You are on page 1of 47

: .

.

.

.

.
.

.
.


.


.
. .




.


.

.


.
.
.
.
.


.

) ( :

.


.

.

.
.


.
.
.
.


Cover
.
- - .
.


.
- -
.

.


. .
- -

- -
.


Title Page


.
-
-
- .

-
- -
- -

-
.
.
- -
-
.

Abstract or Summary or Executive Summary


.
: . -

-


:
)(
.
.




) (
.

ABSTRACT

Executive Summary or Summary


)( )(

.

.



: . .
.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

. .
.





LIST OF FIGURES
) (
.

LIST OF TABLES
.


LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES


.



List of Symbols or Glossary


. .
.


.
.
.
.


.

.
.

Introduction
:
. .

-
- )
(
- ) (
-
. .
.


. .

. .
: - .
.

.
.

.



.



%3 .



Main Body
.
.
.

: - - -
: - -
-
: - - -

: - -
- -
:
.

-

- :

) ( .
-

-

-

-



Conclusions or Recommendations
.
.

.

.



-
.
. .
.
.


References

.
.


.

.
.

.
.


.
.

) ( . .
.
. .
.


:
:


Appendix (Appendices) or Attachments


)( .
.
.



.
.
.
.

.


.

-
.

Cover
.
.

..

2005

.
.

2004


Title Page
.

..

..

2003

.
-

:
.
: -

2006

Abstract or Summary or Executive Summary



.
: -


Executive Summary
This report presents the results of the Local Selling Process
Questionnaire which aims at evaluating the local selling process and
identifying areas that can be improved. The results are supported by data
.analysis for the local selling data for 2001
The questionnaire was filled by 55 respondents from the Sales department
(15), Production Departments (6) and local customers (34). Each
respondent was allowed to fill the questionnaire by selecting one of five
answers for each question. The questionnaire covered areas/factors such
as: Product Quality, Lead Time, information system, and customer
.service
The results showed that people were very excited to present their ideas
and to give proposals for improvement. 94% believes that we can
improve the local selling process significantly. The overall scores
showed that the local selling process is slightly less than moderate. Most
people are very concerned on the lead time. The respondents suggested
several ways to improve the process such as: to have a clear schedule for
the process, to have more production flexibility, and to improve the
.production planning process
The analysis of the local selling orders of 2001, obtained from the
information system, showed that the average total lead time is 70 days
with a standard deviation of 43 days. 25% of the items have a lead time of
less than 25 days and 25% of the items have a lead time of more than 110
days. The data analysis shows some potential reasons for the long lead
time such as: the seasonality pattern of the local orders, supplier delay,
.and variability of processing times
Based on these results, it is recommended to focus on the lead time of this
process. Forming a team from different concerned departments to propose
.and implement methods to decrease lead time is also recommended


TABLE OF CONTENTS

) (

Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
Glossary
Introduction and Literature Review .1
Introduction 1.1
Literature Review 1.2
Physical Background.2
Flow Past a Rigid Sphere 2.1
Flow Acting on a Spherical Bubble 2.2
Methodology .3
Mathematical Formulation 3.1
Numerical Procedure 3.2
Results and Discussion .4
List of cases 4.1
Forces 4.2
Velocities 4.3
Conclusions .5
Recommendations .6
References
Appendix A

Page
iv
v

vi
1
1
4
14
14
17
24
24
29
36
36
42
49
57
59
60
63

1
2
5

- :
- :

9
12
15
17
20

.


LIST OF FIGURES
) (
.

List of Figures
Page
2
6
16
20
22
34
28
38
42
47
53
55

Fig. 1.1: Schematic drawing of two phase flow


Fig. 1.2: Bubble Shapes
Fig. 2.1: Drag force on a raising bubble
Fig. 2.2: Lift force on a rigid sphere
Fig. 2.3: Comparison of Theoretical and experimental results
Fig. 3.1: Grid types
Fig. 3.2: Schematic drawing of the applied boundary conditions
Fig. 4.1: Results of case I
Fig. 4.2: Results of case II
Fig. 4.3: Results of Case III
Fig. 4.4: Results of Case IV
Fig. A.1: Bubble shapes results from previous research


:1
:2
:3
:4
:5

1
3
5
9
11


LIST OF TABLES

List of Tables
Page
3
4
6
9
10
12
15
16
18
21
28

Table 1.1: Sales of product A in previous years


Table 1.2: Sales of Product B in previous years
Table 1.3: Production Capacity of all Products
Table 2.1: Customer Survey Results
Table 2.2: Raw Material Cost in 2005
Table 2.3: Marketing Expenses in 2005
Table 3.1: Market Demand Forecast
Table 3.2: Sales Forecast
Table 3.3: Different Scenarios
Table 3.4: Production Plan
Table B.1: Forecast Methodology


:1
:2
:3
:4
:5
:6

1
2
5
9
12
15



List of Symbols or Glossary
.

List of Symbols and Abbreviations


Area
Courant Number
Diameter
Force
Gravitational Acceleration
Lift Force
Morton Number
Reynolds Number
time
Temperature
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Control Volume
Finite Volume
Normalized Variable Diagram
Volume-Of-Fluid

A
c
D
F
g
Lf
M
Re
t
T
CFD
CV
FV
NVD
VOF

.

:


Introduction

.


.




.

Main Body
.

.


:
.
.

.

.


.
.
. .
.


Conclusions or Recommendations
.
.



.

.


- 2007
- 24
- 72

References

. .

.
: )(

.Previous studies [1] have shown
.Ahmed [1] conducted a study and found

References
R. Hartunian and W. Sears, On the instability of gas bubbles moving in liquids, J. .1
.Fluid Mech., Vol. 3, pp. 27-47, 1957
G. Levich, Phsico-Chemical Hydrodynamics, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., .2
.1962
D. Moore, The boundary layer on a spherical bubble, J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 16, pp. .3
.161-176, 1963
D. Moore, The velocity of rise of distorted gas bubbles in a liquid of small .4
.viscosity , J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 23, pp. 749-766, 1965
P. Saffman, On the rise of small air bubbles in water, J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 1, pp. .5
.249-275, 1956



)( :
.Previous research (Ahmed, 2002) has shown
Ahmed (2002) conducted a study and found
)(
References
Ahmed, S., Hassan, M., Taha, Z., 2005. TPM can go beyond maintenance: excerpt from
.a case implementation. Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering 11 (1), 1942
Ahmed, S., Hassan, M., Taha, Z., 2004. State of implementation of TPM in SMIs: a
survey study in Malaysia. Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering 10 (2), 93
.106
Arbuckle, J.L., Wothke, W., 1999. Amos 4.0 Users Guide. SmallWaters Corporation,
.Chicago, Illinois
Bamber, C., Sharp, J., Hides, M., 1999. Factors affecting successful implementation of
total productive maintenance- AUK manufacturing case study perspective. Journal of
.Quality in Maintenance Engineering 5 (3), 162-81
Bentler, P., Bonnet, D., 1980. Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of
.covariances structures. Psychological Bulletin 88 (3), 588-606
Browne, M., Cudeck, R., 1993. Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In: K. Bollen
and J.S. Long (ed.), Testing Structural Equation Models. Sage, Newbury Park,
.California, pp. 136-162

Carmines, E., McIver, J., 1981. Analyzing models with unobserved variables. In: G.
Bohrnstedt and E. Borgatta, (Eds), Social measurement: current issues. Sage, Beverly
.Hills, California: pp. 65-115


.

.
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_docsources.html
http://www.eurosurveillance.org/authors/authors-02.asp
http://physics.gac.edu/~huber/misc/aiprefs.htm
http://www.if-pan.krakow.pl/pjp/note.html
http://www.roma.unisa.edu.au/07118/language/reports.htm#Referencing


Appendix (Appendices) or Attachments




http://www.writing.eng.vt.edu/index.html
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/workshops/hypertext/reportW/introduction.html
http://www.ucalgary.ca/it/mswordthesisstylefiles/index.htm
http://www.gradschool.purdue.edu/gradschool/Publications/graduate-thesis-manual.pdf
http://www.csu.edu.au/division/studserv/learning/pdfs/report.pdf
/http://www.efwr.ucalgary.ca/content/blogcategory/36/69
http://www.columbia.edu/itc/seas/E3810-lab/wreport.html
http://www.imoat.net/handbook/th-form.htm
http://www.roma.unisa.edu.au/07118/language/reports.htm
http://www.io.com/~hcexres/textbook/final.html#table
http://newton.ex.ac.uk/handbook/forms/WLB010919-4.pdf
http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/abstracts.html


http://www.glan-hafren.ac.uk/LearnCent/StudyGuides/BusinessReportWriting.pdf
http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/report/4b.html
/http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/pw
http://hsc.csu.edu.au/business_studies/intro/writing/writing.html#WHY
http://www.sec.gov/pdf/handbook.pdf
http://www.ecf.toronto.edu/~writing/handbook-shrtrept.html
http://www2.umist.ac.uk/chemistry/communication/shortreport.html
http://bestentrepreneur.murdoch.edu.au/Guide_To_Report_Writing.pdf
http://oregonstate.edu/dept/eli/buswrite/Business_Writing_Help.html
http://www.uoregon.edu/~ddusseau/101/199/style.html
http://bschool.washington.edu/bwrite/business_doc.shtml


.
.

Cover




Title Page

:
.
: -

2003

Abstract or Summary or Executive Summary



.
.
.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents
Page
iv
v

vi
1
1
4
14
14
17
24
24
29
36
36
42
49
57
59
60
63

List of Figures
List of Tables
Glossary
1. Introduction and Literature Review
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Literature Review
2.Physical Background
2.1 Flow Past a Rigid Sphere
2.2 Flow Acting on a Spherical Bubble
3. Methodology
Mathematical Formulation
Numerical Procedure
4. Results and Discussion
4.1 List of cases
4.2 Forces
4.3 Velocities
5. Conclusions
6. Recommendations
References
Appendix A

.
)(

:



- :
- :

1
2
5
9
12
15
17
20

.

LIST OF FIGURES

List of Figures
Page
2
6
16
20
22
34
28
38
42

Fig. 1.1: Schematic drawing of two phase flow


Figure 1.2: Bubble Shapes
Figure 2.1: Drag force on a raising bubble
Fig. 2.2: Lift force on a rigid sphere
Figure 2.3- Comparison of Theoretical and experimental results
Fig. 3.1- Grid types
Fig. 3.2: Schematic drawing of the applied boundary conditions
Fig. 4.1: Results of case I
Fig. 4.2: Results of case II

.
Fig. or Figure
.

:1
:2

3
5

:3
:4

9
11

:5


LIST OF TABLES

List of Table
Table 1.1: Sales of product A in previous years
Table 1.2: Sales of Product B in previous years
Table 1.3: Production Capacity of all Products
Table 2.1: Customer Survey Results
Table 2.2: Raw Material Cost in 2005
Table 2.3: Marketing Expenses in 2005
Table 3.1: Market Demand Forecast
Table 3.2: Sales Forecast
Table 3.3: Different Scenarios
Table 3.4: Production Plan
Table B.1: Forecast Methodology

Page
3
4
6
9
10
12
15
16
18
21
28

.
List of Tables


:1
:2
:3
:4
:5
:6

1
2
5
9
12
15

. .
.


List of Symbols or Glossary

List of Symbols and Abbreviations


Perimeter
Courant Number
Diameter
Area
Gravitational Acceleration
Lift Force

P
c
D
A
g
Lf

. .


Introduction

.

.

.

.

.

Main Body


2000 1800 1500
2100 1200




- -
- - 2002



. .
.




.
. .
.

.

Microsoft Project
. .
.
.


Conclusions or Recommendations


.

.
.
.

.

- 2007
- 24
-
.


References

References
1. R. Hartunian and W. Sears, On the instability of gas bubbles moving in liquids, J.
Fluid Mech., Vol. 3, pp. 27-47, 1957.
2. Levich, G., Phsico-Chemical Hydrodynamics, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J.,
1962.
3. D. Moore, 1963, The boundary layer on a spherical bubble, J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 16,
pp. 161-176.
4. D. Moore, The velocity of rise of distorted gas bubbles in a liquid of small
viscosity , J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 23, pp. 749-766, 1965.
5. P. Saffman, On the rise of small air bubbles in water, J. Fluid Mech., Vol. (1), 249275, 1956.

Appendix (Appendices) or Attachments


-

.


:
.


:

)( .



: .


:
.
.
.



-
.

. .
.
.
.

-
.

.

-

-
-
.
.

- .


-
.



. .


-

- .



- .

-

.
-
.
.
.
.

-
. - -

- .

-
2001 2010 .2007

- - -
.


-
-
-

- -
.

Mobil XXXX

15 litre

XXXXXX

20 gm

Shell XXXX

25 litre

-1
.

.. 2005
2005

2004

1,830,000
)(750,000
1,080,000

1,350,300
)(630,000
720,000

)(51,000
)(41,000
988,000

)(44,000
)(28,000
648,000

)(3,100
8,100
993,000

)(2,850
9,200
654,350

)(198,600
794,400
19.86

)(130,870
523,480
12.92

-2 2005
.
. .
.

-3
.
.

-1 2006
.

2
.
.
.

-3 12/12/2006
.

-4

-5

-6
.

-7

- -
.

.

2005

2004

1,830,000
3550
1,080,000
9,500,400
890
13,402,840

1,350,300
145000
720,000
67500
755
2,931,556

:1
. , .

.
. 2005
.


1
2
3
4
5
6


2.5
2.5
2.0
3.1
2.6
2.5


8.1
7.72
7.61
7.93
7.7
7.6

:2-
. . :
. .

:1 -

.
.
.
.

.

:2 -

.
.
.
.

:3 -

:4 -

:5 -

:5 -

:6 -

:7- 12/12/2006

140 .

:8 - 12/12/2006

:9 - 12/12/2006
.

:10 - 12/12/2006

.

.

11

:
.
. : ) (1 ) (2 .

:12 -
.