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• Information source, transmitter, channel, receiver and destination – calculate the signaling rate and bit rate of a system – design the matched filter of a receiver • derive the condition for maximum signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver – determine the error rate • Error rate versus received signal energy per bit per hertz of thermal noise

D.1

Reference Reference – Chapter 4.1 - 4.3, S. Haykin, Communication Systems, Wiley.

D.2

**Introduction Digital communication system
**

Information source Transmitter channel Noise Receiver Destination Received message

Transmitted message

Information source – produces a message (or a sequence of symbol) to be transmitted to the destination. – Example 1 • Analog signal (voice signal): sampling, quantizing and encoding are used to convert it into digital form

D.3

Introduction (1) – Sampling and quantizing 7 8 6 7 6 5 Quantization noise t 5 4 4 3 Digits 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 D.4 .

5 .Introduction (2) – encoding Digits 0 0 2 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 5 7 6 8 7 Binary code 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 Return-to-zero D.

D.6 .Introduction (3) – Example 2 • digital source from a digital computer Transmitter – operates on the message to produce a signal suitable for transmission over the channel.

D.Introduction (4) Channel – medium used to transmit the signal from transmitter to the receiver – Attenuation and delay distortions – Noise Receiver – performs the reverse function of the transmitter • determine the symbol from the received signal Example: 1 or 0 for a binary system Destination – the person or device for which the message is intended.7 .

1 where 0 and 1 are symbols A 4 level signal has 4 symbols in its alphabet such as ±1. • Example Binary source: µ=2 for alphabet 0. ±3 Signaling Rate – The symbols are suitably shaped by a shaping filter into a sequence of signal-elements. D. Each signal-element has the same duration of T second and is transmitted immediately one after another. so that the signal-element rate (signaling rate) is 1/T elements per second (bauds).Signaling Rate Digital message – An ordered sequence of symbols drawn from an alphabet of finite size µ.8 .

2.3 and 4 D.Bit Rate Binary digit: 0 and 1 Symbols: 1.9 .

10 . – Example • A 4-level PAM with a signaling rate = 2400 bauds/s. • Bit rate (Data rate) =2400 X log2(4) = 4800 bits/s (bps) D.Bit Rate Bit Rate – The bit rate is the product of signaling rate and no of bit/symbol.

11 .Matched Filter (1) – A basic problem that often arises in the study of communication systems is that of detecting a pulse transmitted over a channel that is corrupted by channel noise t Square pulse t Signal at the receiving end D.

x(t ) = g (t ) + w(t ) y (t ) = g o (t ) + n(t ) – Consider that the filter input x(t) consists of a pulse signal g(t) corrupted by additive noise w(t). This is very often used at the receiver. The source of uncertainty lies in the noise w(t). The function of receiver is to detect the pulse signal g(t) in an optimum manner.Matched Filter (2) – A matched filter is a linear filter designed to provide the maximum signal-to-noise power ratio at its output. D. It is assumed that the receiver has knowledge of the waveform of the pulse signal g(t).12 . given the received signal x(t).

Signal Power Let g ( f ) and h ( f ) denoted the Fourier Transform of g ( t ) and h ( t ).13 .Matched Filter (3) – The purpose of the circuit is to design an impulse response h(t) of the filter such that the output signal-to-noise ratio is maximized. ∞ g 0 (t ) = −∞ ∫ H ( f )G ( f ) exp( j 2πft )df g 0 (t ) 2 ∞ The signal power = = −∞ ∫ H ( f )G( f ) exp( j 2πft )df 2 D.

Matched Filter (4) Noise Power N0 – Since w(t) is white with a power spectral density 2 spectral density function of Noise is 2 N0 SN ( f ) = H( f ) 2 N0 2 – The noise power = E[n (t )] = 2 ∞ .14 . the −∞ ∫ H( f ) 2 df D.

Matched Filter (5) S/N Ratio – Thus the signal to noise ratio become ∞ 2 η= −∞ ∫ H ( f )G( f ) exp( j 2πfT )df N0 2 ∞ −∞ ∫ H ( f ) df 2 .15 ...(1) • (the output is observed at t = T ) D.….

we have φ1 ( x) = kφ 2 where k is an arbitrary constant. if and only if. for a given G(f).Matched Filter (6) – Our problem is to find. D. Schwarz’s inequality: ∞ If −∞ ∫ φ1 ( x) dx < ∞ and 2 ∞ 2 −∞ ∞ −∞ ∫ φ 2 ( x) dx < ∞ .16 . and * denotes complex conjugation. 2 2 ∞ 2 −∞ ∫ φ1 ( x)φ 2 ( x)dx ≤ ∞ −∞ ∫ φ1 ( x) dx ∫ φ 2 ( x) dx * ( x) This equality holds. the particular form of the transfer function H(f) of the filter that makes η at maximum.

17 . we have ∞ −∞ ∫ H ( f )G( f ) exp( j 2πfT )df ……(2) (Note: e j 2πfT = 1) 2 ∞ ≤ −∞ ∫ H ( f ) df 2 ∞ −∞ ∫ G( f ) df 2 D.Matched Filter (7) Applying the schwarz’s inequality to the numerator of equation (1).

18 . 2 The S/N ratio η ≤ N0 or 2E η≤ N0 ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ ∫ G( f ) 2 df ……(3) 2 where the energy E= ∫ G ( f ) df is the input signal energy D.Matched Filter (8) Substituting (2) into (1) .

The optimum value of H(f) is then obtained as H ( f ) = kG * ( f ) exp(− j 2πfT ) D.19 .Matched Filter (9) Notice that the S/N ratio does not depend on the transfer function H(f) of the filter but only on the signal energy.

Matched Filter (10) Taking the inverse Fourier transform of H(f) we have h(t)=k ∫ G * ( f ) exp[− j 2πf (T − t )]df −∞ ∞ and G * ( f ) = G (− f ) for real signal g (t ) h(t)=k ∫ G ( − f ) exp[− j 2πf (T − t )]df −∞ ∞ h(t)=kg(T-t) ….20 . ”Matched with the input signal” D..(4) Equation (4) shown that the impulse response of the filter is the time-reversed and delayed version of the input signal g(t).

h (t ) kA T t D.21 . g (t ) A T t The impulse response of the matched filter has exactly the same waveform as the signal.Matched Filter (11) Example: The signal is a rectangular pulse.

g o (t ) kA2T T t D.22 .Matched Filter (12) The output signal of the matched filter has a triangular waveform.

the matched filter may be implemented using a circuit known as integrate-anddump circuit. r (t ) ∫0 T Sample at t = T D.23 .Matched Filter (13) In this special case.

.24 T ..(5) Substitute (4) into (5) we have y (t ) = ∫ r (τ ) g[T − (t − τ )]dτ 0 t When t = T y(T)= ∫ r (τ )g (τ )dτ 0 D.Realization of the Matched filter (1) Assuming the output of y(t) = r(t) ⊗ h(t) = ∫ r (τ )h(t − τ )dτ 0 t .

Realization of the Matched filter (2) r (t ) g (t ) ∫0 T Correlator D.25 .

the received signal is + A + w(t ) symbol 1 was sent x(t ) = − A + w(t ) symbol 0 was sent • A is the transmitted pulse amplitude • Tb is the bit duration D.Error Rate of Binary PAM (1) Signaling – Consider a non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signaling (sometime called bipolar).26 . Noise – The channel noise is modeled as additive white Gaussian noise of zero mean and power spectral density No/2. Symbol 1 and 0 are represented by positive and negative rectangular pulses of equal amplitude and equal duration. In the signaling interval 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb .

Error Rate of Binary PAM (2) Receiver x(t ) ∫0 T y Sample at t = Tb Decision device 1 if y > λ 0 if y < λ λ – It is assumed that the receiver has prior knowledge of the pulse shape. – Given the noisy signal x(t). the receiver is required to make a decision in each signaling interval D. but not its polarity.27 .

28 . the output y(t) is obtained as: Tb t 1 n(t )dt y(t)= x (t ) dt = − A + ∫ ∫ Tb 0 0 D. a decision device is used to determine the received signal.Error Rate of Binary PAM (3) – In actual transmission. There are two types of error • Symbol 1 is chosen when a 0 was actually transmitted • Symbol 0 is chosen when a 1 was actually transmitted Case I – Suppose that a symbol 0 is sent then the received signal is x(t) = -A + n(t) If the signal is input to a bandlimited low pass filter (matched filter implemented by the integrate-and-dump circuit).

Error Rate of Binary PAM (4) As the noise n(t ) is white and Gaussian.254. Communication Systems) D.29 . Haykin. S. we may characterize y (t ) as follows: • y (t ) is Gaussian distributed with a mean of –A N0 2 • the variance of y(t) can be shown as σ y = 2Tb (Proof refers to p.

given that 0 was sent D.30 .Error Rate of Binary PAM (5) The Probability density function of a Gaussian distributed signal is given as ( y − y)2 1 exp(− ) f y ( y 0) = 2 2π σ y 2σ y 1 ( y + A) 2 exp(− ) ∴ f y ( y 0) = N 0 / Tb πN 0 / Tb where f y ( y | 0) is the conditional probability density function of the random variable y.

Error Rate of Binary PAM (6) – Let p10 denote the conditional probability of error. given that symbol 0 was sent • This probability is defined by the shaded area under the curve of f y ( y | 0) from the threshold λ to infinity.31 . which corresponds to the range of values assumed by y for a decision in favor of symbol 1 D.

Error Rate of Binary PAM (7) The probability of error.32 . conditional on sending symbol 0 is defined by P 10 = P ( y > λ Symbol 0 was sent ) = ∫ f y ( y 0)dy λ ∞ 1 = πN 0 / Tb ∞ ∫ λ ( y + A) 2 exp(− )dy N 0 / Tb D.

D.e.Error Rate of Binary PAM (8) • Assuming that symbols 0 and 1 occur with equal probability. The threshold λ is set to be 0. P0 = P1 = 1 / 2 • If no noise. i. the output at the matched filter will be – A for symbol 0 and A for symbol 1.33 .

34 . Tb We have P 10 = 1 ∞ π Eb / N o ∫ exp(− z 2 )dz where Eb is the transmitted signal energy per bit. defined by Eb = A 2Tb D.Error Rate of Binary PAM (9) Define a new variable z = y+ A N o / Tb N0 and then dy = dz.

35 . ∞ 2 2 erfc(u ) = exp( − z )dz ∫ π u Therefore. the conditional probability of error Eb 1 erfc( ) P 10 = N0 2 ( Note: erf(u ) = 2 exp(− z ∫ π 0 u 2 )dz and erfc(u)=1-erf(u) ) D.Error Rate of Binary PAM (9) At this point we find it convenient to introduce the definite integration called complementary error function.

36 .Error Rate of Binary PAM (10) In some literature. ∞ 1 u2 Q( x) = exp(− ) du ∫ 2 2π x 1 x Q( x) = erfc( ) and erfc( x) = 2 Q( x 2 ) 2 2 D. Q function is used instead of erfc function.

Error Rate of Binary PAM (11) Case II Similary. is 1 ( y − A) 2 exp(− f y ( y 1) = ) N 0 / Tb πN 0 / Tb 1 P01 = πN 0 / Tb −∞ ∫ λ ( y − A) 2 exp(− )dy N 0 / Tb D. the conditional probability density function of Y given that symbol 1 was sent.37 .

38 .Error Rate of Binary PAM (12) By setting λ =0 and putting y−A = −z N 0 / Tb we find that P01 = P10 The average probability of symbol error Pe is obtained as Pe = P0 P 10 + P 1P 01 If the probability of 0 and 1 are equal and equal to ½ Eb 1 Pe = erfc( ) N0 2 D.

39 .Error Rate of Binary PAM (13) D.

all about baseband tx

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