Practical 5 Aim Materials : To investigate the effect of concentration on the electromotive force of a cell : EC1 is 1.

0 mol dm-3 aqueous copper(II nitrate EC2 is !.0 mol dm-3 aqueous "inc nitrate EC3 is 1.0 mol dm-3 aqueous "inc nitrate EC4 is 0.1 mol dm-3 aqueous "inc nitrate EC5 is 0.01 mol dm-3 aqueous "inc nitrate EC6 is 0.001 mol dm-3 aqueous "inc nitrate A saturated solution of potassium chloride : ! # accumulator$ potentiometer$ %oc&e'$ "inc plate$ copper plate$ 100 cm3 measuring c'linder$ 100 cm3 (ea&er$ filter paper$ galvanometer$ connecting )ires )ith crocodile clips :

Apparatus

Procedure

1. *' means of measuring c'linders$ fill (ea&er A )ith +0.0 cm3 of EC1 and (ea&er * )ith +0 cm3 of EC2. !. Immerse a strip of filter paper into the saturated solution of potassium chloride, then dip the ends of the filter paper into the t)o (ea&ers A and B to (uild a salt (ridge. 3. -lean the copper and "inc plates )ith sandpaper$ )ash )ith distilled )ater$ and dr'. .. -lip the copper plate )ith the crocodile clip and connect it to the end of the potentiometer to )hich the positive terminal of the accumulator is connected. +. The "inc metal is connected to a galvanometer to )hich a %oc&e' is attached. /. The negative terminal of the accumulator is then connected to the other end of the potentiometer as sho)n in 0igure +. 1. 2ip the t)o metal plates into their respective solutions. After one minute has elapsed$ touch the %oc&e' along the length of the potentiometer )ire until the galvanometer sho)s a "ero reading indicating no current flo). Do not slide the jockey along the length of the otentio!eter "ire to a#oid a $uild u of resistance. 3. 4ote do)n the length of the potentiometer )ire as 5 cm and record 'our readings in the ta(le (elo). 6. 7epeat the e5periment a(ove (' replacing solution EC 2 )ith solutions as sho)n in the ta(le (elo). 4e) filter paper is to (e used for ever' ne) solution. 10. -alculate 8cell using the follo)ing formula.

X E cell = ___________________________ X Length of potentiometer wire

2V

12

Arite half-life equations for the reactions ta&ing place in (ea&ers A and * and hence )rite an equation for the overall cell reaction.. Blot a graph of 8cell against lg=>n!?@ in (ea&er B and e5plain ho) the emf of the cell varies )ith the concentration of >n!? in (ea&er B. (!m !... + +0 cm3 8-1 +0 cm3 8-1 +0 cm3 8-1 +0 cm3 8-1 +0 cm3 8-1 *ea&er B +0 cm3 8-! +0 cm3 8-3 +0 cm3 8-. +0 cm3 8-+ +0 cm3 8-/ 9ength of )ire$ 5<cm 8cell< # =>n!?@ <moldm-3 &uestions' 1.1 mol dm-3 aqueous aluminium chloride$ and the plate of "inc metal is replaced )ith aluminium metalC (3m 13 .cm 85periment *ea&er A 1 ! 3 .. (!m 3..(igure 5: The effect of concentration on the electromotive force of a cell %esults : 9ength of potentiometer )ire : . Arite a cell diagram for the electrochemical s'stem. (+m 4..1 mol dm-3 aqueous copper(II nitrate$ (3m (ii the solution in (ea&er B is replaced )ith 0.. 85plain )hat )ill happen to the 8cell value if (i the solution in (ea&er A is replaced )ith 0.