Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22

Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 1-1
Power System Protection
Course - Power System Protection
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S. Sachdev
Ph.D., D.Sc., Life Fellow IEEE, Life Fellow IEI, Fellow EIC
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, SK
CANADA
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 2-
Outline of the course
Development of the previous century
Background information
Protection of transformers
Protection of transmission lines
Protection of generators
Outline
Developments
Background
information
Transformer
protection
Line protection
Generator
protection
Sources
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 3-
Outline of the course
Development of the previous century
 Need
 Protection principles
 Technologies
Fuses
Electromagnetic technology
Electromechanical technology
Solid state technology
Numerical technology
Electronic transducer
Outline
Developments
Background
information
Transformer
protection
Line protection
Generator
protection
Sources
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 1-2
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 4-
Outline of the course
Development of the previous century
Background information
 Electrical placement of relays
 Protection zones
 Device numbers
 Backup protection
 Main 1 – Main 2 protection system
 Breaker failure protection
 Multifunction devices
Outline
Developments
Background
information
Transformer
protection
Line protection
Generator
protection
Sources
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 5-
Outline of the course
Development of the previous century
Background information
Protection of transformers
 Differential protection
 Ground fault protection
 Overcurrent and distance protection
 Thermal overload protection
Outline
Developments
Background
information
Transformer
protection
Line protection
Generator
protection
Sources
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 6-
Outline of the course
Development of the previous century
Background information
Protection of transformers
Protection of transmission lines
 Distance protection
 Differential protection
 Phase comparison protection
 Directional comparison protection
Outline
Developments
Background
information
Transformer
protection
Line protection
Generator
protection
Sources
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 1-3
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 7-
Outline of the course
Development of the previous century
Background information
Protection of transformers
Protection of transmission lines
Protection of generators
 Stator phase fault protection
 Ground fault and unbalanced current
 Loss of field and
 Field ground fault
Outline
Developments
Background
information
Transformer
protection
Line protection
Generator
protection
Sources
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 8-
Sources of material
The material presented in this course is developed
from the material presented in the sources in the
attached list
 Standards, Guides and Recommended
practices for Electric Power Systems, published
by the IEEE Standards Association,
Piscataway, NJ , USA
 Instruction manuals published by relay
manufacturers
 Monseth, I.T. and Robinson, P.H., Relay
Systems - Theory and Applications, McGraw
Hill Book Company, New York, NY, 1935
Outline
Developments
Background
information
Transformer
protection
Line protection
Generator
protection
Sources
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 9-
Sources of material
 Kaufmann, M., The Protective Gear Handbook,
Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, Ltd., London (UK),
1945
 Mason, C.R., The Art and Science of Protective
Relaying, J ohn Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York,
NY, 1956
 Kimbark, E.W., Power System Stability, Vol. II,
J ohn Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1960
 Atabekov, G.I., The Relay Protection of High
Voltage Networks, Pergamon Press, New York,
NY, 1960
Outline
Developments
Background
information
Transformer
protection
Line protection
Generator
protection
Sources
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 1-4
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 10-
Sources of material
 Warrington, A.R., Protective Relays - Their
Theory and Practice, Vol. I and II, Chapman
and Hall, London (U.K.), 1962, 1969
 Madhava Rao, T.S., Power System Protection -
Static Relays, McGraw Hill Book Company,
New Delhi, 1981
 Cook, V., Analysis of Distance Protection, J ohn
Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, ISBN: 0-471-
90749-9, 1985
 Blackburn, J . Lewis, Protective Relaying,
Principles and Applications, Marcel Dekker,
Inc., New York, NY, ISBN: 0-8247-7445-0, 1987
Outline
Developments
Background
information
Transformer
protection
Line protection
Generator
protection
Sources
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 11-
Sources of material
 Protective Relays Application Guide, GEC
Measurements Ltd., Stafford, U.K., 1987
 Applied Protective Relaying, Westinghouse
Electric Corporation, 1987
 Phadke, Arun G. and Thorp, J ames S.,
Computer Relaying for Power Systems,
Research Studies Press Ltd., Taunton,
Somerset, England, ISBN 0-86380-074-2.
Published in 1988
 L.P. Singh, Digital Protection - Protective
Relaying from Electromechanical to
Microprocessor, New Age International (P)
Limited, New Delhi, India, ISBN 81-224-1053-7,
1994
Outline
Developments
Background
information
Transformer
protection
Line protection
Generator
protection
Sources
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 12-
Sources of material
 A.T. J ohns and S.K. Salman, Digital Protection
for Power Systems, Peter Peregrinus Ltd. on
behalf of the Institution of Electrical Engineers,
Redwood Books, Trowbridge, UK, ISBN: 0-
86341-195-9, 1995
 Power System Protection - Vol. 1, 2, 3 and 4,
The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London,
UK, ISBN: 0-85296 834-5, 836-1, 837-X and
838-8, 1995
 Horowitz, S.H. and Phadke, A.G., Power
System Relaying, J ohn Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
New York, NY, ISBN: 0-471-95887-5, 1995
Outline
Developments
Background
information
Transformer
protection
Line protection
Generator
protection
Sources
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 1-5
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 13-
Sources of material
 Ziegler, Gerhard, Numerical Distance
Protection, Principles and Application, Publicis
MCD, Munich and Erlangen, ISBN: 3-89578-
142-8, 1999
 Pilot Protective Relaying, Wlater A. Elmore
Editor, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, ISBN: 0-
8247-8195-3, 2000
 Network Protection & Automation Guide, Alstom
T&D Energy Automation & Information,
Levallois-Perret, France, ISBN: 2-9518589-0-6,
2002
Outline
Developments
Background
information
Transformer
protection
Line protection
Generator
protection
Sources
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 14-
Sources of material
 Protective Relaying Theory and Applications,
Walter A. Elmore Editor, Marcel Dekker, Inc.,
New York, ISBN: 0-8247-0972-1, 2004
 Ziegler, Gerhard, Numerical Differential
Protection, Publicis Corporate Publishing,
Erlangen, ISBN: 3-89578-234-3, 2005
Outline
Developments
Background
information
Transformer
protection
Line protection
Generator
protection
Sources
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-1
Power System Protection
Introduction - Power System Protection
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S. Sachdev
Ph.D., D.Sc., Life Fellow IEEE, Life Fellow IEI, Fellow EIC
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, SK
CANADA
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 2-
Outline of the course
Development of the previous century
Background information
Protection of transformers
Protection of transmission lines
Protection of generators
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 3-
Outline - this session
Environment
Technologies
 Fuses, electromagnetic, electromechanical,
solid-state
Protection principles Relaying techniques
 Overcurrent, directional, differential and distance
relays
Numerical relays
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-2
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 4-
Environment
Review
Protection
 Need and Evolution
Protection zones
Relay - power system interface
Transducers
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 5- Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 6- Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-3
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 7- Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 8- Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 9-
Need
Earthquakes, floods, storms, etc - physically
damage components of power systems
Insulation deteriorates with age and sooner or later
fails
These events cause short circuits - phase to
ground and phase to phase
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-4
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 10-
Need
The short circuits result in flow of excessive currents
in the system components causing excessive
heating that further damages the equipment
The faulted equipment must be isolated as soon as
it can be done so that the damage is limited
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 11-
Need
Interruptions cause
 Loss of revenue
 Loss of productivity
 Customer annoyance
The impact of faults must be minimized by limiting
the size of the isolated system and duration of the
fault
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 12-
Evolution
Evolution of protection went through several stages
 Fuses
 Electromagnetic relays
 Electromechanical relays
 Solid state relays
 Numerical relays
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-5
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 13-
Fuses
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 14-
HRC fuse
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 15- Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-6
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 16- Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 17-
Instantaneous Relay
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 18-
Single Input Amplitude Comparator
S
op
Core
Coil
Armature
Balance beam
Trip contact
S
0p
- Operting signal
S
r
- Restraining signal
Spring
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-7
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 19-
Dual Input Amplitude Comparator
S
op
S
r
Core
Coil
Armature
Balance beam
Trip contact
Spring
S
op
- Operting signal
S
r
- Restraining signal
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 20-
Electromechanical O/C relay
C.T.
Time Dial - only dial
numbers 6-9 shown
Back stop
Stationary
Contact
Moving
Contact
Disk rotor
Damping magnet
Restraining
spring
Shading
rings
Taps
Lam
inated m
agnetic circuit
9 8 7 6
S
h
a
f
t
torque
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 21-
Electromechanical u Comparator
C.T.
Disk rotor
Restraining
spring
Laminated
magneticcircuit
S
h
a
ft
torque
V
Laminated
magneticcircuit
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-8
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 22-
Induction cup
Pole
face
Pole
face
Yoke Yoke
Relay contacts
+
S
pol
S
op
+
|
op
|
pol
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 23-
Solid-state Technology
v
out
v
in
+
-
Z
2
Z
1
A
v
out
v
in
+
-
C
R
1
A
v
out
v
in
+
-
C
R
A
R
v
out
v
in
+
-
C
R
A
R
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 24-
Solid-state Technology
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-9
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 25-
Another Pulse Generator
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 26-
Protection techniques
Six major approaches
 Overcurrent, over-voltage, under-current, under-
voltage, under-frequency, over-frequency
 Directional discrimination
 Differential protection
 Distance protection
 Traveling wave protection
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 27-
Overcurrent relays
Two types
 Instantaneous overcurrent
 Inverse time
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-10
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 28-
Instantaneous Overcurrent
I
s
T
0
Current
T
i
m
e
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 29-
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 14 16 18
10
8
6
4
3
0.5
Time dial setting
Current as a multiple of tap setting
O
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
g

t
i
m
e

i
n

s
e
c
o
n
d
s
10
type CO-7 over current relay
50-60 cycles
Typical time curves
Current tap settings:
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12 A
1
I/T O/C
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 30-
Voltage-current combinations in directional
relays
Often used combinations are
Current I
A
I
B
I
C
Voltage
V
A
-V
C
V
B
-V
A
V
C
-V
B
V
B
-V
C
V
C
-V
A
V
A
-V
B
[V
B
-V
C
]
+[V
A
-V
C
]
[V
C
-V
A
]
+[V
B
-V
A
]
[V
A
-V
B
]
+[V
C
-V
B
]
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-11
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 31-
Summary of Torque Equations
2 1
) cos( K VI K T ÷ ÷ = t u
2
0
1
) 30 cos( K VI K T ÷ + ÷ = t u
2
0
1
) 60 cos( K VI K T ÷ + ÷ = t u
2
0
1
) 90 cos( K VI K T ÷ + ÷ = t u
2 1
) cos( K VI K T ÷ + ÷ = ì t u
Connection Angle Torque Equation
0
o
30
o
60
o
90
o
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 32-
Ground Directional Relays
One option is to use the zero sequence voltage near the line
terminal and the zero sequence current in the line
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 33-
Negative Sequence Directional Relay
One relay can detect all phase-
to-phase and phase-to-phase-
to-ground faults
Negative sequence relay does
not react to load currents and
power swings
Instead for switching voltages
and currents, sequence filters
are used
I
2
Filter
V
2
Filter
Relay
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-12
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 34-
Distance relay (admittance)
Admittance relay -
characteristic passes
through the origin of the
impedance plane
Re
Im
Z
r1
Z
r2
Z
C
Operate
Restrain
o
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 35-
Distance relay (quadrilateral)
A combination of
multiple relays to
form a protection
function -
Quadrilateral
characteristic
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 36-
Differential principle
Extension of Kirchhoff’s first law
 Current out =Current in
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-13
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 37-
Modern transformers
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 38-
B
u
s

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t
i
a
l

p
r
o
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
( )
' ' '
1 2 3 4
Re 4
LeadsCT
R
lay LeadsCT
i i i R
I
R R
+ +
=
+
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 39-
Bus protection with linear couplers
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-14
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 40-
Relay Logic
+
-
52TC
Protective Relay
CS CS CS CS
52a
CSa CSa CSa CSa
Ra Ra Ra
CS -
Ra -
52a -
52TC -
Contactor switch
Relay contact
Circuit breaker auxiliary contact
Circuit breaker trip coil
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 41-
Digital Electronics Technology
FACT: Virtually all new relays and control system
designs, whether simple or elaborate, are based on
µP technology.
 From fringe to the mainstream in 25 years
 Electromechanical and analog electronic
continue due to inertia, special functions.
 Today, µP relaying is relaying!
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 42-
Why Computer-Based Relaying?
The real reasons…
 Economics
Technology from the mainstream.
The only technology for designers to give
users the functions they want at prices they
have come to expect.
 Change of generations and attitudes.
It’s hard to find new engineers who want to
work with anything but microprocessors, data
communications, PCs.
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-15
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 43-
Why Computer-Based Relaying?
User benefits...
 Intelligent functions and features
 Related functions in one package
 Non-fault monitoring and information
 Detailed fault recording and information
 Data by remote communications
 Supports network-based substation control
 Self-monitoring; no routine maintenance
 Less panel space, battery power, burden
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 44-
Why Computer-Based Relaying?
More of the benefits...
 Standard products, configured via settings
No custom system engineering or wiring
Short ordering cycles, e.g. one week
Reduced inventories
Keep a few maintenance spares
 Fast field repair by swap-out
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 45-
µP
1or more
M
U
X
A/D
Sub-
system
LP FILTER
LP FILTER
LP FILTER
LP FILTER
Contanct Inputs
Relay Ouput
Relay Ouput
Relay Ouput
VT's
To
trip and
alarm
circuits
Contact
status
CT's
Communications Ports and HMI
3 to 64 instantaneous samples of
each ac input signal per power cycle
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-16
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 46-
History and Evolution
1968 - Published work of Rockefeller.
1971 - PRODAR 70, the first computer relaying
system (Westinghouse).
High-speed HV line protection.
Asynchronous sampling of line voltages and
currents.
Event logs with 1 ms resolution.
CPU
S&H
M
U
X
Filter
Filter
Filter
Filter
SCR Output
A/D
Sub-
system
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 47-
History and Evolution
Big changes introduced by microprocessors in late
1980’s
 Data communications - tie relays to remote PCs
and get operational information at the office.
 First trials of relays linked by LAN into a full
substation automation system.
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 48-
Maintenance Impact
Old relays - alive or dead?
 To find out, do regular maintenance!
Expensive.
How long between checks?
Maintenance causes many protection failures
- better to leave it alone?
µP relays report failures instantly
 No calibration drift
 No periodic maintenance recommended
 Repair by swap-out
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-17
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 49-
Maintenance Impact
Repair by swap-out - short downtime
Diagnose in lab or return to manufacturer
Minimal tests to re-commission
Need for setting the replacement unit
The key to successful maintenance with µP relays is
accurate setting.
 Hundreds of settings from paper lists, using
buttons on the front panel???
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 50-
Settings Management
The key to successful
maintenance …
 Keep a controlled settings archive for the entire
system.
 Extract and load settings for a replacement relay
from the archive using data communications.
 Set in the shop before installation, or at the
substation on commissioning.
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 51-
Cost
µP relays cost less, arrive
quickly
Almost no inventory investment needed
Standard products - keep a few spare to back up a
large population in service
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-18
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 52-
Cost
0
10
20
30
40
50
1
9
8
0
2
0
0
5
Delivery
weeks
1
9
8
0
2
0
0
5
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 53-
Cost per year
Electromechanical relays
 Interest +repayment of 120,000 over 30 years =
10,500
 Maintenance and repair =1,000
Numerical relays
 Interest +repayment of 15,000 over four years =
5,800
 Maintenance and repair assuming 1 out of every
5 units will need replacement =1,200
Saving per year per relay is 4,500
 39% of the cost of a unit
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 54-
Adaptive Protection
Adaptive protection is a philosophy which permits
and makes adjustments to protection functions
automatically for making the protection more attuned
to the prevailing power system conditions
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-19
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 55-
Adaptive Protection
Candidate Functions
 Selecting the most suitable algorithm
 Balancing security and dependability
 Changing settings as the system configuration
modifies
 Compensating for measurement errors
 Transformer protection
 Multi-terminal lines
 Backup protection of transmission lines
 Out of step protection
SUBSTA.
LAN
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 56-
Artificial intelligence techniques
ANN Basics
 Neuron and Its Model
 Neural Networks
 Training
Implementations
 Fault Direction Discrimination
Acceptability
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 57-
Future Trends
Two divergent trends:
 Increasing consolidation of functions
Cross the protection-zone boundaries?
Cost benefits for distribution applications
Complex software assemblies - difficult to
modify or type-test - unexpected software
bugs
 Lower-cost processors
Opportunity for more distributed, flexible,
robust systems
Combines well with existing approaches
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-20
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 58-
E
Circular
input polarisation
Elliptical
output polarisation
Pockels-Effect
I
H Input
polarisation
Shifted
output polarisation
E
Faraday-Effect
Non-conventional transducers
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 59-
Substation Communication
IEC 60870-
5-103
IEC 60870-5-101
IEC 870-6 TASE.2
(ICCP)
x
Enterprise WAN
ISDN, Internet
Ethernet,
Profibus EN 50170
Windows NT
TCP/IP
Modem
Modem
Office
Windows
world
WebBrowser
e-mail
Telecom
Call back
System
Control
Centre
HDLC
Remote
line-end
Relay to relay
WAP
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 60-
Bay Control Protection
1 2
Station bus
100 Mbit/s
Ethernet
Switch
100 Mbit/s
Ethernet
Switch
100 Mbit/s
Ethernet
Switch Station bus
Process bus Process bus
SICAM
Substation
Controler
HMI
Router
Remote Control
Intelligent Switchgear
Non-conventional
CTs and VTs
7SC64-0000-ABC SIPROTEC
MENU
ESC LED
F1 F2 F3 F4
741 .
8520
963+/-
CTRL ENTER Loca l Remote
Normal Test
RUN ERROR 7SC64-0000-ABC SIPROTEC
MENU
ESC LED
F1 F2 F3 F4
741 .
8520
963+/-
CTRL ENTER Loca l Remote
Normal Test
RUN ERROR
Bay Control
Intelligent Switchgear
Non-conventional
CTs and VTs
100 Mbit/s
Ethernet
Switch
Process bus
7SC64-0000-ABC SIPROTEC
MENU
ESC LED
F1 F2 F3 F4
741 .
8520
963+/-
CTRL ENTER
Loca l Remote
Normal Test
RUN ERROR
Protection
1 2
Intelligent Switchgear
Non-conventional
CTs and VTs
Bay Control Protection
1 2
System Control
Enterprise WAN
Future s/s communication
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-21
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 61-
Utility communication standard
IEC IEEE/ANSI
IEC
UCA
1997 1998
IEC
IEEE
IEC 61850
2004
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 62-
Highly integrated substation
EVT
S/A
CB
ECT
ISS
D
Bay
Control
Line
Protection
Bus Prot.
Bay Unit
Bus Protection
Central Unit
Substation
Control
Process bus
Station bus
87BB bus
S/A Sensor/Actuator
CB CB subsystem
ECT Electronic CT
EVT Electronic VT
ISS Isolator subsystem
D Diagnosis
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 63-
Evolution of P S relaying
70s
90s
?
00s
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-22
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 64-
Distribution Switchgear
One IED in place of “black boxes”
Traditional panels with mechanical relays and control
Modern panels with
digital multifunction relay
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 65-
Protection
Metering
Control
PQ
IED - Host for Multiple Functions
One feeder, one unit!
%
I
O
V
0 50 100
F
e
e
d
e
r

d
a
t
a

b
a
s
e
Local and Remote
Communications
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 66-
IED Designs
Intelligent numerical relay designs
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 2-23
Numerical Relays
Tutorial
2012 November 22 - 67-
Conclusions
Power
System
Protection
Power System
Analysis
Analog
Electronics
Digital
Electronics
Communications
PC and µP
Technology
Signal
Processing
Software
Development
Artificial
Intelligence
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S
Outline
Environment
Need
Evolution
Fuses
Electromagnetic
Electro-
mechanical
Solid-state
Techniques
Digital
electronics
µP relays
Adaptive
Other issues
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 3-1
Power System Protection
Background Information
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S. Sachdev
Ph.D., D.Sc., Life Fellow IEEE, Life Fellow IEI, Fellow EIC
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, SK
CANADA
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 2 -
Outline of the course
Development of the previous century
Background information
Protection of transformers
Protection of transmission lines
Protection of generators
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 3 -
Outline of the course
Development of the previous century
Background information
 Electrical placement of relays
 Protection zones
 Device numbers
 Backup protection
 Redundant protection
 Breaker failure protection
 Multifunction devices
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 3-2
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 4 -
Electrical placement of relays
Single bus arrangement
Double bus arrangement
Breaker and a half scheme
Ring bus scheme
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of
S
- 5 -
S
i
n
g
l
e

b
u
s

a
r
r
a
n
g
e
m
e
n
t
Relay
Relay
Voltage
Transformers
Bus
CB - Circuit Breaker
CT - Current Transformers
Relay
Relay
Relay
CB CT
CB CT
CB CT
CB CT
CB CT
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of
S
- 6 -
D
o
u
b
l
e

b
u
s

a
r
r
a
n
g
e
m
e
n
t
M
a
in

B
u
s
CB - Circuit Breaker
CT - Current Transformers
VT - Voltage Transformer
Relay
Relay
Relay Relay
Relay
Relay
CB
VT
CT
CT
CB
A
u
x
ilia
r
y

B
u
s
VT
VT
VT
VT
CT CB
CT CB CB
CB
CT
CT
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 3-3
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of
S
- 7 -
Breaker and a half scheme
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of
S
- 8 -
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of
S
- 9 -
Protection Zones
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 3-4
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of
S
- 10 -
Protection Zones
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of
S
- 11 -
Protection Zones
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of
S
- 12 -
Generator
Transformer
Protection Zone
Bus Protection
Zone
L
in
e

P
r
o
t
e
c
t
io
n
Z
o
n
e
Current
Transformers
Circuit Breaker
Line Protection
Zone
Bus Protection
Zone
Bus Protection
Zone
Line Protection
Zone
Protection Zones
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 3-5
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 13 -
Device Numbers
C37.2-1996, IEEE Standard Electrical Power
System Device Numbers
 11: multifunction device
 21: distance relay
 24: volts per Hertz relay
 25: synchronism check device
 26: apparatus thermal device
 27: undervoltage relay
 32: directional power relay
 37: undercurrent or underpower relay
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 14 -
Device Numbers
C37.2-1996, IEEE Standard Electrical Power
System Device Numbers
 37: undercurrent or underpower relay
 40: field relay
 46: negative sequence relay
 49: machine or transformer thermal relay
 50: instantaneous overcurrent relay
 55: power factor relay
 51: ac time overcurrent relay
 59: overvoltage relay
 60: voltage or current balance relay
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 15 -
Device Numbers (continued)
C37.2-1996, IEEE Standard Electrical Power
System Device Numbers 62: time delay relay
 62: time delay or time stop relay
 64: ground detector relay
 67: ac directional overcurrent relay
 78: out of step or phase angle measuring
 79: ac reclosing relay
 81: frequency relay
 85: carrier or pilot wire receiver relay
 86: lock out relay
 87: Differential relay
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 3-6
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 16 -
Device Numbers (continued)
 Suffix:
F →Feeder or field
G →Generator or ground
L →Line or logic
M →Motor or metering
N →Neutral or network
T →Transformer
TH →Transformer high voltage side
TL →Transformer low voltage side
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 17 -
Backup protection
All components of protection system do not
always work; some fail sometimes
Backup protection should therefore be provided
Backup protection should be independent of the
main protection system
Two types of backup protection
 Local backup
 Remote backup
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 18 -
Local backup
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 3-7
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 19 -
Local backup
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 20 -
Local backup
Options
 Use same or different CTs
 Use same or different VTs
 Use same or different trip batteries
 Energize same or different trip coil in the CB
If different trip coils are used, fuse each
circuit separately
 Trip same or a separate CB provided for this
purpose
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 21 -
Remote backup
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 3-8
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of
S
- 22 -
Remote backup
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 23 -
Main 1, Main 2
B
u
s

D
B
u
s

B
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of
S
- 24 -
Main 1 – Main 2 incorrect operations
Consider the following probabilities
 Correct operation = 0.98
 Incorrect operation =0.01
 Failure to operate=0.01
On the occurrence of an external fault
 Probability of one or both operating
incorrectly =0.0199
This probability is quite high especially at peak
load times
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 3-9
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 25 -
Main 1 – Main 2 adaptive approach
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 26 -
Need for breaker failure protection
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 27 -
What can go wrong?
Breaker contact get stuck
Breaker contacts part but not totally
Contacts open but current flow is not
interrupted
 Through the main circuit
 Through the voltage grading circuits
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 3-10
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 28 -
What to detect and how?
Continued flow of current
 Current flow detector
 Set at less than minimum fault current
Breaker contacts have separated
 Auxiliary contacts do not provide reliable
information
Combination of current flow and breaker
auxiliary contact
Combination of transformer differential relay
and breaker auxiliary contact
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 29 -
Breaker failure
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 30 -
One timer per breaker concept
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 3-11
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 31 -
One timer per breaker concept
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 32 -
One timer per bus concept
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 33 -
Typical time chart
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 3-12
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 34 -
Typical time chart
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 35 -
Multifunction devices
Not a new concept
 Directional overcurrent relays from
electromechanical era is a long accepted
concept
 Became more prevalent when solid-state
technology became acceptable
 Has become an industry wide practice with
numerical relays
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 36 -
Example 1
Areva P443
 Distance protection
 Delta directional comparison
 Overcurrent protection
 Under-voltage and over-voltage protection
 Open phase protection
 Breaker failure
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 3-13
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 37 -
Example 1
Areva P443 (Continued)
 Auto-reclose with check synchronism
 VT fuse failure supervision
 Loss of phase CT supervision
 Post fault analysis
Fault location
Event records
Fault records
Disturbance records
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 38 -
Example 1
Areva P443 (Continued)
 Trip circuit supervision
 CB state supervision
 Communication (front and rear ports)
IEC 60870-5-103
DNP 3
Courier / K-Bus
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 39 -
Example 2
Beckwith Electric M-3425A
 Phase differential (87)
 Split-phase differential (50DT)
 Ground differential (87GD)
 Negative sequence overcurrent (46)
 Residual directional overcurrent (67N)
 Inverse time neutral overcurrent (51N)
 Inverse time overcurrent with voltage
restraint (51V)
 Instantaneous neutral overcurrent (50N)
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 3-14
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 40 -
Example 2
Beckwith Electric M-3425A
 100% Stator Ground Fault Protection by low
frequency injection(64S)
 100% Stator ground fault protection using 3
rd
harmonic neutral undervoltage or 3
rd
harmonic voltage differential
 Phase overvoltage (59)
 Neutral overvoltage (59N)
 Over-excitation (V/Hz) (24)
 Phase under-voltage (27)
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 41 -
Example 2
Beckwith Electric M-3425A
 Field ground (64F)
 Loss of field (40)
 Over/under-frequency (81)
 Under-frequency time accumulation (81A)
 Reverse power (32)
 Out of step (78)
 Inadvertent Energizing (50/27)
 Synch Check (25)
 Generator breaker failure (50BF)
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 42 -
Example 2
Beckwith Electric M-3425A
 Two RS-232 ports and one RS-485 port
 RJ45 Ethernet port
 Modbus and BECO protocols
 IRIG-B Time synchronization
 Trip circuit monitoring
 Redundant power supplies
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi
2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan 3-15
Power System
Protection
2012 Novemer 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 43 -
Summary
Background information
 Electrical placement of relays
 Protection zones
 Device numbers
 Backup protection
 Redundant protection
 Breaker failure protection
 Multifunction devices
Outline
Placement
Zones
Device
Numbers
Backup
Protection
Redundancy
Breaker failure
Multifunction
devices
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-1
Power System Protection
Transformer Protection
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S. Sachdev
Ph.D., D.Sc., Life Fellow IEEE, Life Fellow IEI, Fellow EIC
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, SK
CANADA
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 2 -
Outline
Introduction
 Electrical faults
Electrical protection systems
Mechanical detection
Thermal protection
Backup protection for external faults
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 3 -
Introduction
Objectives
 Isolate the faulted equipment
 Limit damage
 Minimize possibility of fire
 Minimize hazards to personnel
 Minimize risk of damaging adjacent HV
equipment
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-2
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 4 -
Introduction
Protection plan is based on
 Cost of repairing damage
 Cost of lost production
 Adverse effects on the overall system
 Spreading damage to adjacent equipment
 Duration of unavailability of the damaged
equipment
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 5 -
Introduction
Processors that lead to failures
 Expansion and contraction due to thermal
cycling
 vibrations
 Local heating due to eddy currents
 Excessive heating due to overloading or
inadequate cooling
 Forces due to flow of through fault currents
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 6 -
Introduction
Types of faults
 Winding faults
Phase to ground short circuit
Phase to phase short circuit
Shorted turns
 Core faults
 Tap changer faults
 Transformer accessories fault
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-3
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 7 -
Introduction
Comp-Years Subcomponent No. of
Outages
Total Time
(h)
9,302 Bushings including
CTs
93 22,144
Windings 31 24,876
O-L Tap Changer 187 51,806
Core 15 493
Leads 2 17
Cooling Equipment 28 1,590
Aux Equipment 24 6,166
Other 162 37,455
Transformer related outages over a four year period Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 8 -
Introduction
Control and Protection
Equipment
323 23,407
Surge Arrester 31 3,104
Bus 61 14,132
Disconnect 157 28,664
Circuit Switcher 3 71
CT (Free Standing) 11 1,585
Potential Devices 27 6,971
Motor-Operated
Ground Switch
31 7,661
Other 64 1,977
Unknown 220 34,341
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 9 -
Introduction
Internal fault currents
 Limited by system capacity and system
impedance
 The fault currents are reduced in magnitude by
CTs and are then applied to the relays protecting
the transformer
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-4
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 10 -
Introduction
The fault currents from the
source and load sides are
not equal
A CT on the source side
may saturate
Causing sufficient restraint
for blocking the differential
relay
F
Source side Bus
Load side Bus
IF
IF’
R
Current from co-generators
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 11 -
Introduction
The fault current is limited
by the source impedance
plus the transformer
impedance
The CTs should not
saturate if appropriately
selected
Note that the fault current
is flowing through the
transformer
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 12 -
Introduction
The fault current
is limited
The CTs should
not saturate if
appropriately
selected
Note that the fault
current is flowing
through the
transformer
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-5
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 13 -
Introduction
The fault current
is not flowing in
the transformer
One of the two
CTs may saturate
F2
R
Source side Bus
Load side Bus
IF IF
IF
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 14 -
Introduction
Performance of CTs
 For a fault in the protection zone of a transformer
one CT or more CTs may saturate
 For a fault outside the protection zone of a
transformer and the fault current flowing through
the transformer may also cause a CT to saturate
 For a fault outside the protection zone of a
transformer and the fault current NOT flowing
through the transformer may also cause a CT to
saturate
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 15 -
Introduction
Other issues
 Magnetizing inrush
 High temperature
 Insulating oil deterioration
 Insulation failure
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-6
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 16 -
Introduction
Electrical protection systems
 Differential protection
 Ground fault protection
 Over-excitation protection
 Overcurrent protection
 Distance protection
Gas accumulation / pressure protection
(Buchholz relay)
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 17 -
Inrush phenomenon
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 18 -
A recording
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-7
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 19 -
Expected peak inrush current
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 20 -
Inrush currents
Currents in the primary windings
 flow when a transformer is switched on
 when magnetizing voltage changes abruptly due
to
occurrence of a fault
change of the nature of fault – from single
phase to two-phase to ground
out of phase synchronizing
inrush from an energized transformer to an
adjacent incoming transformer
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 21 -
Inrush currents
Inrush currents are many times the rated
current; limited by source impedance and
leakage reactance of the transformer
Appear to a differential relay as operating
currents
Almost no current for a major part of a cycle
Rich in harmonic content
A differential protection should not operate
due to magnetizing inrush
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-8
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 22 -
Time constant
Varies over a large range
 Typical values
1 MVA transformer: ~0.15 s
10 MVA transformer: ~ 1.2 s
Transformer larger than 10 MVA: >1.2 s (up
to ≈700 s)
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 23 -
Overexcitation
Also referred to as over-fluxing, excessive
volts per Hertz
Causes of overexcitation
 Loss of load especially in the neighbourhood of a
network transformer that is at the end of a
transmission line
 Loss of reactors connected to the transmission
system especially at off-peak load times
 System voltage increase during off-peak load
times
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 24 -
Overexcitation
Causes of overexcitation
 directly connected generator-transformer units
when a unit is run at reduced speed and the
generator is excited
When load is shed while the transmission
lines remain connected to the generator
causing overvoltage (V/Hz can exceed 1.25)
Excitation control helps but may run up
against a limit
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-9
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 25 -
Overexcitation
The voltage applied to a transformer may be
expressed as
Manufacturers provide limiting flux verses
time and Volts per Hz curves
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 26 -
Sample flux verses time
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 27 -
V
/
H
z

v
e
r
s
e
s

t
i
m
e
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-10
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 28 -
Overexcitation
Can occur at 1.05 pu voltage at the
transformer terminals at full load (0.8 pf) or
1.1 pu voltage at no load
 Laminated steel core saturates, stray flux
increases in magnitude especially at the ends of
the core; this increases the heating
 Can cause sever local overheating causing
eventual breakdown of core insulation and even
winding insulation
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 29 -
Overexcitation
Overexcitation impacts differential protection
because of
 The increase in magnetizing current
At 1.25 pu voltage the differential current can
be more than 15% - a typical setting
At 1.4 pu voltage the differential current can
be more than 50 % of the rated current
 Fifth harmonic current increases
At 115 % voltage is 80 % of the 50 Hz
current; gradually decreases to 60%
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 30 -
Measurement of V/Hz
This works out to be 0.9903 at 110 V (out of VT) and 50 Hz
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-11
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 31 -
Concerns
The waveform has to be clean (free of odd
harmonics, sub harmonics and dc offset)
 Filters must have small band width and sufficient
attenuation out side the pass band
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 32 -
V/Hz – numerical implementation
Phasor measurement should be
independent of the frequency of the
waveform
 Most algorithms assume the frequency to be the
nominal frequency
 Countermeasures must be taken
Correct the measurements of the phasor
Tie up sampling rate with the frequency of the
waveform
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 33 -
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-12
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 34 -
Electrical protection
Differential protection
 Concept
 Delta-wye transformer
 Autotransformer
 Coping with magnetizing inrush
 Coping with Overexcitation
 Coping with CT saturation
 Internal faults during magnetizing inrush
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 35 -
Differential protection – external fault
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 36 -
Differential protection – internal fault
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-13
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 37 -
Concept – balancing lead burdens
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 38 -
CT mismatch - example
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 39 -
Current mismatch
Reasons for current mismatch
 Magnetizing current of the transformer
 Difference of accuracy class of the primary and
secondary CTs
 Off-nominal tap setting of the transformer
 Automatic tap changing
 Magnetizing inrush currents
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-14
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 40 -
CT mismatch
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 41 -
Concept - %age differential approach
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 42 -
Concept – restraining signals
Restraint takes several form in relay designs
 |I
1
+ I
2
|
 [I
1
+ I
2
]/2
 [|I
1
| + |I
2
|]
 [|I
1
| + |I
2
|]/2
 Max(|I
1
|
,
|I
2
|)
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-15
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 43 -
Concept – operating characteristic
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 44 -
Concept – external fault example
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 45 -
Concept – phase shift
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-16
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 46 -
Concept – single phase faults
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 47 -
Concept – zero sequence currents
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 48 -
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-17
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 49 -
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 50 -
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 51 -
Numerical relay application
All CTs are wye connected when numerical
relays are used because
 Wye connected CTs are easier to wire and
trouble shoot
 Residual overcurrent protection can be used
 Enables the relay to perform multiple functions
 Provides separate ground for the secondary
windings of the primary and secondary CTs
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-18
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 52 -
Numerical relay application
 Currents out of delta connected CTs are √3
times the currents out of the wye connected CTs
The burden is three times when delta
connected CTs are used compared to when
wye connected CTs are used
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 53 -
Numerical relay application
CT mismatch and phase shift
compensations are provided by the relay
software
 CT ratio mismatch is straight forward; use a
correction factor
 Two out of many possible phase mismatch
methods are in the following slides
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 54 -
Phase compensation
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-19
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 55 -
Phase compensation
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 56 -
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 57 -
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-20
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 58 -
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 59 -
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 60 -
Coping with inrush currents
Three approaches
 Harmonic restraint
Second and fifth harmonic restraint
Even harmonic restraint
 Block the relay operation
Second harmonic blocking
Fifth harmonic blocking
 Wave shape recognition
Low current duration
DC component blocking
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-21
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 61 -
Differential protection system
Use harmonic restraint in addition to
percentage differential approach
 Avoids tripping during magnetizing inrush
 Allows more sensitive settings of the relay
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 62 -
Differential protection system
One approach implements the restraint in
the following form
 Harmonic restraint is high
Provides security at the cost of operating
speed for internal faults with CT saturation
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 63 -
Differential protection system
Another approach implements the second
harmonic restraint
 This became a necessity when it was noticed
that differential protection with total harmonic
restraint is blocked by the harmonic currents
experienced by a rectifier transformer
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-22
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 64 -
Differential protection system
More recently, the following operating
principles is being used
 The fifth harmonic is added to block operation
during over-excitation of the transformer
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 65 -
Differential protection system
Another approach used for transformer
differential protection implements
 The magnetizing current produced by some
transformers does not contain sufficient second
harmonic component. The fourth harmonic
component is therefore added to the increase
the restraint.
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 66 -
Differential protection system
Some relays use harmonic blocking instead
of harmonic restraint
These relays have two units, a differential
unit and a blocking unit
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-23
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 67 -
Differential protection system
The operating unit implements
Two types of blocking units are used
 Second harmonic blocking
 Second and fifth harmonic blocking
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 68 -
Differential protection system
Second harmonic blocking implement the
following logic
 Note that the blocking unit operates when the
second harmonic restraint does not exceed the
operating signal
Outline Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 69 -
Differential protection system
Second and fifth harmonic blocking
implement the logic that neither second nor
the fifth harmonic restraint indicates a block
condition
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-24
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 70 -
Waveform identification
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 71 -
DC blocking
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 72 -
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-25
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 73 -
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 74 -
CT saturation
Several approaches have been developed
for use with numerical relays for blocking
differential relays during external faults if a
CT saturates
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 75 -
One approach
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-26
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 76 -
Another approach
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 77 -
Thermal protection
Causes of overheating
 Failure of cooling system
 Overload
 High ambient temperature
 External faults not cleared
 Abnormal operating conditions
Low frequency
High voltage
Harmonic load
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 78 -
Nature of temperature rise
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-27
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 79 -
Thermal protection
Results of overheating
 Shortened life of transformer
 Insulation deterioration, ultimately failure
 Coolant heated to temperatures more than its
flash point (resulting in fire)
 Generate gases operating Buchholz relays
Hot Spot
 Can be determined from the design
Manufacturers do it
Control action is based on utility practice
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 80 -
Thermal protection
Top oil temperature
 With or without hot spot temperature
Hot spot temperature
 Measure
Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) are
embedded for monitoring temperature at pre-
selected locations in a transformer
RTD used in transformers are usually made
of platinum because it is an inert metal
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 81 -
Thermal protection
Hot spot temperature
 Simulate
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-28
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 82 -
Thermal protection
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 83 -
Core faults
Insulation failure between laminations
Insulation failure between core and
supporting structure
Detected by Buccholz type relays
 Viable protection for turn to turn faults
 Gas accumulation
Very sensitive to internal faults that cause
decomposition of oil producing gas
 Gas pressure
Can operate on high through currents
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 84 -
Core faults
 Dissolved gas analysis
Arcing is indicated by production of hydrogen
(H
2
), acetylene (C
2
H
2
) and ethylene (C
2
H
4
)
Cellulose breakdown is indicated by
production of methane (CH
4
) , ethylene,
carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide
(CO
2
)
Corona is indicated by the production of
hydrogen, methane and ethylene
Overheated oil produces hydrogen, methane,
ethylene and ethane (C
2
H
6
)
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-29
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 85 -
Core faults
 Use of dissolved gas analysis
One typical approach is to determine total
dissolved combustible gases (TDCG)
 Level 1 – transformer operating normally
 Level 2 – exercise caution, analyze
monthly
 Level 3 – exercise caution, analyze
weekly, consider planned outage
 Level 4, analyze daily and consider
removal from service
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 86 -
Core faults
 Use of dissolved gas analysis
Another approach is to calculate ratios of
components of dissolved gases (Doernenburg
or Roger’s ratios)
 DR-1 (RR-1): CH
4
/H
2
 DR-2 (RR-2): C
2
H
2
/C
2
H
4
 DR-3: C
2
H
2
/CH
4
, (RR-3): C
2
H
4
/C
2
H
6
 DR-4: C
2
H
6
/C
2
H
2
Different indices indicate different types of
faults (IEEE Std. 57.104)
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 87 -
Core faults
Recommended gas analysis procedure
 Periodical manually or automatically
 Should begin when a new transformer is
commissioned
 Test at regular intervals to establish
baseline data
 Also recommended after a transformer
protection relay operates
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
4-30
Power System
Protection
2012 November 21 Prof. Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 88 -
Summary
Magnetizing inrush and overexcitation
Differential protection
 Concept
 Protection of delta/wye transformer
 Protection of auto-transformer
 Coping with inrush and overexcitation
 Protection from ground faults
 Coping with CT saturation
 Thermal protection
 Core faults
Outline
Introduction
Differential
Magnetizing
Inrush
Ground fault
Thermal pro
Overexcitation
Delta-wye Tr
Auto-transformer
Coping Inrush
CT saturation
An example
Core faults
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-1
Power System Protection
Transmission Line Protection
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S. Sachdev
Ph.D., D.Sc., Life Fellow IEEE, Life Fellow IEI, Fellow EIC
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, SK
CANADA
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 2 -
Outline of the course
Development of the previous century
Background information
Protection of transformers
Protection of transmission lines
Protection of generators
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 3 -
Outline – this topic
Introduction
Protection systems
 Without communication between terminals
Distance protection
Pilot protection
 With communication between terminals
Directional comparison
Phase comparison
Differential protection
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-2
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 4 -
Outline – this session
Introduction
 Types of faults
 Terms often used
 SIR and Line length
 Definition of distance relay
Protection systems
 Without communication between terminals
Distance protection
 Group A relays
 Group B relays
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 5 -
Introduction
Types of faults
 Phase to ground short circuit
 Phase to phase short circuit
 Phase to phase to ground short circuits
 Three phase short circuits
 One phase open
With or without ground fault
 Two phases open
With or without ground fault
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 6 -
Introduction
Operating voltage 100-149 kV; 1998-2002
kM-Years Subcomponent No. of
Outages
Total Time
(h)
227,608 Structures 237 20,470
Joints & dead ends 21 458
Conductor 274 8,991
Insulation system 1,822 46,902
Ground wire 64 1,081
Other 70 1,033
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-3
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 7 -
Introduction
Terminal-
Years
Subcomponent No. of
Outages
Total Time
(h)
10,658 Pro & Cont Eq 513 2,467
Surge Arrester 163 35
Bus 3 24
Disconnect 73 2,050
Circuit switcher 7 79
CT (free standing) 13 8,217
Potential devices 29 1,096
Other 51 197
Unknown 635 230
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 8 -
Introduction
Operating voltage 100-149 kV; 1998-2002
kM-Years Subcomponent No. of
Outages
Total Time
(h)
227,608 Defective equipment 426 17,503
Adverse weather 1,694 58,615
Adverse environment 101 729
System conditions 8 36
Human elements 26 206
Foreign interference 171 1,645
Unknowns 62 200
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 9 -
Introduction
Operating voltage 100-149 kV; 1998-2002
Terminal-
Years
Subcomponent No. of
Outages
Total Time
(h)
10,658 Defective equipment 372 13,749
Adverse weather 224 63
Adverse environment 5
System conditions 61 2,050
Human element 181 112
Foreign interference 25 132
Unknown 619 193
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-4
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 10 -
Introduction
Other issues
 Current inrush on line switching
 Power swing protection
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 11 -
Terms often used
Apparent impedance
Arc resistance
Back up zone, such as zone 2 of a distance
relay
Blocking signal (a logic signal)
Cross polarization (for directionality)
Distance relay
Dual polarization (current and voltage)
Infeed
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 12 -
Terms often used
Multi-terminal
Out-feed
Overlapping protection
Permissive (requiring permission to trip)
Phase distance
Primary zone
Self checking
Source impedance (Thevenin)
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-5
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 13 -
Terms often used
Source of fault current
Source-to-line impedance ratio (SIR)
Swing
Switch onto fault protection
Transfer trip
Unblocking
Untransposed
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 14 -
Selecting line protection relays
Issues considered include
 Reliability
 Fault clearing time
 Sensitivity
 Manufacturer’s recommendations
 Economics
 Criticality of the line
 Line length and loading
 Source strength
 Line configuration (tapped, # of terminals)
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 15 -
SIR
Consider a 500 kV line
 Positive sequence reactance 0.277 Ω per km
 On 100 MVA 500 kV base 0.00011 pu / km
 Source impedance 0.0125 pu (corresponds to 8
000 MVA short circuit level)
If line length is 20 km
 SIR is 0.0125/(20 • 0.00011) = 5.68
If the line length is 250 km
 SIR is 0.0125/(250 • 0.00011) = 0.45
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-6
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 16 -
SIR
Consider a 66 kV line
 Positive sequence reactance 0.442 Ω per km
 On 100 MVA 66 kV base 0.01015 pu / km
 Source impedance 0.1 pu (corresponding to 1
000 MVA short circuit level)
If line length is 20 km
 SIR is 0.1/(20 • 0.01015) = 0.49
If the line length is 1.8 km
 SIR is 0.1/(1.8 • 0.01015) = 5.47
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 17 -
Line length classifications
SIR
 5 and more, line is classified as short
 0.5 to 5, line is classified as medium
 Less than 0.5 line is classified as long
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 18 -
Impact of high SIR
Two reasons for high SIR
 Short line
 Low capacity source feeding the line
Consequence
 Voltage is small when a fault occurs on the line
 If the source impedance is high, the fault current
is low
 Affects speed of operation, directionality and
steady state and transient reach of the relay
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-7
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 19 -
Distance protection
Definition
 The Authoritative Dictionary of IEEE Standards
Terms, Seventh Edition - 2000 defines distance
relay as
“A protective relay in which the response to
the input quantities is primarily a function of
the electrical circuit distance between the
relay location and the point of fault.”
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 20 -
Justification
Why do we need distance relays?
Because the coordination of overcurrent and
directional overcurrent relays is achieved by
using time delays
 The time delays would become exceptionally
long when applied to large looped networks of
power systems
 Not possible to protect complex systems using
overcurrent & directional overcurrent relays
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 21 -
Justification
Distance protection was introduced to
overcome these problems
 Most systems use one or another form of
distance relays for protecting transmission and
subtransmission lines
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-8
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 22 -
Understanding
Initial perception
 The operation of these relays depends on the
distance of the fault from the relay location
 Not necessarily true
 Operation depends on other factors, such as
fault resistance
load currents
current sources on the line
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 23 -
Purpose
Distance relays are used for
 Starting a protection scheme when a short circuit
occurs
 Selecting a faulted phase for tripping and auto-
reclosing
 Identifying a trip zone
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 24 -
Classification
Classifications of distance relays
 Relays whose characteristics can be plotted on
the complex impedance and / or admittance
plane (Group A)
 Relays whose characteristics can not be plotted
on the complex impedance or admittance plane
(Group B)
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-9
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 25 -
Group A relays
Types of relays in Group A
 Impedance characteristic
 Offset impedance characteristic
 Mho characteristic
 Reactance characteristic
 Lenticular characteristic
 Apple characteristic
 Quadrilateral characteristic
 A straight line characteristic (Blinder)
 Combinations of these characteristics
 Elliptical characteristic
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 26 -
Relays of Group A
Impedance and offset impedance relays
Operate
Restrain
o
Z
r1
Z
r2
Re
Im
C
Z
Z
Operate
Restrain
o
Z
r1
Z
r2
Re
Im
C
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 27 -
Circular characteristic
Admittance and peanut characteristic
Re
Im
Z
r1
Z
r2
Z
C
Operate
Restrain
o
n Z
L
R
jX
Relay Location
Restrain
Peanut
Characteristic
O
p
e
r
a
t
e
Z
1
o
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-10
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 28 -
Lens characteristic
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 29 -
Apple characteristic
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 30 -
Reactance Relay
Reactance relay - straight line characteristic
parallel to the real axis
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-11
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 31 -
Quadrilateral characteristic
A combination of multiple relays to form
Quadrilateral characteristic
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 32 -
Rhombus characteristic
A combination
of multiple
relays to form
Rhombus
characteristic
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 33 -
Elliptical characteristic
Elliptical distance relay
Im
Re
Zr1
Zr2
O
p
e
r
a
t
e
Restrain
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-12
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 34 -
Blinder
Straight line characteristic (blinders)
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 35 -
Load blinders
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 36 -
I
m
p
e
d
a
n
c
e

+

d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
a
l
A combination of multiple relays to
form a protection function - Impedance
relays in conjunction with a directional
relay
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-13
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 37 -
Group A Relays
A combination of two reactance relays and a
mho relay
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 38 -
Group A Relays
Using blinders to reduce the coverage of
resistive component of the impedance
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 39 -
Circular characteristic
Admittance relay -
characteristic passes
through the origin of the
impedance plane
r1
Z
Radius =
2
Re
Im
Z
r1
Z
r2
Z
C
Operate
Restrain
o
r1
Z
Center =
2
r1 r1
Z Z
Z-
2 2
>
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-14
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 40 -
Amplitude comparison
Multiplying both sides
with I
F
and replacing I
F
Z
with V, we get
r1 r1
F F
Z Z
I V - I
2 2
>
S
op
S
r
Core
Coil
Armature
Balance beam
Trip contact
Spring
S
op
- Operting signal
S
r
- Restraining signal
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 41 -
Solid-state comp
The characteristic
of the admittance
relay is given by
r1 r1
F F
Z Z
I V - I
2 2
>
*(Z
r1
)/2
ADD
ADD
Level Detector
>
I
F
V
Trip
Convert todc
voltage
Convert todc
voltage
*(-1)(Z
r1
)/2
I
F
Invert
c
This characteristic can
be implemented by
using electronic circuits
as shown
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 42 -
Admittance relay characteristic
r1
Radius =
2
z
2 2
2 r1 r1 r1
2 cos( )
2 2 2
z z z
z z u o
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
+ ÷ ÷ s
´ ` ´ `
¹ ) ¹ )
r1
Origin to Center =
2
z
2 2
2 r1 r1 r1
2 cos( )
2 2 2
z z z
z z u o
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
÷ ÷ s ÷
´ ` ´ `
¹ ) ¹ )
2
r1
( )cos( ) 0 z z z u o ÷ ÷ s
2
r1
( )cos( ) z z z u o ÷ >
Re
Im
Z
r1
Z
r2
z
c Operate
Restrain
o
z-c
u
Admittance relay characteristic
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-15
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 43 -
Relays of Group A
The relay characteristic given by
2 2
F r1 F
|I | ( )cos( ) |I | 0 z z z u o ÷ ÷ >
2
r1
) cos( ) ( z z z > ÷o u
0 ) cos( ) (
2
r1
> ÷ ÷ z z z o u
can be rewritten as
Multiplying with the square of the
magnitude of the current, |I
F
|
2
, we get
2
1 F 2 3
|V| |I |cos( ) |V | 0 K K K u o ÷ ÷ ÷ =
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 44 -
Relays of Group A
The characteristic of
the Admittance relay
can also be described
by
o o
90 90 + < < ÷ ¢
Re
Im
Z
r1
Z
r2
Z
r1
-Z
Operate
Restrain
o
¢
Z
where ¢ is the angle of
(Z
r1
- Z) with respect to (Z)
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 45 -
Admittance characteristic
The characteristic is
also defined by
-90
o
< ¢ < +90
o
1
| || |cos( ) 0
F r
V I Z V ¢ ÷ >
1 1 2
| || |cos( ) 0
F r
K V I Z V K ¢ ÷ ÷ =
where ¢ is the angle
between Z and Z
r1
-Z
The characteristic can
now be defined by
Multiplying both terms
by I
F
and replacing I
F
Z
with V, we get V and
I
F
Z
r1
-V.
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-16
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 46 -
Electromechanical phase comparator
Induction cup
Pole
face
Pole
face
Yoke Yoke
Relay contacts
+
Spol
S
op
+
|
op
|
pol
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 47 -
Solid-state comp
When ¢ is greater than -
90
o
as well as less than
+90
o
, the coincidence
between the positive
parts of the waveforms is
for more than one quarter
of the period.
Squaringcircuit
V
Squaringcircuit
Coincidence
90
o
Trip
Integrator
Level detector
I
F
Z
r1
-V
This property of coincidence
provides a means of designing a
suitable phase comparator.
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 48 -
Zero crossings
Phase displacement ¢ can also be checked
using a squaring circuit, a zero crossing
circuit, a logic gate and a trigger circuit.
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-17
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 49 -
Zero crossings
Squaringcircuit
V
Trip
Integrated
I
F
Z
r1
-V
Level detector
I
F
Z
r1
-V
ZeroCrossingdetector
Output of AND gate
Squaringcircuit
Phaseshifting&
Pulsecircuits
AND
Trigger circuit
V
I
F
Z
r1
-V
Trip
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 50 -
Selecting inputs
Which voltages and currents should be used
for measuring impedance?
 For phase fault relays
 For ground fault relays
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 51 -
Observation
The considerations so far lead to the
conclusion
positive sequence impedance of the line can
be measured by using the voltage and
current pairs listed in the next slide when
two or three phase faults are experienced
and in the slide that follows when single
phase to ground faults are experienced
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-18
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 52 -
Observation
Faulted Phases Voltage Current
A and B V
A
- V
B
I
A
- I
B
B and C V
B
– V
C
I
B
– I
C
C and A V
C
- V
A
I
C
- I
A
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 53 -
Observation
Faulted Phase Voltage Current
A V
A
I
A
+ 3kI
0
B V
B
I
B
+ 3kI
0
C V
C
I
C
+ 3kI
0
1L
1L 0L
3Z
Z Z ÷
= k
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 54 -
R
jX
Near terminal
of the line
Remote terminal
of the line
Re
I
V
A
I
CB
Z
S
F
Application
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-19
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 55 -
Line vs. relay impedance
pb
pr
vt
V
V
N
=
pl
pr
ct
I
I
N
=
pr pb ct
pr pl vt
V V N
I I N
=
ct
sr bF
vt
N
Z Z
N
=
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 56 -
Power flow
R3 R2 R1
I
A
A B
I
A
CB1 CB2 CB3
Z
S
Z
R
E
A
I
B
E
B
I
A
E
A
I
B
E
B
I
B
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 57 -
A
CB
Z
S
CB
CB
Line 3
Line 2
Line 1
R
e
Line-side Faults
F
1
I
1
I
1
V
I
2
I
3
I
S
V
I
1
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-20
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 58 -
Bus-side Faults
A
CB
Z
S
CB
CB
Line 3
Line 2
Line 1
R
e
F
1
I
2
I
S
I
3
I
1
I
2
V
V
I
1
V
I
1
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 59 -
Directionality
o
nZ
1L
Bus B
Bus X
Bus A
R
jX Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 60 -
Directionality
o
nZ
1L
Bus B
Bus X
R
jX
Bus A
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-21
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 61 -
Zone 1 setting
R
2
R
1
A B
I
2
I
1
CB 2 CB 1
R
jX
Relay at Bus A
n Z
L
Restrain
O
p
e
r
a
t
e Admittance Relay
Characteristic
MSL Z
1
o
Bus B
(a)
R
jX
Relay at Bus B
n Z
L
Restrain
O
p
e
r
a
t
e
Admittance Relay
Characteristic
MSL
Z
1
o
Bus A
(b)
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 62 -
Zone 1 setting
R
2
jX
2
Relay 2
Maximum
sensitivity
line
o
R
1
jX
1
Relay 1
Restrain
Both Relays Operate
Maximum
sensitivity
line o
Relay 1
Operates
Relay 2
Operates
Restrain
Restrain
Restrain
Line impedance locus
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 63 -
Zone 2 setting
R
1
A
CB 1
R
2
B
CB 2
R
6
C
CB 6
R
3
CB 3
R
4
R
5
CB 4
CB 5
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-22
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 64 -
Zone 2 setting
R
1
A
CB 1
R2
CB 2
R6
C
CB 6
R3
CB 3
B
T
IM
E
Zone-1 R
1
Zone-2 R
1
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 65 -
Zone 2 setting
R
1
A
CB 1
R2
CB 2
R6
C
CB 6
R3
CB 3
B
Zone-1 R
3
Zone-2 R
3
T
IM
E
Zone-1 R
1
Zone-2 R
1
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 66 -
Zone 3 setting
R
1
A
CB 1
R
2
B
CB 2
R
3
CB 3
R
4
C
CB 4
R
5
CB 5
T
IM
E
Zone-1 R1
Zone-2 R
1
Zone-1 R
3
Zone-2 R
3
Zone-3 R1
Z
o
n
e
-
3
R
3
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-23
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 67 -
Zone 3 Setting
R
1
jX
1
Bus A
Restrain
o
jX
3
o
Bus B
R
3
Z
o
n
e
-
1
Z
o
n
e
-
2
Bus C
Zone-1
Zone-2
Zone-3
Z
o
n
e
-
3
Bus D
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 68 -
Zone 1-3 settings
R
4
C
CB 4
R
2
B
CB 2
R
3
CB 3
R
0
A
CB 0
R
1
CB 1
T
IM
E
Zone-1 R
4
Zone-2 R
4
Zone-1 R
2
Zone-2 R
2
Zone-3 R4
Z
o
n
e
-
3
R
2
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 69 -
Zone 1-3 Settings
R
2
jX
2
Bus B
jX
4
o
R
4
Bus C
Z
o
n
e
-
1Z
o
n
e
-
2
Z
o
n
e
-
3
Bus A
o
Zone-1
Zone-2
Zone-3
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-24
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 70 -
Why mho relays?
n Z
L
Restrain
Impedance Relay
Characteristic
Directional Relay
Characteristic
Offset Impedance
Relay Characteristic
R
jX
o
Relay Location
Restrain
Operate
mho Relay
Characteristic
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 71 -
Why quadrilateral relays?
Mho relay
Quadrilateral
relay
Line
o
R
jX
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 72 -
Why quadrilateral relays?
Mho relay
Quadrilateral
relay
Line
o
R
jX
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-25
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 73 -
Cone type dual blinder
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 74 -
Load encroachment blinder
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
L
in
e
im
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
lo
c
u
s
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 75 -
Load encroachment blinder
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
L
in
e
im
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
lo
c
u
s
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-26
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 76 -
Expanding relay characteristic
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 77 -
Group B distance relays
Three types of relays in Group B
Relays for detecting three phase faults
Relays for detecting two phase faults
Relays for detecting single phase to
ground faults
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 78 -
Relays for detecting two phase faults
We will consider two designs
 KD relays
 Sequence voltage balance relays
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-27
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 79 -
Relays for detecting two phase faults
KD relays
 These induction cup relays which are applied two voltages
1 A B r1 A B
V (V V ) Z (I I ) = ÷ ÷ ÷
1 1 2 2
T K V V sin( )-K ¢ =
Relay operates when V2 leads V1.
Note that V
1
is the polarizing voltage and the torque
equation is
2 B C r1 B C
V (V V ) Z (I I ) = ÷ ÷ ÷
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 80 -
A transmission line - fault at z
RB RA
A B
I
B
I
A
CB1 CB2
Z
S
Z
r
y x z
Z
r1
A
B' C'
B
C
I
B
I
C
-I
B
Z
r1
-I
C
Z
r1
V
1
V
2
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 81 -
A transmission line - fault at y
RB RA
A B
I
B
I
A
CB1 CB2
Z
S
Z
r
y x z
Z
r1
A
B' C' B C
I
B
I
C
-I
B
Z
r1
-I
C
Z
r1
V
1
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-28
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 82 -
A Transmission Line - Fault at x
RB RA
A B
I
B
I
A
CB1 CB2
Z
S
Z
r
y x z
Z
r1
A
B' C'
B C
IB
IC
-IBZr1 -ICZr1
V
1
V2
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 83 -
A transmission line - fault at y
RB RA
A B
I
B
I
A
CB1 CB2
Z
S
Z
r
y x z
Z
r1
V
2R
V
1R
V
1R
-I
1
Z
r1
V
2R
-I
2
Z
r1
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 84 -
A Transmission Line - Fault at z
RB RA
A B
I
B
I
A
CB1 CB2
Z
S
Z
r
y x z
Z
r1
V
2R
V
1R
V
1R
-I
1
Z
r1
V
2R
-I
2
Z
r1
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-29
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 85 -
A transmission line - fault at x
RB RA
A B
I
B
I
A
CB1 CB2
Z
S
Z
r
y x z
Z
r1
V
2R
V
1R
V
1R
-I
1
Z
r1
V
2R
-I
2
Z
r1
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 86 -
Observations
One Group B relay is sufficient to detect
 phase A to phase B,
 phase B to phase C and
 phase C to phase A faults
For this purpose
 Induction cup type relay can be used
 Symmetrical components amplitude comparators
can be used
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 87 -
Summary
Introduction
 Types of faults, Terms often used, SIR and Line
length, Definition of distance relay
Protection systems
 Without communication between terminals
Distance protection
 Group A relays
 Relay characteristics
 Inputs to groups A relays
 Group B relays
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-30
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 88 -
A Transmission System
R3 R2
A B
I
B
I
A
CB1 CB2
Z
S
Z
r
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 89 -
Sequence Networks
Positive Sequence Network
I
1
F
1
N
1
V
1F
Z
1L
V
1R
Z
2L
I
2
N
2
F
2
V
2F
Negative Sequence Network
V
2R
N
0
V
0F
F
0
I
0
Z
0L
Zero Sequence Network
V
0R
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 90 -
Voltages and current during a fault
The sequence voltages at the relay location are
1R 1F 1 1L
V V I Z = +
AR 1R 2R 0R
V V V V = + +
The phase voltages at the relay location are
1 120 a = Z

2R 2F 2 2L
V V I Z = +
0R 0F 0 0L
V V I Z = +
2
BR 1R 2R 0R
V V V V a a = + +
2
CR 1R 2R 0R
V V V V a a = + +
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-31
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 91 -
Voltages and current during a fault
and the phase currents at the relay are
AR 1 2 0
I I I I = + +
2
BR 1 2 0
I I I I a a = + +
2
CR 1 2 0
I I I I a a = + +
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 92 -
Voltages and current during a fault
The line voltages at the relay location are
2
AR BR 1R 2R 0R 1R 2R 0R
V V (V V V ) ( V V V ) a a ÷ = + + ÷ + +
2
1R 2R
(1 )V (1 )V a a = ÷ + ÷
2
1F 1 1L 2F 2 2L
(1 )(V I Z ) (1 )(V I Z ) a a = ÷ + + ÷ +
2 2
BR CR 1F 1 1L 2F 2 2L
V V ( )(V I Z ) ( )(V I Z ) a a a a ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ +
2
CR AR 1F 1 1L 2F 2 2L
V V ( 1)(V I Z ) ( 1)(V I Z ) a a ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ +
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 93 -
Voltages and current during a fault
Similarly, the differences of phase currents
are
2
AR BR 1 2 0 1 2 0
I I (I I I ) ( I I I ) a a ÷ = + + ÷ + +
2
1 2
(1 )I (1 )I a a = ÷ + ÷
2 2
BR CR 1 2
I I ( )I ( )I a a a a ÷ = ÷ + ÷
2
CR AR 1 2
I I ( 1)I ( 1)I a a ÷ = ÷ + ÷
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-32
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 94 -
Three phase fault
2
AR BR 1 1L
V V (1 )I Z a ÷ = ÷
PositiveSequenceNetwork
F
1
N
1
V
1R
Z
1L
V
1F
I
1
2
BR CR 1 1L
V V ( )I Z a a ÷ = ÷
CR AR 1 1L
V V ( 1)I Z a ÷ = ÷
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 95 -
Three phase fault
AR 1
I I =
2
AR BR 1R
I I (1 )I a ÷ = ÷
2
BR 1
I I a =
CR 1
I I a =
2
BR CR 1R
I I ( )I a a ÷ = ÷
CR AR 1R
I I ( 1)I a ÷ = ÷
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 96 -
Three phase fault
The ratios of line voltages and differences of phase
currents are
2
AR BR 1 1L
2
AR BR 1
V V (1 a )I Z
I I (1 a )I
÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷
1L
Z =
2
BR CR 1 1L
2
BR CR 1
V V ( )I Z
I I ( )I
a a
a a
÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷
CR AR
1L
CR AR
V V
Z
I I
÷
=
÷
1L
Z =
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-33
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 97 -
Two phase fault (phase B - phase C)
) Z I V )( ( ) Z I V )( ( V V
2L 2 2F
2
1L 1 1F
2
CR BR
+ ÷ + + ÷ = ÷ a a a a
PositiveSequenceNetwork
I
1
F
1
N
1
V
1R
Z
1L
V
1F
I
2
N
2
F
2
V
2F
NegativeSequenceNetwork
V
2R
Z
2L
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 98 -
Two phase fault (phase B - phase C)
Since V
1F
=V
2F
, this voltage is
2 2
BR CR 1F 1 1L 2F 2 2L
V V ( )(V I Z ) ( )(V I Z ) a a a a ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ +
{ }
2
BR CR 1 2 1L
V V ( )(I I ) Z a a ÷ = ÷ ÷
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 99 -
Two phase fault (phase B - phase C)
The phase current and the difference of the phase
currents are given by
2
BR 1 2
I ( I I ) a a = +
2 2
BR CR 1 2 1 2
I I ( I I ) ( I I ) a a a a ÷ = + ÷ +
2 2
1 2
( )I ( )I a a a a = ÷ + ÷
2
1 2
( )(I I ) a a = ÷ ÷
2
CR 1 2
I ( I I ) a a = +
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-34
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 100 -
Two phase fault (phase B - phase C)
The ratio of the line voltage and differences of phase
currents is
2
BR CR 1 2 1L
2
BR CR 1 2
V V ( )(I I )Z
I I ( )(I I )
a a
a a
÷ ÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷ ÷
1L
Z =
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 101 -
Phase B - C – ground fault
) Z I V )( ( ) Z I V )( ( V V
2L 2 2F
2
1L 1 1F
2
CR BR
+ ÷ + + ÷ = ÷ a a a a
N
0
V
0F
F
0
I
0
Z
0L
ZeroSequenceNetwork
Z
2L
I
2
N
2
F
2
V
2F
NegativeSequenceNetwork PositiveSequenceNetwork
I
1
F
1
N
1
V
1F
Z
1L
2
1 2 1L
( )(I I )Z a a = ÷ +
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 102 -
Phase B - C – ground fault
The phase current and the difference of the phase
currents are given by
2
BR 1 2 0
I ( I I I ) a a = + +
2 2
BR CR 1 2 0 1 2 0
I I ( I I I ) ( I I I ) a a a a ÷ = + + ÷ + +
2 2
1 2
( )I ( )I a a a a = ÷ + ÷
2
1 2
( )(I I ) a a = ÷ ÷
2
CR 1 2 0
I ( I I I ) a a = + +
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-35
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 103 -
Phase B - C – ground fault
2
BR CR 1 2 1L
2
BR CR 1 2
V V ( )(I I )Z
I I ( )(I I )
a a
a a
÷ ÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷ ÷
and the ratio of the line voltage and differences of
phase currents is
1L
Z =
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 104 -
Phase A – ground fault
The line voltage V
AR
in terms of the sequence voltages
at the fault and the sequence currents is
) Z I V ( ) Z I V ( ) Z I V ( V
0L 0 0F 2L 2 2F 1L 1 1F AR
+ + + + + =
N
0
V
0F
F
0
I
0
Z
0L
ZeroSequenceNetwork
Z
2L
I
2
N
2
F
2
V
2F
NegativeSequenceNetwork PositiveSequenceNetwork
I
1
F
1
N
1
V
1F
Z
1L
V
2R
V
0R V
1R
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 105 -
Phase A – ground fault
Since V
1F
+ V
2F
+V
0F
= 0, this voltage is
AR 1F 1 1L 2F 2 2L 0F 0 0L
V (V I Z ) (V I Z ) (V I Z ) = + + + + +
0 2 1 AR
I I I I + + =
The phase A current is given by
1 2 1L 0 0L
(I I )Z I Z = + +
1 2 0 1L 0 0L 1L
(I I I )Z I (Z Z ) = + + + ÷
0L 1L
1 2 0 0 1L
1L
Z Z
(I I I ) 3I ( ) Z
3Z
¦ ¹ ÷
= + + +
´ `
¹ )
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
5-36
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 106 -
Phase A – ground fault
Z
1L
can be measured by using the phase A
current plus a compensated zero sequence
current and the phase A voltage. The
compensated current is given by
0L 1L
COMP AR 0
1L
Z Z
I I 3I ( )
3Z
÷
= +
Outline
Introduction
Electrical inputs
Classifications
Group A relays
Application
Group B relays
Summary
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-1
Power System Protection
Transmission Line Protection
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S. Sachdev
Ph.D., D.Sc., Life Fellow IEEE, Life Fellow IEI, Fellow EIC
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, SK
CANADA
DISTANCE
RELAYS
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 2-
Outline of the course
Development of the previous century
Background information
Protection of transformers
Protection of transmission lines
Protection of generators
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 3-
Outline – this topic
Introduction
Protection systems
 Without communication between terminals
Distance protection
Pilot protection
 With communication between terminals
Phase comparison
Differential protection
Directional comparison
Outline Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-2
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 4-
Outline – this session
Protection systems
 Without communication between terminals
Distance protection (continued)
 Relay performance
 Close-in faults; memory action and
polarization
Pilot protection
 With communication between terminals
Differential protection
Phase comparison
Directional comparison
Outline Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 5-
Relay performance
Arc resistance
 Impact of current fed from the remote terminal
Performance of phase-fault relays for a
 Phase B-C fault
 Phase A-G fault
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 6-
Performance of phase fault relays
Consider a line with sources at both
terminals
R3 R2
A B
I
B
I
A
CB1 CB2
Z
S
Z
r
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-3
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 7-
V
R
1
A
I
1sA
CB
1
Z
S1
R
2
B
I
1sBF
CB
2
Z
S2
I
1sA
F1
R
F
I1sA
F
1
N
1
V1sB
Z1sAF
R1
Positive Sequence Network
I1sF
V1sA
I1sB
RF
Z
1sBF
Performance of phase fault relays
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 8-
Three phase fault
The positive sequence voltages at the relay
location are
1 1 1 1 R R L F F
V I Z I R = +
The phase voltages at the relay location are
1 1 1 AR R L F F
V I Z I R = +
1 120 a = Z
 2 2
1 1 1 BR R L F F
V a I Z a I R = +
1 1 1 CR R L F F
V aI Z aI R = +
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 9-
Three phase fault
The line voltages at the relay location are
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 1
1 1
AR BR R L F F
V V a I Z a I R ÷ = ÷ + ÷
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 1 BR CR R L F F
V V a a I Z a a I R ÷ = ÷ + ÷
( ) ( )
1 1 1
1 1
CR AR R L F F
V V a I Z a I R ÷ = ÷ + ÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-4
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 10 -
Sequence current during a fault
The sequence currents at the relay location
are
( )
2
1
1
AR BR R
I I a I ÷ = ÷
2
1
( )
BR CR R
I I a a I ÷ = ÷
1
( 1)
CR AR R
I I a I ÷ = ÷
2
1 1 1
; ;
AR R BR R CR R
I I I a I I aI = = =
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 11-
Estimated impedance
Recollect
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 1
1 1
AR BR R L F F
V V a I Z a I R ÷ = ÷ + ÷
( )
2
1
1
AR BR R
I I a I ÷ = ÷
Phase A-B relay estimates
1
1
1
AR BR F
L F
AR BR R
V V I
Z R
I I I
÷
= +
÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 12 -
Estimated impedance
Similarly the other phase relays estimates
1
1
1
BR CR F
L F
BR CR R
V V I
Z R
I I I
÷
= +
÷
1
1
1
CR AR F
L F
CR AR R
V V I
Z R
I I I
÷
= +
÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-5
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 13 -
Impact Of Arc Resistance
I
1sA
Z
1sAF
I
1sF
R
F
Z
1sAF +Z
F
I
1sA
R
jX
I
1sB
I
1sF
R
jX
I
1sA
I
1sB
I
1sF
I
1sB
Z
1sBF
I
1sF
R
F
Z
1sBF
+Z
F
F1
R
1
A
I
1sA
CB 1
Z
S1
R
2
B
I
1sB
CB 2
Z
S2
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 14 -
Line Impedance Locus
Re
Im
Line Impedance Locus
including arc resistance
Pre-fault power flowfromthe remote
terminal to the local terminal
Re
Im
Line Impedance Locus
including arc resistance
Pre-fault power flowfromthe local
terminal to the remote terminal
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 15 -
Two phase fault (phase B-C)
2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
( )( ) ( )( )
BR CR F R L F R L
V V a a V I Z a a V I Z ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ +
Positive Sequence Network
I
1
F
1
N
1
V
1R
Z
1L
V
1F
I
2
N
2
F
2
V
2F
Negative Sequence Network
V
2R
Z
2L
R
F
/2 R
F
/2 I
1F
I
2F
( )
1 2 1 2
2
F
F F F F
R
V V I I = + ÷
( )( )
2 2 2
1 1 2 2 1 2
( ) ( )( )
2
F
BR CR R L R L F F
R
V V a a I Z a a I Z a a I I ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷
1 1 2 2
2 2
F F
F F F F
R R
V I V I ÷ = ÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-6
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 16 -
Two phase fault (phase B-C)
( )( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2
( ) ( )
2
F
R R L R R L F F
R
a I aI Z aI a I Z a a I I = + ÷ + + ÷ ÷
( )
1
( )
2
F
BR CR L BF CF
R
I I Z I I = ÷ + ÷
( )
1
( ) ( ) 2
BF CF BR CR F
L
BR CR BR CR
I I V V R
Z
I I I I
÷ ÷
= +
÷ ÷
( )( )
2 2 2
1 1 2 2 1 2
( ) ( )( )
2
F
BR CR R L R L F F
R
V V a a I Z a a I Z a a I I ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
1 2
1 2 2
1 2
2
F F
F
L
R R
a a I a a I
R
Z
a a I a a I
÷ + ÷
= +
÷ + ÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 17 -
Two phase fault (phase B-C)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
1 2
1 2 2
1 2
( ) 2
F F
BR CR F
L
BR CR R R
a a I a a I
V V R
Z
I I a a I a a I
÷ + ÷
÷
= +
÷ ÷ + ÷
1 2 1 2
;
F F R R
I I I I = ÷ ÷ 
( )
( )
2
2
1 2
2
2
( ) 2 2
F
BR CR F
L
BR CR R
a a I
V V R
Z
I I a a I
÷
÷
= +
÷ ÷
2
1
2
( ) 2
BR CR F F
L
BR CR R
V V I R
Z
I I I
÷
= +
÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 18 -
Two phase fault (phase B-C)
( )( ) ( )( )
2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1
AR BR F R L F R L
V V a V I Z a V I Z ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ +
The line voltage (phase A-B) is
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
2
1 1 2 1
2
1 2
1 1
1 1
AR BR R L R L
F F
V V a I Z a I Z
V a V a
÷ = ÷ + ÷
+ ÷ + ÷
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
1 2 1
2
1 2
1 1
1 1
AR BR R R L
F F
V V a I a I Z
V a V a
( ÷ = ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
+ ÷ + ÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-7
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 19 -
Two phase fault (phase B-C)
( ) ( )
2
1 2
1 1
AR BR R R
I I a I a I ÷ = ÷ + ÷
The difference of line currents in phases A and B is
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
1 2
1 2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
R R
AR BR
L
AR BR R R
F F
R R
a I a I
V V
Z
I I a I a I
V a V a
a I a I
( ÷ + ÷
÷
¸ ¸
=
÷ ÷ + ÷
÷ + ÷
+
÷ + ÷
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 1
1 1
F F
L
R R
V a V a
Z
a I a I
÷ + ÷
= +
÷ + ÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 20 -
Two phase fault (phase B-C)
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2
1 2
1 2
3 1
1 1
F F F
AR BR
L
AR BR R R
V a I R
V V
Z
I I a I a I
÷ ÷
÷
= +
÷ ÷ + ÷
1 2 2 F F F F
V V I R = ÷
1 2 R R
I I ÷ 
( )
( )
2
2 2
1 2
2
3 1
F R F
L
R
V a I R
Z
a a I
÷ ÷
= +
÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 21 -
Two phase fault (phase B-C)
( )
( )
2
2 2
1 2
2
3 1
F F F
AR BR
L
AR BR R
V a I R
V V
Z
I I a a I
÷ ÷
÷
= +
÷ ÷
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2 2 2
1 2 2
2 2
1 3 F F R L S AR BR
L
AR BR R R
a I R I Z Z V V
Z
I I a a I a a I
÷ ÷ + ÷
= + ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
( )
2 2 2 2 F R L s
V I Z Z = ÷ +
( )
2
1 2 2
2
3
AR BR F
L L S F
AR BR R
V V I
Z j Z Z a R
I I I
÷
= ÷ + ÷
÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-8
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 22 -
Two phase fault (phase B-C)
( ) ( ) ( )( )
2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1
CR AR F R L F R L
V V a V I Z a V I Z ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ +
The line voltage (phase C-A) is
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
2
1 1 2 1
2
1 2
1 1
1 1
CR AR R L R L
F F
V V a I Z a I Z
V a V a
÷ = ÷ + ÷
+ ÷ + ÷
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
1 2 1
2
1 2
1 1
1 1
CR AR R R L
F F
V V a I a I Z
V a V a
( ÷ = ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
+ ÷ + ÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 23 -
Two phase fault (phase B-C)
( ) ( )
2
1 2
1 1
CR AR R R
I I a I a I ÷ = ÷ + ÷
The difference of line currents in phases C and A is
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 1
1 1
F F
L
R R
V a V a
Z
a I a I
÷ + ÷
= +
÷ + ÷
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
1 2
1 2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
R R
CR AR
L
CR AR R R
F F
R R
a I a I
V V
Z
I I a I a I
V a V a
a I a I
( ÷ + ÷
÷
¸ ¸
=
÷ ÷ + ÷
÷ + ÷
+
÷ + ÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 24 -
Two phase fault (phase B-C)
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
1 2
1 2
3 1
1 1
F F F CR AR
L
CR AR R R
V a I R V V
Z
I I a I a I
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= +
÷ ÷ + ÷
1 2 2 F F F F
V V I R = ÷
1 2 R R
I I ÷ 
( )
( )
2 2
1 2
2
3 1
F F F
L
R
V a I R
Z
a a I
÷ ÷ ÷
= +
÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-9
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 25 -
Two phase fault (phase B-C)
( )
( )
2 2
1 2
2
3 1
F F F CR AR
L
CR AR R
V a I R V V
Z
I I a a I
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= +
÷ ÷
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2 2 2
1 2 2
2 2
3 1
R L S F F CR AR
L
CR AR R R
I Z Z a I R V V
Z
I I a a I a a I
+ ÷ ÷
= + ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
( )
2 2 2 2 F R L s
V I Z Z = ÷ +
( )
2 2
1 2 2
2
3
CR AR F
L L S F
CR AR R
V V I
Z j Z Z a R
I I I
÷
= + + ÷
÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 26 -
Three two-phase faults
( )
2 2
1 2 2
2
3
CR AR F
L L S F
CR AR R
V V I
Z j Z Z a R
I I I
÷
= + + ÷
÷
( )
2
1 2 2
2
3
AR BR F
L L S F
AR BR R
V V I
Z j Z Z a R
I I I
÷
= ÷ + ÷
÷
2
1
2
( ) 2
BR CR F F
L
BR CR R
V V I R
Z
I I I
÷
= +
÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 27 -
Impedance diagram
1L
Z
BC
Z
CA
Z
AB
Z
( ) 1 2
3
L S
j Z Z +
( ) 1 2
3
L S
j Z Z ÷ +
2
2
2
F F
R
I R
I
2 2
2
F
F
R
I
a R
I
÷
2
2
2
F F
R
I R
a
I
÷
60
o
60
o
R
j X
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-10
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 28 -
Range of measurements
Z
ab
j X
Z
ca
Z
bc
Mho Relay
R
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 29 -
Phase A – ground fault
The line voltage V
AR
in terms of the
sequence voltages and currents is
AR 1F 1R 1L 2F 2R 2L 0F 0R 0L
V (V I Z ) (V I Z ) (V I Z ) = + + + + +
PositiveSequenceNetwork
N
0
V
0F
F
0
I
0
Z
0L
ZeroSequenceNetwork
Z
2L
I
2
N
2
F
2
V
2F
NegativeSequenceNetwork
I
1
F
1
N
1
V
1F
Z
1L
V
2R
V
0R V
1R
R
F
R
F
R
F
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 30 -
Phase A – ground fault
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 2 2 2 0 0 0 AR F R L F R L F R L
V V I Z V I Z V I Z = + + + + +
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 1 1 2 2 2 0 0 0 BR F R L F R L F R L
V a V I Z a V I Z V I Z = + + + + +
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 1 1 2 2 2 0 0 0 CR F R L F R L F R L
V a V I Z a V I Z V I Z = + + + + +
( )( ) ( )( )
2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1
AR BR F R L F R L
V V a V I Z a V I Z ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ +
( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2 BR CR F R L F R L
V V a a V I Z a a V I Z ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ +
( )( ) ( )( )
2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1
CR AR F R L F R L
V V a V I Z a V I Z ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ +
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-11
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 31 -
Phase A – ground fault
( )( ) ( )( )
2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1
AR BR F R L F R L
V V a V I Z a V I Z ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 2 1 1 2
1 1 1 1
AR BR R L R L F F
V V a I Z a I Z a V a V ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ + ÷
1 2 0 0
3
F F F F F
V V V I R = ÷ ÷ +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 0
2
0
1 1 1
1 3
F
AR BR R R L F F
F
V V a I a I Z a a V a V
a I R
( ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
+ ÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 32 -
Phase A – ground fault
( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
2 2
1 2 1 2 2 2
2 2
0 0 0
1 1
1 1 3
F
AR BR R R L R L S
F S F F
V V a I a I Z a a I Z Z
a I Z a I R
÷
( ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ +
¸ ¸
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
( ) ( )
2
1 2
1 1
AR BR R R
I I a I a I ÷ = ÷ + ÷
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 0
2
0
1 1 1
1 3
F
AR BR R R L F F
F
V V a I a I Z a a V a V
a I R
( ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
+ ÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 33 -
Phase A – ground fault
( )( )( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
1 2
1 2
2
0
0 2
1 2
1 1
1 3
1 1
F
R L S
AR BR
L
AR BR R R
S F
F
R R
a a I Z Z
V V
Z
I I a I a I
a Z R
I
a I a I
÷
÷ +
÷
= +
÷ ÷ + ÷
÷ +
+
÷ + ÷
( )( ) ( )
( )( )
2
2 2 2
1
2
2
0
0
2
3
1 3
3
F
R L S
AR BR
L
AR BR R
S F
F
R
a a I Z Z
V V
Z
I I I
a Z R
I
I
÷
÷ +
÷
= +
÷
÷ +
+
1 2 R R
I I 
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-12
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 34 -
Phase A – ground fault
( ) ( )
2
1 2 2 0
2
1 1
90 3 30
3 3
F
o o F
L L S S F
R
I
Z Z Z Z R
I
÷
= + + Z + + Z
( )( )( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
1
2
2
0
0
2
3
1 3
3
F
R L S
AR BR
L
AR BR R
S F
F
R
a a I Z Z
V V
Z
I I I
a Z R
I
I
÷
÷ +
÷
= +
÷
÷ +
+
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 35 -
Phase A – ground fault
( )( ) ( )( )
2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2 BR CR F R L F R L
V V a a V I Z a a V I Z ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
1 1 2 1 1 2 BR CR R L R L F F
V V a a I Z a a I Z a a V a a V ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ + ÷
1 2 0 0
3
F F F F F
V V V I R = ÷ ÷ +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 0
2
0
2
3
F
BR CR R R L F F
F
V V a a I a a I Z a a V a a V
a a I R
( ÷ = ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
+ ÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 36 -
Phase A – ground fault
( ) ( ) ( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 2 2
2 2
0 0 0
2
3
F
BR CR R R L R L S
F S F F
V V a a I a a I Z a a I Z Z
a a I Z a a I R
÷
( ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ +
¸ ¸
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
( ) ( )
2 2
1 2 BR CR R R
I I a a I a a I ÷ = ÷ + ÷
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 0
2
0
2
3
F
BR CR R R L F F
F
V V a a I a a I Z a a V a a V
a a I R
( ÷ = ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
+ ÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-13
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 37 -
Phase A – ground fault
BR CR
BR CR
V V
I I
÷
= ·
÷
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
1 2
1 2
2
0
0 2
1 2
2
3
F
R L S
BR CR
L
BR CR R R
S F
F
R R
a a I Z Z
V V
Z
I I a a I I
a a Z R
I
a a I I
÷
÷ +
÷
= ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ +
+
÷ ÷
1 2 R R
I I 
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 38 -
Phase A – ground fault
( )( ) ( )( )
2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 1
CR AR F R L F R L
V V a V I Z a V I Z ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 2 1 1 2
1 1 1 1
CR AR R L R L F F
V V a I Z a I Z a V a V ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ + ÷
1 2 0 0
3
F F F F F
V V V I R = ÷ ÷ +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2
1 2 1 2 0
0
1 1 1
1 3
F
CR AR R R L F F
F
V V a I a I Z a a V a V
a I R
( ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
+ ÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 39 -
Phase A – ground fault
( ) ( ) ( )( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1 2 1 2 2 2
0 0 0
1 1
1 1 3
F
CR AR R R L R L S
F S F F
V V a I a I Z a a I Z Z
a I Z a I R
÷
( ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ +
¸ ¸
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
( ) ( )
2
1 2
1 1
CR AR R R
I I a I a I ÷ = ÷ + ÷
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2
1 2 1 2 0
0
1 1 1
1 3
F
CR AR R R L F F
F
V V a I a I Z a a V a V
a I R
( ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
+ ÷
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-14
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 40 -
Phase A – ground fault
( )( )( )
( )( )
2
2 2 2
1
2
0
0
2
3
1 3
3
F
R L S
CR AR
L
CR AR R
S F
F
R
a a I Z Z
V V
Z
I I I
a Z R
I
I
÷
÷ +
÷
= +
÷
÷ +
+
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
1 2
1 2
0 0 0
2
1 2
1 1
1 1 3
1 1
F
R L S
CR AR
L
CR AR R R
F S F F
R R
a a I Z Z
V V
Z
I I a I a I
a I Z a I R
a I a I
÷
÷ ÷ +
÷
= +
÷ ÷ + ÷
÷ ÷ + ÷
÷
÷ + ÷
1 2 R R
I I 
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 41 -
Phase A – ground fault
( ) ( )
2
1 2 2 0
2
1 1
90 3 30
3 3
F
o o F
L L S S F
R
I
Z Z Z Z R
I
÷
= + + Z ÷ + + Z ÷
( )( )( )
( )
2
2 2 2
1
2
0
0
2
3
1 3
3
F
R L S
CR AR
L
CR AR R
S F
F
R
a a I Z Z
V V
Z
I I I
a Z R
I
I
÷
÷ +
÷
= +
÷
÷ +
+
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 42 -
Impedance diagram
30
o
R
j X
30
o
1L
Z
( ) 2 2
1
3
L S
j Z Z +
2
0
2
1
30
3
o R
S F
F
I
Z
I
÷
Z
2
2
1
30
3
o R
F
F
I
R
I
Z
AB
Z
( ) 2 2
1
3
L S
j Z Z ÷ +
2
0
2
1
30
3
o R
S F
F
I
Z
I
÷
Z ÷
2
2
1
30
3
o R
F
F
I
R
I
Z ÷
CA
Z
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-15
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 43 -
Range of measurements
Z
CA
Z
AB
Admittance
Relay
R
j X
Outline
Performance
Close-in faults
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 44 -
Distance protection
Close-in faults
 When a fault is experienced close to the location
of the relay, the voltage collapses and the
calculated impedance becomes zero. It is not
possible to tell whether the fault is on the line
side of the relay or is on the bus side of the
relay.
 The mho relays and other inherently directional
relays loose their ability to distinguish bus side
faults from line side faults
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 45 -
Remedial measures
Two types of remedial measures used are
 Use pre-fault voltage (memory action)
 Polarize the relays with voltages from un-faulted
phase or phases
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-16
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 46 -
Memory action
The concept has been around for a long
time but its implementation has not always
been easy
Because numerical relays save data
concerning the voltage and current
waveforms, using memory action has
become a very viable option
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 47 -
Forms of memory actions
Some forms of memory action used in
distance relays are
 Pre-fault voltage or voltages of the faulted phase
or phases
 Pre-fault positive sequence voltage appropriately
phase shifted
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 48 -
Use of pre-fault phase voltages
If the voltage at the relay location is less
than (say) 10% of the nominal value
 Add a fraction of the pre-fault voltage of the
faulted phase (say 10 %)
 This is a valid approach because when a fault
occurs the phase angles of voltages do not
change substantially. Even if they do, the
nature of directionality is correctly determined
 The location of the fault is not correctly given by
the impedance calculated in conjunction with the
memory action.
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-17
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 49 -
Memory polarized phase-phase relay
Operating voltage Polarizing voltage
( ) ( )
1 A B A B
V V I I Z ÷ ÷ ÷ 1A
jV ÷
( ) ( )
1 B C B C
V V I I Z ÷ ÷ ÷
1B
jV ÷
( ) ( )
1 C A C A
V V I I Z ÷ ÷ ÷
1C
jV ÷
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 50 -
Memory polarized phase-phase relay
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
(
V
B
-
V
C
)

-
(
I
B
-

I
C
)
Z
1
(
V
B
-
V
C
)

-
(
I
B
-

I
C
)
Z
1
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 51 -
Memory polarized ground fault relay
Operating voltage Polarizing voltage
( )
0 1
3
A A
I k I Z V + ÷
1A
V
( )
0 1
3
B B
I k I Z V + ÷
1B
V
( )
0 1
3
C C
I k I Z V + ÷
1C
V
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-18
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 52 -
Memory polarized phase fault relay
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 53 -
Cross polarized phase-phase relay
Operating voltage Polarizing voltage
( ) ( )
1 A B A B
I I Z V V ÷ ÷ ÷
C
jV ÷
( ) ( )
1 B C B C
I I Z V V ÷ ÷ ÷
A
jV ÷
( ) ( )
1 C A C A
I I Z V V ÷ ÷ ÷
B
jV ÷
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 54 -
Cross polarized phase-phase relay
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-19
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 55 -
Cross polarized phase-ground relay
Operating voltage Polarizing voltage
1 A A
I Z V ÷ ( )
B C
j V V ÷
1 B B
I Z V ÷ ( )
C A
j V V ÷
1 C C
I Z V ÷ ( )
A B
j V V ÷
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 56 -
Cross polarized phase-ground relay
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 57 -
Blown VT fuse
A blown VT fuse is another cause of no
voltage to the relay
 The measured impedance becomes small
 Loss of polarization to the phase comparators
 Will have a tendency to operate
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-20
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 58 -
Possible remedial measures
A few possible options
 Use overcurrent relays to supervise that the
current is more than the maximum expected load
current; if not block the tripping by distance relay
 Supervise the negative and zero sequence
voltages and currents; if negative and/or zero
sequence voltages are present but there are no
negative and/or zero sequence currents, block
the tripping by distance relay
 Supervise auxiliary contacts of circuit breakers in
the VT circuits
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Comments
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 59 -
Distance protection
The most popular method for protecting
transmission and subtransmission lines
Some basic issues are
 Distance is measured in the form of impedances
or their components from the voltages and
currents observed at the relay location
 Impedance is a single frequency parameter
 Most of the time, impedances are determined
from fundamental frequency components of
voltages and currents
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 60 -
A-C wire pilot relaying
Circulating current type
Opposing voltage type
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-21
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 61 -
Wire pilot – current balance
1 1 2 2 0 0 c
V K I K I K I = + +
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 62 -
Wire pilot – voltage balance
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Communication
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 63 -
Types of communication systems
Short lines
 Current differential
 Permissive overreaching transfer trip
 Phase comparison
 Directional comparison blocking
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-22
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 64 -
Types of communication systems
Medium lines
 Step distance
 Current differential
 Permissive overreaching transfer trip
 Permissive underreaching transfer trip
 Phase comparison
 Directional comparison blocking
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 65 -
Types of communication systems
Long lines
 Step distance
 Permissive overreaching transfer trip
 Permissive overreaching transfer trip with
unblocking on loss of channel
 Permissive underreaching transfer trip
 Phase comparison
 Directional comparison blocking
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 66 -
Communication media
Leased telephone lines
Power line carrier (PLC)
Microwave
Point-to-point radio
Fiber optic
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-23
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 67 -
Phase comparison arrangement
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 68 -
Phase comparison
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 69 -
Phase comparison
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-24
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 70 -
Differential protection
The basic principle is the same as that
discussed for transformer protection
Advantages of using differential protection
include
 No voltage signal is needed (CCVT transient
response not a concern)
 Possible to detect evolving faults
 Possible to detect inter-circuit faults
 Immune to power swings
 Impedance unbalances
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 71 -
Differential protection
Disadvantages and concerns include
 Need to account for charging current during
normal operation and fault
Cannot compare sample values
 Communicating information between terminals
Needed band width of the communication
channel
Time needed for transmitting data between
terminals
Channel delay asymmetry
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 72 -
A numerical implementation
Calculate the current phasors at the line
terminals
Time tag the calculated values
Send the information to the remote terminal
Time align the phasors received from the
remote terminal with the phasors calculated
locally
Implement percentage differential approach
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-25
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 73 -
A numerical implementation
Time alignment requires
 Either the sampling of data be synchronized
 Or information transmission delays be
determined and used
The ping-pong technique is often used
 A test signal is sent to the remote terminal
from where it is sent right back
 The one way transmission time is
assumed to be one-half the two way time
(not necessarily correct)
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 74 -
Another approach
Consider the relay at terminal A; also consider that the
line is providing load to the system connected at B (I
A
and I
B
are phasors)
Neglecting the charging current, I
B
=I
A
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 75 -
Another approach
Define
1 0
B
A
I
a jb
I
j
= +
= ÷ +
This is also true for external faults.
Consider the ratio for different operating conditions
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-26
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 76 -
Internal and external faults
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 77 -
Source voltages out of phase
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 78 -
Channel asymmetry
Channel delay asymmetry can be up to 2
ms
 This corresponds to a phase angle of up to 36
o
at 50 Hz
The apparent phase displacement between
I
A
and I
B
during internal faults with infeed
and out-feed can be in the range of ±36
o
This is also valid for external faults and load
conditions
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-27
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 79 -
Total relay design concept
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Summary
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 80 -
Directional comparison blocking
Oldest in operation; very versatile and
flexible especially for use in multiterminal
lines
Compares direction of power flow at the
terminals
For internal faults power flows into the line
from all terminals and tripping is permitted
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Summary
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 81 -
Directional comparison system
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Summary
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-28
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 82 -
Directional comparison system
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Summary
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 83 -
Directional comparison blocking
Uses distance relays for phase faults and
instantaneous overcurrent or directional
relays for ground faults as fault detectors
All fault detectors must reach beyond the
remote end of the line (zone 2 distance
relays are suitable)
Pilot trip is connected in parallel with the
zone 2 delay timer
Carrier is started by phase distance and
directional relays
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Summary
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 84 -
Directional comparison blocking
No communication signal is received at
either terminal when the fault is on the
protected line
 Zone 2 distance protection relays operate at both
terminals
 Circuit breakers at both terminals trip at high
speed (6 to 16 ms time delay)
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Summary
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-29
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 85 -
Directional comparison unblocking
Instead of starting transmission of a
communication signal on the occurrence of
a fault, directional comparison unblocking
transmits a blocking frequency (also called
guard) continuously during normal operation
The channel is generally a frequency-shift
(FSK) power line carrier
The channel is monitored continuously to
prevent tripping on loss of a channel
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Summary
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 86 -
Underreaching transfer trip
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Summary
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 87 -
Underreaching transfer trip
If the fault is in the zone common to both
relays, both relays trip
If the fault is in the zone of Relay R
A
, it
operates; sends a trip to the local breaker
(CB 1) and transmits a trip (in the form of an
audio tone) to the relay R
B
provided at the
remote end of the line
This trips the breaker at the terminal B of the
line (CB 2)
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Summary
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Directional
comparison
Power System Protection - Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S Sachdev,
University of Saskatchewan
6-30
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 88 -
Permissive underreaching transfer trip
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Summary
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 89 -
Permissive underreaching transfer trip
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Summary
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Directional
comparison
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 90 -
Summary
Distance protection
Relay performance
Use of memory action
Polarized distance relays
AC pilot-wire protection
Communication media
Phase comparison protection
Differential protection
Directional comparison systems
Communication
Comments
Outline
Close-in faults
Performance
Summary
A-C pilot wire
Phase
comparison
Differential
Directional
comparison
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-1
Power System Protection
Generator Protection
Professor Emeritus Mohindar S. Sachdev
Ph.D., D.Sc., Life Fellow IEEE, Life Fellow IEI, Fellow EIC
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, SK
CANADA
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 2-
Outline of the course
Development of the previous century
Background information
Protection of transformers
Protection of transmission lines
Protection of generators
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 3-
Outline – this topic
Introduction
Protection systems
 Stator phase fault protection
 Stator ground fault protection
 Field ground fault protection
 Loss of field protection
 Out of step protection
 Current unbalance protection
 Inadvertent energizing
 Abnormal frequency protection
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-2
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 4-
Generator-transformer unit protection
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 5-
Stator phase fault protection
Stator faults are considered seriously
because
 The fault currents are high
 Stress the winding due to mechanical forces
 Stress the mechanical structure due to these
forces
 Repair cost and time to repair are exceptionally
large
 Cost of replaced energy is usually very high
 Therefore, minimize damage
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 6-
Usual actions
For sever faults
 disconnect the generator from the system
 Use rapid de-excitation system to decay the field
current rapidly
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-3
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 7-
General comments
Percentage differential relay is often used to
protect from three phase, two phase and
two-phases to ground faults if the neutral is
grounded through a high impedance
Differential relay is also effective if the
generator is solidly grounded
Differential relay does not detect turn-to-turn
faults
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 8-
Percentage differential protection
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 9-
Fixed slope %age differential relay
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-4
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 10 -
Variable slope %age differential relay
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 11-
High impedance differential relay
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 12 -
Comments
During normal operation and external faults,
the line and neutral side currents are equal
Line side and neutral side CTs must have
the same turns ratio
The characteristics of the line side and
neutral CTs should be matched
The operating elements should be
connected at the “zero potential” location
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-5
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 13 -
Delta connected generators
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 14 -
Split phase generator
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 15 -
Another split phase generator
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-6
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 16 -
Another approach
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 17 -
Split phase protection
Split phase protection is usually used in
addition to differential protection
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 18 -
Stator winding ground fault
The ground fault depends on the manner in
which the generator neutral is connected to
ground
The two extremes of grounding practices
are
 Solidly ground the generator
 Not grounded at all
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-7
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 19 -
Stator winding ground fault
Generator solidly ground
 Almost never done because the fault currents
would be very large and would cause substantial
damage
Generator not grounded at all
 There will be no fault current when a ground fault
is experienced
 But the voltages of the un-faulted phases will
increase by a factor of 1.73
Will stress the insulation to higher than
normal levels
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 20 -
Stator winding ground fault
The objective for grounding is to reduce fault
currents and avoid over-voltages
Two types of grounding
 Low impedance grounding
 High impedance grounding
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 21 -
Low impedance grounding situations
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-8
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 22 -
Low impedance grounding situations
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 23 -
Low impedance grounding
The resistance / reactance is selected so
that the single phase to ground fault current
is in the range of 200 A and 150% of rated
current
Differential protection provides some
protection for single phase to ground faults
Achieve increased sensitivity by using a
ground differential relay
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 24 -
Ground differential
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-9
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 25 -
Ground differential
Selected auxiliary CT ratio ensures that
there is definite restraining torque for
external ground fault
The arranged differential relay is quite
sensitive to internal ground faults
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 26 -
High impedance grounding
Many generators are grounded through high
resistances
The resistance is connected across a single
phase distribution transformer connected in
the neutral of the generator
The voltage rating of the distribution
transformer is line to neutral (or higher)
voltage of the generator
The transformer should not saturate at
105% of the rated voltage
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 27 -
High impedance grounding protection
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-10
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 28 -
High impedance grounding protection
For a fault at the generator terminal full
voltage is impressed on the distribution
transformer primary
The overvoltage relay (59 GN) is sensitive to
the fundamental frequency component of
the voltage and insensitive to the third
harmonic component
The pick up voltage of the relay is usually 5
V.
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 29 -
High impedance grounding protection
This arrangement is usually able to detect
ground faults within 2-5% of the winding
from the neutral end
When a system single phase to ground fault
occurs, zero sequence voltage is induced at
the generator neutral because of capacitive
coupling of the windings of the unit
transformer. This can cause the operation
of the 59 GN relay
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 30 -
100% winding protection techniques
Basically, two types of techniques are used
 Third harmonic voltage based techniques
 Neutral or residual voltage injection technique
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-11
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 31 -
Third harmonic voltage techniques
The voltages of most generators contain
third harmonic components
 when they are not supplying any power as well
as when they are loaded
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 32 -
Third harmonic voltages
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 33 -
Comments
The pattern of third harmonic component of
generator voltage leads to the following
approaches for detecting stator winding
ground faults
 Third harmonic undervoltage technique
 Third harmonic residual terminal voltage
 Third harmonic comparator
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-12
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 34 -
Third harmonic undervoltage
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 35 -
Third harmonic undervoltage
Undervoltage relay setting should be well below the
minimum third harmonic during normal operation
59 C supervisory relay is provided to block 27 during
generator shut down
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 36 -
Third harmonic undervoltage
The settings of the undervoltage and overvoltage
relays should overlap for all fault locations near the
neutral (~30% of the winding).
An overlap equal to 1% of rated voltage is usually
adequate
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-13
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 37 -
Third harmonic undervoltage
If the generator does not develop enough third
harmonic until it is loaded, an overcurrent relay is
used to supervise the third harmonic undervoltage
protection system
The protection system will not be effective during low
load and no load (consider alternatives)
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 38 -
Third harmonic terminal residual
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 39 -
Third harmonic terminal residual
The level of third harmonic voltage at the generator
terminal increases when a ground fault is experienced
near the neutral.
The relay should be set at a level that it does not
operate during normal operation of the generator
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-14
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 40 -
Third harmonic comparator
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 41 -
Third harmonic comparator
The premise is that the ratio of the third
harmonic components of the voltages at the
generator terminal and neutral is constant
during normal operation but changes if a
fault occurs on the generator neutral or
generator terminals
The scheme works like a differential relay
comparing the third harmonic components
from the two ends of the generator
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 42 -
Third harmonic comparator
This approach detects faults near the
neutral and near the terminals and the 59
GN detects ground faults on about 95 % of
the winding from the terminals. The two
systems together protect 100 % of the
generator winding in the event of ground
faults
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-15
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 43 -
Voltage injection scheme
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 44 -
Field ground fault
DC field circuit is not grounded and a single
ground does not cause problems. But the
chances of second ground fault increase
and if it happens, it would usually short
some of the field circuit resulting in magnetic
unbalance. If this happens, unbalance
forces exist that would cause vibrations and
further damage of the machine. It is,
therefore necessary to detect field ground
fault.
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 45 -
Field ground fault
There is no established industry practice on
the actions that should be taken if a field
ground fault occurs.
 Some utilities trip the generator while others
prefer to sound an alarm
More than 80% generators have field
ground detectors
Only 30% applications trip the generator on
the occurrence of a field ground fault
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-16
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 46 -
Field ground fault
Causes for nuisance operations of field
ground fault protection systems
 The older units were brush type generators and
the field ground fault relays were instantaneous
types
These relays operated frequently during start
up due to intermittent ground caused by
 Moisture
 Copper and carbon dusting
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 47 -
Using a dc source
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 48 -
Using a voltage divider
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-17
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 49 -
Brushless machine
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 50 -
Loss of field
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 51 -
Loss of field
Generator draws reactive power from the
system it is connected to; jeopardizing
system operation
If adequate reactive power is available, the
generator run at higher than normal speed
(2-5%) operating as an induction machine.
Induced currents flow in the field faces
causing excessive heating, deformity etc.
Necessary to disconnect the generator from
the system
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-18
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 52 -
Loss of field
Causes
 Filed open circuit
 Filed short circuit
 Accidental tripping of field circuit breaker
 Regulator control system failure
 Loss of field to the main exciter
 Loss of ac supply to the excitation system
Factors that impact consequences
 Size of the generator
 Load just before loss of field
 Stiffness of the system
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 53 -
Loss of field protection
Should respond to loss of field
Should not respond to
 Load changes
 System faults
 Transients that do not cause instability
Techniques used
 Supervising field current
 Supervising reactive current (or reactive power)
supplied by the generator
 Use an offset mho relay
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 54 -
Load impedance trajectories
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-19
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 55 -
Loss of field protection
The load impedance locus on loss of field suggest
that the following off-set mho relay would be suitable
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 56 -
Loss of field protection
A time delay of 0.5 to 0.6 s can be used
This approach is appropriate if X
d
is in the 1.0 to 1.2
pu (on machine parameters) range
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 57 -
Loss of field protection
Modern machine have X
d
that ranges from
1.5 to 2.0 pu
With such high setting, there are chances of
the relay operating during underexcited
operation conditions
The diameter of the mho circle is therefore
limited to 1.0 pu
This means that the protection system will
not operate on loss of field if the generator
was lightly loaded
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-20
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 58 -
Two offset mho units
The deficiency can be removed by using two offset
mho units, one unit of 1.0 pu diameter and the other of
X
d
diameter
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 59 -
Two offset mho units
The unit of 1.0 pu diameter can be set with no time
delay and the unit with X
d
diameter can be set with 0.5
to 0.6 s delay
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 60 -
Another approach
Use two offset mho units, a directional unit
and an undervoltage unit
Both units look into the generator
Offset mho unit 1 trips without any time
delay
Offset mho unit 2 is coordinated with the
minimum excitation limit and the steady
state limit of the generator
During abnormally low excitation, it sounds
an alarm
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-21
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 61 -
Another approach
Should unit 2 and the undervoltage unit
operate, tripping is initiated; a time delay of
0.25 to 1.0 s is used
Caution
 When used with hydro generators that have to
also work as synchronous condensers, this
protection system can operate when the unit is
underexcited to absorb VARS. An undervoltage
relay can be added to prevent operation if the
voltage is more than 90 %
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 62 -
Out of step protection
Consider the system shown in this single line
diagram
 The systems on the left of Bus A and the system on the
right of Bus B represent two independent power systems
 The relays measure impedances looking in to the line
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 63 -
Swing locus
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-22
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 64 -
Swing locus
Electrical centre, sometimes called swing
centre, used to be in the transmission
systems
With the development of EHV systems and
modern generators having large
impedances, the swing centers in many
cases lies in the generator impedance or in
the impedance of the step up transformer
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 65 -
Swing example
Consider a generator
that has the following
parameters
A relay can be provided
at the generator terminals
looking towards the
transformer
The settings should not
reach into the system so
that the generator and the
step up transformer are
not disconnected from the
system for a swing that is
in the power system
'
0.25
0.10
0.25
d
T
S
X
X
X



The electrical center is
in the transformer
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 66 -
Swing example
Another alternative is to provide a relay at
the system side of the transformer looking
towards the generator
This would provide backup protection for the
transformer and to some degree the
generator
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-23
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 67 -
Single mho relay scheme
A mho relay provided at
the transformer terminal
The diameter shown in
this figure is 1.2 pu
There are dangers
associated too small a
diameter (breaker
recovery voltage can be
too high)
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 68 -
Single mho relay scheme
There are dangers
associated with too big a
diameter (tripping for
stable swings)
An overcurrent relay is
used to supervise the
mho relay so that it does
not operate during loss of
field condition
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 69 -
A blinders scheme
A blinder contact closes
when the swing enters
the operating area
crossing the right hand
blinder
Another blinder contact
closes when the swing
exits the operating area
via the left hand blinder
The CB is tripped
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-24
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 70 -
Double mho and double rhombus
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 71 -
Double lens scheme
Double mho, double
blinder, double rhombus
and double lens schemes
are used with varied logic
It is important to ensure
that the circuit breaker is
opened only when it is
safe to do so
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 72 -
Current unbalance protection
Generators experience unbalanced currents
because
 System asymmetries
Single phase transformer with different
impedances
Untransposed lines
Unbalanced loads
 Abnormal conditions
1-phase and phase-phase faults
Open circuits
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-25
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 73 -
Current unbalance protection
 Abnormal conditions
Phase-phase faults at the generator terminals
Comment
 A 1-phase to ground fault on the wye side of a
delta-wye transformer looks like a phase to
phase fault from the delta side
 A 1-phase to ground fault on the generator does
not create as much negative sequence currents
as the phase-phase fault does (neutral is usually
grounded through a high resistance)
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 74 -
Current unbalance protection
Flow of positive sequence currents produce
flux that rotates with the rotor at
synchronous speed
Flow of negative sequence currents produce
flux that rotates at the synchronous speed
but in the direction opposite to the rotation of
the rotor
 This flux rotates at twice the frequency around
the rotor and it produces voltages on the pole
faces; currents flow in the pole faces towards the
retaining rings
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 75 -
Current unbalance protection
 This flux rotates at twice the frequency around
the rotor and it produces voltages on the pole
faces; currents flow in the pole faces towards the
retaining rings
 This overheats the wedges (used to hold the
field winding in place); expands the retaining
rings causing arcing under the rings
Large down times are needed to repair such
damage
 Heating is proportional to the square of the
negative sequence current in the generator
winding
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-26
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 76 -
Current unbalance protection
The heating due to the flow of negative
sequence currents is limited for each
machine using the concept
2
2
I t K 
I
2
is the RMS negative sequence current
t is time in seconds
K is a constant that depends on the design
of the generator
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 77 -
Permissible K (ANSI C50.13)
Type of generator Permissible K
Salient pole generator 40
Synchronous condenser 30
Cylindrical rotor generator
Indirectly cooled 20
Directly cooled (0-800 MVA) 10
Directly cooled (0-1600 MVA) See figure
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 78 -
Permissible K (ANSI C50.13)
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-27
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 79 -
Current unbalance protection
Two types of inverse time overcurrent relays
are used for this protection function
 Extremely inverse time overcurrent relay of
electromechanical design
 Time overcurrent relays matched for the
negative sequence current capability – solid
state and microprocessor based designs
(I
2
t) is a straight line characteristic when
plotted on the log-log scale
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 80 -
Inadvertent energization
Inadvertent energization can cause serious
damage to a generator
Several protection systems can be used to
disconnect the generator from the system,
such as
 Frequency supervised overcurrent relay
 Voltage supervised overcurrent relay
 Directional overcurrent
 Distance relay looking in to the generator
 Anti-motoring protection
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 81 -
O/C relay with voltage supervision
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-28
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 82 -
O/C relay with voltage supervision
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 83 -
Abnormal frequency protection
Off nominal frequency can cause vibrations
of various parts of steam and gas turbines
setting up fatigue and ultimate damage
Frequency is controlled by shedding load
(and sometimes generation) in the system
If the system frequency relays are not able
to maintain in reasonable limits, action must
be taken at the generator level
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 84 -
Abnormal frequency protection
Reduced frequency means
 reduced operating speed of generator and
turbine
 reduced ventilation and cooling
 increased load current
Consequence is reduced short time thermal
capability of the generator (permissible
short-time operating levels are specified in
standards; i.e. C50.13)
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-29
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 85 -
Abnormal frequency protection
Operation at increased frequency (due to
loss of load) means
 increased speed
 increased ventilation
Consequence is that operation at over-
frequency does not cause overheating of
generator
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 86 -
Abnormal frequency protection
Turbine capability at lower than nominal
frequency is primarily limited by the natural
frequencies of the long tuned blades in the
low pressure turbine element
Operation at normal level but at low speed
can increase pitting, corrosion and erosion
of blade edges
Loss of blade life during normal operation
should also be considered
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 87 -
Abnormal frequency protection
Protection against over frequency is not
applied because operator intervention is
expected
Systems that can split into islands should
consider using under frequency protection
of generators
C37.106 includes typical operating limits of
steam turbines
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System Varanasi 2012 November 22
Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, University of
Saskatchewan
7-30
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 88 -
Typical steam turbine operating limits
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary
Power System
Protection
2012 November 22 Professor Emeritus M.S. Sachdev, U of S - 89 -
Summary
Topics discussed in this session
 Stator phase fault protection
 Stator ground fault protection
 Field ground fault protection
 Loss of field protection
 Out of step protection
 Current unbalance protection
 Inadvertent energizing
 Abnormal frequency protection
Outline
Other issues
Introduction
Stator phase
fault protection
Stator ground
fault protection
Field ground fault
protection
Loss of field
protection
Out of step
Current
unbalance
Summary

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