant BERNOULLI'S THEOREM Number: 16655 Question: The correct sequence of cross-sections representing propeller blade twist is: A. B. Pdyn is dynamic pressure. e. sequence 3. Ptot + 1/2 * rho * TAS^2 = constant C. the blade angle reduces toward the tip) so that all blade sections along the entire length operate at the same angle of attack. Blade Angle = The angle between the chord line of each section and plane of rotation.

C. Static longitudinal stability is greater at line 3 when compared with line 4 at low and moderate angles of attack. In its curved part line 2 illustrates a decreasing static longitudinal stability at high angles of attack. The CG position is further aft at line 4 when compared with line 1. D. The CG position is further forward at line 4 when compared with line 1. B. 16775 .D .Number: 16775 Question: Which of these statements about the pitching moment coefficient versus angle of attack lines in the annex is correct? A.

D. Will be dynamically unstable. it: A. depending on momentum and damping factors. Will be dynamically stable only at a low speed. B. C. May or may not be dynamically stable. 6613 .C .Number: 6613 Question: If an aircraft has static longitudinal instability. Will be dynamically stable.

delay. Number: 6564 Question: Consider a steady flow through a stream tube at a given constant velocity. higher Wing Planform has the most significant effect on MCRIT. B. C. Careful design not only delays the shock stall. delay.B 6564 . Increase the mass flow when the tube is divergent in the direction of the flow. hasten. the effective chord (parallel to the aircraft's longitudinal axis) is lengthened. D. Not affect the mass flow. but the wing's thickness remains unchanged. Increase the mass flow.C 6636 . C. hasten. lower C. D. Both wings and stabilizer to stall. Number: 6636 Question: When ice is present on the stabilizer. but also significantly reduces the severity when it occurs. lower B. An increase in the flow's temperature will: A. deflection of flaps may cause: A.D . The stabilizer to stall and a pitch up situation. B. Decrease the mass flow. higher D. A roll movement due to directional instable. The stabilizer to stall and a vertical dive.Number: 6609 Question: Compared to straight wings of the same airfoil section swept wings … the onset of the transonic drag rise and have a … CD in supersonic flight: A. If a wing has sweep back. 6609 .

Low-speed stall characteristics.B 6621 . Mach buffet characteristics. B. Rearward movement of the CG will increase stability and reduce control response. C. D. Is independent of angle of attack.B 6569 . Moves backward when the angle of attack increases. Forward movement of the CG will reduce control response and increase stability. D. Is at approximately 25% chord irrespective of angle of attack. Dutch roll characteristics. C. C. Number: 6569 Question: Assuming no flow separation and no compressibility effects the location of the centre of pressure of a positively cambered aerofoil section: A. Number: 6621 Question: The effects of CG position on longitudinal static stability and control response will be: A. 6579 . D. Moves forward when the angle of attack increase. Rearward movement of the CG will reduce stability and control response. Lift coefficient of the trailing edge flap.Number: 6579 Question: A boundary layer fence on a swept wing will improve the: A. Forward movement of the CG will reduce stability and increase control response. B. B.B .

Give the aeroplane sufficient directional stability. B.0 B. The centre of gravity. the aeroplane will rotate about: A. an aircraft should be operated at which of the following speeds? A. Number: 6602 Question: At higher altitudes. Number: 6603 Question: For minimum wave drag. D. C.B 6619 . C. D. The neutral point of the aeroplane.C . B. The centre of pressure of the wing. C. Number: 6619 Question: The purpose of the horizontal stabilizer is to: A. D. The aerodynamic centre of the wing. High supersonic. Decreases until the tropopause. Remains the same. Give the aeroplane sufficient lateral stability.B 6602 . Subsonic. Increases. Decreases.D 6603 . the stall speed (IAS): A. Mach 1. C. Low supersonic. 6617 . Give the aeroplane enough weight in the tail. B. D.Number: 6617 Question: If the sum of moments in flights is not zero. Give the aeroplane sufficient longitudinal stability.

B. The strength of wing tip vortices decreases as the aspect ratio decreases. D. I is incorrect. II is incorrect. I is incorrect. II is incorrect.Number: 6574 Question: Which of these statements about the strength of wing tip vortices are correct or incorrect? I. C. II is correct. A. II is correct.A . I is correct. the strength of wing tip vortices increases as the angle of attack increases. Assuming no flow separation. II. I is correct. 6574 .

D.Number: 6590 Question: CLMAX may be increased by the use of: A. used at high speeds for turning when a yaw damper is not installed.D 6592 . 6590 . for speed reduction after landing. Number: 6592 Question: Speed brakes are a device used on large transport category aircraft: A. C. flaps. and are an old version of anti block system. B and C. to increase drag in order to maintain a steeper gradient of descent. C. slats. B.A . A. B. D. boundary layer control.

Forward movement of the centre of pressure. neutral point.D 6568 . II is correct. II is incorrect. CG. A. Lateral movement of the centre of gravity. I is correct. II. the strength of wing tip vortices decreases as the angle of attack decreases. forward to aft: A. CG. manoeuvre point. The strength of wing tip vortices increases as the aspect ratio increases. neutral point. neutral point. manoeuvre point. Forward movement of the centre of gravity. B.Number: 6616 Question: If the aircraft is properly loaded the CG. II is incorrect. C. Number: 6573 Question: Which of these statements about the strength of wing tip vortices are correct or incorrect? I. CG. Assuming no flow separation. I is correct. the neutral point and the manoeuvre point will be in the order given. I is incorrect. 6616 . Manoeuvre point. C. II is correct. I is incorrect. B. Number: 6568 Question: A pitch up could be caused by: A. D.A . C. neutral point. A reduction in varying loads due to G. CG. B. D. Manoeuvre point. D.A 6573 .

A. A stick shaker system is fitted to an aeroplane to resolve deep stall problems.Number: 6581 Question: Regarding deep stall characteristics.B . A wing with forward sweep and a low horizontal tail makes an aeroplane prone to deep stall. C. I is correct. II. II is correct. D. II is correct. B. II is incorrect. I is incorrect. I is correct. I is incorrect. 6581 . II is incorrect. identify whether the following statements are correct or incorrect: I.

Dynamic stability is possible only when the aeroplane is statically stable about the relevant axis. B. A dynamically stable aeroplane would be almost impossible to fly manually. B. Lift coefficient and the drag. the aeroplane will return to that condition without oscillation. position of an aeroplane is forward of the neutral point in a fixed location. C. Lift and the drag. C.Number: 6624 Question: The C.G. D. Increase of speed generates pull forces. Increasing 10kt trimmed at low speed has more effect on the stick force than increasing 10kt trimmed at high speed. D. C. B. Aeroplane nose up trim decreases the stick force stability. D. Dynamic stability means that after being displaced from original equilibrium condition.A 935 . Number: 6583 Question: Flap selection at constant IAS in straight and level flight will increase the: A. Stall speed. Speed changes cause a departure from the trimmed position.D 6583 . 6624 . Which of the following statements about the stick force stability is correct? A. Maximum lift coefficient (CLmax) and the drag. Static stability means that the aeroplane is also dynamically satble about the relevant axis.C . Stick force stability is not affected by trim. Number: 935 Question: Which of the following statements is correct? A.

B. Corrects insufficient stick force stability at high Mach numbers. C. Vertical axis. D. The coefficient of drag increases. C.Number: 6604 Question: As an aircraft accelerates through the transonic speed range: A.B 6625 . The coefficient of drag decreases then increases. Has no effect on the shape of the elevator position versus speed (IAS) curve for a fully hydraulic controlled aeroplane. Number: 6625 Question: A Mach trimmer: A. The coefficient of drag increases then decreases. Number: 6631 Question: Pitch is movement around the: A. Longitudinal axis.A . Yaw axis. B. The coefficient of drag decreases. C. D. Is necessary for compensation of the autopilot at high Mach Numbers.B 6631 . Increases the stick force per g at high Mach numbers. B. Lateral axis. D. 6604 .

glide path angle. B.D . Is the ratio between the wing span and the root chord. B. C.Number: 6565 Question: The angle between the direction of the undisturbed airflow (relative wind) and the chord line of an aerofoil is the: A. climb path angle.C 7220 . D. Is the ratio between chord and root chord. C. angle of attack. Number: 7220 Question: The aspect ratio of the wing: A. D. 6565 . same as the angle between chord line and fuselage axis. Is the ratio between the tip chord and the wing span. Is the ratio between the wing span and the mean geometric chord.

B. 6615 . disturbances and is sometimes referred to as the zone of action. The region ahead of the oblique shock wave is not affected by the D. pressure disturbances from the aircraft will be felt only: A. Centre of pressure. disturbances and is called the zone of silence. Centre of gravity. Aircraft datum. in front of the Mach cone. within the Mach cone. C.A 6600 . the disturbances emanating from the moving body expand outward as spheres and not circles. Flight deck.Number: 6615 Question: The axes of an aircraft by definition must all pass through the: A. D. in front of the normal shockwave. MACH CONE Only the region behind the oblique shock wave is affected by B. In three dimensions. called the Mach cone and it is within the Mach cone that disturbances are felt.C . C. Number: 6600 Question: When an aircraft is flying at speeds above Mach 1. these spheres are enclosed within a cone. in front of the oblique shockwave. When the speed is above Mach 1.

D 6634 . decrease. but will. twice C. decrease.414. the starboard aileron moves down and the port aileron moves up. The elevator goes down. The elevator goes down. D.154. decrease. D. the starboard aileron moves up and the port aileron moves down. increase. in practice gain … that increase: A. 1. C. sine 30. the starboard aileron moves up and the port aileron moves down. half D. Number: 6612 Question: In the transonic range CLmax will … and the 1g stalling speed will … A. B. the starboard aileron moves down and the port aileron moves up. increase. twice B. increase. The elevator goes up. 1. cosine 30. half Number: 6634 Question: When the control column is moved forward and to the right: A. C. 6608 . decrease. increase. The elevator goes up.Number: 6608 Question: Compared to a straight wing of the same airfoil section a wing swept at 30 should theoretically have an Mcrit … times Mcrit for the straight wing.C 6612 . B.B .

diagram 3.A . M 0.98 B. M 0. The blade angle is usually set so that the speed for maximum efficiency is close to the cruising speed.75 to M 0.91 to M 1.4 Number: 15822 Question: A typical curve representing propeller efficiency of a fixed pitch propeller versus TAS at constant RPM is: A. the efficiency is relatively low and only a small proportion of the power being delivered by the engine is used to propel the aircraft. The highest efficiency obtained by a propeller is 85% to 88%.Number: 6599 Question: On a typical transonic airfoil the transonic rearward shift of the CP occurs at about: A. diagram 4. D.89 C. M 0.98 D. C. M 0.89 to M 0. At any other airspeed. diagram 2.75 to M 0. Maximum efficiency occurs at one airspeed and one particular blade angle of attack.C 15822 . 6599 . diagram 1. B.

Lateral stability is increased as lift is increased. 6629 . higher. Lateral stability is increased as the centre of pressure moves inboard. Easy. as the wings are symmetrical. B. Difficult. Lateral stability is unaffected. A.C . Difficult. lower. Number: 6593 Question: Which of the following is the most important result/problem caused by ice formation? A. higher. It will be … to flare and VREF will be … than normal. D. Reduction in CLmax. Blockage of the controls. C.B 6593 .Number: 6629 Question: What happens to lateral stability when flaps are extended? A. B.C 6638 . Number: 6638 Question: An aircraft is approaching to land with its CG at the forward limit. D. Increased drag. D. C. C. Lateral stability is decreased. lower. B. Increased weight. Easy.

Decrease stalling speed and reduce max angle of attack thereby achieving a more nose down altitude near and at stalling speed. C. Increase max lift coefficient by increasing max angle of attack.D . High speed buffet. B.A 6587 . The point at which the two stalls coincide is often referred to as the coffin corner. Supersonic. Mcrit. C. D. 6605 . Coffin corner. Number: 6587 Question: flaps are used in order to: A. B. Increase max L/D. Reducing drag.Number: 6605 Question: The critical speed where the speed is too low and too high at the same time is called: A. D.

the pressure pattern on the top surface will become? A. C. Triangular. 6566 . Increasing forward sweep decreases stall speed. Increasing wing anhedral decreases stall speed. Rectangular. Number: 16338 Question: Which of these statements about stall speed is correct? A. Irregular.C . D. The same as subsonic. Increasing forward sweep increases stall speed. D.B 16338 . B. B.Number: 6566 Question: When airflow over a wing becomes supersonic. C. Decreasing wing anhedral decreases stall speed.

At any other airspeed. 15828 . diagram 3. C. diagram 4. B.A . diagram 1. diagram 2. The blade angle is usually set so that the speed for maximum efficiency is close to the cruising speed.Number: 15828 Question: A typical curve representing propeller efficiency of a fixed pitch propeller versus TAS at constant RPM is: A. the efficiency is relatively low and only a small proportion of the power being delivered by the engine is used to propel the aircraft. D. The highest efficiency obtained by a propeller is 85% to 88%. Maximum efficiency occurs at one airspeed and one particular blade angle of attack.

D 6618 .Number: 6637 Question: What is the effect on the aeroplane's static longitudinal stability of a shift of the centre of gravity to a more aft location and on the required control deflection for a certain pitch up or down? A. Number: 6618 Question: If an airplane has poor longitudinal stability in flight. Increase stabiliser surface area. The static longitudinal stability is smaller and the required control deflection is smaller. Install a yaw damper. C. Reduce in keel surface area.A . The static longitudinal stability is larger and the required control deflection is smaller. The static longitudinal stability is smaller and the required control deflection is larger. Increase elevator range of movement. 66337 . C. what can be done to increase the stability? A. D. B. The static longitudinal stability is larger and the required control deflection is larger. B. D.

resulting in a pitching moment. and airspeed. whilst the angle of attack remains nearly constant (i . Height and load factor.B . The change in angle of attack also varies the lift. long period oscillation. ALTITUDE During a phugoid altitude varies significantly. typically 1-2 sec. but during a short period oscillation it remains approximately constant. altitude.e. Long Period Oscillation (Phugoid) This involves very long periods of oscillation (20 . whilst the airspeed remains virtually constant. Height and speed.100 sec) with noticeable variations in pitch attitude.Number: 6626 Question: Longitudinal dynamic oscillation takes two forms. involves slow changes in: A. B. dutch roll. Speed and load factor. but its angle of attack remains virtually constant). Pitch and load factor. One of these. D. If the aircraft is statically longitudinally stable. whereas during a short period oscillation it does not. The disturbance causes the aircraft to rotate about its lateral axis. C. Phugoid A phugoid or fugoid (play /ˈfjuːɡɔɪd/) is an aircraft motion where the vehicle pitches up and climbs. where oscillation is dynamically stable or unstable. Any change in airspeed is accompanied by a change in drag. Short Period Oscillation This involves very short periods of oscillation. any disturbance in pitch sets up an oscillatory motion about the aircraft's lateral axis. if the aircraft experiences a horizontal gust. and spiral divergence). its airspeed momentarily changes. and then pitches down and descends." This is one of the basic flight dynamics modes of an aircraft (others include short period. and varies its angle of attack. and a classic long period oscillation SPEED ANGLE OF ATTACK ALTITUDE VARIES CONSTANT VARIES short period oscillation CONSTANT VARIES CONSTANT 6626 . SPEED During a phugoid the speed varies significantly. accompanied by speeding up and slowing down as it goes "uphill" and "downhill. when an aircraft is subjected to a vertical gust.

D.D . This includes speeds of approximately Mach 0. and partly supersonic. In subsonic flight the total airflow around an aircraft is travelling at a speed less than the speed of sound. Number: 6589 Question: Which of the following occurs when trailing edge flaps are extended? A. The critical angle of attack remains constant and stall speed increases. D. B.2 and Mach 5. but CLMAX increases. where the airflow around an aircraft is partly subsonic. C. The critical angle of attack decreases and CLMAX increases.A 6589 . where the total airflow around an aircraft is travelling at a speed greater than the speed of sound.75 and Mach 1. C. A speed at which compressibility effect are first noticeable. B. 6597 .0. Supersonic flight occurs at speeds between Mach 1. CLMAX increases and the critical angle of attack increases.2. The critical angle of attack is constant. A speed at which locally around the aeroplane both supersonic and subsonic speeds exist. Transonic flight occurs at speeds between Mach 0.Number: 6597 Question: transonic speed is: A. The speed range between Mcrit and Mmo.75 or less. A speed at which locally an oblique shock wave has developed in the flow along the aeroplane.

Line 1 shows an aeroplane with increasing static longitudinal instability at very high angles of attack. Line 4 shows an aeroplane with increasing static longitudinal stability at very high angles of attack.C . B. D. Line 3 shows an aeroplane with increasing static longitudinal stability at high angles of attack.Number: 16431 Question: Which statement is correct regarding the pitching moment coefficient Cm versus angle of attack diagram? A. 16431 . Line 4 shows an aeroplane with a greater static longitudinal stability at low angles of attack than that shown in line 3. C.

16433 . D.A . Line 1 shows an aeroplane with increasing static longitudinally instability at very high angles of attack. Line 4 shows an aeroplane with reducing static longitudinal stability at very high angles of attack. C. Line 4 shows an aeroplane with greater static longitudinal stability at low angles of attack than that in shown line 3. Line 3 shows an aeroplane with reducing static longitudinal stability at high angles of attack. B.Number: 16433 Question: Which statement is correct regarding the pitching moment coefficient Cm versus angle of attack diagram? A.

. The CG position is further forward at line 1 when compared with line 4. The CG position is further aft at line 1 when compared with line 4. C. D. B.Number: 16777 Question: Which of these statements about the pitching moment coefficient versus angle of attack lines in the annex is correct? A. 16777 . Static longitudinal stability is greater at line 3 when compared with line 4 at low and moderate angles of attack.D . In its curved part at high angles of attack line 2 illustrates a decreasing static longitudinal stability.

anwenden. It is operational at high Mach numbers in the transonic speed range. Is to maintain the required stick force gradient. Decreases. which is automatically positioned by a Mach trim system. Is to decrease the stick force gradient to prevent the possibility of high speed stall. B. B. Remains the same. MACH TRIM To guard against nose tuck under. D. This system is designed to aid aircraft longitudinal stability and ensures that the forward stick forces increase proportionally with increasing Mach number. to deploy . C.D . Is to decrease the stick force gradient to ensure the pilot can manoeuvre the aircraft adequately when flying at a high transonic Mach number. frequent pitch trim changes are required. May increase or decrease depending on the aircraft type. 6588 . A Mach trim system is not required if an aircraft has power operated controls.C 6623 . D. Increases.Number: 6588 Question: When deploying the flaps the effective angle of attack: A. einsetzen Number: 6623 Question: The effect of Mach trim on stick forces for power operated controls: A. C. This is carried out by a variable incidence tailplane.

reducing wing anhedral. C. 16610 .B . D. B. the use of a low. rather than high. wing mounting. reducing wing sweepback.Number: 16610 Question: Static lateral stability will be increased by: A. reducing the size of the vertical tail.

6577 . Like the main airflow. The wings naturally damp out the motion in roll and the aircraft assumes a banked attitude. (I) N / kg. Number: 6627 Question: Lateral static stability is determined by: A. B. the D. CG position. D. (II) kg. (I) kg / m³.D . Between the transition and separation points. Aircraft response to sideslip. Number: 6560 Question: The units of density of the air (I) and the force (II) are: A. (II) N. The boundary layer is the layer of air between the surface and the free stream velocity in which local C. Just aft of the separation point. Just in front of the transition point. retardation takes place. Wingspan.D 6560 .A 6627 . (II) kg. or inbuilt tendency to recover from a disturbance in roll. (II) N. (I) N / m³. Aspect ratio. C. boundary layer flow can be either laminar or turbulent in nature. D.Number: 6577 Question: The boundary layer is considered to be turbulent: A. LATERAL STATIC STABILITY The static lateral stability of an ai rcraft is its natural. (I) kg / m². B. A disturbance in roll causes one wing to rise and the other to drop. C. B. Just in front of the centre of pressure.

6584 . The angle of attack will decrease. Spoiler extension decrease the stall speed and the minimum rate of descent. but increase the minimum descent angle.D 6596 . Extension of flaps will increase (CL/CD)max. C. the maximum glide distance also reduces. The descent angle will decrease. The TAS will decrease. B. D.Number: 6584 Question: Which statement is correct? A. C. as only the TAS has to be taken into account.C . The pitch angle will increase. Extension of flaps causes a reduction of the stall speed. Extension of flaps has no influence on the minimum rate of descent. causing the minimum rate of descent to decrease. Number: 6596 Question: During a descent at a constant Mach number (assume zero thrust and standard atmospheric conditions): A. B. D.

A stick shaker system is fitted to an aeroplane to resolve deep stall problems A. to move forward. II is incorrect. D. to move inward and forward.D . II is incorrect. to move outboard towards the wing tips. Number: 6582 Question: Regarding deep stall characteristics. I is correct. The combination of a wing with sweepback and a T-tail make an aeroplane prone to deep stall. C. 6567 . II. D.C 6582 . II is correct.Number: 6567 Question: Lowering the inboard flaps causes the wing Centre of Pressure: A. to move inboard towards the wing root. C. I is incorrect. identify whether the following statements are correct or incorrect: I. I is correct. II is correct. B. B. I is incorrect.

A 6595 . Speed of sound decreases with temperature increase. C. The airspeed. Directional stability about the lateral axis. D. Number: 6580 Question: The input to a stick shaker comes from: A. The angle of attack only. B. B. 6628 . Longitudinal stability about the lateral axis. The angle of incidence. Lateral stability about the normal axis. Number: 6595 Question: How does temperature influence the speed of sound? A. D.B . B. C.D 6580 . and sometimes the rate of change in angle of attack. Speed of sound remains constant. D. and sometimes the rate of change in airspeed. Speed of sound is not influenced by temperature.Number: 6628 Question: The dihedral construction of an aircraft wing provides: A. Angle of attack. Speed of sound increases with temperature increase. C. Lateral stability about the longitudinal axis.

D. wing mounting. Turbulence may cause the limit load factor to be exceeded. increasing wing anhedral. Turbulence may induce high speed or low speed buffet. D. Restrict the range of movement of the control column. the use of a low. Maintain constant control cable tension. Restrict the range of movement of the elevator. B. C. Number: 6635 Question: A primary stop is mounted on an elevator control system in order to: A. Prevent overloading of control cables. C. rather than high. C. reducing the size of the vertical tail. Use of normal manoeuvring bank angles may cause the limit load factor to be exceeded.3g load factor because when exceeding that altitude. B.B 6607 . D. increasing wing sweepback. B.D 6635 .Number: 16609 Question: Static lateral stability will be increased by: A. 16609 . A.B . Number: 6607 Question: The maximum cruise altitude can be limited by a 1. High speed buffet will occur immediately after exceeding this maximum altitude.

A. D. 16411 . B. Remains the same. Nearly vertical. Increases. C. B. 2 is correct. Vertical. C.B 6633 . Number: 6633 Question: When pulling out of a dive the angle of attack: A.Number: 16411 Question: The elevator deflection required for a given manoeuvre will be: A. C. D.A 6632 . 2 is correct. 2 is incorrect. Decreases.C 6571 . Number: 6632 Question: Which statement is correct? 1) The angle of attack of a positively cambered aerofoil has a negative value when the lift coefficient equals zero. Horizontal from front to rear. the same at all speeds. 1 is incorrect. the same for all CG positions. 1 is incorrect. D. 2) There is a nose down pitching moment about a positively cambered aerofoil when the lift coefficient equals zero. 1 is correct. C. 2 is incorrect. the normal axis is: A. Cannot be increased at all due to structural considerations. larger at low IAS when compared to high IAS.C . Number: 6571 Question: When an aircraft with a typical aerofoil is in level flight at low speed and high angle of attack. B. larger for an aft CG position when compared to a forward position. 1 is correct. Horizontal from side to side. D. B.

D. D. A. II is correct. I is incorrect. I is correct. B. the C of P moves to the rear and lift/drag ratio is increased. II is correct. the C of P moves forwards and lift/drag ratio is decreased. I is correct. the C of P moves to the rear and lift/drag ratio is unaffected. II. B.Number: 6586 Question: When a trailing edge flap is lowered fully: A. I is incorrect. C. 6586 . The static pressure decreases as the streamlines converge. C. II is incorrect. the C of P moves to the rear and lift/drag ratio is decreased.C . II is incorrect. Number: 6563 Question: Which of these statements about a stationary subsonic flow are correct or incorrect? I.B 6563 . The velocity increases as the streamlines converge.

C. 6622 . D. Line of thrust being above the CG. Re-energise the boundary layer thereby decreasing the stalling angle of attack. Number: 6591 Question: Slats: A.A 6640 . B. B. Very high stick forces are required in pitch because the aircraft is very stable. B.C . Line of thrust being below the CG. De-energise the boundary layer. this is the result of the: A. Very small forces are required on the control column to produce pitch. D. Centre of lift and CB being collocated. D. The stalling speed is reduced. C. Number: 6640 Question: If an increase in power tends to make the nose of aeroplane rise.C 6591 . C. De-energise the boundary layer thereby increasing the stalling angle of attack.Number: 6622 Question: When the CG is close to the forward limit: A. Centre of lift being ahead of the CG. Re-energise the boundary later thereby increasing the stalling angle of attack. Longitudinal stability is reduced. thereby decreasing the stalling angle of attack.

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(ii) displaced towards the low wing. thrust is greater than drag. the bank angle (i) and the "ball" or slip indicator (ii) are respectively: A B C D (i) too large.B 15108 . (ii) displaced towards the low wing. more left rudder. co-ordinated turn: A B C D thrust equals drag. Number: 15108 Question: In a skidding turn (the nose pointing inwards). because drag is the same as in straight and level flight. the slip indicator is left of neutral. because the excess thrust also supplies the centripetal force. because there is equilibrium of forces along the direction of flight. One way to coordinate the turn is to apply: A B C D a higher turn-rate. (ii) displaced towards the high wing.C 14968 . less right bank. compared with a co-ordinated turn. thrust equals drag.C . (ii) displaced towards the high wing. thrust is greater than drag. horizontal. (i) too large. 10136 .07-00 NEW QUESTIONS PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT 07-07 New Questions (xxx Questions) Number: 10136 Question: An aeroplane performs a right turn. because the centrifugal force reduces the aeroplane speed. more right rudder. (i) too small. (i) too small. Number: 14968 Question: In a steady.