Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947

-4453 fax • www.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric.com

Powell Technical Brief
Table of Contents
Contents of Brief

Brief # PTB#1 PTB#2 PTB#3 PTB#4 PTB#5 PTB#6 PTB#7 PTB#8 PTB#9 PTB#10 PTB#11 PTB#12 PTB#13 PTB#14 PTB#15 PTB#16 PTB#17 PTB#18 PTB#19 PTB#20 PTB#21 PTB#22 PTB#23 PTB#24 PTB#25 PTB#26 PTB#27 PTB#28 PTB#29 PTB#30 PTB#31 PTB#32 PTB#33 PTB#34 PTB#35 PTB#36

Issue Date (4/23/90) (5/18/90) (6/7/90) (7/28/90) (7/29/90) (7/30/90) (9/29/90) (10/22/90) (1/9/91) (1/10/91) (3/1/91) (3/4/91) (3/27/91) (4/1/91) (5/24/91) (6/12/91) (7/18/91) (7/19/91) (8/26/91) (8/27/91) (12/3/91) (12/4/91) (12/5/91) (2/7/92) (2/11/92) (4/13/92) (4/14/92) (8/25/92) (8/28/92) (10/16/92) (10/18/92) (10/19/92) (12/16/92) (12/17/92) (1/14/93) (3/4/93)

Fast Bus Transfer Closing and Latching Capability of Medium Voltage Power Circuit Breakers Capacitance Current Switching Capability of PowlVac Circuit Breakers Umbilical Cord Used on PowlVac Circuit Breakers Comparison of Porcelain and Cycloaliphatic Epoxy Insulation Effect of Solar Radiation on Outdoor Metal-Enclosed Switchgear Seismic Testing of PowlVac Switchgear Preventing Voltage Feedback in Synchronizing Circuits Fuses for Use in DC Control Circuits Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) Values for Testing of PowlVac Circuit Breakers Consequences of Vacuum Interrupter Failure Continuous Current Carrying Capability of Low Voltage Circuit Breakers Future Use of Space in Powell Equipments Autotransformer Starting of Motors Directional Overcurrent and Directional Power Relays Preventing Condensation in Medium Voltage Motors Ground Lead Disconnectors on Distribution-Class Surge Arresters Operating Times of PowlVac Circuit Breakers Use of PowlVac Circuit Breakers for Continuous Currents Above 3000 Amperes Application of Dummy Circuit Breakers in Metal-Clad Switchgear Switching Capability of Rollout or Tiltout Carriages Short Circuit Currents - Crest, rms Symmetrical and rms Asymmetrical Using Design Tests to Qualify Several Ratings of Equipment Sizing Bus Bars in Switchgear and Motor Control Application of Metal-Enclosed Switchgear at High Altitude Voltage Ratings of Surge Arresters Testing of Switchgear and Motor Control Equipment Short Circuit Current Levels Used to Test Various Types of Circuit Breakers Interchangeability of Drawout Circuit Breakers in Switchgear Assemblies Static Relays and Meters Effects of Harmonics on Switchgear Replacing Older Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers with Vacuum Circuit Breakers Partial Differential Relaying Polarity Markings on Instrument Transformers Settings of Targets on Electro-Mechanical Protective Relays Epoxy Bus Bar Insulation

©2001 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved.

Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric.com

Powell Technical Brief
Table of Contents
Contents of Brief

Brief # PTB#37 PTB#38 PTB#39 PTB#40 PTB#41 PTB#42 PTB#43 PTB#44 PTB#45 PTB#46 PTB#47 PTB#48 PTB#49 PTB#50 PTB#51 PTB#52 PTB#53 PTB#54 PTB#55 PTB#56 PTB#57 PTB#58 PTB#59 PTB#60 PTB#61 PTB#62 PTB#63 PTB#64 PTB#65 PTB#66 PTB#67 PTB#68 PTB#69 PTB#70

Issue Date (3/5/93) (4/21/93) (4/22/93) (4/23/93) (6/3/93) (6/4/93) (7/30/93) (8/2/93) (9/22/93) (9/23/93) (11/17/93) (12/2/93) (12/3/93) (12/10/93) (6/2/94) (6/14/94) (7/5/94) (11/16/94) (12/8/94) (12/19/94) (12/22/94) (1/17/95) (1/24/95) (1/30/95) (3/7/95) (3/28/95) (6/12/95) (6/22/95) (6/29/95) (11/3/95) (11/13/95) (11/28/95) (1/5/96) (1/10/96)

Testing for Loss of Vacuum in Vacuum Interrupters Using Switchgear at Frequencies Other Than 60Hz Motor Branch Fault Short-Circuit Protection Temperature of Cable Terminations and Cable Compartments in Switchgear Plating of Contact Surfaces in Switchgear and Circuit Breakers Momentary Rating and Construction of Bus in Metal-Enclosed Switchgear Device Function Numbers Preparing Foundations for Indoor Installation of Switchgear MVA Interrupting Rating of Circuit Breakers Used in Metal-Clad Switchgear Significance of K Factor in Circuit Breaker Ratings X/R Ratio Temperature Rating of Conductors Connected to Molded Case Circuit Breakers Industry Standards Covering Powell Products NEC Article 384 - Switchboards and Panelboards Arc-Resistant Metal-Clad Switchgear Wire Fill in Seal Fittings Hardware for Bus Connections Arc-Resistant Switchgear Construction or Arc-Detection Devices? Useful Life of Metal-Enclosed Switchgear Control Wire and Wire Markers in Switchgear and Motor Control Ratings of Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers Rating of Ground Bus in Metal-Enclosed Switchgear Bus Spacings in Metal-Enclosed Switchgear Switching Small Currents with Vacuum Circuit Breakers Overcurrent Definitions Choosing Current Transformers for Relaying Use Capacitance Graded Bushings Load Switching Capability of NEMA General Purpose Contactors Starting Synchronous Motors Use of Auxiliary Current Transformers Using Latched Contactors in Medium Voltage Motor Control Centers Instantaneous Ground Fault Relays (50GS) and Zero-Sequence CTs Wound Rotor Induction Motors and Starters The Importance of Transient Recovery Voltage

©2001 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved.

Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric.com

Powell Technical Brief
Table of Contents
Contents of Brief

Brief # PTB#71 PTB#72 PTB#73 PTB#74 PTB#75 PTB#76 PTB#77 PTB#78 PTB#79 PTB#80 PTB#81 PTB#82 PTB#83 PTB#84 PTB#85 PTB#86 PTB#87 PTB#88 PTB#89 PTB#90 PTB#91 PTB#92

Issue Date (2/9/96) (4/10/96) (4/23/96) (7/12/96) (7/29/96) (2/19/97) (2/20/97) (10/1/97) (10/1/97) (10/27/97) (10/28/97) (4/16/98) (8/3/98) (11/17/98) (8/10/99) (8/11/99) (5/12/00) (5/8/01) (7/31/01) (9/15/01) (4/25/03) (7/2/04)

Starting Methods for Large Medium Voltage AC Motors Open Circuit Protectors for Current Transformers Metal-Clad Switchgear or Metal-Enclosed Switchgear: Which Is It? Enclosures for Metal-Enclosed Switchgear and Motor Control Overlap and Bolting of Bus Connections Bus Duct Enclosure Material Insulation of Bus Joints Circuit Breaker Trip Defeat Switch Ferroresonance of Voltage Transformer (VT) Circuits Switchgear in a Sulfur Rich Environment Direct Control of Motor Contactors via PLC's and Distributive Control Systems Physical Installations of Surge Arresters Additional Safety Features Capacitor Trip Unit The Application of 600 Volt Class Current Transformers in Medium Voltage Switchgear Altitude De-rating of Fuses, Surge Arresters and Potential Transformers Current Transformer Grounding Standard Voltage Ranges and Ratings The New Medium Voltage Circuit Breaker Interrupting Ratings Based on a K Factor of 1 Asymmetrical Interrupting Current Rating of Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers Condensation in Switchgear and Anti-Condensation Heaters Arc Resistant Switchgear Tested to ANSI C37.20.7 and NFPA70E

©2001 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved.

are given in the following table. In the second scheme. which may lead to the incoming breaker closing into a fault. The result.Fast Bus Transfer April 23. This can be prevented by adding a few milliseconds of time delay to the closing signal. 1990 Fast bus transfer is normally used for transferring a bus supplying motors to an emergency power source on failure of the normal source of power.17.0 57.0 .0 49.0 45. the closing signal of the second breaker is initiated by a "b" contact of the opening breaker.55. Using Fast "b" Contact Trip Then Close. ms With Arcing (1. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. With this method. It is essential that this transfer be accomplished with a minimum of "dead time" to prevent loss of critical motors or damage to the motors on re-energization. there is a possibility of overlap between the two sources.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #1 .powellelectric.5 Dead Time.9.67. We have recently run timing tests on the "Dash 3" PowlVac® circuit breaker to determine fast transfer dead times.59. Using Standard "b" Contact • Possible overlap 7. the trip signal to the opening breaker and the close signal to the closing breaker are given simultaneously.5 . Source of Closing Signal No Arcing Simultaneous Close and Trip Signals Trip Then Close. Two schemes of operation are used for fast transfer. This may be either standard "b" contact or a fast "b" contact. which apply to 5PV0250-3 and 15PV0500-3 breakers.0 53. In the first.0)* .5 Baldwin Bridger.0 . .0 .63.5 .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.E. P.com • info@powellelectric. All rights reserved. both 1200A and 2000A.

com Powell Technical Brief PTB #2 .7. 1990 ANSI Standard C37. we will probably see both methods of specifying closing and latching current used in specifications for many years.AC High Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis .76 8.Preferred Ratings and Related Required Capabilities. All rights reserved. Crest 97 132 111 62 97 130 Nominal MVA ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.0 15. . so the performance required of the circuit breaker has not really changed.0 15.25 15.powellelectric. In the 1987 edition. The following table gives both sets of values. the current value in this column was given in rms kiloamperes. Other standards had previously required the closing and latching current to have a crest value of 2. Only the method of stating the requirement has changed. this current is expressed in crest kiloamperes.7 times the maximum symmetrical interrupting current. and was determined by multiplying the maximum symmetrical interrupting capability by 1. or copying older specifications. which also expresses closing and latching capability in crest amperes.76 4.06 1979 Edition kA. This change was made to bring the ANSI standard in line with the IEC standard. rms 250 350 500 500 750 1000 58 78 66 37 58 77 1987 Edition kA. and the value is determined by multiplying the maximum symmetrical interrupting capability by 2. includes a column in Table 1 headed Closing and Latching Capability.com • info@powellelectric. Since many specification writers will be using older standards. Rated Maximum Voltage kV. American National Standard for Switchgear .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.06-1987. rms 29 41 33 18 28 37 Closing and Latching Capability per ANSI C37.6.Closing and Latching Capability of Medium Voltage Power Circuit Breakers May 18.0 Rated Short Circuit Current kA. rms 4. In older editions of this standard.

Closing and Latching Capability of Medium Voltage Power Circuit Breakers (Page 2) If the specified value of closing and latching current matches a value from either edition of the standard. If there is any possibility of confusion. P.com • info@powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. the specifier should be contacted to determine which basis is being used to specify the close and latch rating.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #2 . . Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. we can assume that a standard breaker is desired. Baldwin Bridger.powellelectric.E. All rights reserved.

35 for grounded banks.60 15.76kV 250MVA 4. When PowlVac® circuit breakers are used in a back-to-back switching situation.00 16. 1990 We have recently had capacitance current switching tests performed on our "Dash 3" PowlVac® circuit breakers. These multipliers include allowances for higher than normal voltage.28 18.76 6. Table 1 lists the maximum rating of capacitor bank that can be switched by each rating of circuit breaker when applied in accordance with ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.06-1987.15 11. using GE interrupters.08 5.47 15PV0500 15.94 17.36 3.2 13. and harmonic components in the current.06-1987.08 10.25 for ungrounded capacitor banks and 1.52 12.04 10.30 10. in accordance with ANSI Standard C37.8 14.com • info@powellelectric.09 3. See ANSI/IEEE C37.64 2000A Breaker 3.Capacitance Current Switching Capability of PowlVac® Circuit Breakers June 7.05 12.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #3 .57 2000A Breaker 3. Table 1: Capacitor Bank Switching Capability of "Dash 3" PowlVac® Circuit Breakers Maximum Nameplate Rating of Capacitor Bank.0kV 500MVA 13.93 17. . inrush currents and frequencies must be limited to the values given in Table 1A of ANSI C37. This may require the addition of reactance between the two capacitor banks.4 05PV0250 4. Table 1A.48 Circuit Breaker Type and System Voltage Rating kV ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.16 4.12 19.95 Grounded Bank 1200A Breaker 1.63 4. The values in the table were calculated using a total current multiplier of 1.34 6. capacitor tolerance.4 2.67 11.012-1979.15 10.29 19. for both isolated and back-to-back switching of capacitors.7.94 3.11 14.33 5.71 18. All rights reserved.75 16. The results of these tests showed that these breakers are qualified as definite purpose circuit breakers.5 12.76 11.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.88 11. MVAR Ungrounded Bank 1200A Breaker 2.powellelectric.1.012-4.85 9.

E.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. All rights reserved. Baldwin Bridger.com • info@powellelectric. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Such applications should be referred to me for checking. but we do have some data from Mitsubishi that allows us to apply them.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #3 . P.Capacitance Current Switching Capability of PowlVac® Circuit Breakers (Page 2) Note: This table does not apply to PowlVac® circuit breakers using Mitsubishi interrupters. We have not tested those breakers for capacitance current switching capability. .powellelectric.

Interlocks provided include: • • The circuit breaker cannot be inserted into the cell without plugging in the umbilical cord. these devices include the mechanism-operated cell switch (MOC) and the truck-operated cell switch (TOC). The use of the umbilical cord is part of our user-friendly design. • Q. Once the circuit breaker racking mechanism has been operated to start the circuit breaker insertion process. Why does Powell use an umbilical cord for its control disconnect? A. . these interlocks insure that the circuit breaker is open and all energy storage springs are discharged when the circuit breaker is taken out of the cell. Powell does not differ from "all other manufacturers". Q. It is also commonly used in Europe. the plug cannot be removed.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. In addition to the control disconnect. In our PowlVac® design.Umbilical Cord Used on PowlVac® Circuit Breakers July 28. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved.com • info@powellelectric. these devices are located where they may be observed by an operator inserting or removing the circuit breaker. Is this design safe? A. Unplugging the umbilical cord trips the circuit breaker if it is closed and discharges the closing spring if it is charged.powellelectric. which locates all circuit breaker control accessories in the front of the cell. While the umbilical cord design has not been used frequently in the United States. Since the plug must be removed in order to remove the circuit breaker from its cell. are: Q.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #4 . Why does Powell differ from all other manufacturers in the method of disconnecting the control connections to the circuit breaker? A. Yes. and our answers to them. The umbilical cord's plug mechanism is mechanically interlocked with the circuit breaker to insure safe operation. It is therefore not possible to disconnect the control circuits of a circuit breaker that is in service. customers or prospective customers question our use of a manually-operated control disconnect ("umbilical cord") on our PowlVac® circuit breakers. allowing the operator to check alignment and operation when the circuit breaker is installed. 1990 Occasionally. These devices are also available for servicing without removing the circuit breaker from the cell. other American manufacturers have used it. We chose to use this design because we think it offers superior performance in total. Some of the questions asked.

2-6. All rights reserved.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #4 .7. . is covered in detail in ANSI/IEEE Standard C37. Baldwin Bridger. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.com • info@powellelectric. The PowlVac® circuit breaker meets these requirements.Umbilical Cord Used on PowlVac® Circuit Breakers (Page 2) Q. including required interlocking.powellelectric. Does the umbilical cord design meet ANSI standards? A. Yes.2. This design.20. P.E.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.

All rights reserved. but is still in the range of 2/10's of 1%. . In the electrical area. and other U.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. The material has been in common use in Europe for a generation. The track resistance of cyclo is slightly less than that of porcelain. both were strong proponents of porcelain insulation. S.com • info@powellelectric. each of which has its own specific qualities and parameters. is about the same as glazed porcelain. It is especially interesting to see the first two of these companies using cycloaliphatic epoxy.Comparison of Porcelain and Cycloaliphatic Epoxy Insulation July 29. A few years ago.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #5 . The Izod impact strength. This insulation has given excellent results in the eight years since we first introduced PowlVac®. in the physical area. but we still have customers who request porcelain. While the repairability of cyclos is limited. Powell is far from alone in using cycloaliphatic epoxy insulation. The flexural strength of cyclo is 16 to 18 times that of glazed porcelain. the following relationships are typical: • • • • • • • • Cycloaliphatic epoxy ("cyclo") weighs less than 70% of porcelain's weight. porcelain is unrepairable. The water absorption of cyclo is slightly greater than that of porcelain. Although there are many formulations of cycloaliphatic epoxy and a number of varieties of porcelain. users include Westinghouse. you will find: • • • • The dielectric constant of cyclo is only about two-thirds that of porcelain. The compression strength of cyclo is 4 to 6 times that of glazed porcelain. The tensile strength of cyclo is about 11 times that of glazed porcelain. Dimensional and shape control is much easier in cyclos than in porcelain.powellelectric. First. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. there are a number of general comparisons which can be made. but cyclo mixtures with temperature classes of 105 C or 130 C are readily available. S&C and Square D. The thermal coefficient of expansion of cyclo is 1/20th that of porcelain. unnotched. The temperature class of porcelain is much higher than that of cyclo. 1990 PowlVac® vacuum circuit breakers and metal-clad switchgear use a primary insulation system of cycloaliphatic epoxy.

powellelectric. such as support insulators in circuit breakers and switchgear.E. All rights reserved. and has excellent erosion resistance and weathering properties.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #5 . Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.com • info@powellelectric. This is especially true for applications requiring great strength under severe dynamic loading. In summary.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. is readily washable. P.Comparison of Porcelain and Cycloaliphatic Epoxy Insulation (Page 2) Finally. Baldwin Bridger. . cyclo exhibits excellent resistance to common industrial chemicals. we believe that the excellent physical properties of cyclo make it the insulating material of choice in spite of some small sacrifice in electrical properties.

23 for bus duct) include as one of the usual service conditions that the effect of solar radiation is not significant. 1990 From time to time we get questions about the rating of outdoor metal-enclosed switchgear which is exposed to solar radiation. all testing and rating of switchgear ignores the effect of solar radiation. As a switchgear manufacturer.20. We further assume that the specifier will do the necessary evaluation and either limit his loads or upgrade his ratings to take care of any solar radiation derating that is needed. When switchgear is installed in a location where solar radiation is significant. and to assist them with the calculations if necessary. but we should not be expected to automatically quote a 2000A circuit breaker where a 1200A circuit breaker is specified. All four of the ANSI product standards we commonly use (C37. How should we handle this extra heat? Metal-enclosed switchgear built to ANSI standards. there is another ANSI standard to give guidance in properly applying the switchgear. All rights reserved.com • info@powellelectric.Effect of Solar Radiation on Outdoor Metal-Enclosed Switchgear July 30.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #6 .2 for metal-clad switchgear. Baldwin Bridger.1 for low voltage switchgear. P. just because the installation is outdoors in Yuma.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. we will be glad to discuss this derating with our customers. gives the information necessary to allow calculating the derating of the continuous current capability of switchgear exposed to the sun. is rated in accordance with the usual service conditions set forth in those standards. the derating depends on the location of the switchgear installation.E.20. ANSI/IEEE C37. . If requested.3 for interrupter switchgear. IEEE Guide for Evaluating the Effect of Solar Radiation on Outdoor Metal-Enclosed Switchgear. we assume that our customers specify switchgear ratings in accordance with the usual service conditions given in the product standards. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. C37.24-1986. It is fairly obvious to anyone who thinks about it that switchgear sitting out in the sun gets hotter than switchgear sitting in the same ambient air temperature inside a building where it has no solar exposure. and C37. as is all Powell switchgear. Arizona. This standard is site-specific.20. Thus. C37.powellelectric.

com • info@powellelectric.powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. or 0. gives some guidance for the seismic loading that various items must withstand. All rights reserved.5 x 0. is the occupancy factor. Since seismic testing is performed in terms of acceleration rather than force applied.3 for all machinery in a building. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. depending on the location of the final installation of the switchgear. Here. and is the weight of the equipment. which varies from 1 for Category I to 1.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #7 . which is 0. where X may be any number from 0 to 4. From basic mechanics. In the above formula.45. Unfortunately there is no ANSI standard that defines "suitable for use in seismic zone X". For a worst case situation.1-1982. which do exist in standards. . using the basic formula: where is the lateral force to be designed for. but are site specific. Fp is a force.125 for Zone 0 to 1 for Zone 4. Force = Mass x Acceleration. Based on past experience and input from various users. 1990 We often see specifications that call for switchgear "to be suitable for use in seismic zone X". are not stated in terms of seismic zones. The other aspect of suitability is the performance of the equipment under the specified conditions. is the horizontal force factor. I and Cp is a dimensionless coefficient for g. Powell has decided that the following are reasonable criteria for suitability: ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. which is the product of a mass and the acceleration of gravity. It follows that the product of Z.5 for Category III. ANSI Standard A58. is the seismic zone coefficient. we have absolutely no guidance from ANSI standards. the test level for a worst case installation should be 0.Seismic Testing of PowlVac® Switchgear September 29.45 g. where the switchgear is installed in a critical occupancy in Zone 4.3. the value of this coefficient is 1 x 1. which varies from 0. or g. Seismic requirements for nuclear generating station equipment. W p is a weight.

These samples were single-unit equipments.5 Hz for horizontal acceleration.45 g as the zero period acceleration (ZPA) value for these tests. to give the narrowest structure possible. primary circuits shall withstand a 27 kV power frequency withstand test (hipot).5 Hz for vertical acceleration and about 1.8 g at 3.powellelectric. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Full seismic tests were done by Southwest Research Institute at these values of acceleration. 3) The circuit breakers shall not open or close during the event except on command. They were therefore worst-case seismic samples. All rights reserved. the circuit breakers were successfully closed and tripped on command during the seismic test.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. 4) The circuit breakers shall not move from the fully connected position during the event.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #7 . 6) Primary and control fuses shall remain in their fuse clips. About four years ago.9 g at 2. we chose to use 0. and the equipment performed successfully on retest. The seismic experts at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio took this value and developed a required response spectrum (RRS) that peaked at about 1.Seismic Testing of PowlVac® Switchgear (Page 2) 1) There shall be no structural damage that prevents normal operation of the equipment after the event. 7) Transformer rollout drawers shall not come open during the event. with a minimum value of 0. . Based on the requirements of ANSI A58. it shall be possible to open and close the circuit breakers and rack them into and out of the connected position. The eight criteria listed on the previous page were used to judge the performance of the equipment under seismic test. The value of 27 kV is chosen because it is the power frequency withstand voltage specified for field testing of 15 kV metal-clad switchgear. the equipment performed as required. 5) After the event.com • info@powellelectric. 8) After the event. Powell had samples of PowlVac® metal-clad switchgear tested for the ability to withstand Zone 4 seismic forces. and had the heaviest circuit breakers installed in the highest positions in which they are ever used.1-1982. Except for a minor problem with the transformer rollout drawer. In addition. 2) No doors or covers shall open during the event.45 g (the ZPA) at frequencies above 32-33 Hz. The rollout drawer fastening system was reinforced.

standard PowlVac® metal-clad switchgear is suitable for use in seismic zones 0.powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. All rights reserved. P.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #7 .com • info@powellelectric. With the addition of holding clips at the transformer rollout drawers. . Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.Seismic Testing of PowlVac® Switchgear (Page 3) Based on these tests. 1 and 2. PowlVac® is suitable for use in zones 3 and 4. Baldwin Bridger.E.

com • info@powellelectric. can allow energizing of a supposedly dead bus if the synchronizing switch is accidentally left in the "ON" position. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. The portion of this voltage which appears across the bus voltage transformer will be stepped up by the ratio of the bus voltage transformer. For more complex schemes. All rights reserved. a more complex circuit may be necessary to insure that no voltage feedback circuits exist. The two lamps will be in series with the secondary of the bus voltage transformer. . For simple synchronizing schemes. involving automatic synchronizing. where one or more generators are manually synchronized to a common bus. this circuit with its one 27B relay is satisfactory. P. or synchronizing to a utility source.Preventing Voltage Feedback in Synchronizing Circuits October 22. machine-to-machine synchronizing. 1990 Many synchronizing schemes use two lamps in series. a dead bus relay (27B) should be connected in the circuit as shown in the figure below. This scheme. and this higher voltage will be applied to the switchgear bus. This "dark lamp" synchronizing indication can be used by an operator to supplement the meter and synchroscope readings to insure synchronism before closing the incoming circuit breaker.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Baldwin Bridger. To prevent this voltage feedback.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #8 . All synchronizing circuits should be reviewed carefully to prevent voltage feedback through the synchronizing lamps. connected from the incoming voltage source to the running voltage source. however.powellelectric. and this circuit will be connected across the energized incoming voltage transformer secondary.E.

powellelectric. From time to time. Bussmann advises me that the Type NON has been tested successfully for 10 kA interrupting capability at 250 V dc.Fuses for Use in DC Control Circuits January 9. we should use either Fusetron Type FRN-R or Low-Peak Type LPN-RK. so it would be a very unusual dc control circuit that had a short circuit capability in excess of 10 kA. Another question sometimes raised is whether or not these fuses are UL listed for dc applications. which is the rating commonly ascribed to these fuses. Baldwin Bridger.E. These fuses are dual-element time delay types which may be used in the same fuse blocks used for Type NON fuses.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #9 .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Typical fuse types are Bussmann Type NON and Shawmut Type OT. are supplied from a dc power source. The typical control battery used for switchgear can deliver a short circuit current of about 10 times its one-minute discharge rating. The answer is no. The application of these fuses to this type of circuit has been generally successful and has been generally accepted by our customers. All rights reserved. someone raises the question of the dc rating of these fuses. we can safely apply these fuses to dc control circuits where the short circuit level of the control circuit is 10 kA or less. 1991 The majority of control circuits in metal-enclosed switchgear. Based on this test data. . however. For nearly half a century Powell and other switchgear manufacturers have used 250-volt cartridge fuses (so-called "Code fuses") to protect these control circuits. P. particularly in metal-clad switchgear.com • info@powellelectric. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. If a fuse with a UL listing for dc use is required.

which gives the preferred ratings of indoor oilless circuit breakers.powellelectric. calls for E2 to be 1.Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) Values for Testing of PowlVac® Circuit Breakers January 10. The nominal values are those for a full rated short circuit interruption. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. The required values of transient recovery voltage are included in ANSI/IEEE C37. and are given in the table below. interpolating between the listed values to match the ANSI voltage ratings. All rights reserved. Both the absolute value of this voltage and its rate of rise are important in determining the interrupter's ability to meet its interrupting rating. along with the other ratings of circuit breakers.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #10 .06-1987. In order to assign some reasonable value to T2. 1991 The interrupting performance of any circuit interrupter is affected by the transient recovery voltage appearing across the first pole to interrupt. The values obtained by this method were used in the testing of PowlVac® circuit breakers. The conventional way of specifying the rate of rise of the transient recovery voltage is to specify the peak value (E2) and the time required to reach that peak (T2). Table 1 of ANSI/IEEE C37. values of T2 are not standardized.com • info@powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. leaving the manufacturer with no guidance on this subject.88 times the breaker's rated maximum voltage for tests at 100% of the circuit breaker's interrupting rating. such as PowlVac® breakers. and multiplying the rate-of-rise values by E2 to obtain T2. . The rate of rise is then determined by dividing E2 by T2. Unfortunately. Table 6 of ANSI/IEEE C37. both higher peaks and faster times are specified. Powell decided to use the rate-of-rise values given in Table IIA of IEC Standard 56. For lower currents.06-1987 lists the multiplying factors to be applied to E2 and T2 for interrupting currents below the full rating of a circuit breaker.06-1987.

8 33.00 31.Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) Values for Testing of PowlVac® Circuit Breakers (Page 2) PowlVac® Transient Recovery Voltage Test Values Transient Recovery Voltage Current % of Interrupter Rating Rated Maximum Voltage = 15 kV Rated Maximum Voltage = 4. P.95 19.4 529 510 289 181 Baldwin Bridger. .47 10.1 49.11 9.17 28.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.8 19.powellelectric. All rights reserved.20 29 29 49 73.6 1137 1098 615 383 10. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.58 8.76 kV 7 to 13 20 to 30 40 to 60 100 33.com • info@powellelectric.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #10 .E.86 30.

The arc continued for several cycles. which was about 6 inches square. we have manufactured over 3200 breakers. All rights reserved. this short answer needs some additional comment to be really informative.powellelectric. In the 8 years that we have been building PowlVac® vacuum circuit breakers. exposed directly to the arc. When failure occurred.000 interrupter-years of service. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. During some recent design tests of a prototype of a new version of the PowlVac® breaker.com • info@powellelectric. We have never heard of a failure to interrupt by any of these circuit breakers. Photo 1 shows the failed interrupter.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. until the circuit was opened by a backup circuit breaker.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #11 . broke apart. based on industry statistics. the only damage to the circuit breaker was a small area of smoke and burn discoloration on the nearby insulating material. We are proud of this history. we have a history of nearly 20. Aside from the failed interrupter. Assuming an average of two years in service for these breakers. it could have been returned to service immediately after replacing the interrupter. the consequences are not the disastrous burn down that some people imagine. The remaining area seemed to be singed. we are not surprised by it. First. but. However. Five minutes with an industrial cleaner and a couple of paper towels removed all but about one square inch of this discoloration. Had this breaker been in service. we drove an interrupter far past its rated contact life span and had a failure. the internal shield was burned through and the ceramic envelope. but there was no detectable erosion of the surface of the insulating material. 1991 Users and prospective users of vacuum circuit breakers frequently ask us what happens if a vacuum interrupter fails to interrupt.Consequences of Vacuum Interrupter Failure March 1. even if an interrupter does fail. Second. failure of a properly applied vacuum interrupter to interrupt a fault current within its rating is a very rare event. . Photo 2 shows this area. The short answer to this question is that the interrupter is usually destroyed and must be replaced.

com Powell Technical Brief PTB #11 .powellelectric. and when they do happen.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.E. Photo 1 Failed Vacuum Interrupter Photo 2 Discolored Insulation at Failure Location Baldwin Bridger. P. All rights reserved. .com • info@powellelectric.Consequences of Vacuum Interrupter Failure (Page 2) Summing up. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. interrupter failures are rare. most are not a major disaster.

Some models have both 80% and 100% ratings available. 1991 Various types of low voltage circuit breakers have differing continuous duty capabilities. All rights reserved.. Be sure that the insulated case breakers selected are 100% rated.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #12 . . depending on the model and the manufacturer. in frame sizes of 600 A and above. If trip ratings are selected by our customer. These breakers may be rated either 80 percent or 100 percent. the extra heat generated by carrying 100 percent of the trip rating will both lead to false tripping and cause long-term degradation of the insulating material of which these breakers are made.com • info@powellelectric. It is important that we understand the difference and apply these breakers properly. Particularly when these breakers are mounted close to each other in a panelboard.Continuous Current Carrying Capability of Low Voltage Circuit Breakers March 4. 2) Apply insulated case breakers and low voltage power circuit breakers based on continuous loads of not more than 100% of the breaker's trip rating. Some confusion can arise when using large molded case circuit breakers.powellelectric. while others are rated to carry only 80 percent of their trip rating continuously. On the other hand.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Please observe the following application rules: 1) Apply MCCB's in 400 A frame size and smaller based on continuous loads of not more than 80% of the circuit breaker's trip rating. all low voltage power circuit breakers and the general run of insulated case circuit breakers are capable of carrying 100 percent of their trip rating on a continuous basis. assume that they are based on the 80% load requirement. If trip ratings are selected by our customer. the 100% breaker costs considerably more than the 80% breaker. The 100% rated breaker may require a larger enclosure and/or more ventilation than the 80% rated breaker of the same model. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. assume that they are based on the 100% load requirement. As you would expect. Some are rated to carry 100 percent of their trip rating continuously. The general run of molded case circuit breakers in frame sizes of 400 A and below are rated to carry only 80 percent of their rated trip current on a continuous basis.

and that adequate space and ventilation is provided for the breaker chosen.com • info@powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. making sure that the breaker selected fits the application. .powellelectric.Continuous Current Carrying Capability of Low Voltage Circuit Breakers (Page 2) 3) Apply large molded case circuit breakers based on either the 80% or the 100% rating. If trip ratings are selected by our customer. Baldwin Bridger.E. All rights reserved. be sure that you understand which basis was used for selection. P. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #12 .

©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Blank Space . buswork. inability to bus to the area or to maintain proper isolation of bus or outgoing leads.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #13 .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. primary buswork and disconnecting devices.Includes a door with cutouts for primary switching devices but not for secondary and control devices. no primary or secondary devices. No primary or secondary devices are included. and all cell parts required for inserting the drawout switching device. . Mounting and wiring includes the necessary space. future.A complete. ready-to-operate unit. Mounting and wiring may be furnished in any of the above units or in an active unit. Fully Equipped Space . Steelwork should be done so that the blank space can be equipped in the field with little or no cutting or welding. and is called by many different names. Related to these definitions but somewhat different is Mounting and Wiring for a future device or a device to be field installed by the user. physical supports. a finished unit door. we have adopted the following terms and descriptions in Powell for internal use: Spare . or some similar problem.com • info@powellelectric. space only. In order to minimize the confusion. equipped space. wiring. This may include temporary primary and/or secondary connections or jumpers to allow use of the circuit pending the addition of the future device. This area is made unusable by thermal limitations of the equipment. and all cell parts required for inserting the drawout switching device. spare. or cell parts required for inserting the drawout switching device. so there is often confusion between specifier and manufacturer or between engineering and shop personnel about what is desired on a particular job. 1991 Powell's switchgear and motor control equipments frequently include space which is not used by active switching devices. and primary and secondary connections to allow easy installation of the future device.Future Use of Space in Powell Equipments March 27.An area that can never be used for a primary switching device. fully wired. Blank . but is available for future use. This space varies in the amount of equipment present. including the drawout switching device (circuit breaker or motor starter) and all required secondary devices. primary disconnecting devices and riser bus connecting them to the main bus.A blank door. All rights reserved. and wiring is minimal. future space. and blank.A spare without the drawout switching device.powellelectric. Unfortunately. Includes all required secondary devices and wiring. Equipped Space . A spare differs from an active unit only in that the spare has no assigned function in the power system. Some of the terms used include space. there are no industry standards defining these terms and their use varies widely throughout the industry.

R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #13 . .Future Use of Space in Powell Equipments (Page 2) Where any of these conditions leave openings in the front door or in isolation barriers required by standards.powellelectric. P. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.E. All rights reserved. Baldwin Bridger. the opening must be covered by a temporary cover plate.com • info@powellelectric.

All rights reserved. and the autotransformers could be easily repaired and put back into service. when the voltage recovered to a fixed point. The autotransformer was set on the 80% tap. the manufacturer informs us that similar problems have been encountered with both air and vacuum contactors. • • Although the contactors used in this particular installation were vacuum contactors. and found that there had been previous experiences of this problem. Upon analysis. 2-coil Korndorfer circuit.com • info@powellelectric. the user switched in a rather large capacitor bank to minimize the line voltage drop. There was no damage to the winding or the core. The type of contactor used doesn't seem to be a factor in the occurrence of the problem.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #14 . The primary circuit is shown below: An investigation of the failed autotransformers by their manufacturer showed that the failure had been a surface flashover from the line end of the winding either to another tap of the winding or to a ground point. During the starting sequence. The circuit used was the familiar 3-contactor.powellelectric. We are uncertain of the setting of the timer used to transfer from the starting connection to the running connection.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. which has been used for many years and appears in textbooks and handbooks on motor control. This bank was switched off automatically. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. We consulted with both the autotransformer manufacturer and the manufacturer of the contactors used in the starter.Autotransformer Starting of Motors April 1. we found several conditions that contributed to this problem: • • The starter was located at the end of a rather weak supply line. The flashovers occurred because system transients generated during the starting sequence caused an excessive voltage to appear on the line end of the autotransformer winding. . during the starting sequence. 1991 One of our customers recently experienced failures of two autotransformers used in medium voltage motor starters.

Baldwin Bridger. . set to pick up at about 5 A and drop out just below that current. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. This relay will pick up when the motor is started and drop out when it reaches full speed. please include this relay in all starters of this type. be sure that the timer that transfers to the running connection is set at a long enough time so that the motor is fully accelerated before changing to the running connection. Connect the coil of this relay in any phase CT. Use the contact of this relay to bypass the timing relay contact. All rights reserved. P. In the future.Autotransformer Starting of Motors (Page 2) Further discussions with our suppliers led to several suggestions to minimize the occurrence of this problem: • • • • Insulate the transformer connection points. if the motor will accelerate successfully on these taps. This should be done on all future starters of this type. For induction motors.com • info@powellelectric. Use a lower voltage tap on the autotransformer. such as 65% or 50%.powellelectric. Add an instantaneous current relay to the circuit.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #14 . insuring that the motor has fully accelerated before the starter is transferred to the running connection. both the taps that are used and the unused taps. it may be necessary to connect intermediate class surge arresters to the line taps of the two autotransformer coils. • In extreme cases.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.E. See the control circuit below.

ANSI device 32. these relays can be made to measure vars . A typical use would be to limit the real or reactive power drawn from a utility source to a contractual level. A directional power relay can be used to limit power flow in a circuit. In complex distribution or subtransmission networks. detecting loss of the primary source to the transformer. as found on a normal non-directional overcurrent relay. ANSI device 67. these relays may be used to improve coordination of the system. All rights reserved. which determines the direction of current flow with respect to a voltage reference. Because these relays are designed to operate on fault currents. . Various degrees of sensitivity and speed of operation are available in various models of directional power relays.powellelectric. Directional overcurrent relays (67) respond to excessive current flow in a particular direction in the power system. so that a fault on one source is not fed by the other sources. By using quadrature potential connections or a phase shifting transformer. When this current flow is in the predetermined trip direction. . this directional element enables ("turns on") the other element.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. a very sensitive directional power relay can measure core loss power input to the transformer. the directional unit is made so that it operates best on a highly lagging current. 1991 From time to time we experience some confusion about the difference between directional overcurrent relays. The transformer can then be disconnected from the system. complete with taps and time dial. which is typical of faults in power systems. they are really very different in both construction and application.com • info@powellelectric. and directional power relays.Directional Overcurrent and Directional Power Relays May 24. The relay typically consists of two elements. This is usually due to loss of prime mover power.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #15 . There are three typical uses of these relays: • Connected to measure power flow into a generator. Connected to measure power flow into a transformer from the secondary side. so they operate best at a high power Directional power relays (32) measure real power factor. Directional overcurrent relays are normally used on incoming line circuit breakers on buses which have two or more sources. They are connected to trip an incoming line breaker for fault current flow back into the source. Although there are some similarities between these two types of relays. the relay will operate to trip the generator breaker if the generator begins to draw power from the system and act as a motor. • • ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. One is a directional element. which is a standard overcurrent relay. The relay may trip a breaker or initiate control action to change the system configuration.

P.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #15 .Directional Overcurrent and Directional Power Relays (Page 2) Neither the functions (67 and 32) nor the actual relays are interchangeable. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.powellelectric. Baldwin Bridger. All rights reserved. Be sure to use the function and the hardware which fit the application.E.com • info@powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. .

This is not usually a problem for a motor that is running. 1991 Condensation or other accumulation of moisture can be very damaging to the windings and mechanical parts of a motor.Preventing Condensation in Medium Voltage Motors June 12. several precautions must be observed: ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. supplementary heat is often required to keep the motor dry. . When the motor is stopped. Another way is to energize the motor windings from a low voltage source. especially a medium voltage motor. All rights reserved.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #16 .powellelectric. as it actually heats the windings instead of relying on the transmission of heat from a separate heater. When using this method of heating. as the windings generate enough heat to prevent condensation.com • info@powellelectric. however. This method may be preferable to the use of heaters. One way of providing the required heat is to install heaters in the motor. The one-line diagram below shows the connections for this method of heating the windings.

E. This value must be selected by the user. The user should consider whether this is an adequate time period to prevent unwanted system problems. to allow the residual voltage on the motor to decay before the motor windings are connected to the low voltage source. Since it is not critical to apply the heating circuit immediately.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. • • Baldwin Bridger. Tests show that there is an open circuit time of approximately 75-80 milliseconds when the running contactor is picked up by a "b" contact of the heating contactor. There needs to be a time delay between the opening of the running contactor and the closing of the heating contactor. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.powellelectric. as the motor winding side of this contactor is energized at line voltage when the motor is running. If not.com • info@powellelectric. All rights reserved. it is recommended that this time delay be in the order of 2 to 5 minutes. a time delay of a few seconds can be inserted in the pickup circuit of the running contactor to be sure that the heating contactor has cleared before the motor is energized by the operating voltage. .Preventing Condensation in Medium Voltage Motors (Page 2) • • • The heating contactor must be a full line voltage contactor. P.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #16 . based on input from the motor manufacturer. The running contactor and the heating contactor must be mechanically and electrically interlocked so that only one of them can be closed at any time. The voltage applied to the motor windings must be carefully selected to produce the proper heating.

As the current rises. creating an arc which ignites the cartridge. The second function of the ground lead is to give a visible indication of arrester failure for arresters mounted on overhead distribution lines. where the clearances are not nearly as great as on overhead lines. a couple of inches in diameter and an inch or so tall. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.E. blowing the ground lead free. All surge arresters used in Powell's equipments should be of the type without ground lead disconnectors.powellelectric. The ground lead disconnector is expected to create a gap which will not reignite when power is reapplied to the circuit.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #17 .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.com • info@powellelectric. These explosive ground lead disconnectors are not suitable for use in metal-enclosed equipment. he knows that he has a failure which must be replaced. the voltage across the gap increases until the gap flashes over. 1991 Many current models of zinc oxide distribution or riser pole arresters come equipped with ground lead disconnectors. . The visible indication function of the disconnector is useless if the device is mounted within an enclosed equipment. blue or green plastic. The first function of the ground lead disconnector is to disconnect the ground lead of the surge arrester in case of an internal failure of the arrester. This current will cause the arrester body to fail if it is not stopped quickly. The normal failure mode of these arresters is a short circuit to ground. a circuit breaker. Baldwin Bridger.Ground Lead Disconnectors on Distribution-Class Surge Arresters July 18. but the gap which will be created is a function of the length and flexibility of the ground lead. This is a device which is mounted on the ground end of the arrester and which looks about like a small hockey puck. If it does not go out. If a lineman sees an arrester with its ground lead hanging in midair. If a user requests that we include a surge arrester with a ground lead disconnector. we should offer an equivalent model without the disconnector. preventing explosive failure of the arrester body. causing ground fault current to flow. We do not want the explosion and subsequent uncontrolled arc inside equipment. P. The arc drawn by the ground lead as it separates from the body of the arrester may or may not go out on its own. The ground lead disconnector is not a fault current interrupter. recloser or fuse must operate to extinguish the arc. The gap is shunted by a resistor. and where secondary damage from the arc is much more likely to occur. The ground lead disconnector contains a cartridge in series with a gap. The enclosure is black. All rights reserved.

the time from energizing the closing coil with rated control voltage until the primary contacts touch is 80 milliseconds or less. All rights reserved. P.2 1. All times are from energizing of the trip coil with rated control voltage until the primary contacts part. milliseconds Design Limits Typical Test Values "S" (asymmetry) Factor 1. 1991 We are frequently asked about the actual operating times of PowlVac® circuit breakers.06-1987. The following values may be used in application studies for these circuit breakers. is very nearly a 3 cycle breaker. in particular. as shown in the following table. Baldwin Bridger. Closing Time For all current production models of PowlVac® circuit breakers.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric. Opening Time Opening times vary with the model of PowlVac® breaker.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.E.1 25-35 26 or 27 40-50 48 or 49 "Dash 2" Mitsubishi "Dash 3" General Electric All of these breakers are rated 5 cycles interrupting time in accordance with the preferred ratings found in Table 1 of ANSI C37.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #18 . Typical values are in the 44 to 45 millisecond range. . Breaker Model Vacuum Interrupter Opening Time.Operating Times of PowlVac® Circuit Breakers July 19. even though they may be faster. The "Dash 2" breaker. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.

R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. we can provide for continuous currents of about 3500 A by paralleling two 2000 A breakers and about 5000 A by paralleling two 3000 A breakers. the highest continuous current rating of our standard line of PowlVac® circuit breakers is 3000 A. A second method of providing for high continuous currents is to parallel two circuit breakers. Paralleling of breakers does require special circuitry to balance the currents between the two breakers and individual overcurrent protection for each breaker as well as combined overcurrent protection for the entire circuit.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #19 . special attention must be given to the design of any portions of the switchgear bus which are rated over 3000 A. and the last breaker to open has the capability of interrupting the full fault current. and the results of that test indicate that the fan-cooled breaker may be applied at 4000 A without overheating. as whichever breaker closes first can carry the continuous current for the few milliseconds until the second breaker closes. Precise timing in closing or opening the two paralleled breakers is not critical. and the required special bus design limits the switchgear to one-high construction. . This design requires a unit somewhat wider than the standard 36inch switchgear unit to include the necessary air ducts. the interrupting rating is neither increased nor decreased. Using this approach. First. Baldwin Bridger. Regardless of which breaker uprating method is used. When breakers are paralleled. P. If the main bus exceeds 3000 A.Use of PowlVac® Circuit Breakers for Continuous Currents Above 3000 Amperes August 26. standard PowlVac® bus cannot be used. We have a design that has been successfully tested at 3750 A. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Parallel breakers should only be used for a user who refuses to use fan cooled circuit beakers.com • info@powellelectric.E. A completely redundant second set of fans can be furnished if desired. 1991 In accordance with ANSI/IEEE Standard C37. All rights reserved.powellelectric. Fan cooling is our preferred method of obtaining higher continuous current ratings. For systems that require continuous current ratings above 3000 A. Main bus construction must also be very carefully balanced to insure equal impedance in both legs of the circuit. we can offer our standard 3000 A circuit breaker with cooling fans.06. The standard fan control equipment includes a current-actuated control to start the fans at about 2500 A and an alarm circuit which uses air flow switches to detect and alarm loss of cooling air at currents above this level. we can offer two possible solutions.

cable charging current will flow through the dummy. Another use might be to isolate one end of a tie bus or cable from a switchgear bus. It only takes a few hundred feet of 15 kV cable to draw a charging current of as much as half an amp. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. . dummy circuit breakers normally are interlocked with other switching devices so that the dummy cannot be withdrawn until the other devices are opened.E. Because a dummy circuit breaker is really a set of three jumper bars mounted on a breaker carriage. This may result in operator injury.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #20 . This highly capacitive current is difficult to interrupt. P. The limited length and very low capacitance of a switchgear bus structure keeps the charging current low enough to be successfully interrupted by withdrawing a dummy circuit breaker. If the cable is still attached to an energized bus through the dummy breaker. Baldwin Bridger. Therefore.Application of Dummy Circuit Breakers in Metal-Clad Switchgear August 27. it has absolutely no current interrupting rating. A common use of a dummy circuit breaker is as a temporary connection in a switchgear cell where a circuit breaker will be installed as part of a planned future expansion.com • info@powellelectric. 1991 Dummy circuit breakers are used in metal-clad switchgear to provide a method of disconnecting and isolating a circuit or circuits without using a circuit breaker. All rights reserved. Deenergizing the unloaded bus of a lineup of metal-clad switchgear by withdrawing a dummy circuit breaker is an acceptable application.powellelectric. A particular application that can be troublesome is isolating a tie cable that has been opened by a circuit breaker at the other end.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. equipment damage. or both. arcing will occur at the primary disconnect fingers. insuring that no current is flowing in the dummy. If an attempt is made to withdraw the dummy circuit breaker with current flowing. It is recommended that the interlocking for any circuit involving power cable and a dummy circuit breaker be arranged so that the cable is completely deenergized before the dummy circuit breaker is removed to isolate the cable.

Within these restraints. The switching capability will vary with the details of the design. The CPT may be mounted on the rollout or tiltout. This question usually takes the form "How large a CPT can you handle with fuses mounted in a rollout or tiltout?" There is no industry standard to measure this switching capability. however. • Any other application should be reviewed by Powell's engineering department.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.Switching Capability of Rollout or Tiltout Carriages December 3. small control power transformers. and to some extent will depend on the operator. Control power transformers: A CPT up to 50 kVA single phase or 75 kVA three phase can be switched with a rollout or tiltout provided the carriage is interlocked so that the CPT must be unloaded before opening the primary device. . Capacitors: Rollouts or tiltouts must not be used to switch capacitors. P. Larger CPT's must be switched with some other mechanism. or the rollout or tiltout may contain only the fuses for a stationary mounted CPT.E. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. since the speed of opening a rollout or tiltout depends on the individual opening the device.com • info@powellelectric. and no test data is available to certify this performance. Baldwin Bridger. and fuses for larger control power transformers.powellelectric. our experience with 5 kV and 15 kV equipments over the years has led us to adopt the following limits: • • Voltage transformers: A set of three wye connected VT's or two open delta connected VT's can be switched with a rollout or tiltout without any interlocking of the secondary circuit. All rights reserved. such as a load break disconnect switch. 1991 We are often asked about the switching capability of the rollout or tiltout carriages used in medium voltage switchgear to mount voltage transformers.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #21 .

and the value of that current at any instant is represented by the ordinate of CC'. or to have a 100% dc component. It is possible. which is normally symmetrical about the zero axis BX is offset by some value. the resulting waveform is said to be fully offset. At the moment of initiation of a short circuit the ac current wave.com • info@powellelectric. which may result in a waveform that has no current zeros for one or more cycles of the ac power frequency.powellelectric. the faster the decay will be. 1991 The figure below shows a typical short circuit current wage form and defines the various component parts of this wave.1 s in most power systems. in some power systems. rms Symmetrical and rms Asymmetrical December 4. When the initial value of the dc current is equal to the initial peak value of the ac current.Short Circuit Currents . at a rate dependant on the system parameters. In a 3-phase circuit. including the parameters of the power system up to the point of the short circuit and the point on the ac wave at which the short circuit was initiated. and reaches an insignificant value within 0. CC' represents the dc current. The ac component of the short circuit current will also decay. there is usually one phase which is offset significantly more than the other two phases.Crest. The rate of decay is a function of the system parameters. to have an offset in excess of 100%. CC'. The degree of asymmetry is a function of several variables. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. creating a waveform which is symmetrical about another axis. the closer the fault is to generators or other large rotating machinery.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. . In general. The dc component of the current normally decays rapidly. All rights reserved.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #22 . It is convenient to analyze this asymmetrical waveform as consisting of a symmetrical ac wave superimposed on a dc current.

E. is the rms value of the ac portion of the current wave. and it is shown graphically by the distance from CC' to DD'. such as EE'. All rights reserved. The rms symmetrical value of the short circuit current at any instant. or peak.com • info@powellelectric.powellelectric. and it is calculated by the formula: Baldwin Bridger. The rms asymmetrical value of the short circuit current is the rms value of the combined ac and dc waves. rms Symmetrical and rms Asymmetrical (Page 2) In the figure. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. It is the maximum instantaneous current in the major loop of the first cycle of short circuit current.Short Circuit Currents . value of the short circuit current.Crest.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #22 .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. IMC is the crest. Its value is equal to . . P.

Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Although Powell and many other manufacturers have used these principles in performing their design tests for many years. which uses the smallest.E. and the maximum short-time current. To aid in this understanding. This bus structure is the same for all voltage and short circuit ratings. These higher bus ratings are covered because they use larger bus bars. it is possible to run every test on every possible rating of equipment but such an extensive program is very expensive and is seldom required to fully document the performance of a product line. Of course.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. which are mechanically stronger and which have greater thermal capacity than the bus bars used in the 1200 A bus. A typical example of qualifying multiple ratings by a single test is the bus structure used in PowlVac® metal-clad switchgear. All rights reserved.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #23 . 1200 A. not everyone in the industry understands the concept. Baldwin Bridger. 49 kA rms. P. 1991 The many variations in construction and ratings encountered in the typical switchgear or motor control product line make the planning of design and conformance test programs quite complex at times. such as 2000 A and 3000 A. or different manufacturers offerings in the same product line. all future Powell test reports will document the additional ratings covered by any test. but may not necessarily be true for other manufacturers' similar products. The grouping of ratings and the selection of which rating to test requires a thorough knowledge not only of the standards but also of the particular product line being tested. tests are performed on the bus with the lowest continuous current rating. The grouping of ratings may differ for different tests. required for any rating of PowlVac® switchgear. To demonstrate the momentary and short-time current ratings of this bus structure.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric. It is fairly obvious that passing these tests qualifies the 1200 A bus for this rating and for all lower momentary and short-time current ratings. The tests are performed at the maximum momentary current. The ANSI standards for switchgear recognize this complexity and provide for the qualification of a piece of equipment for all lower ratings provided test results show it to be qualified for the highest rating for which it is used. What may not be quite so obvious is that successful tests on the 1200 A bus also qualify higher continuous current ratings. varying only for continuous current ratings. weakest bars of any continuous current rating of PowlVac® bus. These standards also give guidance in the grouping of equipment ratings for testing. .50 series discuss the principles of testing to qualify multiple ratings. Some of the conformance test standards in the ANSI C37. 132 kA crest. It also may differ for different products.Using Design Tests to Qualify Several Ratings of Equipment December 5. The example given in the previous paragraph is true for PowlVac® switchgear.

The answer is that we use temperature rise as the basic criterion. Specifications will sometimes call for bus sized by current density. a bus bar covered with insulation generally runs cooler than an equivalent bare bus bar. square inches Current density. For bus bars. amps per square inch 1200 A 2000 A 3000 A 1 1 1200 1 3 667 2 6 500 1/4 x 4 1/2 x 6 1/2 x 6 Maximum temperature rise.com • info@powellelectric. Some of the major ones are: • • Size and material (copper or aluminum) of the bus bar. Flow of ventilating air past the bus bars or the bus enclosure. Whether the bar is insulated. 1992 We occasionally get questions about how we select the size of bus bar for various continuous current ratings in Powell equipments.7°C 59. the requirement is generally for a temperature rise of no more than 65°C. based on bus sizes used in our PowlVac® metal-clad switchgear: Switchgear Bus Rating Number of bus bars per phase Size of bus bar.powellelectric. .com Powell Technical Brief PTB #24 . Size and material (magnetic or non-magnetic) of the enclosure around the bus. This may be a good way to choose bus sizes for the mythical "single conductor in free air".Sizing Bus Bars in Switchgear and Motor Control February 7. since excessive temperature shortens the life of the insulation. Surprisingly. a favorite requirement being 1000 A per square inch for copper bus. All rights reserved.5°C ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. because the usually darker color of the insulating material is a better radiator of heat than the shiny surface of a bare bus bar. All of the ANSI.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. These requirements are designed to prevent overheating the insulation supporting and enclosing the bus bars. IEEE and NEMA standards for switchgear and motor control have requirements for the maximum operating temperature of various parts of the equipment. inches Cross section area of bus. from test data 60°C 59. Proximity of other conductors and other heat-producing devices. although this may vary for different classes of equipment. • • • The complex interaction of these and other factors makes it nearly impossible to calculate temperature rise. A number of factors affect the temperature rise of bus bars. and leads to the requirement in all applicable standards for continuous current tests to determine the temperature rise of a bus design. Consider the following chart. but it isn't a satisfactory way to design buswork in practical equipments.

Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.4:1 ratio of the current densities. All rights reserved. P.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #24 .E. Baldwin Bridger. .Sizing Bus Bars in Switchgear and Motor Control (Page 2) The last line of the chart shows that the temperature rises of the three bus ratings are almost identical in spite of the 2.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric.

and medium-voltage metal-enclosed switchgear and the circuit breakers used in these equipments depend on air for both cooling and insulation. the current correction factor is applied to the continuous current rating of the switchgear and the circuit breakers.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. the ANSI standards require derating when these equipments are used at high altitudes. In all cases.95 0.00 0. Because of this.00 0. I have never been able to get a reasonable answer as to why this is true.96 Medium Voltage Switchgear and Breakers Altitude (ft)* 3300 (1000 m) (and below) 5000 (1500 m) 10.80 1. as we seldom design a system with load currents over 95% of the equipment rating. 1992 Both low.powellelectric.99 0. This does not usually present a problem. and I understand that the committee responsible for the standards is reviewing these values with the idea of reconciling them. The following tables show the altitude correction factors taken from the ANSI standards.99 0.com • info@powellelectric.000 (3900 m) Voltage Current 1.95 0. the less dense air is less efficient both as in insulator and as a heat transfer medium. At high altitudes.80 1.00 0.00 0.000 (3000 m) Voltage Current 1. .96 * Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation. All rights reserved. The current derating does not apply to interrupting current or any of the other high-current ratings of the breakers. Low Voltage Switchgear and Breakers Altitude (ft)* 6600 (2000 m) (and below) 8500 (2600 m) 13.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #25 .Application of Metal-Enclosed Switchgear at High Altitude February 11. You will notice that there are different altitudes given for low voltage and medium voltage. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.

com Powell Technical Brief PTB #25 . as most of those in Powell equipment are. if this same system required a 0. the voltage correction factor applies to the low frequency withstand (hipot) rating of both the breaker and the equipment. if a breaker is used on a 480 V system.6 V. For instance. P. . and 0. It also applies to the rated maximum voltage of the circuit breaker unless a sealed interrupter. is used. such as a vacuum interrupter.80 rating factor. comfortably above the service voltage.E.80 x 635 is 508 V. with a 0.Application of Metal-Enclosed Switchgear at High Altitude (Page 2) For low voltage equipments. the short circuit rating of the circuit breaker cannot exceed the rating at the voltage before derating. All rights reserved.80 x 508 is only 406 V. since 0. but 0. It also applies to the rated maximum voltage of the circuit breaker.powellelectric.95 x 508 is 482. since the rated maximum voltage for that system nominal voltage is 508 V. The use of surge arresters to protect the equipment should be considered for all such high altitude installations.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.com • info@powellelectric. the breaker short circuit rating at 600 V must be used. For medium voltage equipments. less than the service voltage. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. slightly above the 480 V service voltage. Baldwin Bridger.95 rating factor the short circuit rating at 480 V may be used. When derating the rated maximum voltage. However. the voltage correction factor applies to the low frequency withstand (hipot) rating and the impulse withstand (BIL) rating of both the breaker and the equipment.

Depending on the value and expected duration of system overvoltages. Baldwin Bridger. It has many advantages as a surge protector.650 V for an arrester rated 9 kV. for a resistance-grounded 13.800 divided by the square root of 3. P. it has three: a nominal voltage.powellelectric. so the next higher rating above the system line-to-line voltage is used. the method of system grounding. and a one-second temporary overvoltage capability. depending on the time needed to relay ground faults off the system. Except for a few special conditions. the 12. It is necessary to use an 18 kV arrester with an MCOV of 15.2 kV. It is important that surge arresters of the correct voltage rating be used. application seems quite simple. usually zinc oxide. As an example. Although there is a slight variation with the nominal rating. and the type of surge arrester used. the metal oxide surge arrester was introduced to the industry.Voltage Ratings of Surge Arresters April 13. Care must be taken to avoid overstressing the arrester. Older designs of surge arresters generally consist of silicon carbide resistor blocks in series with air gaps.3 kV. with no gaps.8 kV system. These arresters carry no current in the normal state. All rights reserved. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. It consists of a number of blocks of a variable resistance material. let's consider a 13.com • info@powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Each arrester model has a single voltage rating. the continuous operating voltage is 13. the choice will be between arresters rated 12 kV. it may be necessary to use a 10 kV arrester with an MCOV of 8.E. Instead of one voltage rating. the temporary overvoltage capability is established by curves supplied by the surge arrester vendor. a ground fault on one phase can raise the other two phases to line-to-line voltage above ground. For times other than one second.8 kV system. the next higher arrester rating above the system lineto-neutral voltage is used. .4 kV or a 12 kV arrester with an MCOV of 10. The proper voltage rating depends on the system line-to-line voltage. or 7970 V.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #26 . For an ungrounded 13. 15 kV and 18 kV. 1992 Surge arresters (formerly known as lightning arresters) are applied to electrical power distribution systems to protect the equipment and the circuits from damaging overvoltages caused by lightning or other surges. For a solidly grounded system. For solidly (effectively) grounded systems. For resistance grounded or ungrounded systems. About a decade ago. the maximum continuous operating voltage is about 85% of the nominal rating and the one-second temporary overvoltage capability is about 120% of the nominal rating. but it is somewhat more complicated to apply correctly. Finally. a maximum continuous operating voltage. This is above the MCOV of 7. It does carry some slight current at all times.8 kV system.7 kV MCOV of a 15 kV arrester is not adequate.

Conformance Tests: Conformance tests demonstrate compliance with the applicable standards. In addition. 1992 Although each particular product line is governed by its own industry standards. circuit breakers are subjected to a series of interrupting tests to demonstrate their ability to interrupt currents of various magnitudes. Production tests include hipot to demonstrate insulation integrity and mechanical and control circuit tests to demonstrate proper operation. The test specimen is normally subjected to all planned production tests prior to the initiation of the conformance test program. and therefore they are run on manufacturer's prototypes. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. switchgear and motor control equipment of the types built by Powell are generally subject to three major categories of tests. Production Tests: Tests made for quality control by the manufacturer on every device or on representative samples. All rights reserved. chosen to demonstrate compliance with the standards. operational life tests. and several types of timing tests. circuit breakers receive timing tests to show proper closing and opening speed. which Powell furnishes to customers on request. momentary and short time current. Conformance tests generally include certain of the design tests.Testing of Switchgear and Motor Control Equipment April 14. These tests are frequently used for third-party certification of a design. not on production equipment which is supplied to customers. Records of these tests. impulse withstand (BIL) for mediumvoltage equipment. In addition. can be used as baseline data for future maintenance programs.com • info@powellelectric. and may be used to demonstrate compliance with the applicable standards of the industry.20. . or materials required to verify during production that the product meets the design specifications and applicable standards.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. style or model of equipment or its component parts to meet its assigned ratings and to operate satisfactorily under normal service conditions or under special service conditions if specified. or on parts. these categories are: Design Tests: Tests made by the manufacturer to determine the adequacy of the design of a particular type. Typical design tests for equipment and circuit breakers will include continuous current (heat runs). Many of these tests are somewhat destructive. low-frequency withstand (hipot).com Powell Technical Brief PTB #27 .powellelectric. As defined in ANSI/IEEE C37. and mechanical tests to demonstrate the effectiveness of interlocks.2-1987 for Metal-Clad and Station-Type Cubicle Switchgear.

P. has a particular part to play in the overall process of producing quality equipment properly rated for a user's needs. All rights reserved.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.com • info@powellelectric.powellelectric.Testing of Switchgear and Motor Control Equipment (Page 2) Each type of test. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Baldwin Bridger.E.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #27 . No single test demonstrates the proper design and operation of switchgear or motor control equipment. . It takes a combination of tests to do the job properly. and each test within a given type.

C37.powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Consider.04. for instance.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #28 . 1992 When applying interrupters of various types. .09 for the circuit breakers and C37.20.Short Circuit Current Levels Used to Test Various Types of Circuit Breakers August 25. All rights reserved. A short circuit is then applied to the equipment and the test made. this requirement changes to rating by prospective current. the methods of making interrupting tests on various types of circuit breakers. it must actually interrupt 25kA. To rate a breaker of this class as a 25kA interrupter. The location of the short varies with the type of circuit breaker or equipment being tested: Figure 1: Fault Locations for Testing Low Voltage Equipments (A) Low Voltage Power Circuit Breakers (B) Molded Case Circuit Breakers (C) Low Voltage Motor Control Centers ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. and the required current flow is established.06 and C37. The test terminals of the laboratory source are short-circuited. it is important that we understand the meaning of the interrupting rating given to these devices. Momentary and short-time current requirements of the switchgear are also based on actual current flowing during the test.2 for the switchgear. When testing the interrupting capability of a high-voltage (over 1000V) circuit breaker.com • info@powellelectric. As the breakers get smaller and less costly. as indicated by point A in Figure 1. The reference standards are ANSI/IEEE C37. the current measured is the actual fault current flowing through the circuit breaker at the moment of the interruption. That short circuit is then removed and the equipment to be tested is connected to the test source. For low voltage circuit breakers. the test methods in the industry standards generally get less demanding.

Baldwin Bridger.Short Circuit Current Levels Used to Test Various Types of Circuit Breakers (Page 2) • For a low voltage power circuit breaker. . The reference standard is UL 845.E. For a molded case circuit breaker. • • At each step of this chain. at point D in Figure 1.com • info@powellelectric. reducing the actual fault current the circuit breaker is required to interrupt. However. 4 feet of appropriately-sized conductor may be included between the test station terminals and the line terminals of the circuit breaker under test. The reference standards are ANSI/IEEE C37.powellelectric. P. at point B in Figure 1. The reference standard is UL 489.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #28 . At least two IEEE subcommittees are discussing this matter. Several papers presented at recent IEEE conferences have raised questions about the adequacy of equipment certified to some of these test standards to interrupt all possible faults downstream of the circuit breaker. All rights reserved. at point C in Figure 1. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. the fault is also placed at the load terminals of the circuit breaker. For a typical combination motor starter unit in a motor control center. impedance is added to the test circuit.1 for the switchgear equipment.13 for the circuit breakers and C37.20. the fault is placed at the end of 4 feet of appropriately-sized conductor connected to the load terminals of the starter unit.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. the fault is placed at the load terminals of the breaker.

All rights reserved.20. This need not include electrical interchangeability of electrical control circuits. the easiest way to solve the problem is to furnish the required modification on all breakers of that rating in the assembly.com • info@powellelectric. however. minimizing down time when a circuit breaker problem occurs. 1992 One of the key features of switchgear assemblies using drawout circuit breakers is the interchangeability of circuit breakers within an assembly. This feature allows users to make use of spare circuit breakers to replace circuit breakers which must be taken out of service for maintenance.Interchangeability of Drawout Circuit Breakers in Switchgear Assemblies August 28. When this occurs. ANSI/IEEE C37. This section requires that "All removable elements of the same type and rating on a given assembly shall be physically interchangeable in the corresponding stationary housings. ANSI/IEEE C37. addresses interchangeability in §6.1.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Most commonly. addresses interchangeability in §6. Removable elements not of the same type and rating shall not be interchangeable. this is seldom a problem.powellelectric. Occasionally. If this is not acceptable to the user.5. The ANSI standard for Metal Clad Switchgear." Switchgear of this type and the circuit breakers used in it typically have mechanical interference mechanisms for breakers of the same physical size but of different ratings.11. . ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. this is an undervoltage device.2.2." Since the breakers used in this class of switchgear are not provided with variable trip devices or very many optional electrical features. a user desires to have some electrical accessory on some but not all breakers of a given rating in a particular assembly.4. which may be required on motor feeder breakers but not on other breakers of the same rating.20. Trip device characteristics and ratings and electrical accessories available on this class of circuit breaker are so numerous and changeable that no attempt is made to prevent interchangeability of breakers with differences in these features. This section requires that "All removable elements of the same type and rating on a given assembly shall be physically and electrically interchangeable. These mechanisms typically prevent interchanging breakers if either the frame size (maximum continuous current rating) or the interrupting rating differ. The ANSI standard for Metal Enclosed Low Voltage Power Circuit Breaker Switchgear. it may be necessary to make specific modifications to the control circuitry of the breaker with the accessory to prevent breaker interchangeability.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #29 .

com • info@powellelectric.Interchangeability of Drawout Circuit Breakers in Switchgear Assemblies (Page 2) As part of the standard design of our PowlVac® circuit breakers. P. but allow a higher-rated breaker to be used in a lower-rated cell.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #29 . it allows users to minimize the number of spare circuit breakers required to replace all breakers in the assembly without using any breaker in a cell where it would not meet the needs of that circuit. While this feature is not strictly in accordance with the ANSI requirements. we provide interference mechanisms which prevent a breaker with a lower rating from being used in a cell with a higher rating. All rights reserved.E.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.powellelectric. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. . Baldwin Bridger.

such as a common power supply. A single static device can perform the functions of many electro-mechanical devices. Equivalent functions can often be obtained at lower cost. not every engineer is happy with the idea of relying on static devices for protection functions. Lack of service capabilities for static devices. Static devices can be made highly resistant to corrosive or dirty atmospheres.powellelectric. Long-term familiarity and satisfactory experience with electro-mechanical devices. particularly if a multi-function device is used. 1992 In recent years. both physical and electrical.Static Relays and Meters October 16. particularly microprocessor-based digital devices. Some of the reasons for this shift to static devices include: • • • • • • In general. Some functions or operating characteristics which are not possible with available electromechanical devices can be done with static devices. Some of the reasons are: • • • • • Possibility of total failure of the protective system due to failure of one component on the critical path. All rights reserved. While we have no formal statistics. looking at the equipment manufactured by Powell I estimate that static devices are used for about 40-50% of the relays and meters we provide to our customers.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #30 . However. These devices are often used instead of the conventional electro-mechanical relays or analog meters. we have seen a decided trend toward the use of metering and protective devices using solid-state components. Concerns about possible failure in adverse environments. static devices are more accurate and more repeatable than the equivalent electromechanical devices. Static devices can be provided with communications capability which is not available in electromechanical devices.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. .com • info@powellelectric. Existing company standards. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.

. but don't hold me to the timing. New static products are arriving in the marketplace with great regularity. little if any development work is being done on electro-mechanical relays and meters. and their capabilities are constantly being expanded. On the other hand.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.E. Long-term.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #30 . P. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. many of the shortcomings of static devices available 10 or more years ago have been overcome by further development of solid-state components and better packaging.Static Relays and Meters (Page 2) As time goes on. All rights reserved. Baldwin Bridger.powellelectric. I would expect this to happen in about the next 10 years. I expect that the balance between static and electro-mechanical devices will shift to 90-95% static.com • info@powellelectric.

. First. • • • • Baldwin Bridger. If present.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. The trade press carries article after article on harmonics. but the heating effect of a harmonic-rich current on the protected load may require a different level of protection. Since the effective resistance of a conductor goes up as frequency rises. a current wave rich in harmonics may cause greater heating in the switchgear power conductors than a sine wave of the same rms value.powellelectric.Effects of Harmonics on Switchgear October 18. there are a few points which bear watching. Thermal devices. The repeated application of a higher peak value may result in premature failure of the insulating systems in the switchgear. 1992 Harmonics in power systems is the current hot topic in power systems engineering. Fortunately. However. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved. high fault currents are generally not severely distorted. P. However. Switchgear does not appear to be subject to the serious additional heating effects which harmonics can cause in transformers or rotating machinery. A badly distorted current wave may contain current zeroes at locations other than the normal zero of the fundamental sine wave. these spurious current zeroes could cause premature interruption and restrike during a circuit breaker opening operating. I have not heard any reports of adverse effects of harmonics on switchgear itself. this effect will probably not be a problem. since we seldom load switchgear to its maximum continuous current rating. The effect of harmonics on the operation of protective and metering systems is not fully documented.E. and a level of harmonic current which may be quite significant when compared to load current is much less significant when compared to fault current. However. as are many modern solid-state protective packages. are inherently rms sensing.com • info@powellelectric. Other relays may be designed to operate on certain selected frequencies and may thus operate incorrectly in the presence of a significant level of harmonics.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #31 . Circuit breakers interrupt current flow at a current zero. • A highly distorted voltage wave can have a peak value much greater than the peak value of a sine wave of the same rms value. such as fuses or thermal elements in circuit breakers. very little if any of this flood of information concerns the effects on switchgear. The technical programs of two recent IEEE conferences I attended were full of papers on the subject. The recent survey of the readers of these Technical Briefs mentioned harmonics more than any other topic as a suggestion for a subject to be covered. This PTB will try to fill that gap. as the limiting impedance is that of the power system.

maintenance costs may be getting out of hand. of existing equipment. All rights reserved. just like any other new circuit breaker that is used in metal-clad switchgear. requiring additional work to the breaker to achieve the desired result.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #32 . For replacement circuit breakers. Baldwin Bridger. The only caution is that certain tests. In some cases. The breakers should be tested in accordance with ANSI/IEEE C37. modern vacuum breaker. offers both conversions and replacement breakers meeting these standards.com • info@powellelectric. including continuous current. or circuit breaker parts may no longer be available. Any user considering converting low-voltage or medium-voltage switchgear equipment should review this standard and insist that vendors conform to it.20. The interrupting duty may have grown past the interrupting capacity of the existing circuit breakers. Requirements for new documentation. . we have performed full wave impulse (BIL) tests where both the breaker alone and the cell alone passed the test. covers conversion of both switchgear equipments and power circuit breakers. should be performed in a switchgear cell of the basic design in which the breaker will be used.Replacing Older Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers with Vacuum Circuit Breakers October 19.powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. to aid in modernization. In any case. 1992 Many older installations of metal-clad switchgear are candidates for modernizing or upgrading. A new ANSI standard.2-1987. including nameplates and instructions. ANSI/IEEE C37. and BIL. including uprating. Modernization may also involve an increase in one or more ratings of the switchgear and/or circuit breaker. but the combination would not pass. All of these tests involve interaction between the cell and the circuit breaker. This standard specifies the design and testing requirements for conversion. Powell. modernization may involve conversion of the switchgear equipment and replacement of the circuit breaker. momentary current. For instance. users should insist that modernization be done in accordance with applicable industry standards to insure that the modernized switchgear meets the required ratings. Powell offers a series of PowlVac® circuit breakers. Modernization may be accomplished by either of two methods. are included. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. P. IEEE Standard Requirements for Conversion of Power Switchgear Assemblies. through our Powell Apparatus Service Division. this is fairly simple.09-1979 and ANSI/IEEE C37. conversion of the existing equipment or replacement of the circuit breaker with a new. both conversions and replacement breakers.E.59-1991.

1992 "Partial differential" relaying is a form of overcurrent relaying frequently used to detect main bus overcurrent faults and to back up feeder overcurrent relaying. so additional overcurrent relays are required on main and tie breakers to provide this backup function. The partial differential relaying concept cannot be used on a straight radial distribution system.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #33 . the currents will subtract and the relays will not respond. If a fault exists on the protected bus. Note that this is a double-ended substation. the partial differential relays will act as backup to the feeder overcurrent relays. .com • info@powellelectric. the currents will add in the relays. All rights reserved. with two main breakers and a tie breaker. True bus differential relaying compares all currents entering and leaving a switchgear bus. If the fault is on a feeder.Partial Differential Relaying December 16. The basic circuit is shown in the one-line diagram. Since all currents are taken into account. the relays can be very fast.powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Also. Partial differential relaying sums the currents entering or leaving a switchgear bus through main and tie breakers. bus differential relaying provides no backup to the feeder overcurrent relaying. and many switchgear users do not feel that it is economically justified. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. However. Within the limits of the accuracy of the CT's and the relays. high speed bus differential relaying can be quite expensive. true bus differential relaying will detect all faults on the protected bus. but if fault current is flowing through the bus to a fault on another bus.

.Partial Differential Relaying (Page 2) Similar protection can be obtained by using separate overcurrent relays on each main and tie circuit breaker. Using the partial differential circuit. This reduces the time delay required for the main breaker relays and improves the chances of getting good coordination with upstream relays.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #33 . proper coordination of the overcurrent protection requires that the tie breaker relays coordinate with the feeder relays and that the main breaker relays coordinate with the tie breaker relays.com • info@powellelectric. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. However. Baldwin Bridger. This improved coordination is the principal benefit of partial differential relaying.E. since the same relays serve both the main and the tie breakers without compromising coordination.powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. which are often on the utility system serving the substation. P. eliminates one step of coordination. All rights reserved. however. for a total of three steps of relaying at this bus.

This definition relates only to the relative instantaneous direction of current flow. but proper operation is not a function of which way the polarity marks point.com • info@powellelectric. All rights reserved. 1992 All instrument transformers are provided with polarity marks on certain primary and secondary terminals. the current enters the identified. the CT's are part of the equipment. polarity is defined as follows: polarity. In many cases it is more convenient to mount the CT's with the polarity mark pointing toward the breaker. Different kinds of switchgear mount instrument transformers. In the typical drawout switchgear enclosure. in different ways.13. some users have expressed concerns that reversing the polarity marks from the arrangement shown in the relay or meter instructions would lead to improper operation of the device.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. no mark can identify the absolute direction of current flow. American National Standard Requirements for Instrument Transformers.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #34 . however. Since the direction of current flow reverses 120 times per second in a 60 Hz circuit. which is desirable.E.powellelectric. mounting the CT with polarity mark toward the breaker also means that the CT nameplate is visible. In metal-enclosed switchgear with drawout circuit breakers. not an absolute direction. Baldwin Bridger. at a given instant during most of each half cycle. From time to time. This arrangement is required by the ANSI and NEMA standards for that class of circuit breaker. especially for such things as differential relays on delta-wye transformers. Great care must be taken in making these connections. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. P. NOTE: Primary and secondary terminals are said to have the same polarity when. The designation of the relative instantaneous directions of the currents entering the primary terminals and leaving the secondary terminals during most of each half cycle. Outdoor circuit breakers have bushing CT's mounted with the polarity mark toward the line end of the primary bushing and the non-polarity end of the winding toward the breaker contacts. not the circuit breaker. similarly marked primary terminal and leaves the identified. This is not true. similarly marked secondary terminal in the same direction as though the two terminals formed a continuous circuit.Polarity Markings on Instrument Transformers December 17. . particularly current transformers. Most circuits shown in instruction literature by relay and meter manufacturers are based on this arrangement of CT's. In ANSI/IEEE C57. Relays or meters will work properly regardless of the direction of the polarity marks on the CT's if the connections are made properly.

For the most common varieties of electro-mechanical relays.com • info@powellelectric. typical trip currents are now in the 3A range. but not so low that the voltage drop across the target coil is excessive. relieving these contacts of the duty of carrying trip current. The current setting must be low enough to insure actuation under all fault conditions. One manufacturer recommends expecting two relays to close simultaneously on time delay relays and three on instantaneous relays with target coils. All rights reserved. with the choice of two pickup currents.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #35 .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. You will see that the duration of the trip current is about 41 or 42 ms. barely reaching its nominal rating before being cut off. paralleling the target coils of these relays and reducing the current through each one. Trip times are faster than in the past. as seen in Figure 1. In addition. The target relay takes about 1 cycle to pick up. (Note: The instantaneous elements on most 50/51 relays have mechanical targets. Some faults may cause the closure of two or more relay contacts at the same time. with some breakers drawing only a little over 1 A. and are not a problem. Typical Circuit Breaker Trip Current • • Trip current rises slowly. at 125 V dc. it often includes contacts which bypass the main contacts of the relay. manually-reset.0 A. most commonly 0. Figure 1 is the trace of the trip current of a typical PowlVac® circuit breaker. . indication of operation. This auxiliary relay provides a visual. Some of the reasons for this dilemma are: • Trip currents of modern medium voltage circuit breakers may be much lower than those of older breakers. or 2 ½ cycles on a 60 Hz basis. 1993 Almost all protective relays used in switchgear are equipped with targets to indicate which protective function caused the circuit breaker to trip.Setting of Targets on Electro-Mechanical Protective Relays January 14. the selected tap on the target coil should operate properly on no more than half of the rated trip current of the breaker. Many of these target units have tapped coils.powellelectric. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. For instance. This is not always an easy choice.2 A and 2. these targets take the form of small auxiliary relays which are actuated by the current flowing through the relay contacts and the circuit breaker trip coil. Proper setting of these target coils is often neglected.) Thus. • Figure 1.

2 A 0.-2.-6 Trip Current Target Tap Trip Current Target Tap 24 V dc 48 V dc 125 V dc 250 V dc 120 V ac 240 V ac Capacitor Trip • 16.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.2 A 1.9 A 3.Trip Currents and Suggested Relay Target Taps for PowlVac® Circuit Breakers PowlVac® -0.powellelectric.-4.0 A 0.5 A 1.com • info@powellelectric.4 A 1.2 A 3.2 A 0. P. Table 1 . Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.-5 Trip Voltage PV-26 PowlVac® -3.2 A 16.2 A 0.2 A Consult factory if this rating is required.7 A 2.2 A * 0.2 A 2. All rights reserved.0 A 2.0 A 0.3 A 0.7 A 3.9 A 10.2 A 0.E.4 A * 0.7 A 3.2 A 0.2 A 0.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #35 . Baldwin Bridger.6 A 2. .Setting of Targets on Electro-Mechanical Protective Relays (Page 2) For a list of trip currents and recommended relay target settings for PowlVac® circuit breakers see Table 1.2 A 0.

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Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric.com

Powell Technical Brief

PTB #36 - Epoxy Bus Bar Insulation
March 4, 1993 Powell has recently installed a new process line to coat bus bars with an epoxy insulating material. Currently, this insulation is being used for bus in metal-clad switchgear equipments rated above 15 kV, and for other jobs with special requirements. As more production capability comes on line, its use will be extended to additional equipments. The process consists of preheating the copper bus bar, dipping it in a liquid epoxy mixture, removing the coating from areas where it isn't wanted (contact surfaces, etc.), and curing the coated bar at a high temperature. The coated bars have passed the tests required by ANSI/IEEE C37.20.2-1987, including the §5.2.1.3 Test for Bus-Bar Insulation and the §5.2.7 FlameResistance Tests for Applied Insulation. While this process is new to Powell, similar materials and processes have been in use in the industry for 20 years or more. It is also similar to the fluid bed application of epoxy to bus bars, which has been used on selected Powell equipments for the past several years. We chose the liquid dip process over the fluidized bed process both because the final coating is more rugged and because the process itself is less subject to interference from the ambient conditions of the factory floor. Some of the advantages of the epoxy dip process are:
• •

The insulation is extremely rugged and has excellent dielectric properties. Conductors of any size and shape can be coated with equal ease. Using extruded rigid tubing limits the choice of conductor cross-sections to those for which the extruded tubing is available, which may not be the optimum size from a current-carrying or electric field standpoint. Already-bent bars can be coated, eliminating the need for tape or boots at bends. Unlike some heat-shrink tubings, the insulation conforms to the bar at all angles and bends. Heatshrink tubing may pull away from the bar at the inside of a bend. Since the coating conforms to the surface of the bus, there is no possibility of setting up a partialdischarge cell between the surface of the bus and the insulation. This is especially important at voltages above 15 kV.

• • •

We believe that this new insulating process is another step in our process of continuous improvement of Powell switchgear.

Baldwin Bridger, P.E. Technical Director

©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved.

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Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric.com

Powell Technical Brief

PTB #37 - Testing for Loss of Vacuum in Vacuum Interrupters
March 5, 1993 In the 30 years or so that they have been used in circuit breakers, vacuum interrupters have proved to be extremely rugged, reliable devices. However, like any man-made device, they can fail. A frequentlyasked question is "How can I tell if my vacuum interrupter has lost vacuum?" Modern vacuum interrupters are evacuated to a pressure on the order of 10-7 Torr. A Torr is the pressure exerted by 1 mm of mercury, or 1/760 of a standard atmosphere. 10-7 Torr is approximately equal to the pressure of the atmosphere on the surface of the moon. Testing by manufacturers of vacuum interrupters shows that the vacuum interrupter will still interrupt its rated interrupting current at a pressure <= 10-3 Torr, but at pressure above 10-3 Torr is interrupting capability falls off. Thus, a successful loss of vacuum test must detect the difference between pressures above and below 10-3 Torr. An ideal loss of vacuum test would be an on-line test that constantly monitored the pressure within the vacuum interrupter and alarmed when this critical pressure was approached. Unfortunately, no such device is presently commercially available. The present state of the art leads Powell to recommend the use of a high voltage test across the contacts of an open vacuum interrupter. This test should be at least 25 kV, 50/60 Hz, or the equivalent dc voltage, 35 kV(1). A breakdown on this test indicates a loss of vacuum in the interrupter. If dc is used in this test, it must be supplied from a full-wave rectifier. The use of a half-wave in the power supply can lead to applying excessive dc voltage to the vacuum interrupter. In all cases, the manufacturer's instruction book for the circuit breaker should be consulted for proper procedure and cautions before making the test. At least one switchgear manufacturer is stating that loss of vacuum can be detected by disconnecting the movable contact of the vacuum interrupter from the mechanism and manually pulling on the movable contact. Atmospheric pressure (760 Torr) on the exposed side of the movable contact pushes the contact closed with a force proportional to the area of the contact. This force is about 40 pounds for a typical vacuum interrupter used in our PowlVac® ( circuit breakers. If there is a complete loss of vacuum, this 40-pound force disappears, and a pull test will certainly be effective. However, partial loss of vacuum in the 10-2 Torr pressure range puts the vacuum interrupter at risk of not performing properly, but decreases the 40-pound force by only a fraction of an ounce. This minor change in contact loading would hardly be detectable by a good force gauge, much less by feel. Powell therefore does not recommend this pull test as a satisfactory loss of vacuum test. (1) revised 6-4-93

Baldwin Bridger, P.E. Technical Director

©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved.

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Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric.com

Powell Technical Brief

PTB #38 - Using Switchgear at Frequencies Other Than 60 Hz
April 21, 1993 All ANSI circuit breaker and switchgear equipment standards specify a rated frequency of 60 Hz, and all Powell switchgear is designed for and tested at 60 Hz. The nameplates of PowlVac® circuit breakers carry a rated frequency of 60 Hz. However, many applications of Powell switchgear are made at other frequencies, particularly 50 Hz, and users may question the suitability of the circuit breakers and equipment at other frequency. The following paragraphs discuss the effect of frequency on various major characteristics of switchgear. BIL: Since the BIL rating is the ability to withstand a dc impulse, power system frequency has no effect on the BIL rating of switchgear equipment. Power Frequency Withstand: Although this rating is best demonstrated by a test at rated frequency, ANSI/IEEE C37.09 allows the test to be made at rated frequency ±20%. This allows 50 Hz tests to establish a 60 Hz rating, and vice versa. Since the voltage level is the same, regardless of frequency, and the rate-of-rise of the voltage increases with frequency, the higher frequency test is slightly more severe than the lower frequency test. Thus, an equipment which is tested at 60 Hz is satisfactory at any lower frequency. Continuous Current: The ac resistant of a conductor, and thus the heat loss at a given current, increases with frequency. The ANSI standards require continuous current test to be made at a frequency no lower than the rated frequency. The standards actually allow the assigning of a higher continuous current rating at very low frequencies, such as 25 Hz. Momentary, Short Time and Interrupting Currents: Again, ANSI/IEEE C37.09 allows these test to be made at rated frequency (20%, so tests at either 50 Hz or 60 Hz can cover both frequencies. For lower frequencies, it may be necessary to derate the interrupting capacity of vacuum interrupters. One of Powell's vacuum interrupter suppliers has tested at various frequencies and suggests the following derating formula:

©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved.

At lower frequencies. Baldwin Bridger. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.E. instruments and instrument transformers. must be checked for application at the power system frequency. such as relays.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #38 . 16 2/3Hz <= f < 50 Hz = short circuit current at frequency f = short circuit current at 60 Hz Summarizing.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. switchgear equipment and power circuit breakers rated 60 Hz may be applied at 50 Hz without changing ratings.Using Switchgear at Frequencies Other Than 60 Hz (Page 2) Where = power system frequency. P. All rights reserved. . Of course.powellelectric. and some increase of continuous current rating may be possible. some derating of interrupting capacity may be required.com • info@powellelectric. devices in the switchgear.

Generally.Motor Branch Fault Short-Circuit Protection April 22. but so far as we know. So what can be done to take care of the problem? As of now. 1993 I have received several questions about ratings and settings of short-circuit protective devices used in motor branch circuits. The problem is that some motors. this 1300% is generally interpreted as being the maximum setting of a separately adjustable instantaneous element on a power circuit breaker or a molded case circuit breaker having that feature. you can use it. Small circuit breakers. but do not necessarily have reduced starting currents. will not start satisfactorily with these devices set at the maximum setting allowed under §430-52 of the 1993 National Electrical Code. up to 150A rating. with minimum pickup varying from 7. . A fine print note in NEC §430-52 allows an instantaneous trip circuit breaker to include a damping means to accommodate a transient motor inrush current without nuisance tripping of the circuit breaker. They therefore have starting currents that are higher multiples of full load current than those of the lower efficiency motors. rather than the 13 times required for an MCP.powellelectric. but some of the questions have related to low voltage power circuit breakers. NEC §430-52.com • info@powellelectric. 2C. have fixed instantaneous settings. so the instantaneous pickup can be from 30 to 48 time the motor full load current. allows an inverse time circuit breaker rated up to 400% of the motor full load current to be used for motors with less than 100A full load current. no such device is commercially available. Since all of the protective device ratings in the NEC are expressed as percentages of full load current of the motor. High efficiency motors typically have lower full load currents than lower efficiency motors of the same rating. the devices in question are instantaneous-trip molded case circuit breakers of the motor circuit protector type.5 to 12 times rated current.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. You have degraded the protection of the circuit. • ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. a high efficiency motor is more likely to have starting difficulties due to current inrush.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #39 . I know of no good answer. §430-52 allows an instantaneous trip circuit breaker (MCP) to be set at up to 1300% of the motor full load current. but there are several possibilities: • Use a thermal-magnetic circuit breaker rather than an MCP. If you can find one of these. All rights reserved. but you have met the Code. Exception No. Although the NEC does not specifically say so.

com Powell Technical Brief PTB #39 . All rights reserved. .E.Motor Branch Fault Short-Circuit Protection (Page 2) • • Use a fused switch instead of a circuit breaker to supply your motor circuit. and find a fuse that meets the requirements of §430-52 and still allows you to start the motor.powellelectric. Ignore the NEC. but I understand that it is being done. Not a recommended move.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. P. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.com • info@powellelectric. Baldwin Bridger.

powellelectric. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. This is in contrast to panelboard.2 for metal-clad switchgear. In metal-enclosed switchgear. or a total temperature of 85°C. One of these environments may be within the switchgear cable area. All rights reserved. and the effect of each environment on the cable selection must be considered. and must be chosen carefully to operate in the various environments in which they are installed. Baldwin Bridger.1 for low-voltage switchgear. §4.3 for metal-enclosed interrupter switchgear.Temperature of Cable Terminations and Cable Compartments in Switchgear April 23. Power cables are sensitive to the temperature of the surrounding air. power cables usually terminate on buswork. ANSI/IEEE C37. . 1993 One of the important features of almost all low-voltage and medium-voltage switchgear is provision for terminating power cables.20. is carrying rated continuous current.20. P. A single run of power cable may pass through several different environments. switchboard and motor control center construction. Table 4 of each standard limits the temperature rise of silver or tin-surfaced connections to insulated cables to 45°C. the cable selection must take into account the air and terminal temperatures encountered in the switchgear.5 of each of these standards limits the temperature of the air surrounding insulated power cables to 65°C.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #40 .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. and is in an ambient temperature of 40°C.E.5. and ANSI/IEEE C37. where power cables may terminate on the terminals of molded-case circuit breakers or starters. not directly on the terminals of the main switching device. All three of these standards require the same temperature for these features. The tests to demonstrate conformance with these limiting temperature rises require including appropriate sizes and lengths of power cables in the continuous current path. When cables are connected to metal-enclosed switchgear.20.com • info@powellelectric. ANSI/IEEE C37. when the switchgear assembly is equipped with devices having the maximum current rating for which the assembly is designed. The allowable temperature rise of the connections to insulated cables and the allowable temperature of the air surrounding these cables is given in the ANSI switchgear standards.

or equivalent" surfaces. particularly for sliding contacts.com • info@powellelectric.Plating of Contact Surfaces in Switchgear and Circuit Breakers June 3. Included are limitations for buses with plated and unplated joints in switchgear. or equivalent" connections. However. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. it is not practical to substitute tin for silver on surfaces within circuit breakers. or on circuit breaker primary disconnects. Powell will provide tin plating on the connections of the bus bars in equipments. P.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. silver or tin? At Powell. Typically. we generally use silver. The standard for high voltage circuit breakers speaks of "silver. silver alloy. joints are almost universally plated. Which material is better. while the limit for plated connections is 65°C rise. The low-voltage and medium-voltage switchgear standards.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #41 .powellelectric. tin surfaced. revised in 1987. Baldwin Bridger. On request. the resistance and the temperature rise of the conductor usually increase rapidly. such as those containing hydrogen sulfide. Silver plating is harder than tin plating. If the atmosphere attacks silver surfaces. . and for plated and unplated contacts and connections in circuit breakers. with "equivalent" being undefined. Since limiting the temperature rise is 30°C would require manufacturers to double the amount of copper used. such as a hinge point or a primary disconnect. For various technical and manufacturing reasons. 1993 The various ANSI standards covering metal-enclosed switchgear and circuit breakers used in this switchgear prescribe temperature rise limits for various parts of the equipment. The higher temperature rise is allowed for plated connections because plated copper does not oxidize nearly as rapidly as bare copper. they should be coated with contact lubricating grease to prevent corrosion problems. The two materials commonly used for plating are silver and tin. the limit for unplated copper connections is 30°C rise. better than tin plating.E. speak of "silver surfaced. Copper oxide is not a good conductor. This standard was last revised in 1979. and once the oxide forms. All rights reserved. In all cases the temperature rise allowed is considerably higher for plated connections than it is for unplated connections. and withstands the stress of a moving joint. tin plating is superior in certain industrial atmospheres.

e. Where bus duct is used in conjunction with metal-enclosed switchgear.powellelectric. Both the bus supports and the bars themselves must withstand this force. i. shape. the bus duct momentary rating should match that of the switchgear. 1993 The bus in metal-enclosed power switchgear is required by ANSI standards to have a momentary current rating equivalent to the momentary rating of the circuit breaker. of if there is permanent deformation.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. The ability of the bars to withstand the force created by the momentary current is a function of the size. a 50 kA current creates a force on each bus bar of nearly 17. The strength of the bus support structure is determined by the material and configuration of the supports and the distance between them. switch or fuse used in the particular switchgear equipment.. . these determine the section modulus of the bars in the phase-tophase direction. In the case of low voltage switchgear. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Momentary ratings are normally proved by high current testing. where the circuit breaker momentary rating may vary with the breaker frame size. flat-to-flat or edge-to-edge. There also must be no breakage of the bus supports. and material of the bar and the arrangement of the bars with respect to each other. on 6" phase centers.Momentary Rating and Construction of Bus in Metal-Enclosed Switchgear June 4. Thus. The force is also affected to a small degree by the dimensions and shape of the bus bars. All rights reserved. if the circuit breakers or other switching devices are properly applied. The force is directly proportional to the square of the current and inversely proportional to the phase spacing.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #42 . so moving the bus bars apart decreases the force. or the distance between supports. a particular assembly is required to have the momentary rating of the smallest frame size of circuit breaker used in the assembly. The deflection of the bars is also affected by the length of the span. The bus must withstand the test without any permanent deformation of the bus bar. There are a number of design variables that enter into the ability of the bus structure to withstand a momentary current. the equipment momentary will match both the needs of the system and the rating of the switching device. For a bus consisting of one ¼" x 4" bar per phase. The forces involved are quite high. In mechanical terms. it must not be sufficient to prevent the equipment from passing its standard dielectric tests (hipot and impulse).com • info@powellelectric.000 pounds per foot of length.

However. such as bus duct. it may be easy to modify a design based on previous test data.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. for relatively simple bus configurations. if phases are spread apart further than they were in the tested sample. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Baldwin Bridger.powellelectric.Momentary Rating and Construction of Bus in Metal-Enclosed Switchgear (Page 2) The standards require test to demonstrate the momentary rating of the bus.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #42 . All rights reserved. and most bus structures within switchgear are somewhat complex and not subject to easy analysis.com • info@powellelectric.E. the allowable increase in spacing between supports can be easily calculated. so we seldom use calculations for the design of bus structures. For instance. P. .

For many years. This system is over half a century old. 1993 The system of device function numbers used in switchgear schematic and connection diagrams is documented in ANSI/IEEE C37. device 7 is used for a rate-of-rise current relay. In the 1987 edition. device 11 was reserved for future application. I haven't been using it quite that long myself. the functions included in it should be defined in the drawing legend. The latest revision is dated 1991. it is revised from time to time. This feature is no longer part of device 50's description. Typical use would be for a multifunction motor protective relay. 11 ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. but I've seen it used on drawings dating back to the 1930's." In the 1991 edition.Device Function Numbers July 30. like any standard. device 11 became a multifunction device. .powellelectric. IEEE Standard Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers.2. device 7 was "Reserved for future application. which is commonly thought of as an instantaneous overcurrent relay. a device frequently used in mercury arc rectifier equipments but no longer seen in this day of solid state rectifiers.com • info@powellelectric. When device 11 is used. Beginning with the 1987 edition. Listed below are some of the changes made in the last two revisions. included the rate-of-rise feature. This is defined as a device with three or more important functions. 7 In the 1979 edition.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #43 . (No.) However. the description of device 50. and the one before that was 1979. The issue before that was 1987. In 1979. All rights reserved.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. device 7 was an anode circuit breaker.

Device Function Numbers (Page 2) 24 In 1979. Starting with the 1987 edition. Baldwin Bridger. but we still see the designation 24 from time to time. device 24 became a volts per hertz relay. Up through 1987. and are seldom seen in Powell switchgear. In the 1991 edition the description is expanded to read dc loadmeasuring reclosing relay. device 24 was reserved for future application. Beginning with the 1987 edition. but these are the ones most likely to affect switchgear for utility and industrial distribution systems. These relays are typically used to protect large generators from overvoltage during subsynchronous operation. device 47 was a phasesequence voltage relay. the proper number for a bus tie breaker has been 52BT since some time in the 1950's. . All rights reserved.E. See device 7. Up through 1979. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #43 . I mention it because there are still those among us who remember the use of 24 for a bus tie circuit breaker. device 82 is described as a dc reclosing relay.powellelectric. 47 50 82 Some other changes were made.com • info@powellelectric. this definition was expanded to read phase-sequence or phase-balance voltage relay. and the description specifically lists negative phase sequence overvoltage as one of its applications. P.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. In the standard.

powellelectric. Normally.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.E.com • info@powellelectric. Once a level surface is established by the floor channels. These recommendations lead inevitably to two questions: "How level is level?" and "Do I really have to install the floor steel?" The quick answers to these are "Damn flat!" and "No. in deep switchgear. so its location may be as important as the locations of the other two channels. All rights reserved. Frequently. • • Baldwin Bridger. These are usually located under the bolt-down holes in the equipment. be sure that the equipment sits flush on the surface of the channels. Often. Manufacturers have been rather shy about putting a tolerance on "level" over the years. maintaining such a tolerance almost certainly requires carefully installed floor channels. If the equipment includes drawout circuit breakers or contactors. but I have seen installations where one side of a 36" unit was flush with the channel and the other side was ¼" above the channel. each lineup has a channel near the front of the gear and another near the rear of the gear. However. such as PowlVac® metal-clad switchgear. For indoor equipments without built-in bases. For larger equipments. If the circuit breakers roll out on the floor. most manufacturers will recommend that steel channels or rails be imbedded in the floor to provide support and a level surface. a third channel is shown somewhere between the first two. however. the floor on the drawout side of the switchgear needs to be flush with the top of the floor steel so the breakers will roll in and out smoothly. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. but the lore in the industry seems to be that a one-eighth inch slope.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #44 . P. a level floor is absolutely necessary to maintain the critical alignment of drawout devices. 1993 Nearly every manufacturer of switchgear and motor control equipment will tell users that the equipment must be installed on a level foundation. . so its location may not seem to be as important as the location of the other two channels. here are a few cautions about using it: • Be sure to locate the channels where the manufacturer shows them. This may seem elementary.Preparing Foundations for Indoor Installation of Switchgear August 2. All the effort and expense put into the level floor channels was negated by a poor installation of the equipment on the channels." Some smaller equipments. the manufacturer may have located this channel under some feature of the design which need good support. Once you decide that floor steel is required. so their location is important. evenly spread over the front-to-back or the end-to-end dimension of the lineup. like low voltage motor control centers and switchboards. but you'll be sorry if you don't. is tolerable. The concrete needs to be no higher than the floor steel. either come with their own built-in base channels or are not terribly sensitive to slightly uneven floors. this channel does not match any bolt-down holes.

012-1979 Application Guide . These standards used symmetrical. interrupting ratings were based on the total current interrupted. certain equivalences were established.MVA Interrupting Rating of Circuit Breakers Used in Metal-Clad Switchgear September 22. so that manufacturers would not have to retest all their breakers.General ANSI/IEEE C37.06. These new standards no longer referred to MVA in their rating structure. and sometimes we get wrapped around the axle about just what they mean. Unfortunately.powellelectric.011-1979 Application Guide . The interrupting rating in these standards is expressed kiloamperes.9 and C37. In 1964. including the dc component. were developed about 50 years ago. Undoubtedly. current as the basis for interrupting rating.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #45 . The chart below compares the nominal MVA ratings to the actual MVA ratings calculated using the rated interrupting currents established in the current standards. Under these standards. particularly when applied to circuit breakers used at a voltage considerably less than their rated maximum voltage. this statement will come as a surprise to some readers of this PTB. we have continued to use these identifications informally. These "total current" standards included ANSI C37.Transient Recovery Voltage ANSI/IEEE C37.09-1979 Test Procedure ANSI/IEEE C37. a new series of ANSI standards were first published. but was missing from the 1979 edition.06-1987 Preferred Ratings ANSI/IEEE C37. After a couple of decades of development. . including those for use in metal-clad switchgear.Capacitance Current Switching However.12. The first ANSI standards covering circuit breakers. All rights reserved.04-1979 Rating Structure ANSI C37. such as 4760 V breakers used at 2400 V. Although it is quite common for all of us to talk about 500 MVA circuit breakers or 1000 MVA circuit breakers.010-1979 Application Guide . In the rating structure used in these standards. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. these standards now include six documents: • • • • • • ANSI/IEEE C37.com • info@powellelectric. rather than total. nor does it appear anywhere on the nameplate of the breakers. A little history is in order.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.4 through C37. and for a few years the preferred rating tables carried "nominal" MVA ratings for "identification". MVA was included. This last appeared in the 1971 edition of ANSI C37. and those of us who date back to that era got used to referring to breakers by their MVA rating. 1993 Modern medium voltage circuit breakers used in metal-clad switchgear have no MVA interrupting rating. this rating does not appear anywhere in the ANSI standards applying to these breakers.

a good history of these standards appears in the forewords of the various documents.76 4. rms Rated Short Nominal Circuit Current MVA kA.powellelectric.76 41 350 4.0 18 500 13.com • info@powellelectric.MVA Interrupting Rating of Circuit Breakers Used in Metal-Clad Switchgear (Page 2) Rated Maximum Voltage kV.5 Interrupting Current @ Operating Voltage kA 29 33 36 41 47 49 33 38 41 18 20 23 28 30 36 37 40 48 Actual MVA @ Operating Voltage(1) MVA 239 238 150 338 338 204 472 472 469 468 478 458 727 717 717 961 956 956 (1) Slight variations in MVA may be due to rounding of interrupting current values.25 8.0 15.5 15.0 28 750 13.16 2. P. rms System Operating Voltage kV.8 11.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #45 .2 6.4 4.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.25 33 500 7.0 15.6 15.E.0 37 1000 13.4 8.0 15. Baldwin Bridger. rms 4.5 15.76 4.8 11. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.76 29 250 4.16 2. All rights reserved. . If you are interested in the development of these standards.8 11.

©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. gives a voltage below which no increase in interrupting current is required.com • info@powellelectric.) In many types of circuit breakers the physics of arc interruption are such that a given circuit breaker can interrupt a higher current at a lower voltage. these breakers also have a rated voltage range factor. In the latest (1987) edition of ANSI C37.06. (Note: This K factor has absolutely nothing to do with the K factor used to determining the suitability of a transformer for use in a circuit with high harmonic levels. Between V and V/K. equal to the square root of three times VI. However.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. which are the breakers used in metal-clad switchgear. so a K factor other than one does not match the physical attributes of circuit breakers using these technologies. V. the current increase is proportional to the voltage decrease. The current which must be interrupted as voltage V/K is KI. . between V and V/K. K. equal to KI. First. and a rated maximum voltage. However. The K factor also defines the magnitude of the increased interrupting requirement. Two things need to be said about the K factor. The K factor is a dimensionless number which defines the range of voltage over which the interrupting current increases. 1993 The most basic interrupting ratings of a high voltage circuit breaker are a rated short-circuit current. K has been set to 1. and may be calculated by the formula: Required symmetrical current interrupting capability = rated short circuit current x (rated maximum voltage/operating voltage) This formula yields a constant MVA interrupting rating.0 for all circuit breakers except indoor oilless circuit breakers.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #46 . In order to take advantage of this capability in the application of circuit breakers. All rights reserved. which is not so widely understood.Significance of K factor in Circuit Breaker Ratings September 23. the concept agrees with the physical reality of oilblast and air-magnetic circuit breakers. or V/K.powellelectric. the K factor was introduced into the ANSI standards for circuit breakers. and a constant current interrupting rating. and assigning a K factor other than one allows a wider application of a given circuit breaker. at which the breaker must interrupt I. widely understood. at voltages below V/K. circuit breakers using vacuum or SF6 puffer interrupters are essentially constant current interrupters up to a limiting maximum voltage. This is a simple concept. The rated maximum voltage divided by the K factor. I. Breakers using these technologies really do have higher interrupting ability at lower voltages.

com Powell Technical Brief PTB #46 . the available short circuit current will also decrease. . for a known system voltage.Significance of K factor in Circuit Breaker Ratings (Page 2) Second. it will have the necessary short circuit capability for any lower voltage on that system. if the voltage decreases. the K factor is unimportant. If a circuit breaker is properly applied at the maximum system voltage.powellelectric. On any given system. P.E. All rights reserved.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. not increase.com • info@powellelectric. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Baldwin Bridger.

transformers and transmission lines are generally quite highly inductive. Circuit breakers are tested using power sources with an X/R ratio prescribed by industry standards. then X/R = tan theta. A higher X/R ratio. 1993 What is X/R ("X over R") ratio. both low and high voltage.powellelectric. reaching an insignificant value in a matter of 3 to 5 cycles of the power frequency. For a given level of symmetrical fault current and a given circuit breaker contact part time. For power circuit breakers.010-1979. assuming that a short circuit is applied to the system at that point. This asymmetry is treated in analysis as a dc component. which must be combined with the ac symmetrical component to give a new current value. almost all faults involve significant asymmetry in at least one phase. if Power Factor = cos theta .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. will result in a higher asymmetrical fault current at contact part time. looking back to the power source from any point in a power circuit.E. For high voltage circuit breakers (over 1000 V). .X/R Ratio November 17. the rms asymmetrical value. Why is the X/R ratio important? Its importance is that it affects the level of short circuit current a circuit breaker is required to interrupt. This dc component of a fault current decays rather rapidly. the asymmetrical fault current may exceed the breaker's interrupting capability.com • info@powellelectric. Mathematically. When a short circuit occurs. If the X/R ratio is too high. information about the values and use of these factors is found in §5 of ANSI/IEEE C37. Since the X/R ratio of a system is inherent in its design and cannot be changed easily. with its slower decay rate. this rate of decay is determined by the X/R ratio of the circuit at the point of fault. However. Since generators. It is another way of stating the power factor of the source system. It has absolutely no relationship to the power factor of any load on the system. this information is found in §10 of ANSI/IEEE C37. It is the value of the rms asymmetrical current at the moment of contact part which a circuit breaker must interrupt. the rms value of the symmetrical fault current is determined by the system source voltage and the total system impedance to the point of fault. what can be done about a high X/R? The approach is taken by the ANSI standards is to establish multiplying factors for the symmetrical fault current.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #47 . Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. the more slowly the dc component decays. See PTB #22 for further information. corresponding to a power factor of 15% or less. For low voltage power circuit breakers. P. X/R ratio is simply the ratio of the system reactance to the system resistance. this X/R ratio establishes the value of asymmetrical fault current the breaker is required to interrupt. All rights reserved. Note that this is the power factor of the system up to that point. the ANSI standards require this X/R ratio to be 6.6 or higher. The higher the X/R ratio. These factors vary with the system X/R ratio and the speed of the circuit breaker. However. Baldwin Bridger.13-1990. and why is it important? First. the X/R ratio is generally significantly above unity in any utility or industrial power system.

It is acceptable to use conductors with a higher insulation rating. with all size conductors run in the same conduit. unless the end use equipment (panelboard. Outside of the possibility of convenience (the 90°C wire was laying around doing nothing). service equipment. you might ask why anyone would want to use conductors with a higher temperature rating than the breaker rating. a #4/0 AWG copper conductor with 90°C insulation has an ampacity of 260 A per Table 310-16 of the NEC. as a general principle. requires most material used in electrical systems to be listed by a thirdpart certifier.Temperature Rating of Conductors Connected to Molded Case Circuit Breakers December 2. power outlet. etc. and probably have been written. In UL's Electrical Construction Materials Directory ("Green Book") we find the following conditions attached to the listing of circuit breakers: 2. or 60/75°C rated conductors. and to be installed in accordance with the conditions attached to that listing. In view of these rules. As an example.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #48 . let's look at a circuit with two of these conductors per phase in parallel. Circuit breakers rated 125 amperes or less and marked suitable for use with 75°C rated conductors are intended for field use with 75°C rated conductors at full 75°C ampacity only when the circuit breaker is installed in a circuit breaker enclosure or individually mounted in an industrial control panel with no other component next to it. when these higher rated conductors are presumably more expensive than lower rated conductors. 75°C only. 1993 Books can be written.) is also marked suitable for use with conductors rated 75°C. A circuit breaker with a current rating of more than 125 amperes is suitable for use with conductors rated 75°C.powellelectric. Circuit breakers with a current rating of 125 amperes or less are marked as being suitable for 60°C. . This PTB will address one small facet of that overall problem: the temperature rating of conductors connected to the terminals of molded case circuit breakers. on the subject of proper sizing of conductors to meet all the various requirements of the National Electrical Code. All rights reserved. switchboard. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. The NEC. Now. The MCCB terminal temperature rating is the limiting factor in this conductor application.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. 3. However. if you connect this conductor to a molded case circuit breaker terminal. or 230 A. its ampacity is limited to the ampacity of the same size conductor with 75°C insulation. Note 8 to Table 310-16 requires an adjustment of the ampacity to 80% of the ampacity listed in the table when there are 4 to 6 current carrying conductors in one raceway.com • info@powellelectric. such as UL. you may find that other derating factors applying elsewhere in the conductor run will reduce the allowable ampacity so that the 60°C or 75°C rating at the terminal is met without difficulty. if the ampacity is based on the conductor temperature rating marked on the breaker. 4.

and the conduit size would have to be increased from 2½" to 3".powellelectric.E. Now the MCCB terminal temperature is no longer the limiting factor.8 = 416 A.Temperature Rating of Conductors Connected to Molded Case Circuit Breakers (Page 2) The two 90°C cables now have an ampacity of 2 x 260 x 0. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. If 75°C insulation were used. and the use of the 90°C insulation is advantageous.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #48 . All rights reserved. the allowable current is twice the 75°C rating of the cable. Baldwin Bridger.com • info@powellelectric. or 460 A.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. P. the wire size would have to be 250 kcmil to carry 408 A. . At the MCCB terminals.

test methods.2. All rights reserved.55-1989 Metal-Clad Switchgear Assemblies .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. In general.31987 IEEE Standard for Metal-Enclosed Interrupter Switchgear ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. The following is a list of the principal standards applying to each of these products.Conformance Test Procedures Medium-Voltage Switch-and-Fuse Equipment ANSI/IEEE C37.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric.20.09-1979 ANSI C37. 1993 All Powell products are designed and tested to conform to applicable industry standards. each of these standards includes a list of reference standards which further define the details of products. .541987 IEEE Standard Rating Structure for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis -Preferred Ratings and Related Required Capabilities IEEE Standard Test Procedure for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis Indoor Alternating-Current High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Applied as Removable Elements in Metal-Enclosed Switchgear Assemblies .061987 ANSI/IEEE C37. etc.IEEE Standard for Metal-Clad Switchgear and Station-Type 1987 Cubicle Switchgear ANSI C37.04-1979 ANSI C37.Conformance Test Procedures PowlVac® Metal-Clad Switchgear ANSI/IEEE C37.20. The major standards organizations whose standards are referenced below are: ANSI: American National Standards Institute IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers NEMA: National Electrical Manufacturers Association UL: Underwriters Laboratories NFPA: National Fire Protection Association PowlVac® Vacuum Circuit Breakers ANSI/IEEE C37.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #49 .Industry Standards Covering Powell Products December 3.

and Application Recommendations American National Standard for Trip Devices for AC and GeneralPurpose DC Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breakers Low-Voltage AC Power Circuit Breakers Used in Enclosures .51-1989 UL 1558-1984 IEEE Standard for Metal-Enclosed Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breaker Switchgear Metal-Enclosed Low-Voltage Power Circuit-Breaker Switchgear Assemblies .171979 ANSI C37.com • info@powellelectric.Preferred Ratings.23.501979 IEEE Standard for Low-Voltage AC Power Circuit Breakers Used in Enclosures Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breakers and AC Power Circuit Protectors .Conformance Test Procedures Metal-Enclosed Low Voltage Power Circuit-Breaker Switchgear Bus Duct ANSI/IEEE C37. Controllers and Assemblies.Industrial Control Devices.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.powellelectric.1-1987 ANSI C37.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #49 .13-1990 ANSI C37. Part ICS 2-324. NEMA ICS AC General-Purpose Medium Voltage Contactors and Class E 2-1988 Controllers. Related Requirements. Controllers and Assemblies.20.Industry Standards Covering Powell Products (Page 2) Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breakers ANSI/IEEE C37.IEEE Standard for Metal-Enclosed Bus and Calculating 1987 Losses in Isolated-Phase Bus Medium-Voltage Motor Control Industrial Control Devices. 50 and 60 Hertz Low-Voltage Motor Control Centers NEMA ICS 2. All rights reserved. AC Motor Control Centers UL 845-1988 Motor Control Centers ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.161988 ANSI C37. .Test Procedures Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breaker Switchgear ANSI/IEEE C37. Part ICS 21988 322.

Other equipments and devices installed in PCR® buildings are normally manufactured per the applicable industry standards for the particular item.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #49 .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. P. . Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All electrical work within and on the outside walls of the PCR® is done per the NEC. Baldwin Bridger.E.com • info@powellelectric. Individual Powellbuilt equipments installed in PCR® buildings are built per the standards listed above.Industry Standards Covering Powell Products (Page 3) PCR® Power Control Rooms There are no industry standards for these buildings themselves.powellelectric. The only industry standard that applies to the complete assembly is ANSI/NFPA 70-1993: National Electrical Code. All rights reserved.

In the 1992 TCR. and a cottage industry springs up to inform all of us about the changes made in the new version of the Code. the sprinklers.Installation. with the following comment: "Experience has proven that if a fire activates sprinklers. The transformer is equipment not foreign to the electrical equipment (panelboard).com • info@powellelectric. and why the code-making panel rejected the proposal.Switchboards and Panelboards December 10. each proposal for revision of the NEC is reproduced." The code-making panel also unanimously rejected the proposal. with the comment: "Such a transformer not being foreign to electrical equipment is permitted in the dedicated panelboard space provided it does not intrude into the 110-16 work space.NEC Article 384 . flame. it is just as useful to know what proposed changes were not made. All rights reserved. sometimes when you are looking for the intent for the detailed meaning of a particular section of the Code." The other proposal suggested removing the words "foreign to the electrical equipment" from the text of the section. provide effective protection with virtually no hazard to personnel and with no measurable increase in damage to the equipment as compared with the damage done by heat. along with the panel's action and the panel's reason for taking that action. there were two interesting rejected proposals with regard to §384-4 . In this document. thus permitting the installation below the panelboard." ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. which preceded the 1993 revision of the NEC. The proposer's substantiation was: "This particular sentence in the 1990 NEC as written can be interpreted as permitting the installation of a dry type.powellelectric." The code-making panel unanimously rejected that proposal.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. However. floor mounted transformer below a panelboard. if properly installed and maintained. The first of these suggested adding the following text: "Where water sprinklers are in a position where they can deliver water to service equipment or service bus duct. 1993 Every three years the National Electrical Code is revised.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #50 . This information appears in the NFPA Technical Committee Report (TCR). then that service equipment and service bus duct shall be rated as raintight. . which is issued during each code cycle. smoke and the manual hose streams.

E. All rights reserved. . is not permitted. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Baldwin Bridger. with the transformer mounted below the panelboard.Panelboard/Transformer Arrangements (DS* is panelboard's Dedicated Space) Figure 1 shows three examples of a transformer located near a panelboard. or to the structural ceiling.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #50 . Note that the "dedicated space" above and below the panelboard is the width and depth of the panelboard and extends from the floor to a point 25 feet above the floor. the transformer is located above the work space. P. View 1.com • info@powellelectric. In View 3.Switchboards and Panelboards (Page 2) Figure 1 . which only extends up to 6½ feet from the floor.powellelectric. Views 2 and 3 are both installations permitted by the NEC. as the transformer intrudes into the work space required by 110-16 of the NEC. whichever is lower. In View 2. the panelboard has been mounted away from the wall so that the transformer does not extend into the work space. A typical hung ceiling of drop-in panels is not considered to be a structural ceiling for this purpose.NEC Article 384 .

standards exist for arc-resistant switchgear. wherever flame or hot gases might escape. covers. At the present time. arc-resistant switchgear is equipped with panels. which we consider to be more stringent. and the major differences are shown in Table 1. Parts which may cause a hazard do not fly off.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric. The following criteria must be met during the two tests (which may be combined into one test if desired): • • • • • Properly secured doors. Powell has designed and tested Type B switchgear in accordance with the EEMAC standard.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #51 . See descriptions in Table 1. no U. "Arc-proof" would imply that an internal arc could not occur. All rights reserved. Typically. several items need to be kept in mind: • The arc-resistant rating is at a particular voltage and short-circuit current level. The area of exposure should be considered. etc. The lower parts of the switchgear are reinforced to prevent opening or burnthrough of the enclosure parts. but the IEEE Switchgear Committee is working on one. Resistance to both of these events is demonstrated up to a height of 2 meters. and Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers Association of Canada (EEMAC) Standard G14-1.S. Arcing does not cause a hole in the surfaces covered by the type under test. . Appendix AA.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.. These ratings should match the ratings of the switchgear and circuit breakers.Arc-Resistant Metal-Clad Switchgear June 2. Arc-resistant switchgear has been available for some time in Europe and Canada. up to a height of 2 meters. Black cotton cloth indicators are placed around the equipment under test. and is now being specified by some users in the United States. in the event that an internal arc occurs in the switchgear. do not open. Arc-resistant equipment must resist two phenomena which accompany an internal arc-increased internal pressure and burnthrough. Until it is available. located above the 2-meter level. These indicators must not ignite. which is incorrect. • ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. arc-resistant simply means that the equipment resists the effect of the arc in the unlikely event that one does occur. and the requirements of the system. These two standards differ somewhat. the two generally recognized standards are International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 298. 1994 Powell has recently announced the availability of arc-resistant metal-clad switchgear. which blow open under the increased internal pressure caused by the internal arc. The grounding connection must remain effective. Type PowlVacAR®. When applying arc-resistant switchgear. This equipment is sometimes erroneously referred to as "arc-proof". Arc-resistant switchgear is designed to minimize the likelihood of injury to a person standing nearby. Both standards require similar tests to qualify a design.

Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. including general public. back and sides. .powellelectric.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #51 . Unrestricted accessibility.Arc-Resistant Metal-Clad Switchgear (Page 2) Quoting Note 4 of the EEMAC standard. and between compartments within the same cell or between cells. this can be a very dramatic event.com • info@powellelectric." At high arc currents. 160 ms 1 second 10 cm from unit (all types) Duration of Tests: Pressure 0. All rights reserved. accessible.E. back and sides.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Appendix AA EEMAC G14-1 Restricted to authorized personnel only. Test Front.1 second (100 ms) Withstand Duration of Tests: 1 second Burnthrough Type A: 30 com from unit Indicator Location Type B: 10 cm from unit Type A: 150 grams per Indicator Material square meter Weight Type B: 40 grams per square meter 150 grams per square meter (all types) Baldwin Bridger. Test all accessible sides. Arc-resistant construction at the front. Attribute Accessibility: Type A Accessibility: Type B Accessibility: Type C IEC 298. P. -------------------------Arc-resistant construction at the front. Arc-resistant construction at the Test sides which are readily front only. "The overpressure in the electrical room caused by arcing due to an internal fault in the switchgear and the ejection of gases from pressure relief devices should be taken into consideration in the design of the building.

For very short runs of conduit.com • info@powellelectric. but is backed into by the requirement that listed items be used in accordance with their listing. Table 35. When installing seal fittings. with reducers to allow the conduit to fit. Outlet Boxes and Fittings for use in Hazardous (Classified) Locations. For seal fittings.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. this may mean using a seal fitting a size or two larger than the conduit size. This is not specifically stated in the code. The UL requirements are found in UL Standard 886. A table of permissible ills by wire size and seal fitting size is found in UL 886. In conduits enclosing 3 or more conductors (except for lead-covered conductors). This is not unreasonable.E. In some cases. See Table 1 of Chapter 9. Baldwin Bridger. All rights reserved. The fill tables in Chapter 9 of the NEC. and UL lists seal fittings for 25% fill. separating them so that the poured sealing compound will effectively seal each wire. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Technical Director Note: Thanks to Crouse-Hinds for the information calling industry attention to this situation. Any reducer or other fitting used must also comply with the listing requirements for use in a classified area. it may be easier to use an oversized conduit so that the seal fitting is not overloaded.powellelectric. the fill may not exceed 25%. UL also requires manufacturers of listed seal fittings to include the 25% fill requirement in their installation instruction. 1994 NEC requirements for wire fill in seal fittings are different from the wire fill requirements in conduit. which give the number of conductors of specific types and sizes allowed in various sizes of conduit. conductors may occupy 40% of the area of the conduit. are based on this 40% fill.Wire Fill in Seal Fittings June 14. be sure that the 25% fill is not exceeded.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #52 . .1. as the packing material used in a seal fitting must be packed around each wire. P.

Other bolt sizes may take longer or shorter bolts to compensate for differences in the thickness of the nuts and washers used.20 Torque. Each bolt is installed with two flat washers. Figure 1 -Proper Bolt Assembly Proper assembly of the hardware is vital to a low-resistance joint. hex head cap screw. bronze (usually Everdur) hardware for copper bus. more properly.powellelectric. The bolt should be long enough that a minimum of two full threads extend out of the nut when the bolt is tightened. and a hex nut. For the 1/2-13 size.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #53 .com • info@powellelectric.Hardware for Bus Connections July 5. use a bolt one inch longer than the combined thickness of the bus bars being bolted together. for half a century or so the workhorse of the industry has been the Grade 5 carbon steel bolt. this hardware has a long history of satisfactory performance with both copper and aluminum bus bars. Do not overtorque the bolts. I've seen bolts which were barely half their original diameter in the middle removed from bus joints. Torques to be used for various size bolts are shown in the table. Zinc plated to retard corrosion and installed with the proper torque. This information is given on a label installed in Powell switchgear near bolted field connections. pounds-feet 55-70 35-50 20-30 5-7 How about other types of hardware? Some users specify aluminum hardware for aluminum bus.16 1/4 . or stainless steel for either bus material.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. as extra bolt length usually decreases the clearance from the bolt end to the nearest other phase or to ground. but 5/8-11 hardware is used for some very large joints and sizes down to 1/4-20 are used for smaller jobs. This may be a valid reason for joints that are exposed to the weather. a split-ring lock washer.13 3/8 . The hardware should be assembled as shown in Figure 1. such as ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Bolt Size 5/8 . 1994 What kind of hardware should be used for bus joints in metal-enclosed switchgear? While there may be several acceptable answers. The bolt should not be longer than necessary.11 1/2 . . The first is the inhibition of corrosion cells where dissimilar metals made contact. Grade 5 hardware is used to allow high installation torque. The most common size used is 1/2-13. either. Proper bolt torque is vital to a good joint. with the flat washers next to the bus bars on both sides of the joint and the lock washer under the nut. There are two reasons usually given for this requirement. or. All rights reserved. Excessive torque can stretch the bolt past its elastic limit and cause failure. such as fastening terminals for small wire sizes.

the difference between the expansion of the bus and the expansion of steel hardware is on the order of 0.powellelectric. is the difficulty of finding high-strength hardware made of these alloys. There are many types of equipment. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. In our experience. P. However. Lower hardware strength may require reduced torque levels on the joints.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. .E. The other reason for specifying hardware of a material similar to the bus bar is concern that differential expansion between the bus and the hardware may lead to loosening of the joint.com • info@powellelectric. or 1 part in 2. which have been in service for 50 years. One other piece of hardware frequently requested is the spring washer. or for installation in contaminated atmospheres. or Bellville washer. Offsetting any advantage of better-matched expansion characteristics.Hardware for Bus Connections (Page 2) open buswork. where all the bus joints are inside the enclosure and are expected to be warm and dry. however.0004 inch per inch of joint thickness. the special hardware is usually not necessary. All rights reserved. This washer is used to replace the split-ring lock washer. For copper bus. for the usual metal-enclosed switchgear. which is used in almost all Powell switchgear. or more using carbon steel bus joint hardware. Baldwin Bridger. it may be of some value when aluminum bus is used with steel hardware.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #53 . in our experience it is not needed for the usual installation of metal-enclosed switchgear or control equipment. and is intended to compensate (within limits) for the differential expansion of the bus material and the hardware. While Powell will be glad to furnish special bus joint hardware when our customers specify it.500 over the entire 65°C allowable temperature rise. but is generally unnecessary when the bus is copper.

com Powell Technical Brief PTB #54 .Arc-Resistant Switchgear Construction or Arc-Detection Devices? November 16. Any damage that is going to be done by the pressure wave will happen in that time frame. The test to prove resistance to burnthrough is of 1 second duration. on the other hand. If resistance to damage due to arcgenerated pressure is desired. and any physical damage that pressure is going to cause has already happened. However.E. P. consider the timing involved. Assuming that the sensor itself has a zero time of response to the presence of an arc. but by this time the internal pressure in the switchgear has long since reached its peak. the arc-resistant design of metal-clad switchgear must be used. Baldwin Bridger. digging a divot out of the concrete wall on the other side of the test cell. These sensors will detect an arc within the switchgear and signal a backup breaker to trip. Optical arc sensors may offer excellent protection to gas-insulated substations. or 50 milliseconds on a 60 Hz system. Burnthrough is a relatively long-time event.powellelectric. However. This breaker takes 3 cycles. unreinforced construction against damage from arc-generated pressure because the backup breaker cannot open fast enough to prevent this damage. This time of operation will give good protection against burnthrough.com • info@powellelectric. For instance. to interrupt a circuit once its trip coil is energized. where the principal problem is protection against burnthrough. These two phenomena operate in two different time frames. 1994 In PTB #51. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. the front door of a breaker cell was launched across the test cell at that time. arc-resistant switchgear must resist two phenomena increased internal pressure and burnthrough. in one of our first tests of a preliminary arc-resistant design.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Internal pressure. the backup breaker must still open and interrupt before the arc is extinguished. Several manufacturers are now offering optical arcing sensors as an alternative to arc-resistant construction. reaches its peak in 5 to 10 milliseconds after the arc begins. I discussed the arc-resistant construction which is now available in Powell's PowlVac® metal-clad switchgear. As noted in the PTB. no detection system can protect metal-clad switchgear of normal. . The fastest circuit breakers commonly used in metal-clad switchgear are 3-cycle breakers. All rights reserved. clearing the arcing fault.

Baldwin Bridger. Be sure all bus splices are assembled properly. • Install it properly. there are a few ground rules you have to follow. There are numerous installations of metal-enclosed switchgear which have been in service for 40 years or more. However. Check alignment of all disconnects and interlocks on drawout circuit breakers to make sure that they fit properly into the cell. If artificial cooling is required to keep the ambient temperature within limits (usually a maximum of 40°C). Make sure there are no leaks that will allow rain or other moisture to dampen the switchgear. For outdoor installations and indoor installations in damp climates. and that the equipment has been set level on the foundation and properly secured. Moisture is the other great enemy of insulation. and that any filters or other ventilating openings in the switchgear are clean and that air flow is not restricted. Keep it dry. and insulated if insulation is required. Make sure the foundation is level. Don't overload the equipment in service. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Here are some of them. properly torqued. Check out all control wire connections. and it will last you a long time. Connect cables carefully. to get this kind of service out of switchgear. Make sure that ventilation is adequate.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.Useful Life of Metal-Enclosed Switchgear December 8. All rights reserved. Heat is one of the two great enemies of electrical insulation. Other than the very complex procedures used in the nuclear industry. for the very good reason that there is no reasonable way to test the life of a piece of switchgear other than to put it into service and see how long it lasts. most manufacturers have rather consistently answered this question with an estimate of 30 to 40 years of useful service life. P.E. for the over 40 years that I've been in the industry. and lubricated on a regular schedule. and it will die young. be sure it operates properly. cleaned. Abuse it or neglect it. Take care of it. with the right size splice plates and the right size and number of bolts.com • info@powellelectric. there is absolutely nothing in any industry standard that addresses this question. 1994 We are frequently asked how long we expect metal-enclosed switchgear to last in service. • • • Treat your switchgear well. space heaters are recommended to deter condensation.powellelectric. The equipment should be inspected. such as interrupting a major fault. and after any traumatic event.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #55 . . Of course. Don't overheat it. what is the design life of our products.

heat shrink installation. Powell's standard is a white tube marked with black characters. although this is not called for by any industry standard. Switchgear control wire has traditionally been colored gray. or wire tags.Control Wire and Wire Markers in Switchgear and Motor Control December 19. Powell's standard is to use Type SIS flexible wire for all switchgear wiring. as wire manufacturers require sizeable runs of special items such as unusual colors. special colors. but at a cost. Baldwin Bridger.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #56 . The wire marker is marked with the wire number shown on the schematic and wiring diagrams. but are not required by standards. they must be specified by the purchaser when desired. Further. which are green. are used in most equipments we produce.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. and special wire designations or numbering. Wire markers. The wire will be #14 AWG unless a larger wire is required by the circuit or is specified by the purchaser. Special wire markers can be furnished on request. P. Other colors may be used if specified by the purchaser.com • info@powellelectric. Powell's standard is to use gray wire except for ground wires. Some special features requested from time to time include special sleeve materials. All rights reserved. and to be flexible (41 strand or more) where it is connected across a hinge.powellelectric. 1994 ANSI standards for metal-enclosed switchgear require the use of either Type TBS or Type SIS wire for control wire in this type of equipment. Special wire types can also be used when required. Therefore. but elaborate color coding can be rather costly.E. When wire markers are used. the wire is required to have a minimum size of #14 AWG. but are also subject to special charges for nonstandard wire mill runs. All of these can be furnished. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. .

Interrupting capabilities at voltages between V and V/K are calculated by a formula given in PTB #46. this current is equal to 2. See PTB #45 for a detailed discussion of MVA. The circuit breaker must also be able to withstand this same value of current in the closed position as a part of the short time current test.powellelectric. see PTB #46. and the upper limit for operation. Rated Short Time Current: This is the rms value of the current which the circuit breaker is required to carry for 3 seconds. latching.com • info@powellelectric. although this term does not appear in the ANSI standards. Rated Short Circuit Current I: The highest value of rms symmetrical current which the circuit breaker is required to interrupt at rated maximum voltage. All rights reserved.Ratings of Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers December 22. . It is required to interrupt this current at a voltage of V/K and at any lower voltage. Rated Voltage Range Factor K: The ratio of the rated maximum voltage to the lower limit of the range of operating voltage in which the required symmetrical and asymmetrical interrupting capabilities vary in inverse proportion to operating voltage. there is no such thing as an MVA rating for a circuit breaker. the breaker is not required to interrupt this current until it has cooled down to operating temperature. this current is equal to KI. or crest. This capability is sometimes referred to as the "momentary current" rating. current that the circuit breaker must be capable of making and immediately thereafter. Closing and Latching Capability: This is the peak. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.7KI.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #57 . It is not an interrupting rating. the maximum symmetrical interrupting capability. there appears to be quite a bit of confusion in the industry about the meaning of various voltage and current ratings applied to circuit breakers used in metal-clad switchgear. Numerically. 1994 Based on questions I receive. This PTB will attempt to clarify some of the more commonly discussed ratings. Numerically. First. Numerically. For more on K. Other important ratings are as follows: Rated Maximum Voltage V: The highest rms (root mean square) voltage for which the circuit breaker is designed.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. this current is equal to KI. as these ratings appear in the ANSI circuit breaker standards. Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting Capability: The highest value of rms symmetrical current which the circuit breaker is required to interrupt.

Ratings of Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers (Page 2) Since interrupting ratings vary with voltage. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved.E. . it is absolutely imperative that purchaser and supplier communicate clearly about the voltage at which a specified interrupting rating applies. Baldwin Bridger. P.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #57 .com • info@powellelectric.powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.

1. and much less common but not unknown in metal-clad switchgear. While a ground bus. P. §6.com • info@powellelectric. The ground bus is rated for short-circuit and short-time duty.Rating of Ground Bus in Metal-Enclosed Switchgear January 17. Ground bus is not expected to carry any continuous current.2. For low voltage metal-enclosed switchgear.E. This includes such things as the enclosures. The purpose of the ground bus is to keep these items at a common potential under normal conditions and to carry ground fault current when a ground fault occurs.5 second. and none of these standards describe any test to demonstrate such a rating.51 for low voltage switchgear and ANSI C37. Tests to demonstrate these ratings are included in the conformance test standards. 1995 All metal-enclosed switchgear built to ANSI standards is required to include a ground bus to connect together all items in the switchgear that are required to be grounded. a neutral bus may be needed to carry any current unbalance. circuit breaker frames. ANSI/IEEE C37. requires the ground bus to carry the rated short-time current of the switchgear for 2 seconds. If a 4-wire system with line-to-neutral loads is in use. will carry a certain amount of current continuously without damage. For metal-clad switchgear. specifying a continuous current rating for ground bus has little or no meaning. This is quite common in low voltage switchgear. etc. relay and instrument cases. just how much and under what circumstances is not defined. Baldwin Bridger. All rights reserved.55 for metal-clad switchgear.1. ANSI C37.powellelectric. Therefore. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.12. . ANSI/IEEE C37. like any conductor. CT and VT secondary circuits. and should be avoided. §6.20.20. requires the ground bus to carry the rated short-time current of the switchgear for 0.2.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #58 . None of the ANSI standards require a continuous current rating for ground bus.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.

1995 From time to time we are asked what bus spacings are required by ANSI standards for switchgear. two dimensions are important. If you can place bare conductors 1/2" apart and meet the test requirements for 15kV equipment. Those who ask are frequently surprised by the answer: None.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. All rights reserved. power frequency withstand for all voltages and impulse withstand for medium voltage. that is fine. And before you conclude that I'm being ridiculous. When considering bus spacings. etc. The first is clearance. It is not possible to test every configuration of bus used in switchgear. so every manufacturer has a working guide of dimensions to be used for configurations that aren't tested. The dimensions used by different manufacturers may differ a bit.E. Remember that these are dimensions used within metal-enclosed switchgear equipments. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. and vary with voltage and also with whether or not the conductors are insulated. outdoor substation construction. How a manufacturer designs equipment to meet the requirements is up to the manufacturer.Bus Spacings in Metal-Enclosed Switchgear January 24. The second is surface creepage.com • info@powellelectric. They do not apply for overhead lines. Dielectric tests. The distances are measured from metal to metal. . P. but they are usually pretty consistent.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #59 . The design must pass these tests. The following table shows some of the more common dimensions we use at Powell. or the distance through air between conductors of opposite polarity or between an energized conductor and ground.76 kV 15 kV 27 kV 38 kV Impulse Withstand N/A 60 kV 95 kV 125 kV 150 kV Baldwin Bridger. or the distance across an insulating surface. pole-top hardware. Voltages Low-Frequency Withstand 2.2 kV 19 kV 36 kV 60 kV 80 kV Air Clearance Insulated Bare Conductors Conductors N/A 1" 2" 3 1/2" 3" 6" 6" 9" 7 1/2" 10 1/2" Surface Clearance Insulated Bare Conductors Conductors N/A 2" 3" 5" 5" 7" 9" 14" 11" 17" Rated Maximum 635 V 4.powellelectric. ANSI switchgear standards are generally performance standards. remember that we do this every day in vacuum interrupters. are specified in the standards. Phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground dimensions are the same because switchgear used on ungrounded or impedance grounded systems will have phase to phase voltage between the unfaulted phases and ground during a ground fault condition.

and the necessary arc movement may not be obtained. The oscillograms indicated no distress in the interruptions. Vacuum breakers. do have some problems with switching low currents. only a small field is generated. which have been successfully used for many years in medium voltage switchgear. and some other models at capacitive currents as low as half an amp. At least in part because of this problem with the interruption of small currents. All rights reserved. . Baldwin Bridger. switching of low currents is not a problem for vacuum circuit breakers.Switching Small Currents with Vacuum Circuit Breakers January 30. so that the arc is literally blown into the arc chute.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. on the other hand. P. This device is needed on air-magnetic circuit breakers to insure interruption of small currents. interruption of low currents is a non-problem for PowlVac® circuit breakers. Almost all varieties of air-magnetic circuit breakers are equipped with a "puffer" device. These breakers depend on a magnetic field generated by the current flowing through auxiliary coils in the interrupter circuit to drive the arc into the arc chute for successful interruption. Generally speaking. 1995 We occasionally see a specification which requires that the medium voltage circuit breakers that are supplied should be capable of switching very small currents. When the current is very low. handle small currents with ease. This piston is equipped with a nozzle that is directed at the area where the arc is truck by the opening of the breaker.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #60 . Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. in the range of a few percent of the breaker's continuous current rating.com • info@powellelectric. Load current switching tests have been made on all of our present production models of PowlVac® circuit breaker at inductive current levels in the 250-260 A range. All of these tests were successful. the ANSI standard for circuit breaker rating allows the interrupting time for the interrupting of current below 25% of the required asymmetrical interrupting capability to exceed the rated interrupting time by as much at 50%. and the interruptions took no longer than high current interruptions. We have tested one model of PowlVac® circuit breaker at inductive currents as low as 25-30 A. As far as we are concerned. Air-magnetic circuit breakers.powellelectric. a small air piston driven by the opening of the breaker.E.

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Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric.com

Powell Technical Brief

PTB #61 - Overcurrent Definitions
March 7, 1995 There are several terms that we use to name abnormal current in an electric power system. Although these terms are sometimes used interchangeably, they really aren't interchangeable. Recently, I came across a set of definitions that made a lot of sense to me, so I'm passing them along to you. These are taken from a couple of standards of the International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC 439-1 and IEC 947-1.
• • • • • •

Overcurrent: A current exceeding the rated current. Short circuit: The accidental or intentional connection, by a relatively low resistance or impedance, of two or more points in a circuit which are normal at different voltages. Short circuit current: An overcurrent resulting from a short circuit due to a fault or an incorrect connection in an electric circuit. Overload: Operating conditions in an electrically undamaged circuit which cause an overcurrent. Overload current: An overcurrent occurring in an electrically undamaged circuit. Fault current: A current resulting from an insulation failure or the bridging of insulation.

Note several relationships among these various currents:
• • • •

An overload current is always an overcurrent, but not all overcurrents are overload currents. An overload is not a fault. A short circuit current is both a fault current and an overcurrent. However, not all fault currents are short circuit currents. Also, not all overcurrents are short circuit currents. A fault current is not necessarily an overcurrent. Under some fault conditions, the fault current may be much less than the rated current. A typical example is a ground fault current on a highresistance grounded system. This current may be only an amp or two, compared to a rated current of up to several thousand amps.

Baldwin Bridger, P.E. Technical Director

©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved.

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Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric.com

Powell Technical Brief

PTB #62 - Choosing Current Transformers for Relaying Use
March 28, 1995 Current transformers used for relaying under high current conditions must have a relay rating. This rating is expressed as the letter "C" or the letter "T" followed by a number. The number represents the voltage output at the CT terminals with 20 times normal secondary current flowing (100A for a typical 5 A secondary CT), without exceeding 10% ratio error. Standard values are 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 400. The "C" or "T" describes the method used for determining this voltage. The voltage for CT's with a "T" designation has been determined by test, the usual method for wound primary CT's. Recent work by a working group of the IEEE Power Systems Relaying Committee has shown that lowratio CT's applied to systems with high fault current levels may saturate under fault conditions and cause improper or no operation of the overcurrent relays. Extreme saturation of the CT's can result in very narrow pulses of secondary current, only a few electrical degrees wide. Although the magnitude of the pulse may be above the pickup setting of the relay, the current does not flow for long enough at a time to operate the relay. To be sure that the CT's do not saturate, the relay rating of the CT should be twice the voltage necessary to drive the maximum fault current through the connected burden. For example, assume a bus with 24 kA available fault current and a CT rated 400/5 A (80:1 ratio). Divide 24,000 A by the CT ratio, 80, to determine the secondary current, 300 A, under maximum fault conditions. If the secondary burden is 0.33 ohms, the voltage required is 300x0.33, or 100 V. A CT with a relay rating of C200 or T200 should be chosen for this application. Where low-ratio CT's are needed on a system with a high available fault current, it may be very difficult to find a CT with the necessary relay rating. Several possible ways to improve the situation are to use higher ratio CT's, to use higher accuracy CT's, to use lower burden relays, to divide the burden between two sets of CT's, or to use separate instantaneous overcurrent relays connected to a separate set of high-ratio CT's. If you want to review the entire report of the PSRC working group, you can find it published in two different IEEE Transactions. The report title is "Relay Performance with Low Ratio CT's and High Fault Currents". It may be found in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 8, No. 3, July 1993, pp. 884897, and in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 31, No. 2, March/April 1995, pp. 392-404.

Baldwin Bridger, P.E. Technical Director

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Powell Technical Brief

PTB #63 - Capacitance Graded Bushings
June 12, 1995 Bushings or similar structures are used in medium voltage switchgear to carry a conductor from one side of a grounded barrier to the other side. Typical uses are roof entrance bushings, to bring conductors from outside the switchgear through the roof to the switchgear interior; primary disconnect spouts, to bring the primary connections of a circuit breaker from the bus or cable compartment to the circuit breaker compartment; and main bus penetration from one unit of switchgear to the next unit. In its simplest form, a bushing consists of a conductor, some surrounding insulation, and a mounting provision of some kind. If the voltage isn't too high, and the configuration of the conductor, the insulation, and the ground plane isn't too bad, a bushing with suitable insulation characteristics and long life can be made with only these basic ingredients. However, sometimes the spacing is very tight, or the ground plane has sharp corners or protruding hardware so that the local stress on the insulation is excessive. In this case, a capacitance graded bushing may be the answer. In a capacitance graded bushing, layers of conductive or semi-conductive material are placed in the thickness of the insulation in such a manner that these layers serve as a builtin capacitor and the stress on the insulation is equalized and controlled. Proper use of capacitance grading can control both through-insulation and over-surface stress. This technique has long been used in medium voltage switchgear. For instance, GE's vertical lift Magne-Blast circuit breakers, first manufactured nearly 60 years ago, use capacitance graded top-mounted bushings to control the stress where the bushings penetrate the top frame of the circuit breaker.

©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved.

Each line in the thickness of the insulation represents a conductive layer. . for mounting current transformers. this particular construction provides an area around the spout shielded from the electrical field.powellelectric. shows a section view of the capacitance graded primary disconnect spout used in Powell's PV System 38® switchgear.Capacitance Graded Bushings (Page 2) The figure above. All rights reserved.com • info@powellelectric. Baldwin Bridger. The innermost layer is connected to the primary conductor.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #63 . and the outermost layer is connected to ground.E. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. P. In addition to controlling the stress in the insulation.

with motors rated 460 V. and the switching sequence being used.(Inrush) Continuous Tungsten Resistance Current jogging Lamps Loads & duty (300V Discharge max. single phase. In most cases. 3 phase transformer. but switching the primary of this transformer required a size 3 contactor if the inrush current is <= 20 x full load. etc. of the type generally used in motor control centers.2 14 23 47 These values are taken from tables in NEMA Standard ICS2-1988. 480 V.) Lamps 1 2 3 4 5 10 25 50 100 200 288 483 947 1581 3163 27 45 90 135 270 15 30 60 120 240 27 45 90 135 270 Transformer Primary Switching kVA Inrush Inrush >20x <= 20x <=40X Full Full Load Load 8. other motor duties and starting methods.Load Switching Capability of NEMA General Purpose Contactors June 22. which has a full load current of 18 A. CircuitNEMA Switching Rating NonClosing Size of Contactor plugging Amps and Non. have a number of different load switching ratings. All rights reserved. 1995 NEMA general purpose contactors.E.powellelectric. consider a 15 kVA. Loads with high inrush characteristics require oversized contactors to handle the inrush current without damage.com • info@powellelectric. The table below shows the ratings assigned to size 1 through size 5 for use on 60 Hz. the duty cycle of the load.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #64 . For instance. other voltages and frequencies. This is well within the continuous current rating of a size 1 contactor.3 7. and a size 4 contactor if the inrush current is between 20 x and 40 x full load.5 14 28 47 94 4. depending on the type of load being switched.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Motor HP rms Amperes Full Voltage Peak Starting. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Other tables in this standard give ratings for other sizes of contactors. P. the rating limit is established by the contactor's ability to close a certain peak current. 480 V systems. . Baldwin Bridger.

E. etc. Controls are also usually solid-state. 1995 Starting synchronous motors is a two-step process. autotransformer. Protection required for the motor's stator and this first stage of its starting sequence is the same as required for an induction motor of similar size and starting method.c. D. but only to assist in starting. All rights reserved.c.Starting Synchronous Motors June 29. which are an older design. A small d. the control closes the field contactor. Speed is sensed by measuring the frequency of the induced a. On brush type motors. Brushless motors have the armature of an a. This frequency decreases as the motor speed increases. usually a field contactor.c. Protective relays are unable to measure the d. the field discharge resistor. usually defined as about 95% speed. The external supply may be a rotating exciter. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. There are two basic types of fields used on synchronous motors. which is removed from the circuit before the d.com • info@powellelectric. capacitor. The control may be electromechanical or solid-state. The a. the field winding is shorted through a field discharge resistor. pulling the rotor into step at 100% of synchronous speed.c. current which flows in the field winding and the field discharge resistor. the two ends of the field winding are brought to slip rings.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #65 . The first step is to accelerate the motor to near synchronous speed. and includes protection against loss of field and incomplete starting sequence. For either type. a rectifier package. . which are contacted by brushes. and requires no slip rings or brushes.c. P. Once the motor reaches near synchronous speed. which changes suddenly when field is lost. The synchronous motor is started as a squirrel cage induction motor. is applied.powellelectric. Baldwin Bridger.c.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. generator serves as the exciter. When an appropriate speed is reached. an excitation bus. During the acceleration stage. giving this type its name. This is the second step of the starting process. or the output of a solid-state excitation package. supply is required for this field winding. brush type and brushless. and its field winding is stationary. This differs from an induction motor squirrel cage in that it is not rated to carry load. Most synchronous motors are equipped with a squirrel cage winding on the rotor for starting purposes.c. and is usually supplied by a solid-state package. and a solid-state sensing and switching package mounted on the rotor of the synchronous motor. either shaft-driven or a separate m-g set. much detailed information about the motor's characteristics is required for proper application of starting equipment. so loss of field protection is provided by relays looking at the power factor of the motor. reactor.c. field of the synchronous motor directly. and can use any starting method that is used on a squirrel cage induction motor: full voltage. opening the discharge resistor circuit and closing the main field circuit. is applied to the rotor's field winding. d. generator. from an external supply is applied to the field using external switching devices.

per the following formula: where is the total burden on the main CT and is the burden of the auxiliary CT itself. if you are matching two main CT ratios by using an auxiliary CT. whereas using the auxiliary CT to step the main CT secondary current down decreases the burden by the square of the step-down ratio. A typical auxiliary CT circuit is shown in the figure above. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. is reflected into the main CT secondary circuit by the square of the current ratios. including matching ratios of main CTs. and combining several main CT secondary circuits for totalized metering.powellelectric. Since makers of auxiliary CTs will provide almost any ratio you might need. stepping up the secondary current of main CTs for greater sensitivity in metering or relaying. All rights reserved.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. From this. From this equation you can see that using an auxiliary CT to step the main CT secondary current up increases the burden on the main CT by the square of the step-up ratio. it would always be preferable to step down the higher main CT secondary current. . . these devices can be a very useful tool in complex or specialized CT circuits. which is the current from the main CT with the lower ratio. 1995 There are several applications for auxiliary current transformers in switchgear. The auxiliary CT secondary burden. However. their use may create a burden problem for the main CTs if care is not used in the application of auxiliary CTs.com • info@powellelectric.Use of Auxiliary Current Transformers November 3. it would seem that.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #66 .

step-up or stepdown. and thus be capable of handling a larger burden with the same accuracy. P. it is not always that simple. the best solution is to do a complete burden calculation to see which way.com • info@powellelectric. All rights reserved. As always. A couple of other considerations come into play: • • The higher ratio CTs may have a higher burden capability than the lower ratio CTs.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Baldwin Bridger.E. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #66 . gives the best results. The lower current resulting from the step-down transformation may require a lower relay setting to achieve the desired sensitivity. including the main CTs. . and that the overall circuit will give the performance desired under all operating conditions. "Best results" means that all of the devices. are operating within their capabilities. and the relays or meters connected in the circuit.powellelectric. and this lower setting may greatly increase the relay burden. the auxiliary CTs.Use of Auxiliary Current Transformers (Page 2) Unfortunately.

The latched contactor has no anti-pump feature. Control and interlocking circuits used with latched contactors should be investigated very carefully to make sure that there is not a circuit that could result in damage to the contactors. If a latched contactor is presented with simultaneous.E. All rights reserved. When the coil is deenergized. or they may be supplemented with overcurrent relays for better overload protection. this design provides automatic undervoltage protection for the motor. however. Several cautions are in order when latched contactors are used: • For non-motor loads. A circuit breaker. latched contactors are available. For loads other than motors. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Baldwin Bridger.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #67 . . P. it is sometimes desirable to maintain the circuit during an undervoltage condition. then remain open until the closing signal is removed and reestablished. Latched contactors may be equipped with manual closing and/or tripping operators if desired. Since the contactor's coils is usually energized from a control power transformer connected to the primary circuit of the starter. These fuses may stand alone as the overcurrent protection. leading to quite a few possible combinations of operators. The latched contactor is opened by energizing a trip coil. a latched contactor will remain closed even if the closing coil is deenergized. There is a major difference between the control circuit for a latched contactor and the control circuit for a circuit breaker. something like a circuit breaker is opened. it will cycle closed and open until one of the signals is removed or until the contactor destroys itself. Be sure you understand the differences and take them into account when using latched contactors. • • Properly applied latched contactors are useful devices.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.com • info@powellelectric. the contactor opens. These may be in addition to or in place of the operating coils. maintained close and trip signals. This is commonly done for transformer feeders originating in the medium voltage MCC. on the other hand. such as transformers or capacitors. 1995 The motor starting contactors used in medium voltage motor control are usually held closed by an operating coil. which is energized to close the contactor. When closed by its operating coil. will close once and open once. the motor starting current-limiting fuses should be replaced with general purpose current-limiting fuses. To handle this type of circuit. Since automatic undervoltage protection disappears when a latched contactor is used.Using Latched Contactors in Medium Voltage Motor Control Centers November 13. but they don't work just like circuit breakers.powellelectric. separate undervoltage relays must be provided if undervoltage protection is needed.

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Powell Technical Brief

PTB #68 - Instantaneous Ground Fault Relays (50GS) and Zero-Sequence CTs
November 28, 1995 In PTB #62, I discussed the problem of low-ratio CTs used on systems with high fault current, and I mentioned the IEEE working group report on this subject. Because of the emphasis in this report on making sure that CTs do not saturate, a number of people have become concerned about the operation of instantaneous ground fault relays connected to zero-sequence, or core balance, CTs. Because of this concern, Powell recently ran a series of tests to check the operation of typical CT-relay combinations. Two different relays were tested with each of two CTs. The relays were the GE HFC and the ABB IT. Electro-mechanical relays were chosen for the test because their higher burden places a greater load on the CTs. The CTs used were both made by ITI. The first Model 141-500, 50/5, C10 accuracy. The second was Model 143-500, 50/5, C20 accuracy. The test results are given in the table below. Relay Under Test HFC IT Relay Pickup Setting 0.5 A 0.15 A Current Transformer 141-500 143-500 141-500 143-500 Primary Pickup Current 15.8 A 13.6 A 6.5 A 5.4 A Time to trip at indicated current (ms) Pickup 600 A 1200 A 1800 A 39.3 36.35 95.2 132.4 34.85 33.75 61.3 56.3 24.05 27.05 67.7 60.0 36.9 31.95 72.6 68.9

Both of these relays operated correctly and reliably with both CTs. However, we also tested a third relay, the ABB ITH, a high dropout version of the IT. We found that this relay was not reliable in this service. It picked up at quite low values, and operated well with primary currents up to about 150 A. At the higher currents, 600 A and up, it chattered quite badly and did not close its contacts for long enough to operate a circuit breaker. Asking around, I found that this relay had been recommended for 50 GS service some years ago, but its manufacturer (Westinghouse at that time) changed the recommendation when the chattering problem was discovered. Based on this information and the tests, Powell strongly recommends that the ITH relay not be used as a 50GS relay. Summarizing, both the HFC and the IT work quite well at primary ground fault currents up to 1800 A, even though the CTs are badly saturated at that current level. This circuit, with these CTs and relays, should not be used on solidly grounded systems with high ground fault current. For these systems, residually-connected relays should be used, or the zero-sequence CTs should have higher ratios.

Baldwin Bridger, P.E. Technical Director

©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved.

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Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric.com

Powell Technical Brief

PTB #69 - Wound Rotor Induction Motors and Starters
January 5, 1996 The garden variety of induction motor used in industry is the squirrel cage induction motor. Many of the characteristics of these motors, such as starting inrush current, starting torque, and slip, are fixed. Although a motor designer can vary these characteristics at the design stage, once the motor is manufactured these characteristics are fixed. The wound rotor induction motor has a rotor winding that is not short-circuited on the rotor, like a squirrel cage motor, but is brought to slip rings so that the rotor circuit can be modified by inserting external resistance. This added resistance can accomplish two things:

Since the starting torque developed in an induction motor by a given starting current is proportional to the rotor resistance, adding resistance during the starting cycle can increase the starting torque, or lower the starting current for the same torque. By decreasing the rotor resistance as the motor accelerates, the torque can be controlled to provide a smooth acceleration of the load, sometimes called a "soft start". This can be very helpful for loads such as cranes, hoists, and loaded conveyors. Since the slip of an induction motor increases as the rotor resistance increases, some speed control is possible using a wound rotor motor and varying the rotor resistance while running.

Controllers for wound rotor motors include for the stator the same protection and switching functions that are used for squirrel cage motors. For the rotor, a multi-step resistor and switching means for that resistor are required. For a soft start application, the resistor is switched out of the circuit step by step as the motor accelerates. Once it reaches full speed, the resistor is completely shorted out, and the motor runs like a squirrel cage motor. The number of steps varies, depending on the motor size and the starting characteristics desired, but generally falls in the range of 3 to 7 steps. The switching may be done by a manual drum switch or by a series of contactors activated by timers. For speed control, some resistance remains in the rotor circuit for all speeds except maximum speed. The running resistor may be further steps of fixed resistance, like the starting resistors, or a continuously variable resistance, like a liquid rheostat.

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Powell Technical Brief

PTB #69 - Wound Rotor Induction Motors and Starters (Page 2)
Wound rotor motors have some drawbacks. Both the motor and the controller are more complex and cost more than a similar squirrel cage motor and its controller. The added running resistance in the rotor circuit of the motor on speed control increases losses, and thus operating costs, and the maximum speed is limited to something less than synchronous speed for the number of poles in the motor. Because of these limitations, many users now turn to squirrel cage motors and variable frequency drives to meet their needs for both soft start and speed control.

Baldwin Bridger, P.E. Technical Director

©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved.

at full rated short circuit current for a fault at the terminals of the breaker. The contact-to-contact voltage is the arc voltage. Q. I'll try to answer some additional recent questions about TRV in this PTB.com • info@powellelectric.O and E2. The present standard does not specify T2.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #70 . and interrupting current. This may take a computer-based system study. . When the current passes through zero. If the TRV withstand rating is exceeded by the system TRV.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. but this effect is usually unimportant. the circuit breaker may fail to perform properly. the voltage is higher and the timer is shorter. just like continuos current. conduction ceases.88 times the breaker's rated maximum voltage.powellelectric. Just what is transient recovery voltage: A.76kV to 125µs for breakers rated 38kV. typically about 600V in a 15kV circuit. The curve between O. As circuit breaker contacts part during the interrupting process. Q. Breakers rated 121kV and above also use a different curve shape. Q. The rating is stated in terms of a peak voltage. TRV withstand capability is a rating of a circuit breaker. 1996 In PTB #10 there is some information about transient recovery voltage (TRV) and some data about the TRV values used by Powell in testing PowlVac® circuit breakers. Why should I care about TRV? A. For circuit breakers used in metal-clad switchgear. Both E2 and T2 increase as the breaker's rated voltage increases. TRV is an inherent function of the parameters of a power system. but a proposed revision lists values from 50µs for breakers rated 4. maximum voltage. shown visually in the figure below. This change in voltage is the transient recovery voltage.The Importance of Transient Recovery Voltage January 10.T2 is defined as a "1-cosine" curve. What TRV will my breaker withstand? A.06 defines the requirements. All rights reserved. Since the circuit breaker is part of the system. For lower values of short circuit current. it may have some minor effect on the TRV. Computer programs designed for power system analysis can usually calculate TRV at selected points on the system. How do I know what my TRV will be? A. Q. and of the location and magnitude of the fault being interrupted. Q. and the contact-to-contact voltage moves toward the difference in system voltages on the two sides of the open circuit breaker. E2 . ANSI Standard C37. T2 . and a time to reach that voltage. How is TRV determined? A. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. an arc is created between them. E2 is required to be 1.

E.powellelectric. P.The Importance of Transient Recovery Voltage (Page 2) Baldwin Bridger. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.com • info@powellelectric. All rights reserved.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #70 . .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.

. Solid-state Drives: A wide variety of starting and speed control performance can be obtained through the use of modern solid-state drives. that is. allowing 3 starts. or 50% of the line voltage to the motor to start. canceling out the large reactive current drawn by the motor on starting. Wound Rotor: For induction motors only. Some of the more common methods are described below. However. 65%. Capacitor: A bank of capacitors is connected in parallel with the motor during starting. that is. Line current is reduced by the square of the tap. the autotransformer will be the medium duty type. while the power system thinks it is seeing a running motor.Starting Methods for Large Medium Voltage Motors February 9. both synchronous and induction . Motor starting autotransformers usually have taps that apply 80%. Modern starters use the closed transition switching sequence. that is. All rights reserved. • Autotransformer: An autotransformer is connected between the power source and the motor during the starting period. Line current is reduced to the tap value. These reactors usually have taps that apply 80%. The reactor may be placed on the line side of the motor or in the neutral. using the 80% tap on the autotransformer requires only 64% of the across the line starting current. Several methods of accomplishing this task are available.E. or 50% of the line voltage to the motor to start. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. the starting contactor or circuit breaker connects the 3-phase motor winding directly to the 3-phase power supply. using the 80% tap on the reactor requires 80% of the across the line starting current. This sequence requires three switching devices (circuit breakers or contactors). Reactor start requires only two switching devices.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #71 . in which the autotransformer winding is converted briefly to a series reactor near the end of the starting sequence. when motors are large with respect to the capacity of the power system it is often necessary to use a starting method that reduces the impact on the power system caused by starting the large motor. Starting torque is also 64% on the 80% tap.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. 65%. This reduced-impact starting is frequently referred to as reduced voltage starting because most of the common methods involve applying a reduced voltage to the motor winding. then shorted out.com • info@powellelectric. The motor thinks it is seeing a full voltage start. Unless otherwise requested. are started "across the line". The capacitors are removed from the circuit as the motor reaches running speed. Starting torque is reduced by the square of the tap. Reactor: A reactor is connected in series with the motor. and is 64$ on the 80% tap. followed by an hour's rest before repeating the three starts. See PTB #69 for further information. 1996 Most ac motors.powellelectric. • • • • Baldwin Bridger. P. Two switching devices are required.

ammeter switches have overlapping contacts so that the circuit is never opened as the ammeter is transferred from phase to phase. The variable resistance type carries enough current to limit the voltage across the protector. The protector must operate for a true open circuit. and is then removed. but in very different ways. For instance. Some users require these devices in metal-enclosed switchgear.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #72 .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. This short remains for the rest of the half-cycle of the voltage wave on which it occurs.E. CT secondary circuits are often wired to special terminal blocks which allow a short circuit to be placed on the CT secondary if it is necessary to service the secondary circuit. this voltage may be several hundred volts if the primary current is high enough. in order to protect itself. and shorts the CT secondary through an SCR if the instantaneous voltage exceeds the set point. Also. However. They both work by limiting the CT secondary voltage. There are two basic types of protectors available . Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. This is especially important for CTs connected to high impedance bus differential relays. devices used in CT secondary circuits are designed to prevent open circuits. Depending of the characteristics of the particular CT. but must not operate to short circuit the CTs under fault conditions.variable resistance and electronic. If the secondary of a CT carrying primary current is open circuited. To guard against this possibility. preventing desired relay operation. 1996 Current transformers should never be operated with an open secondary circuit. These are useful especially where the CT secondary leads are long and subject to possible damage. and drawout relay cases have shorting contacts in current circuits so that the CT circuits are shorted before the relay coil is removed from the circuit. It is very important when applying these protectors that the proper voltage class be chosen.Open Circuit Protectors for Current Transformers April 10. much in the manner of an MOV or a surge arrester. open circuit protectors are available. and coordinated with the operation of the relays at maximum fault current. The electronic type monitors instantaneous voltage. such as in substations where CT leads from high voltage circuit breakers or transformers may runs as much as several hundred feet to reach the secondary devices. P. but only about 5% or less of the switchgear we build has these protectors. Both types of protector come in several voltage classes. Baldwin Bridger.com • info@powellelectric.powellelectric. This voltage may be dangerous to personnel servicing the equipment and damaging to the CT itself or to devices connected to the CT. this device includes a heater element in series with the variable resistor and a bimetallic contact which will short out the CT secondary before the variable resistor element is damaged. For those users who wish even further protection against the possibility of an accidental open circuit in a CT secondary. All rights reserved. which are normally voltage actuated. Each half cycle is separately monitored and acted upon. a high voltage can be developed across the CT terminals. .

com Powell Technical Brief PTB #73 . they are not required by the standard. Metal-enclosed power switchgear: A switchgear assembly completely enclosed on all sides and top with sheet metal (except for ventilating openings and inspection windows) containing primary power circuit switching or interrupting devices. Shutters are not required over bus connections when drawout breakers are used. Circuit breakers are always electrically operated. C37.20. The interrupting device is a low voltage power circuit breaker. Extensive barriering.20. Metal-Enclosed Low Voltage Power Circuit Breaker Switchgear. This definition appears in all three of the ANSI/IEEE standards covering the types of metal-enclosed power switchgear: C37. shutters over the primary circuit elements when the interrupter is withdrawn. low voltage switchgear cannot be considered metal-clad.com • info@powellelectric. Metal-clad switchgear requires that the main switching and interrupting device be drawout. fused or unfused. as defined in ANSI standards. This rating is commonly used on 2400 V ac circuits. Each circuit breaker is enclosed in a grounded metal compartment.Metal-Clad Switchgear or Metal-Enclosed Switchgear: Which Is It? April 23. and insulation-covered bus are all required. All rights reserved.powellelectric. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. . Access to the interior of the enclosure is provided by doors or removable covers. The maximum ratings in C37. such as between buses and cable connections.1 are 635 V for ac switchgear and up to 3200 V for dc switchgear. It may be either a circuit breaker (usual) or a load-break interrupter switch (unusual). Metal-Enclosed Interrupter Switchgear. and bare bus is standard.20.3. or both. Metal-enclosed low voltage power circuit breaker switchgear is obviously for use on low voltage systems.20. but is seldom used at lower voltages. is not required. Under the ANSI standards. Metal-Clad Switchgear and C37. Metal-clad is usually considered the top of the line of medium-voltage metal-enclosed switchgear. The assembly may include control and auxiliary devices. Let's look at some of the things that define each of these types.2 is 4. a definition is in order.20. either withdrawable or stationary. or both. It may be either manually or electrically operated. Before I confuse you further.2.76 kV. with buses and connections. Ratings are available up to 38 kV. The minimum rated voltage listed in C37. While some of these features may be available as options (Powell can provide all of them).R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. 1996 Would you be surprised if I said it might be both? Metal-clad switchgear is one of three common types of metal-enclosed switchgear.1. but other isolation.

Although electrical operators are available. Baldwin Bridger.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.Metal-Clad Switchgear or Metal-Enclosed Switchgear: Which Is It? (Page 2) Metal-enclosed interrupter switchgear covers the same voltage range as metal-clad. Bare bus is standards and required barriering is minimal. All rights reserved.com • info@powellelectric. the switches are usually manually operated. usually load-break. The main switching device is an interrupter switch. which may be stationary (usual) or drawout (unusual). but is of simpler construction.E. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.powellelectric.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #73 . . P. Overcurrent protection is usually provided by fuses.

but specifically limits high-voltage switchgear and controlgear enclosures to enclosure types with no degree of protection against harmful ingress of water (second characteristic numeral X).powellelectric. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. It refers to IEC 529.20.1996 The enclosures which are a part of metal-enclosed switchgear and motor control equipment furnished by Powell serve two major purposes. There are three major sources of enclosure information applicable to metal-enclosed switchgear and motor control: ANSI/IEEE. indoor and outdoor. including parts of the human body. First. However. It is often referred to as the "IP Code".20. while performing these two duties the enclosures also allow reasonable access to parts for operation and maintenance. and there is no voltage limitation. but applies only to equipment rated 2000 V maximum.Enclosures for Metal-Enclosed Switchgear and Motor Control July 12. but the following table shows a comparison of the closest types in each standard. there is no exact equivalence between the enclosure types in the various standards.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.20. C37. ANSI/IEEE C37 Series: C37. Each standard defines its various enclosure types and prescribes appropriate tests to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enclosure. It is the source of the definitions for the familiar NEMA 1. IEC 694: This standard covers high-voltage switchgear and controlgear. etc. NEMA.. enclosures. These standards recognize only two types of enclosure.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #74 . Unfortunately.com • info@powellelectric. and IEC standards. and must allow ventilation adequate to keep the equipment within its temperature limitations while operating. NEMA 3R. they protect users of this equipment from injury by preventing access to live parts by foreign objects. . and C37.2.3 are the basic standards for metal-enclosed switchgear. NEMA 4. they protect the working parts of the equipment from the effects of the environmental conditions in which the equipment is installed. IEC 529: This standard also lists numerous varieties of enclosures for electrical equipment. Outdoor equipment uses the suffix W.1. NEMA 250: This standard lists numerous varieties of enclosures for electrical equipment. All rights reserved. Second. because each enclosure type number is preceded by the letters "IP" (for International Protection).

All rights reserved. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. . Baldwin Bridger.com • info@powellelectric. P.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #74 .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.E. Powell offers arc resistant indoor enclosures for PowlVac® metal-clad switchgear and weather-proof Power Control Room (PCR®) enclosures for all types of equipment.powellelectric.Enclosures for Metal-Enclosed Switchgear and Motor Control (Page 2) ANSI/IEEE C37 Series Indoor Outdoor NEMA 250 NEMA 1 NEMA 3R IEC 529 IP20 IP24 IEC 694 IP2X IP2XW In addition to the standard indoor and outdoor enclosures.

E. All rights reserved. 1996 From time to time questions arise about bus overlap dimensions and the number of bolts required in a bus joint. the bolt torque must be rather high.powellelectric.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #75 . the buswork and its joints are satisfactory. we prefer to us 1/2" bolts. the current transfer from one bar to the other takes place at a number of locations where microscopic projections on the surface of the two bars are deformed by the pressure of the bolted joint. the bolted joint will be effective. and its presence leads to increased resistance and high temperature in the joint. Proper torques are given in PTB #53. The great majority of these points of deformation take place under the hardware. For most main buses in switchgear and motor control. When two bus bars are bolted together. that 1/2" bolts make a very satisfactory joint for bus rated up to 4000 A. Copper oxide is a semiconductor. If the temperature rise is less than the limits given by the relevant product standard. based on numerous temperature rise tests. P. Copper bus bars are normally plated with silver. To achieve high torques and large contact areas. As long as the overlap of the two bus bars is sufficient to cover this area.Overlap and Bolting of Bus Connections July 29. you define a surface area where effective bar-to-bar conduction takes place. and additional overlap area is of little importance. It is our experience. and then bolting the next section of bus to this same splice plate or riser bus. Baldwin Bridger. If you project a line outward a 45° from the edge of the flat washer through the thickness of the bus bar. it is preferable to use a few large bolts rather than many small ones. the factor which determines the adequacy of bus work is the temperature rise. . If the temperature goes too high. This is shown by the heavy line in Figure 1. or nickel at all joints in order to prevent the formation of copper oxide in the joint. the complete bus-to-bus splice will normally have four bolts. as shown by the dotted line in figure 1. Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Since most joints are made by bolting a bus bar to a splice plate or a riser bus.com • info@powellelectric. Bolted Bus Connection In order to create the pressure necessary to deform the microprojections on the bus bars. Figure 1. As pointed out in PTB #24. no amount of overlap or number of bolts makes the joint okay. tin.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.

If steel is not suitable. The first material we think of when talking about metal enclosures is steel — ordinary. The basic raw material is much more costly than either carbon steel or aluminum. every-day hotrolled carbon steel.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. raises the temperature of the enclosure. an all-aluminum bus duct enclosure is preferred. P. a third alternative is to make the bus duct enclosure of stainless steel. This effectively reduces the continuous current rating of the bus duct. it provides mechanical support for the conductors and their insulation system. The drawback to using stainless steel is its cost. The usual method of reducing these magnetic effects is to make at least one side of the bus duct enclosure of a non-magnetic material. At some very high ratings. often aluminum. steel has some drawbacks as an enclosure material. even with a good paint job on galvanized steel. Another drawback of steel is that. 1997 Bus ducts built by Powell are metal-enclosed. Powell will furnish bus duct with stainless steel enclosures. since the continuous current rating is determined by the temperature rise of both the conductors and the enclosure. And third. To a lesser degree. and the magnetic field surrounding the conductors induces circulating currents in the enclosure. The metal enclosure of the bus duct.E. if neither galvanized carbon steel nor aluminum is suitable for the environment. it is magnetic. making the entire bus duct run hotter.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #76 . If the circumstances require it. a stainless steel bus duct enclosure should not be specified unless there is a real need for the material. aluminum may also have environmental problems. . Powell’s usual practice is to make the top cover of bus ducts rated over 1200 A of aluminum. Technical Director Emerititus ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. but aluminum is. it protects personnel from the hazard of contact with energized electrical conductors. at an appropriate price adder.23. the entire bus duct enclosure may be made of aluminum. However. it may not stand up well in some harsh environments.com • info@powellelectric. These currents have a couple of ill effects. reducing its effectiveness in dissipating the heat generated in the bus bars.powellelectric. in turn. All rights reserved. which withstands bad environments well and is also non-magnetic. They represent energy losses as they flow through the resistance of the steel. Most importantly. like the metal enclosure of switchgear units. However. Baldwin Bridger. performs several functions. This. Second. it protects the conductors from mechanical damage and environmental distress. Powell routinely uses galvanized steel for all outdoor bus duct enclosures. First. and considerably greater effort is required to fabricate it. Because of this increased price.Bus Duct Enclosure Material February 19. in accordance with ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.

Boots.powellelectric. removed readily. The method was abandoned before 1960 for new equipment. Taping. 4. These generally do a good job on straight in-line joints. molded to fit the shape of the joint. The insulated bus.com • info@powellelectric. but there are probably many of these joints still in service in older switchgear. including the following: 1. the fault is usually kept from traveling the length of the bus because the insulation keeps the arc rooted in one place. is covered with insulating material. At voltages above 15 kV. and reused. including both factory-made and field-made joints. 1997 One of the defining features of metal-clad switchgear built according to ANSI/IEEE Standard C37. often taking several hours per joint. It is slow. . However. usually a foil wrapping. And. and it is still used in some cases.2 is that all power circuit buswork. and the materials used were neither flame retardant nor track resistant. However. 2. It was especially messy when a joint had to be opened and cleaned for some reason. 45 to 50 years ago. but other materials have been used. due to a break in the insulating system. and a good joint is highly dependant on the skill and care of the person doing the taping. allowing more compact switchgear. Over the years a number of methods of insulating joints have been used. Asphalt-filled plastic boxes. The great majority of these boots are molded of PVC.I. The insulation decreases the likelihood of accidentally starting a fault with a misplaced tool (or body part). The boots can be installed quickly and easily. it is very difficult to get these boots to pass the test for bus bar insulation required by the standard. many main bus joints were insulated by enclosing them in hard plastic boxes and pouring the box full of an asphaltic compound. This is probably the oldest method of insulating a joint. some joints are so complex that taping is about the only way to insulate them. finally.Insulation of Bus Joints February 20. This voltage is applied between the insulated conductor and an electrode. 3. If a fault does occur. however. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #77 . must pass a power-frequency voltage test for one minute at rated voltage. taking advantage of this smaller size equipment requires insulation of all joints. Heat and cold shrink materials. both in the main bus and at cable or bus duct terminations in the switchgear. Flexible boots.20. All rights reserved. including the joints. on the surface of the insulation. but can be difficult to use on joints with a more complex shape. the insulation allows reduced spacings between the bus bars for a given B. are the most common method of joint insulation in switchgear up to 15 kV. There are a number of heat shrink and cold shrink products available.L. This was a messy process. rating.

All rights reserved.E. For our PV System 38® switchgear. Poured joints. Please be sure to insulate the bus joints when you install your metal-clad switchgear. Baldwin Bridger.com • info@powellelectric. using removable molds and a clear urethane insulating material. Technical Director Emerititus ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. P. Powell has developed a system of poured joints. and provides for visual inspection of the bus joint. .powellelectric. This joint insulation method does meet the bus bar insulation test at 38 kV.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #77 .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.Insulation of Bus Joints (Page 2) 5.

All rights reserved. Granted in an air-conditioned substation the interval between maintenance can be extended but not indefinitely. Yes.com • info@powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. .tripping lockouts and see that the lockout would have energized the trip coil via the indicating light. Once the testing is complete the technician confirms that the lockouts are reset and the trip light is de-energized then transfer the Circuit Breaker Trip Defeat Switch back to the normal mode. The second position is the trip defeated mode. This scheme allows a much more comprehensive check of the protection system than we have done in the past. The dropping resistor is sized to make the circuit draw the same amount of current as the trip coil. As the failure rate of relays goes down. the equipment owner would prefer to functionally check the protective relay scheme and setpoint yearly. The Circuit Breaker Trip Defeat Switch requires a two position control switch (95 device). If we can help with this or any other topic please don't hesitate to call. 1997 (corrected) The Circuit Breaker Trip Defeat Switch allows the owner to take the functional testing of the protective relay scheme and extend it all the way to the trip coil without opening the circuit breaker.powellelectric. we have tested the protective logic all the way to the trip coil but the breaker has just gone another year without functioning and the grease without exercise hardens over time. This action combined with a healthy coil monitor device or a healthy coil light tests the circuit to the final element without opening the circuit breaker. With the increased reliability of relaying and the pressure for extending the maintenance intervals: more equipment owners are asking for the capability to do final element functional testing on the circuit breakers feeding loads that they can not afford to de-energize on a regular basis. Due to the critical nature of defeating the trip coil a separate contact should be wired to the substation annunciator and to an amber light mounted in the front of the breaker panel to indicate when the breaker is in the trip defeated mode.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #78 . ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. but don’t forget the circuit breaker. In the trip defeated position the circuit breakers trip coil is cut out of the circuit and replaced with an indicating light and a dropping resistor. Thus confirming that the relays output contacts will indeed pick-up the lockout relays and that the lockout contacts will energize the trip coil of the circuit breaker.Circuit Breaker Trip Defeat Switch October 1. and then pull the relays for a full calibration check every second or third year. In this position the trip coil is in the circuit. With the switch in the trip defeated position the technician can function the relays -. Position one is the normal trip mode (see sketch). Now for my note as a circuit breaker manufacturer.

com • info@powellelectric.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #78 .Circuit Breaker Trip Defeat Switch (Page 2) Jim Bowen Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. All rights reserved.powellelectric.

.com • info@powellelectric. when does it occur and how do we protect against it. This configuration results in the magnetizing reactance of the VT being in a parallel loop with the coupling capacitance to ground of the system (see Figure 1).R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Figure 1 The coupling capacitance is primarily made up of the capacitance of the system dielectric between the phase conductor and ground. Ferroresonance can occur when the primary of a voltage transformer is connected line to ground in a ungrounded circuit. This graph from the IEEE Red Book shows the impact of load on the magnitude of the current in the ringing circuit (see Figure 2). ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #79 . This results in an LC circuit and requires only a simple voltage transient to excite the resonant frequency. The value of the voltage transformers magnetizing reactance varies as a function of the amount of flux going through the iron. 1997 (corrected) In the last couple of months we have received several different questions as to what is ferroresonance in a VT circuit. All rights reserved. Once the ringing begins the voltage across the individual components of magnetizing reactance and coupling capacitance can reach high levels and the ringing can go undamped if the voltage transformer is lightly loaded.Ferroresonance in Voltage Transformer (VT) Circuits October 1. The loading of the VT has a very important part to play in limiting the magnitude of current in the oscilation circuit since the resistance of the load will act as a current divider and send a portion of the current to ground.powellelectric.

the current can drive the magnetizing force to saturate the VT. the secondary side of the VT circuit can be artificially loaded.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. To keep the resonance magnitude down. All rights reserved.powellelectric. One is to install the VT’s with their secondary windings connected in a broken delta and with a resistor completing the broken delta circuit. . The watts of the resistor should equal 50% of the VA of a single VT. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. the reactance to ground will diminish and the current to ground through the primary of the VT will go high.Ferroresonance in Voltage Transformer (VT) Circuits (Page 2) Figure 2 During the oscillation.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #79 . When the VT is saturated. through the VT primary during the periods of saturation. The current surges. There are two common methods of loading used to minimize the effects of ferroresonance. can be much greater than full load rating but not approaching fault current levels. making it very difficult for the fuses on the primary of the VT to interrupt. Thus current surging may result in a blown VT fuse but often results in a shorted VT.com • info@powellelectric. As the polarity of the sinusoid changes the process repeats itself. At the end of the sinusoid the VT will drop out of saturation. but with a low loss system the stored charge remains relatively high across the system coupling capacitance.

Jim Bowen Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.Ferroresonance in Voltage Transformer (VT) Circuits (Page 3) The second and most popular method is to put a resistor across the secondary of each VT. All rights reserved.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. The rule of thumb from several old references is that the resistive loading should range between the VA required to excite the core at no load and 50% of the thermal rating of the VT. the manufacturer can recommend a precise value of resistance. Due to the varying frequency of the transient and the magnetizing reactance this is not a problem that occurs in every system or even every time a voltage transformer is connected to ground on an ungrounded system.com • info@powellelectric. . If we can be of help on this or any other topic please don't hesitate to call. If the resonant frequency of the LC circuit is excited the swamping resistor will dampen the ringing to prevent long term effects. For specific VT’s.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #79 .powellelectric.

. control switches. which accelerates the tarnishing and the growth of the semi conducting whiskers.01 defines a harsh environment as a concentration of 50 ppb (parts per billion) of H2S or 300 ppb of SO2 and SO3.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. in the circuit breaker. The unit does require some maintenance and the filters have to be changed approximately once a year. All rights reserved. 1997 Sulfur rich environments such as those found in paper and refinery processes have a special problem with the silver plating in Switchgear and Motor Control Centers. The tarnish at the splices and sliding contacts result in a high resistance connection. To combat the effects of sulfur on switchgear there are a couple of steps that can be taken.Switchgear in a Sulfur Rich Environment October 27. The odor threshold is down around 8 ppb for the H2S. These include: Chemical Filtration One of the most effective ways of combating the whiskers is to filter the H2S. If the Switchgear and MCC’s are going into a separate Power Control Room the air conditioning can be fitted with activated carbon filters. SO2 and SO3 out of the air in the switchgear room. These individual filters are disposable and can do a good job of filtering whatever portion of the air that goes ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. The whiskers are semi conducting and the tarnish is highly resistive. Your nose can give you some idea whether sulfur is present. and test switches. ISA Standard 70. . this is not good. The silver is found on the bus. such as the bus stabs. which produces more heat. How does the sulfur get in? The sulfur from the process combines with air to form Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) with some Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) and Sulfur Trioxide ( SO3) by-products. This death spiral continues on until you clean the surfaces or the whiskers get long enough to reach a ground plane. In and around process units with sulfur present it is very common to open up the switchgear and see fine black hairs commonly referred to as whiskers growing from any and every silver plated surface. But the best way to detect sulfur is by surveying the existing gear for the problems described above and in the case of grass roots facilities discussing with your environmental people the types of fugitive emissions expected from the new units.com • info@powellelectric. The next level of protection is to fit individual active carbon filters over all switchgear louvers. These whiskers and the black tarnish forming under them are silver sulfide. The silver sulfide tarnish grows in areas of the switchgear where the highest concentrations of sulfur is exposed to heat and since the hottest areas are bus joints and sliding contacts.powellelectric. auxiliary relays. Silver plating is used throughout switchgear because of the superior conductivity and longevity. These filters are housed in a separate box about the size of one of the air conditioning units and reduce the ISA harsh environment levels such as the 50 ppb of H2S to an H2S concentration of 3 ppb and SO2 and SO3 to 10 ppb. in protective relays.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #80 .be it a relay contact or a breaker stab.

Exposure Avoidance The other strategy commonly used is to minimize the amount of silver exposed to the sulfur by specifying tin plated bus in place of the silver and gold plated contacts or hermetically sealed relays where available. But there are difficulties with this strategy. And tin has a couple of problems such as galling and softness that make it less than ideal for sliding contact applications.powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #80 . . Jim Bowen Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.com • info@powellelectric. The whiskers are not only a threat to the power circuit they can be rather insidious in affecting the functionality of the protective scheme. See Powell Technical Brief # 41 "Plating of Contact Surfaces in Switchgear and Circuit Breakers". While the individual filters do have a significant impact on how often the switchgear has to be maintained it will not protect the equipment in the instrument compartment or cubicles where there is not a definite air entry. If we can help with this in any way please give us a call. who have experienced these problems first hand you know that this is more that just a shorter maintenance interval. It is well worth while to evaluate the cost of these different options on any job where H2S or SO2 and SO3 may be present. In the areas where we replaced the silver with either tin or gold we have eliminated the chance for the whiskers to grow. For those. so their overall effectiveness is limited.Switchgear in a Sulfur Rich Environment (Page 2) through the louvers. Conducting grease applied at any sliding contact points can help to seal out the sulfur and stiffer springs to improve the wipe can also assist in fighting the problem. test switches and protective relay contacts are not available with gold plated contacts. All rights reserved. many control switches.

I have gone through and looked at the more common systems and put together this technical brief to highlight some of the concerns involving the interposing relay. This appears to make the triac an undesirable combination with the standard contactor.5 seemed to be the most common although I did find one manufacturer who based his rating on a power factor of 1. The leakage current is a small quantity of current that trickles through the device even after turn off. Smart Motor Control When using many of the new smart motor control centers the control circuit is no longer interrupting the coil current directly. A commonly asked question is whether the interposing relay situated between the two systems is really needed or not. For the electromechanical output internal protection is usually provided for loads up to 1 amp after that you need to provide it separately. The output relay ends up with contact pitting and the contactor coil receives a steep fronted voltage spike which shortens the life of the insulation. In most cases the manufacturer has a kit available as an option. The triac outputs add an additional level of possible problem due to the triac’s leakage current during turn off and forward bias requirements. This is without the consideration of the wire impedance connecting the two systems. at this level the output rating should be derated by 50%. The spike can be limited by installing a snubber circuit across the output contacts. A power factor of 0. Digital Outputs Modules The electro-mechanical and the solid state (triac) output modules are commonly available for either PLC’s or DCS’s. the application engineer should realize that the turn off of the standard starter results in an inductive kick that sends a significant voltage spike though the system. 1997 As we automate the process systems more and more we are looking for direct control of the motor starters with PLC’s and Distributive Control Systems (DCS). In addition to confirming the make and break capability.0. This few milli amps will be in parallel with the distributed wire capacitance of the wire between the control system and the MCC to make the turn off a significant problem. Two amps seems to be the most popular for the electro-mechanical value and ¼ amp for the solid state output. The thing I had difficulty finding was the expected power factor of the load. The expected power factor obviously changes from one manufacturer to the next for both PLC and DCS.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #81 . if it is wired properly! So the concerns relative to interrupting a large inductive load ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.com • info@powellelectric.1 microfrad capacitor and a 100 ohm resister series together.1. All rights reserved.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. . The normal contactor coil has a power factor of 0.powellelectric. Both of these digital output modules are listed in the vendor literature as having a 120 Vac rating of such and such current. For solid state outputs the snubber is a 0.Direct Control of Motor Contactors via PLC's and Distributive Control Systems October 28. The cap should have about a 400 Vdc rating for a 120 volt control system. The forward bias means that the triac must maintain some minimum current flow to keep the device in the on state.

you may have to add a swamping resistor in parallel with the MCC input to make sure the circuit draws sufficient current to keep the triac forward biased. with a stop station in the field next to the load. A separate concern about doing away with the interposing relay you may want to discuss with the end user is the safety aspects of bringing 120 volt control power from the MCC starter drawers into the PLC or DCS. If we can help with this or any other topic please do not hesitate to call. In some cases this can have a tremendous impact on the cost of doing work.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #81 .com • info@powellelectric. Based on the legwork I have done the interposing relay still makes good sense until the confidence in the twisted pair communication allows us direct communication between the smart MCC and the PLC or DCS.Direct Control of Motor Contactors via PLC's and Distributive Control Systems (Page 2) are eliminated. All rights reserved.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. but since the coil is not operated directly. The electro-mechanical relay output is less likely to have problems getting the two systems to match-up. At 50 volts and below OSHA Standard 1910 and NFPA 70E’s Electrical Safe Work Practices & Working Space Requirements need not apply. But by bringing the 110 Vac into the control system the rules identified in OSHA 1910 are applicable. Jim Bowen Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. . The way most plant treat the insides of their PLC and DCS is as though there is no voltage level greater that 50 volts to ground. The reliability of the triac output module will allow it to do more operations successfully than the electromechanical. In addition.powellelectric. the high relay input impedance of the smart MCC and the distributed wire capacitance may begin to play a part in the functionality of the stop circuit. The longer the length of the control circuit the higher the leakage current and the more likely resistance may need to be added to assure that the circuit will recognize a stop command.

The boot fit should barely cover the ©1998 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. it is important that phase spacing be maintained between the conductors throughout the lineup. The conductor connected to the lug on top of the arrester is at line potential and must maintain the same phase spacing as the bus phase conductors (see PTB #59 for distances).com • info@powellelectric. thus resulting in a line to ground fault. Ambient temperature –The Metal Oxide Varistors are rated for a -40°C to 40°C ambient with a temporary maximum air temperature of 60°C. Skirt to skirt distances – The surge arrester is made up of two dielectric materials in parallel. The outer surface is typically a polymer insulating material that creates a voltage gradient along the length of the arrester. 1998 Surge arresters are commonly used in switchgear today to clamp transient voltages at levels below the allowable BIL of the equipment being fed and the switchgear feeding it. The second part is the inner portion of the arrester. The metal oxide arresters offer smooth turn-on and turn-off at lower surge current levels than the older valve type silicon-carbide technology. The voltage drop of the lead wire connecting the arrester to the equipment being protected and the arrester to the ground plane adversely effects the discharge voltage of the surge arrester. the MOV disk. for every foot of lead length between the phase conductor and the ground bus. thermal runaway occurs and the arrester turns on at the system operating voltage and will not turn off. The decreased discharge voltage becomes more important in systems above 15 kV where BIL coordination margin is reduced below the 20% protection margin recommended by ANSI. All rights reserved. If the switchgear spacing is based on insulated phase distances.Physical Installations of Surge Arresters April 16. If the temperature exceeds the thermal capability of the arrester.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. the lug connection on top of the arrester must be booted. As the temperature of the device increases -. A skirt to skirt spacing of 1 inch/30 kV of BIL is recommended. Metal Oxide Varistors (MOV) are commonly used in switchgear and medium voltage motor control centers (MV MCC).the leakage current continues to climb.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #82 . To install MOV surge arresters in switchgear and MV MCC there are several physical aspects to be considered to assure reliable operation. The most significant of these are ambient temperature. The wave continues to travel down the system past the surge arrester near the speed of light at the original surge voltage until the arrester turns on to clamp the voltage at the arrester discharge voltage. and the spacing between the arrester in two separate phases. The increase in leakage current causes the surge arrester temperature to exceed the temperature rating of the MOV.6 kV/ft.In additional to skirt to skirt spacing. Cable connection tail length – It is critical that the length of the leads connecting the surge arrester to the protected equipment and the arrester to the ground bus must be minimized. . The arrester plays a special part for motors and generators in extending the equipment life under certain system configurations.powellelectric. To prevent conduction across the surface (tracking). the lead length of the conductor connecting the arrester to the equipment being protected. The internal resistance of the surge arrester begins to drop off and the device turn-on voltage is lowered. This surface distance is commonly referred to as the creepage distance. A rule of thumb is that the arrester discharge voltage is decreased by 1. an insulator at nominal voltage and a conductor at higher voltages. Conductor to conductor distances -. adequate phase to phase and phase to ground spacing must be maintained.

All rights reserved.powellelectric.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #82 . .Physical Installations of Surge Arresters (Page 2) first skirt ring. and should form a continuous path from the conductor to the first ring of the arrester. Jim Bowen Technical Director ©1998 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. These physical considerations play an important part in assuring that the arresters are able to function properly.com • info@powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. the boot may not make contact with more than the first skirt. To keep from "shorting out" the creepage distance.

. Tasks often require an electrical technician to open the shutters on an energized cell. All rights reserved. The technician was going down the line up cleaning all the breaker stabs when he mistakenly went into the cubicle with the load side stabs energized and was killed when he came in contact with the stabs. Our existing shutter mechanisms have a set of holes to allow the shutters to be padlocked in the closed position. He had performed the proper isolation and lock out procedure. This extension design allows the shutter to be the primary point of Lock and Tag out. A simple lock and tag on that particular set of shutters would have prevented the technician’s mistake. But we have had another case here in the Gulf Coast region just recently of a individual getting electrocuted on an energized stab while doing preventative maintenance. Three of these topics that were discussed at the last PCIC Safety Workshop were: Shutter labels: The simplest enhancements to add to a switchgear line-up are shutter labels.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #83 .powellelectric. The shutter label indicates to the technician performing testing or grounding on a vertical section the destination of the top and bottom stabs. Whether the shutters need to be opened to megger a motor feeder or to insert a ground and test device it is important that the technician be given visual confirmation of which set of stabs are energized. he had left a load side CPT energized via a down stream emergency generator to provide station service power for the shut down. The shutter is the moveable guard that drops in front of the breaker stabs as the breaker is racked to the disconnected position. "Line Side" "Bus Side A" or "Bus Side B". This PTB will begin a series highlighting some of these features so that others might benefit from the collective experience. Shutter locks: The shutter mechanism is the last level of protection between the stabs and a person doing work in the cell. But. Yes.com • info@powellelectric. As planned. the safe-work practice requires that the stabs be checked for voltage prior to hooking up the test equipment. this simple label offers a valuable confirmation to the technician in the field that has proven to be effective.Additional Safety Features August 3. We also have an optional design that brings a bar from the shutter mechanism to the very front of the cell. the group required access to the cubicle so they had to be able to leave the cubicle door unlocked. Because of other work going on. 1998 There are several optional features that our clients specify to enhance the overall safety of the switchgear for the individual electrical technician. The labels are decals mounted on the shutters in front of the circuit breaker stabs. The lead technician was performing preventative maintenance on a secondary selective system.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Once again this is something that is covered by the plant’s safe-work practices. Every safe-work practice says assume everything is energized before you touch a conductor. The labels identify whether the stabs are "Load Side". There is a pair of 3/8" holes through the moving and fixed portion of the shutter mechanism that permit the locking of the shutter. By padlocking the shutter closed you protect technicians from mistakenly opening a shutter on an energized set of stabs. This locking mechanism also proves to be useful with ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.

Locking out the cell is replacing locking out the circuit breaker due to the increased safety. A cell lock allows full access to the breaker out of the cell on the floor for maintenance purposes while people continue to work under their lock-out and tag-out on downstream loads. shutter locks. The shutter lock is also a very effective point for locking out the breaker and cell.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #83 .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.Additional Safety Features (Page 2) any main-tie-main system. The shutter lock is the best system available for protecting people when the switchgear has a tie cubicle and half of the system is out of service for maintenance.com • info@powellelectric. Cell locks: The most discussed topic when drafting a site Lock-out and Tag-out Procedure is where to place the locks on metal-clad switchgear. . The cell lock absolutely prevents any breaker from being racked onto the stabs. All rights reserved. Jim Bowen Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Locking out the cell assures that a spare breaker cannot be racked in and mistakenly energize downstream loads. Every site has different skill levels and site procedures that determine when and if these features should be incorporated into the site safety program. and cell locks can play an important part in how the switchgear is operated.powellelectric. In all cases the shutter labels.

To accomplish this. This can be the pullapart fuse block. The capacitor trip units are also available in a battery-assisted model.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #84 . This model protects against losing power for time period up to 2 days by having a small gel cell battery support the voltage. 1998 A capacitor trip unit is a prepackaged module that supplies power for tripping an AC controlled circuit breaker with discrete relays following the loss of the AC control voltage. The load is typically either a lockout relay or a circuit breaker trip coil. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Obviously for you to disconnect the AC you need a disconnecting means for the AC. Due to the long charge retention time these unit are usually supplied with a toggle switch to disconnect the unit and discharge the capacitor to allow trip circuit maintenance. the circuit breaker panel or a local knife switch depending on how the circuit is set up.com • info@powellelectric.this circuit requires three of the cap trip units. There are no set points to the cap trip unit and most of the designs do not permit monitoring relays to warn that the capacitor is still working. the stored 30 watt-seconds of energy dissipates very quickly. disconnect the AC control power and operate the circuit breaker via the cap trip unit. One capacitor trip unit should be provided per coil load. The most effective way of discharging the capacitor is to utilize the unit energy to open the circuit breaker. therefore it is important that the user have a written procedure for discharging the unit and jumping out the capacitor prior to working on the control circuit to prevent an electric shock hazard.powellelectric. . The battery assisted units have a disconnect switch wired into the front of the unit. All rights reserved. It can hold a charge for a surprisingly long period of time. as they would drain the energy stored in the capacitor when the source voltage is lost. The standard product holds sufficient charge to trip the breaker for 12 seconds after loss of AC voltage.Capacitor Trip Unit November 17. In so doing not only do you partially discharge the capacitor but you also get a functional test as a bonus. In case of loss of AC the blocking diode prevents the capacitor from discharging due to upstream loads. Once the load is connected. For example if you have two lockout relays and a trip coil -. in installations of only one or two circuit breakers. The capacitor unit has a blocking diode to maintain the storage capacitor charged at the peak AC voltage. Discharge the additional stored energy by installing a jumper with a resister in series. The unit can not support indication lights. sometimes it is difficult to justify the higher cost of the battery system. healthy monitoring relays or any other such load continuous loads. The capacitor may still have some residual charge and needs to be discharged prior to touching any conductor in the trip circuit. DC control utilizing a charger and battery bank is the more reliable method of supplying tripping power but.

I do not recommend a maintained switch.powellelectric. Jim Bowen Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. In closing remember there is a limited life to the battery assisted capacitor trip units.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #84 .com • info@powellelectric. With either type of device it is critical that you include this device into the site maintenance plan. All rights reserved.Capacitor Trip Unit (Page 2) If site safety requirements make it difficult for you to install the jumper on a circuit that may be in excess of 50 volts to ground you may decide to have a push button installed to discharge the remaining capacitor charge. as there is too great of a chance of energizing the circuit with the capacitor trip circuit shorted. .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.

Bus Mounted Current Transformers Occasionally the client’s current transformer requirements exceed the physical mounting capacity of the circuit breaker spouts. The success of the BIL testing in the area around the circuit breaker feed through bushings relies on the following combination of insulation: • • • • The solid dielectric of the circuit breaker’s feed through bushings The air gap between the conductor and spout The air gap between the spout and the case of the current transformer The 600 volt class insulation of the current transformer This series combination of various insulating mediums provides an insulating system that goes through the dielectric testing along with the entire switchgear system.com • info@powellelectric.2. For many years manufacturers have installed 600-volt class current transformers in medium voltage switchgear. The preferred location for the current transformers is the circuit breaker spouts.The Application of 600 Volt Class Current Transformers in Medium Voltage Switchgear August 10. A typical configuration of the switchgear with the smallest air gaps is then subjected to the series of Basic Impulse Levels Tests required by ANSI. In these cases it becomes necessary to add additional window type current transformers. it is proven that the system dielectric strength exceeds the nominal BIL rating for the voltage class. Powell went through the process of testing the 1-inch air gap rule of thumb with various bus insulation systems that we use in the manufacture of the switchgear.20. The table below indicates what configurations were acceptable when tested for 95kV BIL. We have established an internal matrix that applies to the various insulating systems.powellelectric. To maintain the BIL of the equipment an industry rule of thumb for both factory and field installations requiring bus mounted window type current transformers is to allow a 1 inch air gap between the insulated bus and the current transformer housing.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #85 . During the power frequency test (high potential) and the impulse test required in ANSI C37. To certify the dielectric capability of the equipment the switchgear type tests are performed with the maximum number of current transformers mounted on the circuit breakers cell’s feed through bushings. . These additional current transformers are mounted in the cable compartment around the run-back bus.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. 1999 ANSI Medium Voltage Switchgear commonly uses 600-Volt Class window type current transformers in medium voltage circuits. Since these are non-standard components. they do not get included in the switchgear BIL testing. the associated standard current transformer and a special "increased dielectric" current transformer. All rights reserved.

The Application of 600 Volt Class Current Transformers in Medium Voltage Switchgear (Page 2) Table of BIL Tests on 6.com • info@powellelectric. All rights reserved.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #85 .powellelectric.5 Inch Bus Mounted Window Type Current Transformer Number of Bus Insulation Standard Current Increased Dielectric Bars per Phase Material Transformer Current Transformer and Size (inches) Hipoxy-2000® (1) 1/2 x 3 (1) 1/4 x 4 (1) 3/4 x 4 (2) 1/2 x 3 (2) 1/2 x 4 (2) 3/4 x 4 GE-Noryl (1) 1/4 x 4 (2) 3/4 x 4 Scotch BBI-4A Passed Failed @ 82kV Failed @ 78kV Failed @ 94kV Failed @ 74kV Failed @ 72kV No Test No Test Passed Passed Passed Passed Passed Passed Passed Failed @ 94kV (3) 3/4 x 4 No Test Passed (sandwiched) Note: Standard current transformers would be suitable for all switchgear designs requiring 60kV. . Jim Bowen Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.

Surge Arresters and Potential Transformers August 11.92 10.Altitude De-rating of Fuses.330 3. the fuse has to be de-rated in accordance with the published chart. which depend on air as an insulating medium.92 0.00 0. Distribution Enclosed Single Pole Switches.301 to 5.00 0.98 0. Rated Dielectric Ambient Altitude in Feet Continuous Strength Temperature Current 0 to 3. but not both. The IEEE Standard for Metal Clad Switchgear (C37. This approach may result in higher current chopping and associated voltage transients. Fuse De-rating The IEEE Standard for Conditions and Definitions for High Voltage Fuses.001 to 16.80 1. However as the altitude at which we apply our electrical equipment increases. which requires a de-rating of the continuous current.3) offers de-rating factors for high voltage fuses.848 When the dielectric strength of the fuse is de-rated. (see Table) The thinner air also results in lower thermal conductivity. and voltage transformers.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #86 .000 0.99 0. 1999 As a dielectric — dry air works satisfactorily. the effectiveness of the dielectric property decreases.000 5.96 1. the application engineer is often required to choose a fuse of higher voltage class. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. This de-rating would be applicable for non-sealed fuses like expulsion fuses and current limiting fuses. Care must also be taken to confirm that the outer creepage distance is acceptable within the de-rated values. .com • info@powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Note that hermetically sealed fuses are both expensive and may have a long delivery time. surge arresters.000 1.95 0. In the past we have discussed the altitude de-rating factors for switchgear (see Powell Technical Brief #25).65 0. will have a lower dielectric withstand capability when operating in altitudes above 3300 feet. Since the dielectric strength of air is reduced as the altitude is increased. and Accessories (C37. This Powell Technical Brief will explain how altitude de-rating effects the installation of medium voltage fuses.001 to 10. All rights reserved. Fuse Disconnecting Switches.powellelectric.2) explains that switchgear assemblies. An increased altitude also decreases the continuous current carrying capability of electrical equipment due to the reduced thermal conductivity of the lower density air.20. To compensate for the reduced thermal conductivity the standard allows for a reduction in either the maximum ambient temperature or the continuous current rating. which does not require de-rating of the internal operating mechanism.40 section 2. The de-rating is a function of the ability of the fuse to clear a fault and achieve a dielectric across the fuse element gap faster than the system voltage across the fuse can be established.00 0. where the outside air is the insulating means used to isolate the line and faulted load. An alternate solution is the hermetically sealed fuse.

so the surge arrester does not require de-rating for the internals to operate properly. The metal oxide surge arresters are sealed and outside air does not play a part in the isolating process. All rights reserved. it may be necessary to have special arresters manufactured with a standard duty cycle arrester in a housing with higher creep levels. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. A special caution when applying de-rated higher voltage current limiting fuses. To maintain the desired discharge level of the arrester and the required creep distance. air also plays a part in the external surface creepage distance of the housing. Distribution class arresters have a high enough conducting impedance that this is not a problem. The transients that result from applying a higher voltage class fuse due to altitude de-rating can often result in the surge arrester conducting during a fuse interruption. Each fuse has a characteristic current chop that results in a maximum allowable voltage transient of three times the rated fuse voltage. Powell Technical Brief # 59 describes the acceptable surface creepage distance for various impulse levels given insulated conductors. The insulated conductor distances can only be used if an insulating boot properly covers the ferrule at the top of the arrester.powellelectric.Altitude De-rating of Fuses. This should be avoided for line side station class and intermediate class arresters as the conducting impedance of this arrester is low enough that conducting during a fault will cause serious damage. However. Surge Arresters and Potential Transformers (Page 2) Surge Arrester De-rating There are two types of surge arresters in common use today -. The outer surface has a certain creepage distance that prevents the surge arrester housing from tracking across the surface of the arrester. must be de-rated as a function of altitude just as fuses.com • info@powellelectric.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #86 .the expulsion-type arrester and the metal oxide arrester. The expulsion-type arresters have an internal system that depends on ambient air as a dielectric and. Care must be exercised when applying the altitude de-rating factor. . as such.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.

section 4. The transformer would have an insulation class of 8. This de-rating requires use of a higher voltage class transformer with the appropriate primary voltage and the ratio to maintain the desired secondary voltage. ANSI C57. identifies the derating factors.Altitude De-rating of Fuses.com • info@powellelectric. Jim Bowen Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. For example: Given a line-up of switchgear operating at 4.13. When the 80% de-rating factor is applied due to the altitude. All rights reserved. This Powell Technical Brief should clarify some of the concerns expressed by customers on recently shipped substations installed at higher altitudes. Surge Arresters and Potential Transformers (Page 3) Voltage Transformer De-rating When voltage transformers are applied at higher altitudes.3. this VT has a BIL of 60kV.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. the appropriate choice is a voltage transformer with a primary voltage of 4200 Volts and a secondary of 120 Volts. If I can be of further assistance please do not hesitate to call.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #86 .000 feet. .16kV at an altitude of 10.7kV with a BIL at sea level of 75kV.powellelectric.

com • info@powellelectric. During normal operation more than one ground on a CT circuit is not an obvious problem other than the difficulties it may cause during testing. is one of the more popular nuisance trips. Utilizing a single ground eliminates the risk of redundant ground loops and associated problems.Current Transformer Grounding May 12. but may require a maintenance crew to spend days in testing to determine that no real problem exists in the differential zone. This ground loop typically creates a potential across the operating coil of the differential relay causing the relay to pick up as though a fault exists in the relay's protective zone. Tripping a differential relay due to a fault external to the zone of protection. To assure the safe and reliable operation.3 serves as the ANSI guide to standardize instrument transformer grounding practices. These nuisance trips may not only shut down the load. The result is a significant current flow through the CT circuit that is not representative of the primary current. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. 2000 With the new PowlVac-AT Model ATSB outdoor substation circuit breakers recently introduced by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. the actual problem may go uncovered until the system is reenergized into the original fault. the neutral of the current transformer secondary should have a single ground location for each circuit. This Powell Technical Brief investigates the preferred ground location of typical CT circuits such as transformer and bus differential relays. several questions should be addressed regarding the ground point for the Current Transformer (CT) circuits.13. Figure 1 To demonstrate what happens with a second ground on the current transformer circuit. However during a fault condition. The grounding of current transformers is important to both safety and the proper operation of the protective relays. The single ground is irrespective of the number of current transformers or the chosen grounding location.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #87 .powellelectric. The recommended method of grounding is to install a single ground point at the “first point of application (switchboard or relay panel) of the current transformer secondary circuit. . IEEE standard C57. All rights reserved. Further. multiple grounds allow a different ground potential rise for each current transformer. Figure 1 shows a typical differential relay with two current transformers.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.

com Powell Technical Brief PTB #87 . . insufficient voltage develops across the operating relay to pick up the coil. All rights reserved.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.com • info@powellelectric. Figure 3 Note: For a fault. external to the protective zone. The CTs are grounded at the place where the metering or relaying is located (see Figure 2). If the protective relay is mounted in the breaker the wye connection is grounded at the circuit breaker. The result is a voltage of very small magnitude across the ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.Current Transformer Grounding (Page 2) Figure 2 A substation circuit breaker should have the wye or delta connections made-up at the CT terminal blocks in the equipment.powellelectric. this allows the current flowing through the current transformer on the line side of the protected zone and the current flowing through the load side current transformers to develop a voltage of opposite polarities. For an external fault (see Figure 3). The same applies for current transformers in the transformer tank. If the protective relays are mounted in a separate building. then the wye connection is in the breaker but is grounded at the relay house.

com Powell Technical Brief PTB #87 . to make certain the relay has but one ground potential. there are significant considerations in the proper grounding of current transformer circuits.powellelectric. then the protective relay will experience sufficient voltage across the operating coil to cause the relay to nuisance trip even though the fault was outside the fault zone. As you can see. the voltage developed by the current transformers is of the same polarity. Schweitzer.com • info@powellelectric. . sufficient voltage develops across the operating relay coil to pick up the coil. The magnitude of voltage drop across the operating coil is sufficient to operate the relay (see Figure 4). The most desirable way to do this is to bus the wye points together at the relay panel and have a single conductor to ground. and Basler) are designed to connect all current transformers coming into the relay in a wye connection. The relay coil does will not operate without sufficient applied voltage. Figure 4 Note: With a fault in the protective zone.Current Transformer Grounding (Page 3) operating coil of the relay. In the final example (Figure 5) there is a second ground is on a current transformer mounted near where a ground fault occurs. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. GE/Multilin. All rights reserved.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Just as with any other event there is an exception to this standard. In the case of a fault internal to the protective zone. Many of the new multifunction relays (ABB. If the fault creates a ground potential rise of 100 volts. Each wye has to be grounded.

R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.Current Transformer Grounding (Page 4) Figure 5 Note: With a second ground at a remote location.powellelectric. the voltage across the operating coil is sufficient to result in a miss-operation for an external fault and cause a nuisance trip situation. Jim Bowen Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #87 . All rights reserved. .com • info@powellelectric.

1 identifies several of definitions necessary to understand the equipment’s voltage ratings and the system’s operating ranges. The chart shows two different ranges of voltage.g. The Range A portion of the chart illustrates the range over which voltage systems are designed to operate under normal conditions. a motor control center will carry a nameplate listing the nominal system voltage. For example. 230V. The equipment nameplates vary in which voltage is used as “Rated Voltage”. Switchgear is often operated at close to maximum voltage. so the same design may have a utilization voltage approaching either the maximum service voltage or the system voltage. and 600V. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. e. The attached chart identifies the allowable voltage ranges in per unit values with a base voltage of 120V per unit.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #88 . and 575V. • Service Voltage – The voltage at the utility. boundary.1 for electrical systems from 100 volts through 230kV. e. since transformers are tapped to maintain the utilization voltage high in order to increase motor torque in the field. 480V.20.1 that operator intervention will compensate for extended operation at voltages outside Range A boundaries. The Range B portion of the chart is the allowable level of overshoot and droop that will happen while trying to regulate the system to the Range A values. or source of supply. where they come from and how they are related to the utilization voltage. 240V. Why the differences? The differences in the Standards are set to match up to the way the equipment fits into a system design. • Utilization Voltage – The voltage at the terminals of the equipment. For insulated case circuit breakers and molded case circuit breakers NEMA ICS-1 allows either the utilization voltage or the nominal system voltage to appear on the nameplate. • Maximum System Voltage – The highest voltage at which the system will operate under normal conditions.Standard Voltage Ranges and Ratings May 8. while the close-connected switchgear carries a nameplate listing maximum system voltage. All rights reserved. and the motor is rated based on the utilization voltage as required in NEMA Standard MG1. For low voltage power circuit breakers and the metal-clad switchgear the voltage rating is the maximum system voltage as required by ANSI C37. The question is often asked. It is the intent of ANSI C84. These definitions include: • System Voltage – The voltage bounded by the step-up and step-down transformer voltage. . It is the greatest voltage for which the equipment is designed to operate continuously without de-rating of other values such as short circuit rating. 2001 Standard equipment voltage ratings and the associated tolerance limits are established by ANSI Standard C84. Range B also defines the range of voltage variation within which equipment must be designed to operate satisfactorily.g.12 and C37. The motor control center can be close coupled to the switchgear or remotely located. “How do established equipment ratings relate to utilization voltage?” This Powell Technical Brief explains equipment voltage ratings. C84.2. The voltage variation of a distribution system as a function of the actual load and the impedance between the source point and the point of voltage measurement are well understood.com • info@powellelectric. 460V.

The motor control center will list the system voltage of 480V.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. All rights reserved. The motors connected to the motor control center will list the utilization voltage of 460V.Standard Voltage Ranges and Ratings (Page 2) An example of how the chart works: For a 480V system the maximum voltage will be proportional to the new systems nominal system voltage by the ratio of the maximum per unit voltage (127 per unit) to the nominal voltage (120 per unit).powellelectric. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Therefore.com • info@powellelectric. . X 127 per unit Maximum Voltage Rating = = 480 120 per unit Maximum Voltage Rating for 480V is 508V. the 508V will appear on the nameplate of the low voltage power circuit breaker as the maximum voltage.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #88 .

This difference is greater for services greater than that of 600Vac which allows for a transformer voltage drop between service voltage and utilization equipment.Standard Voltage Ranges and Ratings (Page 3) The difference between minimum service and minimum utilization voltages is the intended voltage drop within the wiring system.com • info@powellelectric. The Range B utilization voltage limits for 6900Vac and 13800Vac are 90% and 110% of the voltage rating of the standard motor and thus vary slightly from the chart.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. All rights reserved. Please do not hesitate to contact me if I can be of further help. I hope this helps to clarify the different voltage ratings. .com Powell Technical Brief PTB #88 . Jim Bowen Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.powellelectric.

2001 The ANSI Standard for Medium Voltage Circuit Breaker Test Procedures. having a constant interrupting rating irrespective of nominal system voltage.The New Medium Voltage Circuit Breaker Interrupting Ratings Based on K Factors of 1 July 31.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. In the past the interrupting rating changed as a function of the voltage at which the breaker was applied. This practice ended with the 1999 change. In 1968 the standards established varying k factors to adjust interrupting rating as a function of the voltage. .com Powell Technical Brief PTB #89 . The k factor reflects the performance of the oil and air interrupting technologies available at that time. a newly certified 36kA breaker with a k factor of 1 will retain the 36kA interrupting rating independent of the applied voltage. Using the 1999 standards. The k factor of 1 results in all medium voltage breakers. The standards evolved from the 1945 revision when breakers were rated based on interrupting MVA (see figure below). All rights reserved.5kA rating. tested to the 1999 version of C37. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. The new standards are an effort to recognize that modern vacuum and SF6 interrupting technologies more closely represent a constant current interrupting device. The changes in interrupting rating at the system voltage can be seen in the graphs below. IEEE C37. Using the 1968 standards. This standard defines the short circuit tests required to certify a medium voltage circuit breaker’s interrupting rating.76kV while the same breaker applied at 4.16kV had a 33kA interrupting rating and when applied at 3. the 250MVA breaker had a 29kA interrupting rating if applied at 4. independent of the nominal system voltage.85kV it had a 35.com • info@powellelectric. where circuit breaker k factors were all set at to a value of one.09 was revised in 1999.powellelectric.09.

com Powell Technical Brief PTB #89 . These new rating structures do not change the rating of circuit breakers certified prior to the 1999 revision. All rights reserved. They only impact breakers that are certified to the new testing standards.powellelectric. . The new 1. It is important that we do not make the mistake of trying to apply a short circuit rating that varies as a function of the voltage to circuit breakers certified to have a k factor of 1.0 k factor ratings will simplify breaker application and align with the long-standing IEC nomenclature.The New Medium Voltage Circuit Breaker Interrupting Ratings Based on K Factors of 1 (Page 2) Important Note: Circuit breaker short circuit interrupting rating is the symmetrical RMS current at the time power contacts part. ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.com • info@powellelectric.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.

com Powell Technical Brief PTB #89 .powellelectric. .com • info@powellelectric. All rights reserved.The New Medium Voltage Circuit Breaker Interrupting Ratings Based on K Factors of 1 (Page 3) Jim Bowen Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.

R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. the 1999 revision of ANSI Standard C37. An asymmetrical offset containing a dc component of as much as 160% of the symmetrical ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. The “%dc” is utilized to calculate the total interrupting current. In the past.04 and C37.04 replaced the “S factor” with the “%dc” as the method of evaluating the asymmetrical current offset.Asymmetrical Interrupting Current Rating of Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers September 15. The earlier revision of the circuit breaker standards utilized the “S factor” as a multiplying factor that defined the total current a breaker was rated to interrupt at contact part. The newest revision of C37. All rights reserved.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #90 . The asymmetrical current is an important component of the total fault current. . Today. The maximum fault current occurs during the first loop of sinusoidal current after the instant of fault initiation.09 changed several definitions relating to the rating structure of medium voltage circuit breakers. with more generation being installed. the momentary rating and the total current capability play a greater role in the sizing of equipment because local generation increases system x/r ratio. but also the circuit breaker total interrupting rating be greater than the system worst-case available fault condition.powellelectric. 2001 As discussed in the last Powell Technical Brief. It is critical that not only the symmetrical interrupting current.com • info@powellelectric. we have been able to pay very little attention to the possibility of a system x/r ratio higher than the nominal value of 17 and the resulting total current.

An illustration will help clarify the calculation. 3-cycle rated breaker with a published opening time of 25msec. The speed at which this dc component decays is a function of the system x/r ratio. To find the asymmetrical interrupting capability of a 36kA. The combination of the contact part time and the nominal x/r value. a contact part time of 33msec is used. .R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. The contact part time includes ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. results in the maximum value for % dc that the circuit breaker must interrupt.com • info@powellelectric. The following equation shows how this total current is computed. A high x/r ratio means a greater system inductance will dominate the fault current and slow the attenuation of the dc offset.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #90 .Asymmetrical Interrupting Current Rating of Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers (Page 2) current can be impressed on top of the symmetrical ac current in one or two of the three phase currents. All rights reserved. The nominal x/r of 17 coincides well with the typical 60 Hz industrial substation and utilities distribution systems. The “%dc” that circuit breakers are certified to interrupt. Utilizing the chart and this formula we can compute the total current. is based on the contact part time and a standard x/r decrement curve. (Refer to Figure 1 above). This dc component quickly decays and the fault current is greatly reduced in magnitude by the time the contacts part on the circuit breaker (see figure on structure of an asymmetrical current wave). The %dc is then used to compute the total interrupting current of the circuit breaker at the moment of contact part.powellelectric.

Since. this breaker is certified as a 3-cycle breaker it is certified to interrupt a total current of 44kA at time from 3 cycles to 2 seconds. . Using the 33msec contact part time of our sample.Asymmetrical Interrupting Current Rating of Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers (Page 3) ½ cycle of minimum relaying time added to the opening time of the breaker. The total interrupting current rating would be 40kA. In many generator bus cases the equipment may have to be oversized to handle the higher level of total current or the tripping of the breaker may have to be delayed a few cycles to allow the dc to decay to an acceptable level.R Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. whether it clears in 5-cycles or 2 seconds. Where does this all become significant? With more and more generation being installed we find that the system x/r ratio plays a much more significant part in applying equipment properly. Jim Bowen Technical Director ©1997 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #90 . All rights reserved. the total rms current is 44kA.powellelectric. the contact part time is 50 msec. we find the breaker is capable of interrupting the 36kA symmetrical current with a 50% dc component riding on top of the symmetrical current when these values are plugged into the formula above. Note that if a 5-cycle breaker was certified.com • info@powellelectric.

vapor barriers in bus duct. In addition to the problems with this semi-conduction film. The condensation occurs when warm moist still air comes in contact with a cold surface. 2003 Condensation or dew occurs when the temperature of still air falls to the point the air can no longer hold the water vapor suspended in it as a gas. Special care also must be used in cable compartments with outdoor ventilation. The reduction in impedance of the insulators allows an increase in leakage current and results in tracking. Several design considerations are relevant to minimizing this condensation possibility. a common approach is to maintain an elevated temperature relative to the ambient. The 10°C temperature increase assures air movement and. To control the condensate problem. and for outdoor switchgear.powellelectric. prevents the switchgear from approaching the dew point. Typically. When deposited on the surface of an insulator the semi-conductive film results in a “shorting out” of a portion of the creep path. When the outside panel of the equipment is exposed to colder air the chilled panels may cause the moisture to condense on the interior surfaces. Outdoor. This is not as great a problem as it once was due to improved insulating products and finishing techniques. . The cold surface chills the air to below the dew point and condensation is the result. The heating created by load currents will be adequate as long as there is a significant current flowing. a current flow of only 200 amps. When condensation occurs in switchgear there are very few surfaces where the result is not detrimental.Condensation in Switchgear and Anti-Condensation Heaters April 25. the moisture can also be absorbed by many types of insulators. But. Experience has found that raising the internal temperature by 10°C alleviates the problem. The resulting liquid that condenses combines with dust and other contaminates. A 500 amp load current flowing through a vertical section of 1200 amp rated equipment will result in an internal temperature rise of 11°C. condensation is only considered a problem if the internal relative humidity is 65% or greater. INC. ventilation should only be used when necessary to keep the temperature rise below the acceptable design limits. in most cases. Space heaters are used to raise the temperature in the enclosure by supplementing the heating naturally present in energized equipment. All rights reserved. The induced eddy current heating in the steel panels of the switchgear caused by the current flow and the resistive heating resulting from the impedance of the current path combine to create heat inside the enclosure. In all of these cases the internal temperature close to the sheet metal is greatly influenced by changes in external temperature. • • POWELL INDUSTRIES. ©2003 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. It is still considered a best practice to seal all raw edges of insulators with an antitrack sealer to minimize moisture absorption. • • To control the entrance of moist air.com • info@powellelectric. results in a temperature rise of less than 2°C and space heaters must be used to maintain dew point control.Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #91 . thermally non insulated equipment is most susceptible to condensation.

POWELL INDUSTRIES.com • info@powellelectric. What would happen if this air cooled to 10°C with no water vapor being added or taken away? As is cools to 10°C. and multiply by 100 to get a relative humidity of approximately 53%. the vapor actually in the air. which apply to air at sea level pressure. Cool the air to 20°C. Imagine that at 3:00 pm you measure the air temperature at 30°C and you measure its humidity at 9 grams per cubic meter of air. its humidity would begin condensing to form dew. That is. Now we divide 9 grams of water vapor. INC. if this particular air were cooled to 10°C at ground level. let’s use the chart below which is adapted from Meteorology Today by C. Back at 3:00 pm. the air becomes saturated. The air now has as much vapor as it can hold at its new temperature.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #91 . How about relative humidity? At 3:00 pm the air has 9 grams of water vapor per cubic meter of air. when the measurements were taken. it cannot hold any more water vapor than 9 grams per cubic meter. ©2003 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. we divide 9 by 9 and multiply by 100 to get a relative humidity of 100%. Relative humidity is a measure of the amount of water in the air compared with the amount of water the air could hold at the measurement temperature. let’s see how dew point and relative humidity work. All rights reserved. Donald Ahrens. are based on measurements over the years. Cool the air even a tiny bit more and its water vapor will begin condensing to form dew. To see how this works. when the air cools to 10°C. the amount of vapor it could hold at its new temperature. we could say that the air’s dew point was 10°C. What is “Dew Point and Relative Humidity?” “The warmer the air. the more water vapor it can hold”. published by West Publishing. Air Temperature in ºC 30 degrees 20 degrees 10 degrees Water Vapor Air Can Hold at This Temperature 30 grams per cubic meter of air 17 grams per cubic meter of air 9 grams per cubic meter of air These numbers. . The air actually has 30% of the water vapor it could hold at its current temperature. We divide 9 by 30 and multiply by 100 to get a relative humidity of 30%.powellelectric. They are basic physical facts. by 17. that is. Finally. Now.Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Dew point is a measure of how much water vapor is actually in the air.Condensation in Switchgear and Anti-Condensation Heaters (Page 2) For further reading I extracted the following information from the web to provide a better understanding of the definition of dew point and relative humidity.

We recommend the use of enclosures designed to minimize the chance of condensation falling or dripping onto current carrying parts.5°C for applications operating for extended periods in climates below 0°C. All rights reserved. include transducers to monitor each space heater circuit. INC. We recommend that clients specify an ammeter in each space heater circuit to monitor circuit health and. We recommend installation of one 125 watt space heater in each of the cable and circuit breaker compartments for indoor 5kV and 15kV switchgear.com • info@powellelectric.Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. • • • • • • • Jim Bowen Technical Director POWELL INDUSTRIES. We recommend thermostatic control to be included on all space heater circuits with the heaters set to turn off at 60°C +/.Condensation in Switchgear and Anti-Condensation Heaters (Page 3) What does all this mean to Powell switchgear designs? At Powell we recommend these guidelines for minimizing the possibility of condensation: • We recommend installation of two 125 watt space heaters in each of the cable and the circuit breaker compartments for: o 27kV and 38kV indoor switchgear o 5kV and 15kV outdoor switchgear o 15kV indoor switchgear with current transformer ratios of 200:5 and smaller mounted on the insulation spouts. ©2003 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #91 . if a smart substation is purchased. We recommend a second set of space heaters be added to that already recommended and set for operation at 10°C +/. We recommend epoxy or porcelain standoff insulators for outdoor equipment due to the low water absorption nature of the material. This is to compensate for lack of heat and air flow due to low operating current and the lower associated eddy current and conductor resistance heating effects. .5°C. We recommend installation of space heaters within 2 feet of the outdoor side of any bus duct vapor barrier to prevent condensation when the bus duct is not energized.powellelectric.

Arc Resistant Switchgear Tested to ANSI C37. All rights reserved. The design focus of arc resistant switchgear is to provide the necessary enhanced safety features while requiring no addition maintenance.powellind. shrapnel. ©2004 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. During arc fault design tests the energy release by an arcing fault is monitored by mounting racks of a black cotton material in panels covering the surface of the switchgear.20. arc resistant switchgear designs the hazard out of the tasks and reduces the level of risk for normal tasks to a zone 0 category. is to minimize the “at-risk” procedures used by operators of electrical equipment. The first step is to minimize risk by having operators perform work with the equipment only in an electrically safe condition. it is the pressure wave associated with the arc fault that dictates the design of the switchgear. INC. . POWELL INDUSTRIES.20. The result is a reduced need for PPE.7 and NFPA70E The intent of the 2004 version of NFPA70E. Standard for Electrical Safety in the Work Place.7 is that none of the cotton indicators ignites during or following a test. This material is similar to 4. While the focus of NFPA70E is the heat from the arc in medium voltage switchgear. and the third step is to rely on Personal Protective Equipment to minimize the risk to the individual performing the task.20.5oz/yd untreated t-shirt material identified as Hazard/Risk Category 0 per NFPA70E Table 130.com • info@powellind.com Powell Technical Brief PTB #92 . or final element tests to assure functionality. Arc resistant switchgear can assist with the first step effort by providing enhanced safety conditions when the operator task involves energized equipment and possible exposure to an arcing fault.7 is to eliminate the risk from the arc blast and the by-products (heat. The panels are mounted at 3.9 inches from all possible seams and one of the many acceptance criteria of ANSI C37. Tasks in this category include: • • • • Racking a medium voltage circuit breaker to or from the bus connected position Racking a VT or CPT roll-out to or from the bus connected position Opening and closing a circuit breaker Calibrating and troubleshooting devices within the instrument compartment The purpose of arc resistant switchgear certified to ANSI C37. and molten copper) during normal tasks performed on the equipment. calibration. In conclusion.Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.7(c) (11). The switchgear designed for arc resistant protection requires heavy reinforcing of the entire structure. pressure. the second step is to design the hazard out of the normal work procedures.

com • info@powellelectric. PowlVac® Capacitance Current Switching #3 Continuous Currents > 3000 A #19 Fast Bus Transfer #1 New Rating #89 Operating Times #18 Relay Target Settings #35 Replacement Circuit Breakers #32 Seismic Testing #7 Switching Small Currents #60 Transient Recovery Voltage #10 Umbilical Cord #4 Vacuum Interrupter Failure #11 Circuit Breakers. Baldwin Biography Bus Bar Insulation #36 Bus Bars. #75. Wire Fill #52 Contactors. Transient Recovery Voltage See Transient Recovery Voltage Circuit Breakers. Jim Biography Bridger. Continuous Current Carrying Capability #12 Circuit Breakers. #77 Bus Momentary Rating #42 Bus Overlap #75 Bus Spacings #59 Bushings.powellelectric. Surge Arresters and Potential Transformers #86 ANSI Standards See Industry Standards Arc Detection #54 Arc-Resistant Switchgear #51. Interchangeability #29 Circuit Breakers. Fuses #9 Control Wire. #59 Crest Short Circuit Currents #22 ©2001 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Capacitance Graded Capacitor Trip Unit #84 Cell Locks #83 Circuit Breakers. Modernization #32 Circuit Breakers. #54. **A** Altitude. . Medium Voltage Power. Trip Defeat Switch #78 Clearance #59 Closing and Latching Ratings #2 Comparison of Porcelain and Cycloaliphatic Epoxy Insulation #5 Condensation in Motors. Temperature #40. #56 Creepage. All rights reserved. Sizing #24 Bus Construction #42 Bus Duct #76 Bus. Asymmetrical Current Rating #90 Closing and Latching Ratings #2 Interrupting MVA #45 K Factor #46. #48 Capacitance Current Switching #3 Capacitance Graded Bushings See Bushings. Lightning See Surge Arresters Arresters. Capacitance Graded #63 **C** Cable Terminations. Auxiliary **B** Bolt Torque #53 Bowen. Ground #58 Bus Joints #53. #89 Ratings #57 Circuit Breakers. High See High Altitude Altitude De-rating of Fuses. Low Voltage.com Powell Technical Brief Index This index covers Powell Technical Briefs #1 through #91. #92 Arresters. Testing #28 Circuit Breakers.Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Medium Voltage Latched #67 Continuous Current Carrying Capability of Low Voltage Circuit Breakers #12 Continuous Currents > 3000 A #19 Control Circuits. Preventing #16 Condensation in Switchgear #91 Conduit Fittings. Molded Case #48 Circuit Breakers. Surge See Surge Arresters Asymmetrical Current Ratings #90 Asymmetrical Short Circuit Currents #22 Autotransformer Starting of Motors #14 Auxiliary Current Transformers See Current Transformers.

Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric.com

Powell Technical Brief
Index (cont.)

Current Transformers, Application of 600 Volt Class in Medium Voltage Switchgear #85 Auxiliary #66 Burden #66 Grounding #87 Relaying #62 Saturation #62, #68 Secondary Circuits #72 Zero-Sequence #68 Cycloaliphatic Epoxy Insulation See Insulation, Epoxy **D** Design Tests #23 Device Function Numbers #43 Differential Relays, Partial #33 Direct Control of Motor Contactors #81 Directional Overcurrent Relays #15 Directional Power Relays #15 Distributive Control Systems (DCS) #81 Dummy Circuit Breakers in Metal-Clad Switchgear #20 **E** Effects of Harmonics on Switchgear #31 Enclosures #74, #76 Epoxy Insulation See Insulation, Epoxy Equipment Design Tests #23 **F** Failure, Vacuum Interrupter #11 Fast Bus Transfer #1 Fault #61 Ferroresonance in Voltage Transformer Circuits #79 Field Application, Synchronous Motors #65 Floor Preparation #44 Floor Steel #44 Frequency other than 60 Hz #38 Fuses for dc Control Circuits #9 Fuses, Altitude De-rating #86 Function Numbers, Device #43 Future Use of Space #13

**G** Ground Bus, Rating #58 Ground Lead Disconnectors in Distribution-Class Surge Arresters #17 Ground Sensor Relaying #68 Grounding, Current Transformers #87 **H** Hardware #53 Harmonics #31 Harsh Environment Application #80 High Altitude Application of Switchgear #25 **I** IEEE Standards See Industry Standards Induction Motors #69 Industry Standards #49, #89 Installation of Switchgear #44 Instrument Transformers Altitude De-rating #86 Polarity Markings #34 Insulation, Bus Joints #77 Insulation, Epoxy #5 , #36 Insulation, Porcelain #5 Interchangeability of Drawout Circuit Breakers #29 Interrupter Failure #11 Interrupter Switchgear #73 Interrupting Rating #45 IP Enclosures See Enclosures **J** **K** K Factor #46, #89 **L** Labels, Shutter #83 Latched Contactors #67 Life of Switchgear #55 Lightning Arresters See Surge Arresters Locks, Cell and Shutter #83

©2001 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved.

Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric.com

Powell Technical Brief
Index (cont.)

Loss of Vacuum Testing #37 Low Voltage Circuit Breakers See Circuit Breakers, Low Voltage Low Voltage Switchgear See Switchgear, Low Voltage **M** Medium Voltage Contactors See Contactors, Medium Voltage Medium Voltage Motor Control See Motor Control, Medium Voltage Medium Voltage Power Circuit Breakers See Circuit Breakers, Medium Voltage Power Medium Voltage Switchgear See Switchgear, Medium Voltage Metal Enclosed Switchgear See Switchgear, Metal Enclosed Metal-Clad Switchgear See Switchgear, Metal-Clad Meters, Static #30 Modernization of Switchgear #32 Molded Case Circuit Breakers See Circuit Breakers, Molded Case Momentary Rating, Bus #42 Motor Branch Fault Short-Circuit Protection #39 Motor Control, Enclosures #74 Medium Voltage #67 Sizing Bus Bars #24 Testing #27 Wiring of #56 Motors, Autotransformer Starting #14 Induction #69 Large #71 Medium Voltage #71 Preventing Condensation #16 Starting #65, #71 Synchronous #75 MVA Rating #45, #89

**N** National Electrical Code #50, #52 NEMA Contactors, Switching Capability #64 NEMA Enclosures See Enclosures NEMA Standards See Industry Standards **O** Open Circuit Protectors #72 Operating Times of PowlVac® Circuit Breakers #18 Overcurrent #61 Overload #61 **P** Panelboards, Cable Termination Temperature #48 Installation #50 Partial Differential Relaying #33 Plating #41 Polarity Markings on Instrument Transformers #34 Porcelain Insulation See Insulation, Porcelain PowlVac® Circuit Breakers See Circuit Breakers, PowlVac® PowlVac® Switchgear See Switchgear, PowlVac® Preventing Condensation in Medium Voltage Motors #16 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) #81 **Q** Qualifying Equipment by Design Tests #23 **R** Ranges and Ratings, Standard Voltage #88 Ratings of Circuit Breakers #57 Relaying Accuracy of CTs #62 Relays, Directional Overcurrent #15 Ground Sensor #68 Partial Differential #33 Power Directional #15 Setting Targets #35 Static #30

©2001 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved.

Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.powellelectric.com • info@powellelectric.com

Powell Technical Brief
Index (cont.)

Replacement Circuit Breakers #32 Rollout Carriages, Switching Capability of #21 **S** Safety Features #83 Seal Fittings, Wire Fill #52 Seismic Testing #7 Setting Targets on Relays #35 Short Circuit #61 Short Circuit Current Levels Used to Test Various Types of Circuit Breakers #28 Short Circuit Currents - Crest, rms Symmetrical and rms Asymmetrical #22 Short-Circuit Protection, Motor Branch Fault #39 Shutter Locks and Labels #83 Silver Plating #41 Sizing Bus Bars in Switchgear and Motor Control #24 Small Currents, Switching #60 Solar Radiation #6 Space, Future Use #13 Spacings, Bus #59 Standards See Industry Standards Standard Voltage Ranges and Ratings #88 Starters, Motor #69 Starting Methods for Motors #71 Starting of Motors, Autotransformer #14 Static Relays and Meters #30 Sulfur Rich Environments #80 Surge Arresters, Altitude De-rating #86 Ground Lead Disconnectors #17 Voltage Rating #25 Physical Installation #82 Switch, Circuit Breaker Trip Defeat #78 Switchboards, Installation #50 Switchgear, Arc-Resistant #51, #54 Cable Termination Temperature #40 Condensation #91 Conversion #32 Frequency other than 60 Hz #38

Harmonics Effects #31 High Altitude Applications #25 Installation #44 Life of #55 Low Voltage #73 Medium Voltage #73 Metal-Enclosed #73 Metal-Enclosed, Bus Spacings #59 Metal-Enclosed, Enclosures #74 Metal-Enclosed, Ground Bus, Rating #58 Metal Enclosed, Solar Radiation #6 Metal-Enclosed, Useful Life #55 Metal-Clad #73 Metal-Clad, Dummy Circuit Breakers in #20 Metal-Clad, Arc-Resistant #51, #54 Modernization #32 Momentary Rating #42 Plating #41 PowlVac®, Seismic Testing #7 PowlVac®, Umbilical Cord #4 Sizing Bus Bars #24 Testing #27 Wiring of #56 Switching Capability of Rollouts and Tiltouts #21 Switching with NEMA Contactors #64 Symmetrical Short Circuit Currents #22 Synchronizing Circuits #8 Synchronous Motors, Starting #65 **T** Targets, Relay #35 Testing for Loss of Vacuum #37 Testing of Switchgear and Motor Control Equipment #27 Tiltout Carriages, Switching Capability of #21 Tin Plating #41 Transformers, Instrument See Instrument Transformers Transient Recovery Voltage #10, #70

©2001 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. All rights reserved.

#90 **Y** **Z** ©2001 by Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company. Standard Ranges and Ratings #88 Voltage Transformers.powellelectric. #37 Voltage Feedback in Synchronizing Circuits #8 Voltage Rating of Surge Arresters #26 Voltage. Control #56 Wire Fill #52 Wire Markers #56 Wound Rotor Induction Motors #69 **X** X/R Ratio #47 .com • info@powellelectric.com Powell Technical Brief Index (cont. . Circuit Ferroresonance #79 **W** Wire.) **U** Umbilical Cord #4 **V** Vacuum Interrupter Failure #11. All rights reserved.Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company • PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www.

com Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company PO Box 12818 Houston.powellelectric. Inc. OH 44720-4761 Phone: (330) 966-1750 Fax: (330) 966-1787 info@tractionpower.com www.com • info@powellelectric.com Products & Services •Metal Enclosed Capacitor Banks •Metal Enclosed Harmonic Filter Systems •Mobile Capacitor Banks •DC Switchgear Powell Apparatus Service Division Texas Office 8550 Mosley Houston. 5669 Gibraltar Drive Pleasanton. OH 44720-4761 Phone: (330) 966-1750 Fax: (330) 966-1787 info@powellncd. CA Phone: (818) 363-5666 Fax: (818) 368-9228 Products & Services • Service for All Products • Field Startup Services • Turn-Key Projects • Retrofill Products • Replacement Breakers • Field Testing • Spare Parts.com www.powellncd.com Products & Services •Transit Power Substations •Project Management •Field Engineering and Testing •Turn-Key Installation Powell Electrical Manufacturing CompanyNorth Canton Division 8967 Pleasantwood Avenue NW North Canton.com Products & Services •Solid State Power Electronics •Rectifiers •Rectifier Transformers •DC Protective Relays ©2001 Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company PTB-4 . CA 94588-8547 Phone: (925) 225-0505 Fax: (925) 225-0606 info@ppeco.com Arizona Office Scottsdale.com www. PA Phone: (610) 544-8600 Fax: (610) 544-8609 California Office Los Angeles.com Products & Services •Custom Packaged Modules •Custom Designed Modules •Single Lift Modules •Power Control Modules •Generator Packages • Living Quarters Powell Power Electronics Company.tractionpower. AZ Phone: (480) 998-7718 Fax: (480) 998-0238 Pennsylvania Office Bromall.powellelectric.com www. 8967 Pleasantwood Avenue NW North Canton. TX 77075-1180 Phone: (713) 944-6900 Fax: (713) 948-4569 info@powellservice.com Products & Services •PowlVac® Metal-Clad Switchgear 5-15kV •PV System 27® Metal-Clad Switchgear 27kV •PV System 38® Metal-Clad Switchgear 38kV •Vacuum Circuit Breakers 5-38kV •PowlVac-AR® Arc Resistant Metal-Clad Switchgear •Low Voltage Metal Enclosed Switchgear •Power Control Rooms (PCR®) •Secondary Unit Substations •Load Interrupter Switchgear •LV and MV Motor Control Centers •High Resistance Grounding •DC Switchgear Systems •Vacuum Circuit Breaker Modules •Station Circuit Breakers •Transit Power Systems •Traction Power Substations Traction Power Systems.com www.ppeco.powellservice. TX 77015-6540 Phone: (281) 452-4885 Fax: (281) 452-9956 info@powelloffshore.powelloffshore.com www.Powell Electrical Manufacturing Company R PO Box 12818 • Houston • Texas • 77217-2818 713-944-6900 • 713-947-4453 fax • www. Components • Field Modifications • Match and Line Equipment • Engineering Support • Emergency Assistance • Factory Refurbishment Powell Industries Offshore 16535 Jacintoport Boulevard Houston. TX 77217-2818 Phone: (713) 944-6900 Fax: (713) 947-4453 info@powellelectric. Inc.

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