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base of more than seven million, as at 31 December 2005. Maxis continues to enhance how people communicate and live with an impressive array of innovative products and services. Surpassing the seventh million mark has become a milestone in our list of achievements. Maxis’ expansion into Indonesia and India is another milestone in our aspiration to be a regional communications operator. The acquisition of a 51% stake in PT Natrindo Telepon Seluler (NTS), Indonesia and a 74% equity interest in Aircel, India will provide tremendous growth opportunities for Maxis. These acquisitions give Maxis a strong foothold in two of the world’s most attractive high-growth, low-penetration markets, while diversifying our market base. Apart from that, Maxis was the first to launch 3G Connect Card, PC Webmail, Video Mail and 3G prepaid. They are having significantly increased the 3G service coverage since its launch in July 2005, catering to more than 740 sites across Malaysia. Their growing high-performance 3G network offers mobile telephony at broadband speeds enabling Internet access throughout Malaysia. Both mobile phone and laptop users can now enjoy enhanced communication combined with extensive entertainment and information on the go, such as video calls, live mobile TV, games and wireless broadband Internet with transfer speeds of up to 384 kilobits per second. The aim: affordable, instant access with real time-results.
Purpose of study Maxis’s main challenge today, of adapting effectively to a rapid changing and often hostile environment of telecommunication networking industry. Everything change too fast until the company is unable to cope with rapid pace. The case study of Maxis tells us about the company make a generation shifts at the top management (management team) in order to confront changing business environment and global competition. The paper aims to analyze the implementation of change in Maxis in order to deal with changing market environment and to shift to the updated telecommunication technology, 3G. It is questionable whether Maxis implement a generational shift that would help its organization to be
In this paper will discuss (a) importance of change and why is it necessary to be competitive.competitive in global market. Introduction  . (b) how successfully Maxis can manage the change process to adopt to the new technology which they going to adopt (c) importance of organizational change in Maxis and how the ways to successfully implement in Maxis are.
structure. as well as its products and services. 2004). The final part of the report explains on the various ways where Maxis can successfully create an  . which fostered innovation. The case will be describing on the importance of change in the management that Maxis should implement in order to cope with the new technology which it is going to adopt for its competitive success for its long term success. Maxis were able to achieve market leadership because its constant efforts towards developing a corporate culture. Moreover. The vision and mission of Maxis played a very important role in fostering innovation. This contributes to its success in the long run. Success and winning only comes naturally when the right people initiate and lead the charge to victory. The second part of the report elaborates to the board of directors in Maxis regarding the ways where Maxis can carry out a successful change in the organization in order to adapt with the technology. which offers services that allows for video streaming and other data-intensive service. we are driven by a set of values that: serves as a guiding principle in all our relationships. BY adapting itself into the 3G technology in its telecommunications world. Maxis has a clear advantage over the competition. As a company that aspires to be the best. clients and even direct competitor. This is one prominent way where Maxis can evolve into a greater customer segment on what it is having right now. 3G. provides clarity in our decision making. resource allocation. Maxis has been able build a good relationship with its suppliers. The first part of the case describes the importance of why Maxis should go itself on the change for adopting with the 3G technology. Maintaining market leadership in the ever-changing telecommunications industry isn't easy. The most important factors contributing to Nokia’s success is its willingness to listen to customers and focus all its activities on customer satisfaction. or risk losing them to their competitors. unifies and motivates our staff. internally and externally. Wireless Industry felt that 3G was critical for them to be able to offer high-bandwidth services to their customers.The proposed case clearly shows the need for Maxis to leap into the field of 3G technology in telecommunication network in Malaysia so as to compete with its healthy partners. But with the vision and dedication of its key personnel. Third generation mobile phones (3G) are at the introduction stage and lucrative trend. This fact is apparent in its strategy. partners. defines the way we conduct business to the community (Maxis website.
1998). Company Background  .organizational learning intervention in order to create more effective and efficient way of operating along wit the technology (Wenger.
delivery technologies.  . The single. we will continue to focus on creating value for our customers. and application architectures. microwave and VSAT technologies (Watkins. safety awareness is also a priority. 1993). Its broadband infrastructure includes fiber optic. IT organizations must cope with a continuous barrage of changes—changes in product requirements. as we forge ahead. To support the changing business landscape. With more demand than ever for IT to quickly and accurately achieve and support corporate objectives. Maxis implements progressive human resource policies to ensure our employees' well-being. Maxis also offer domestic fixed line and international gateway services. employees and the community in which we operate. and deployment environments. development processes. stakeholders. most constant factor in telecommunication companies is change (Becher. telecommunication companies can only successfully deliver newer technology assets and applications to their current customers and attract new customer base through proactive management of change. organizations must continually deliver differentiated products and services that provide high business value. 1. Even the most successful enterprises can experience failure because they unsuccessfully manage change in software development. development methodologies. Maxis provide high quality voice and data services to more than seven million customers. Its mobile postpaid and prepaid services are offered under the Maxis and Hotlink brands respectively.0 Change Management for competitive advantage To excel in today’s business climate. as at 31 December 2005. In addition. 1989). Telecommunication providing organizations and project teams must deal with rapidly changing business and product requirements.Maxis is Malaysia's leading telecommunications company and market leader with a total mobile phone subscriber base of more than seven million. Surpassing the seventh million mark has become a milestone in our list of achievements. Finally. whilst maintaining the highest standards of professionalism and integrity. Maxis continue to enhance how people communicate and live with an impressive array of innovative products and services. we continually ensure that our employee competencies are upgraded through ongoing training at the Maxis academy. technology. As a result.
But the more compelling reason for adopting 3G is the easy access to broadband connectivity on your mobile device and your laptop. Some of the major benefits that Maxis will be reaping by the proposed change management would be: • The need to reinvent the business as the business environment changes  . I think that this is truly a great advantage in favour of 3G at this point due to the low broadband service penetration we have now. such as changes in markets and technologies. for Maxis. A more general case for changing successful firms can also be made. 3G provides growth as the market for voice telephony matures. Data is set to rule the communications industry of the future and thus. In this particular scenario. anytime. but it is limited to highly dynamic environments. 1995). 3G would be a service to look forward to.and you don't have to look for Internet cables or phone lines ever again. it opens the door to a brand new communications medium whereby the mobile experience is made more diverse. but not in others (Brown. The 3-G network is broadband and 6 times faster than GPRS and three times faster than EDGE (Maxis Website). but so are changes done in unsuccessful firms. The ideas may be untried and risky. With 3G in maxis. Later I will show that this risk aversion in successful firms makes sense in some competitive environments. especially live TV and video streaming that is more diverse. there are compelling reasons to believe that 3G will work around the skepticisms surrounding the technology and succeed. With its abilities to deliver video-based services. This argument is true. Above all. Managers of successful firms may have ideas for how to press their advantage so that the firm can become even more successful. Environmental changes can cause the competitive strength of a successful firm to erode if it does not adapt. richer and a lot more engaging. We get access to content. Why such ideas are often rejected in successful organizations? The answer is that the same amount of risk is less appealing to managers of successful firms than managers of unsuccessful firms. the telecom users will be able to not only talk to each other but also to see each other face-to-face and share special moments as they happen to us. for mobile operators.The case for recommending changes in successful firms is usually built on environmental changes. anywhere . more interactive and more enjoyable than its technological predecessors.
• The need to manage technology and operational challenges In traditional operator-vendor relationships. The operator should make the most out of this with the chosen help of the experienced managed service provider. the quality is unlikely to be a differentiating factor as all the operators can deliver the same. 1997).As the competitive pressures increase. the company needs to rethink his business strategy and position in the value chain. For very large operators and international operator groups it is possible to gain significant economies of scale in-house. billing and customer care readiness. • The need to improve quality of services and operations If Maxis manages the operations and network properly with necessary capacity increases and modernization. One solution – contributing both to differentiation and cost leader strategies – is to simplify the value chain and move closer to customers through mobile services (Ollila. This integration  . Small and medium sized operators should consider also whether a managed service provider could deliver benefits for their business by creating higher economies of scale on their behalf (Schermerhorn. All of these require extensive efforts to develop. • The need to be able to focus on the most differentiating activities Most operators still want to differentiate with new mobile services. But the new mobile services and applications provide excellent possibilities for quality differentiation and grabbing market share – in a certain time window (Handy. 2000). the main source for cost efficiency is economies of scale. However. 1989). there is a need to increase the cost efficiency of basic technical operations. launch and market with increasing time-to-market pressures. Being able to focus on these most differentiating activities is a significant benefit – while the technological environment is becoming more complex (Moorehead. content and portals.network technologies. 1997). And after usual process optimization and competence development. the operator has responsibility for deploying mobile services . the quality of service will be meeting the customer's expectations. • The need to improve operational efficiency No matter of the operator's competitive strategy.
1995). In this process there is a move from one to state to another so that the problem gets solved. Knowing the change management and its process would help an organization and it s processes to be stable. The involvement of the staff concerned is also very important for the change process to be smooth. Managed services contract can be set up in a way to reduce this technology and operational risk. This positive action is known as problem solving. realigning resources and respond more quickly to customer demands. The change that is taking place could be the result of a problem that has occurred. Stopping a current process in some industry is fatal for that organization. linking service provider’s incentives to operator’s business objectives. The change process can be thought of a process which stops the current process. This allows the organization to give a reactive or a proactive response to the changes that happen internally or externally. The results of effective change management produce greater clarity of strategic imperatives including organizational readiness. The change process is leaving the current state and moving to the final state through some structured organized process (Brown. makes the necessary changes to the current process and the run the new process. targeted leadership development designed to support evolving roles and responsibilities. The change process could be problem solving for a particular situation. Hence change management plays an important role in an organization. The importance of these drivers differs from one operator to another. It is easy said than implemented.responsibility has a fair share of risk involved in it. The change process could also be considered as a problem solving situation. so each of these drivers needs to be considered carefully. While management design and implement strategies that deliver improvement in performance. strong organization alignment. improvement across several performance metrics with radical increases in  . “Managing the change” Change management is important because understanding this change and its effect on the organization and its people minimizes disruptive aspects and enhances positive opportunities in the change process. Since outsourcing of technical operations is such a major change. These changes can not take place for a longer time in the organization since that may also be a disaster for the organization. You should know that a problem is a situation that requires some action to be taken positively to handle that situation. These opportunities can include containing costs. Hence it has to be done in steps which have the minimal effect in the process. they often neglect one key area for success. it should be based on the correct and well considered reasons.
(3) providing the training that staff need to work effectively. Our work has shown that high-performing organizations use a number of strategies and techniques to effectively involve employees. You should evaluate the financial and political impacts of the changes that can take place. The failure to constructively involve staff in an organization’s improvement efforts means running the risk that the changes will be more difficult and protracted than necessary (Becher. The workflow has to be changed in such a manner to reflect the financial changes that are taking place. people skills. and business skills. Employees in high-performing organizations understand the importance of and the connection between their performance and the organization’s success. Provide your transition and change teams what they deserve . Having good analytical skills will make you a good change agent. Operations and systems in the organization should be reconfigured in such a manner that you get the desired financial impact. 2... system skills. Change will happen faster.0 Fostering successful change management in Maxis Managing the changes in an organization requires a broad set of skills like political skills. including (1) fostering a performance oriented culture. 1989). accelerated readiness and resistance response resulting in greater value creation for all stakeholders. and (4) devolving authority while focusing accountability on results. (2) working to develop a consensus with unions on goals and strategies.  . Employees at all levels of high-performing organizations participate in--and have a stake in--improving operational and program performance to achieve results. Successful management improvement efforts require the active involvement of managers and staff throughout the organization to provide ideas for improvements and supply the energy and expertise needed to implement changes. You should know that following a particular process at that instant would fetch you immediate financial effects and start that process so that the change process is noted by the management.employee satisfaction representing a key indicator of success. vulnerabilities will be much better managed. analytical skills.
We all need time to digest and understand "what's in it for me. They are going to ask how the change is going to affect the company and. Because we work as a turnkey asset management provider to independent financial advisors. and not doing all that we could in assisting our investors to achieve their financial goals. the second step is to form a coalition of all stakeholders. but also in their own interest to help make this commitment a reality.  . 1999). It's not only your senior management. We showed how. It was not a very tough decision for our stakeholders once they had the information and time to confirm our vision (Aldrich. Paint a picture of what the firm is going to look like when this journey and transformation are complete. we were going to fall behind in the industry. but it is everyone that is involved with your company as well. You need to allow them time and provide them with information to reach their own conclusion that it is not only in the firm's best interest." Each of your stakeholders will be hearing it for the first time. Once we create the commitment of what we want to our vision to be. Envision the future. if we didn't change. leaving fewer opportunities for employees. more importantly. All of us react negatively to change initially. we needed their agreement to this commitment if we were going to move forward successfully.The various steps for a successful organizational change in Maxis can be carried out through the following steps: Form the coalition. Don't underestimate the time you will need to form your coalition. and that this would create more opportunities for each of our stakeholders. becoming a less important partner in our financial advisors' growth. we would be able to grow significantly faster while providing our clients with a much higher value service. by offering these services. Many individuals who are part of your team will have difficulty understanding what the changes you are attempting to incorporate into the business really mean. each individual within the company. You must include both internal and external members of your organization. At the same time.
Successful change is a real challenge because no one reacts well to change except the person that is driving it. For many this commitment might be overwhelming. By the fifth year you out. Visualization will help guide you to the commitment that you will need to make to build the firm you want. and who's responsible for the achievement of each. However. so allow your team to share in creating your new company with you. meaning we initially try to avoid the change. It will also help your stakeholders assist you if they share your vision of the future. If creative thinkers believe it is a change for the worse. but then examine and judge whether it's a good change or a bad change.How do you see your future? Use your imagination to visualize what you would like your firm to be in five years. milestones. our commitment was to wealth management for private clients. It easier to paint a picture of your future than it is to get started creating it. If we think it is a good change we will incorporate it into our lives. you create a new culture. When change comes. Let's say that five years out you want to triple your asset under management while providing your clients with continuously improved private client services. Behaviorists tell us that 80 percent of us are reactive thinkers who will do anything to avoid change. We  . we all tend to immediately put our hands up and try to figure out how to avoid it. In so doing. But if you break down all the steps you need to take by month. Very few great things in life are every created by a single individual. you want to deliver services that rivals what private banks offer. Everything you're doing should be consistent with the commitment. put together a step-by-step action plan with dates. it is empowering to reduce the steps necessary to create the future into manageable steps. it can easily become a reality (Argyris. The only way to ensure that change occurs smoothly is to have a road map that outlines the process that you will incorporate into your firm to make it work for your benefit. In our case. Embed it in the culture. they will just figure out ways to go around it. To begin. 1999). Share this vision with your group. Twenty percent of us are creative thinkers. Begin the transformation.
but if we accelerate it. These seven steps will help you make it a reality. You owe it to all of your stakeholders to be all that you are capable of being. we asked ourselves if it was consistent with what we wanted to achieve. Accelerate the pace. We have established meetings where each employee gets together with their team leader and the team leaders get together with senior management to make sure we stay on track. it’s critical to establish organizational priorities. The business goal ideally should be quantitative and time bound. Think of some of the largest firms in our industry only twenty years ago that are no longer here. 1998).wanted to provide the best advice to private clients available in regards to their life management issues. it's a continual process. want to slow it down. Create a sense of urgency. 1989). It is so easy to get side-tracked in our industry. Continuously reinvent yourself. So we had to in effect destroy our old company and create a new company that would be able to achieve the results we wanted (Becher. Let them know that it is okay to be uncomfortable with change but that the winner in business will always be the one who most effectively adapts to the new environment. we can move ahead. With every action we took. Many will have and will know about the excitement and the feeling of satisfaction that only a winning team can bring." There is no final destination for this journey. Start the journey all over again. The rewards of winning are great. Asked them if they have every have been on a team that made things happen. The world is constantly changing. There is no shortage of reasons for changing your firm. You have to establish systems in your organization that will embed both you commitment and vision of the future in your organization. Help everyone see the increased competition and the need to differentiate yourself from all the other firms. whether in business or in sports. Most of us are very tactical in our strategy so that we move from opportunity to opportunity and never give ourselves the chance to reach the next level of success. and it  . in reacting to change. Because it is important to start with determining the business goal. It's important to recognize that most of us. Let them understand the likely outcome if you don't make the changes. recognize that there is no "there. They stop reinventing themselves (Wenger.
Plenty of organizations do an organizational climate study. we have long recommended that the Service and its unions and management associations establish a framework agreement to outline common goals.needs to be a legitimate focus of the business. Additionally. often by excluding some issues and concepts from their charters (Becher. a common issue for many organizations.” “organizational learning”—are subject to varied use and interpretation. or an employee survey and discover that employee morale is low. 1993). hampered efforts to automate some postal systems that could have resulted in savings and helped the Service reach its performance goals. Postal Service’s long-standing challenges in labor-management relations illustrate the importance of having a shared set of long-term goals and strategies agreed upon by managers. Clarity of purpose and terminology is an issue with any type of organizational change project. We have also noted that the Results Act can provide an effective framework for union and management representatives to discuss and agree upon goals and strategies (Watkins. but is particularly important for knowledge management. problems persist and continue to contribute to higher mail processing and delivery costs.” “information. among other things. and unions. and that’s when someone usually gets called into the office of the vice president of HR to find out that the new high-priority assignment is to improve company morale. 1995). These are instances where the goal stated actually implies or assumes other targets (Handy. labor-management relations at the Postal Service have been characterized by disagreements that have. some may be convinced that something is the real business goal when they’ve really only stated a possible way to meet a goal. 1989). The terms used in this realm— “knowledge. Senior management is then mobilized to do something about the morale problem. a culture audit.  . The successful knowledge management projects we found had paid attention to this issue.12 Although there has been some progress. The U. As we have reported.S. To help the Postal Service resolve its problems. employees. One way high-performing organizations can enhance employee involvement and gain agreement on an organization’s goals and strategies is by developing partnerships with employee unions. One example is employee morale.
the capacity of an organization to learn. Learning organizations [are] organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. Employees are more likely to support changes when they have the necessary amount of authority and flexibility--along with commensurate accountability and incentives--to advance the agency’s goals and improve performance. But creating a learning organization is also a goal. Allowing employees to bring their expertise and judgement to bear in meeting their responsibilities can help agencies capitalize on their employees’ talents.High-performing organizations also seek to involve and engage employees by devolving authority to lower levels of the organization. where collective aspiration is set free. organizational learning is the fastest and efficient way. and where people are continually learning to see the whole together.0 Improve knowledge-sharing and management: Organizational Learning In order for Maxis to out do its performance in this competitive environment. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. 1996)  . that is. to function like a learning organization. it can only happen as a result of learning at the whole organization level. so that the management of such learning can be made more effective (Dunphy. (De Geus. 1990). Therefore. Organizational learning is just a means in order to achieve strategic objectives. Definition: Organizational Learning Organizational learning is the ‘activity and the process by which organizations eventually reach th[e] ideal of a learning organization’ (Senge. needs to be made more concrete and institutionalized. since the ability permanently and collectively to learn is a necessary precondition for thriving in the new context. Learning Company is an organization that facilitates the learning of all its members and continuously transforms itself. (Senge 1990: 3) The Learning Company is a vision of what might be possible. 1998). It is not brought about simply by training individuals. leading to more effective and efficient operations and improved customer service 3.
Another option is to recognize publicly the staff most active in knowledgesharing in the organization (Aguilar. Overcoming such resistance will require education and coaching of the staff concerned. particularly in developing countries. it is very difficult to capture the tacit knowledge of staff. 1967).An important objective of the organizational learning process is to promote trust. For instance. Such communication processes can either be facilitated or hindered by the existing institutional structures in the public sector. collaboration and knowledge-sharing with peers may reduce this time considerably and thereby contribute to organizational learning. for example. staff often have little incentive—financial or otherwise—to share knowledge with other colleagues. effective networking. resistance to change should not be underestimated in any organization attempting to introduce knowledge management practices. The most productive staff members in any organization are generally those with a very strong ability to network and collaborate with both internal colleagues and external partners. on the other hand. in cases when a long time may be spent in trying to solve a particular problem. 1996). Doing so will require organizations to either encourage the more experienced staff to mentor and coach the younger professionals or provide adequate opportunities for senior public servants to document and codify their tacit knowledge. institutional structures and cultural characteristics are often not conducive to effective communications and knowledgesharing among staff. Third. as mentioned earlier. In traditional bureaucracies. Effective networking and teamwork may not only facilitate the timely completion of tasks but also improve the quality of work. use technology and incentives in addition to normal person-to-person exchange to encourage staff to share knowledge and to collaborate (Argyris. Many staff may be uncomfortable with sharing their knowledge with other colleagues. dialogue and networking among staff that can foster the formation of social capital and thereby contribute to more dynamic communications. knowledge-sharing and management in the public service. The promotion of a culture of networking. Progressive and reform-minded organizations. Fourth. to create an effective knowledge management system. First.  . Second. One way to address this is to try to make knowledge-sharing an integral part of performance assessment of staff. knowledge-sharing and collaboration is therefore an essential part of the organizational learning process in the private as well as in public sectors. There are significant hurdles to jump over in for public organizations attempting.
the notion of a mentoring relationship between a senior and junior person is not so widespread in society in general. Coaching is defined as helping someone else expand and apply his or her skills. teaching. Coaching might also be developing and maintaining an ongoing developmental relationship with one or more of the organization’s rising stars. the idea of mentoring is an integral part of the national culture. In other countries. where professors become mentors to their students. skills. survey feedback. Mentoring usually involves offering guidance and advice. It generally takes place within a defined context. such as a specific task. motivating. organization and process redesign. All these issues need to be addressed in the development of a knowledge management strategy in Maxis. and attitudes. however. 1999). strategic leadership. In Japan. for instance. In some societies. and large-group development activities. It is also very common in universities. values and attitudes to a more junior colleague in order to facilitate professional and career development. and mentoring (Aldrich. Various means of achieving organizational learning are: Coaching Coaching is a powerful teaching and learning process that can enhance learning and effectiveness and help to achieve personal and organizational change. where the senior. skill. Coaching frequently is an integral part of the process of planning and implementing other interventions. 1978). Mentoring relationships are undoubtedly an untapped resource in the public service in many countries and the development of such relationships needs to be facilitated (Argyris.more openness and knowledge-sharing raise the question of how to create appropriate protocols to handle sensitive and confidential information. In general. such as team development. a successful coach helps others succeed through guiding. Promote mentoring programmes for staff Organizational learning can be further facilitated in certain environments by fostering a culture of mentoring among staff. The use of mentoring as an instrument for organizational learning is by no means a new concept. or responsibility. particularly when an experienced person imparts knowledge. it is common practice. knowledge. Providing career  . yet it is still well established in both the private and public sectors.junior relationship is an institution in itself not only in the public service but throughout society.
knowledge acquisition. the current pattern of learning orientations has resulted in identifiable strong competencies. dissemination.development through mentoring has also proven effective over time. Second. the resistance to change within the organization increases significantly. three is the hardest). This option assumes that large-scale nchange is necessary and that changing one group of variables without changing the other will be only partially successful (Hunter. This focus assumes that facilitating factors meet an acceptable standard and that more can be accomplished by adding to the strong base established by the learning orientations.0 Conclusion Each organizational unit or firm must make the decision to pursue one strategy or another for itself. or utilization. 1996).g. While it may be possible or necessary to look at all three phases simultaneously. one is the easiest to implement. First. Sometimes mentoring by targeting the career development of a particular group within the public service is able to serve several purposes.. Change both learning orientations and facilitating factors..e. 1999). so improving or expanding them may be the best way to enhance the unit's learning capabilities. From the first to the third options. 4. focusing on a single area is more manageable (Argyris. While there are no rules for making this decision. an organization may decide to focus on any stage of the learning cycle -. There are two reasons for selecting this option. The next task is to select an option for focus: Improve on learning orientations. the three options are incrementally more difficult to implement (i. Strategies for Improving Organizational Learning Capability When starting to improve its learning capabilities. the organization may decide to shift its position on one or more learning orientations. An organization should select this option when it sees the other variables as inadequate. Singapore and the United Kingdom) have opted for fast-track programmes where high-flying candidates are put on a path to senior management under the guidance and advice of mentors. It is one thing to develop a plan for improving what is already done reasonably well. Several countries (e. it is another to  .
They can share levels of activity with their clients to greater or lesser degrees of marginality and centrality (Kofman. However. It might well be that ‘the concept is being oversold as a near-universal remedy for a wide variety of organizational problems’ (March. and finally. The iterative nature of organizational learning processes is explicitly recognized in some models. Howard E. Francis J. 1967. 1999). References Aguilar. Thousand Oaks. then information interpretation and diffusion. Scanning the business environment. and that could increase organizational effectiveness – especially where the enterprise is firmly rooted in the ‘knowledge economy. 1999. to translation into action. forthcoming). CA Argyris. Along the way. 1990). It is one thing to stay within accepted. Sage Publications. 1999. Blackwell Business. when one observes the roles consultants play in practice.  . there are a number of shortcomings to the model – it is theoretically underpowered and there is some question as to whether the vision can be realized within the sorts of dynamics that exist within and between organizations in a globalized capitalist economy. assimilated paradigms. On Organizational Learning. It could be argued that the notion of the learning organization provides managers and others with a picture of how things could be within an organization (Senge. 1995). Oxford. Aldrich. Although the current stage models of organizational learning start with knowledge acquisition. C. so the presentation of stages should not be seen as a simple linear approach (see Pawlowsky. it is another to replace institutionalized models. Macmillan Co. in directive and non-directive ways. writers like Peter Senge introduce a number of interesting dimensions that could be personally developmental. additional preliminary phases become visible: the generation of an awareness of the need to learn. Organizations evolving. as we have seen.engage in nothing less than near-total transformation. storage in organizational memory. The models of organizational learning processes tend to start with knowledge acquisition. and the definition of the problem to be dealt with. Consultants can be involved in both content and process dimensions during these phases. NY.
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