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• Information source, transmitter, channel, receiver and destination – calculate the signaling rate and bit rate of a system – design the matched filter of a receiver • derive the condition for maximum signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver – determine the error rate • Error rate versus received signal energy per bit per hertz of thermal noise

D.1

Reference Reference – Chapter 4.1 - 4.3, S. Haykin, Communication Systems, Wiley.

D.2

**Introduction Digital communication system
**

Information source Transmitter channel Noise Receiver Destination Received message

Transmitted message

Information source – produces a message (or a sequence of symbol) to be transmitted to the destination. – Example 1 • Analog signal (voice signal): sampling, quantizing and encoding are used to convert it into digital form

D.3

Introduction (1) – Sampling and quantizing 7 8 6 7 6 5 Quantization noise t 5 4 4 3 Digits 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 D.4 .

5 .Introduction (2) – encoding Digits 0 0 2 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 5 7 6 8 7 Binary code 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 Return-to-zero D.

D.Introduction (3) – Example 2 • digital source from a digital computer Transmitter – operates on the message to produce a signal suitable for transmission over the channel.6 .

D.Introduction (4) Channel – medium used to transmit the signal from transmitter to the receiver – Attenuation and delay distortions – Noise Receiver – performs the reverse function of the transmitter • determine the symbol from the received signal Example: 1 or 0 for a binary system Destination – the person or device for which the message is intended.7 .

±3 Signaling Rate – The symbols are suitably shaped by a shaping filter into a sequence of signal-elements. Each signal-element has the same duration of T second and is transmitted immediately one after another. D.1 where 0 and 1 are symbols A 4 level signal has 4 symbols in its alphabet such as ±1.8 .Signaling Rate Digital message – An ordered sequence of symbols drawn from an alphabet of finite size µ. so that the signal-element rate (signaling rate) is 1/T elements per second (bauds). • Example Binary source: µ=2 for alphabet 0.

3 and 4 D.2.9 .Bit Rate Binary digit: 0 and 1 Symbols: 1.

10 . – Example • A 4-level PAM with a signaling rate = 2400 bauds/s.Bit Rate Bit Rate – The bit rate is the product of signaling rate and no of bit/symbol. • Bit rate (Data rate) =2400 X log2(4) = 4800 bits/s (bps) D.

Matched Filter (1) – A basic problem that often arises in the study of communication systems is that of detecting a pulse transmitted over a channel that is corrupted by channel noise t Square pulse t Signal at the receiving end D.11 .

x(t ) = g (t ) + w(t ) y (t ) = g o (t ) + n(t ) – Consider that the filter input x(t) consists of a pulse signal g(t) corrupted by additive noise w(t). The source of uncertainty lies in the noise w(t).Matched Filter (2) – A matched filter is a linear filter designed to provide the maximum signal-to-noise power ratio at its output. given the received signal x(t). The function of receiver is to detect the pulse signal g(t) in an optimum manner.12 . This is very often used at the receiver. It is assumed that the receiver has knowledge of the waveform of the pulse signal g(t). D.

∞ g 0 (t ) = −∞ ∫ H ( f )G ( f ) exp( j 2πft )df g 0 (t ) 2 ∞ The signal power = = −∞ ∫ H ( f )G( f ) exp( j 2πft )df 2 D. Signal Power Let g ( f ) and h ( f ) denoted the Fourier Transform of g ( t ) and h ( t ).13 .Matched Filter (3) – The purpose of the circuit is to design an impulse response h(t) of the filter such that the output signal-to-noise ratio is maximized.

the −∞ ∫ H( f ) 2 df D.Matched Filter (4) Noise Power N0 – Since w(t) is white with a power spectral density 2 spectral density function of Noise is 2 N0 SN ( f ) = H( f ) 2 N0 2 – The noise power = E[n (t )] = 2 ∞ .14 .

.Matched Filter (5) S/N Ratio – Thus the signal to noise ratio become ∞ 2 η= −∞ ∫ H ( f )G( f ) exp( j 2πfT )df N0 2 ∞ −∞ ∫ H ( f ) df 2 .….(1) • (the output is observed at t = T ) D..15 .

and * denotes complex conjugation.Matched Filter (6) – Our problem is to find. the particular form of the transfer function H(f) of the filter that makes η at maximum.16 . we have φ1 ( x) = kφ 2 where k is an arbitrary constant. D. if and only if. 2 2 ∞ 2 −∞ ∫ φ1 ( x)φ 2 ( x)dx ≤ ∞ −∞ ∫ φ1 ( x) dx ∫ φ 2 ( x) dx * ( x) This equality holds. Schwarz’s inequality: ∞ If −∞ ∫ φ1 ( x) dx < ∞ and 2 ∞ 2 −∞ ∞ −∞ ∫ φ 2 ( x) dx < ∞ . for a given G(f).

Matched Filter (7) Applying the schwarz’s inequality to the numerator of equation (1).17 . we have ∞ −∞ ∫ H ( f )G( f ) exp( j 2πfT )df ……(2) (Note: e j 2πfT = 1) 2 ∞ ≤ −∞ ∫ H ( f ) df 2 ∞ −∞ ∫ G( f ) df 2 D.

2 The S/N ratio η ≤ N0 or 2E η≤ N0 ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ ∫ G( f ) 2 df ……(3) 2 where the energy E= ∫ G ( f ) df is the input signal energy D.18 .Matched Filter (8) Substituting (2) into (1) .

The optimum value of H(f) is then obtained as H ( f ) = kG * ( f ) exp(− j 2πfT ) D.19 .Matched Filter (9) Notice that the S/N ratio does not depend on the transfer function H(f) of the filter but only on the signal energy.

. ”Matched with the input signal” D.(4) Equation (4) shown that the impulse response of the filter is the time-reversed and delayed version of the input signal g(t).Matched Filter (10) Taking the inverse Fourier transform of H(f) we have h(t)=k ∫ G * ( f ) exp[− j 2πf (T − t )]df −∞ ∞ and G * ( f ) = G (− f ) for real signal g (t ) h(t)=k ∫ G ( − f ) exp[− j 2πf (T − t )]df −∞ ∞ h(t)=kg(T-t) ….20 .

g (t ) A T t The impulse response of the matched filter has exactly the same waveform as the signal.21 .Matched Filter (11) Example: The signal is a rectangular pulse. h (t ) kA T t D.

g o (t ) kA2T T t D.22 .Matched Filter (12) The output signal of the matched filter has a triangular waveform.

23 . the matched filter may be implemented using a circuit known as integrate-anddump circuit.Matched Filter (13) In this special case. r (t ) ∫0 T Sample at t = T D.

(5) Substitute (4) into (5) we have y (t ) = ∫ r (τ ) g[T − (t − τ )]dτ 0 t When t = T y(T)= ∫ r (τ )g (τ )dτ 0 D..Realization of the Matched filter (1) Assuming the output of y(t) = r(t) ⊗ h(t) = ∫ r (τ )h(t − τ )dτ 0 t ..24 T .

25 .Realization of the Matched filter (2) r (t ) g (t ) ∫0 T Correlator D.

Symbol 1 and 0 are represented by positive and negative rectangular pulses of equal amplitude and equal duration. In the signaling interval 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb .Error Rate of Binary PAM (1) Signaling – Consider a non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signaling (sometime called bipolar). the received signal is + A + w(t ) symbol 1 was sent x(t ) = − A + w(t ) symbol 0 was sent • A is the transmitted pulse amplitude • Tb is the bit duration D.26 . Noise – The channel noise is modeled as additive white Gaussian noise of zero mean and power spectral density No/2.

– Given the noisy signal x(t). but not its polarity.27 . the receiver is required to make a decision in each signaling interval D.Error Rate of Binary PAM (2) Receiver x(t ) ∫0 T y Sample at t = Tb Decision device 1 if y > λ 0 if y < λ λ – It is assumed that the receiver has prior knowledge of the pulse shape.

28 .Error Rate of Binary PAM (3) – In actual transmission. There are two types of error • Symbol 1 is chosen when a 0 was actually transmitted • Symbol 0 is chosen when a 1 was actually transmitted Case I – Suppose that a symbol 0 is sent then the received signal is x(t) = -A + n(t) If the signal is input to a bandlimited low pass filter (matched filter implemented by the integrate-and-dump circuit). a decision device is used to determine the received signal. the output y(t) is obtained as: Tb t 1 n(t )dt y(t)= x (t ) dt = − A + ∫ ∫ Tb 0 0 D.

254.29 . S. Haykin. Communication Systems) D. we may characterize y (t ) as follows: • y (t ) is Gaussian distributed with a mean of –A N0 2 • the variance of y(t) can be shown as σ y = 2Tb (Proof refers to p.Error Rate of Binary PAM (4) As the noise n(t ) is white and Gaussian.

30 . given that 0 was sent D.Error Rate of Binary PAM (5) The Probability density function of a Gaussian distributed signal is given as ( y − y)2 1 exp(− ) f y ( y 0) = 2 2π σ y 2σ y 1 ( y + A) 2 exp(− ) ∴ f y ( y 0) = N 0 / Tb πN 0 / Tb where f y ( y | 0) is the conditional probability density function of the random variable y.

which corresponds to the range of values assumed by y for a decision in favor of symbol 1 D.31 .Error Rate of Binary PAM (6) – Let p10 denote the conditional probability of error. given that symbol 0 was sent • This probability is defined by the shaded area under the curve of f y ( y | 0) from the threshold λ to infinity.

Error Rate of Binary PAM (7) The probability of error.32 . conditional on sending symbol 0 is defined by P 10 = P ( y > λ Symbol 0 was sent ) = ∫ f y ( y 0)dy λ ∞ 1 = πN 0 / Tb ∞ ∫ λ ( y + A) 2 exp(− )dy N 0 / Tb D.

e. the output at the matched filter will be – A for symbol 0 and A for symbol 1. D. P0 = P1 = 1 / 2 • If no noise.Error Rate of Binary PAM (8) • Assuming that symbols 0 and 1 occur with equal probability. i. The threshold λ is set to be 0.33 .

defined by Eb = A 2Tb D. Tb We have P 10 = 1 ∞ π Eb / N o ∫ exp(− z 2 )dz where Eb is the transmitted signal energy per bit.34 .Error Rate of Binary PAM (9) Define a new variable z = y+ A N o / Tb N0 and then dy = dz.

∞ 2 2 erfc(u ) = exp( − z )dz ∫ π u Therefore.35 .Error Rate of Binary PAM (9) At this point we find it convenient to introduce the definite integration called complementary error function. the conditional probability of error Eb 1 erfc( ) P 10 = N0 2 ( Note: erf(u ) = 2 exp(− z ∫ π 0 u 2 )dz and erfc(u)=1-erf(u) ) D.

∞ 1 u2 Q( x) = exp(− ) du ∫ 2 2π x 1 x Q( x) = erfc( ) and erfc( x) = 2 Q( x 2 ) 2 2 D.Error Rate of Binary PAM (10) In some literature.36 . Q function is used instead of erfc function.

37 . the conditional probability density function of Y given that symbol 1 was sent.Error Rate of Binary PAM (11) Case II Similary. is 1 ( y − A) 2 exp(− f y ( y 1) = ) N 0 / Tb πN 0 / Tb 1 P01 = πN 0 / Tb −∞ ∫ λ ( y − A) 2 exp(− )dy N 0 / Tb D.

Error Rate of Binary PAM (12) By setting λ =0 and putting y−A = −z N 0 / Tb we find that P01 = P10 The average probability of symbol error Pe is obtained as Pe = P0 P 10 + P 1P 01 If the probability of 0 and 1 are equal and equal to ½ Eb 1 Pe = erfc( ) N0 2 D.38 .

Error Rate of Binary PAM (13) D.39 .

all about base band transmission !

all about base band transmission !

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