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STORMWATER DRAINAGE MANUAL
Planning, Design and Management
DRAINAGE SERVICES DEPARTMENT Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
2 © The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
First published, October 1994. Second Edition, December 1995. Reprinted (with minor amendments only), August 1999. Third Edition, December 2000. Prepared by: Drainage Services Department, 43/F Revenue Tower, 5 Gloucester Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong.
This publication is available from: Government Publications Centre, Ground floor, Low Block, Queensway Government Offices, 66 Queensway, Hong Kong. Overseas orders should be placed with: Publications Sales Section, Information Services Department, 4/F, Murray Building, Garden Road, Central, Hong Kong. Price in Hong Kong: HK$ Price overseas: US$ (including surface postage) Cheques, bank drafts or money orders must be made payable to THE GOVERNMENT OF THE HONG KONG SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION
The Stormwater Drainage Manual was first published in October 1994. It aims at giving guidance and standards for the planning and management of stormwater drainage systems and facilities commonly constructed in Hong Kong. To incorporate the developments and changes in recent years, a Working Group, chaired by the Chief Engineer of our Drainage Projects Division, was formed in October 1998 to update the Manual. This new edition follows the original arrangement in the contents of the Manual with some necessary changes made and new materials added, for example, on the subject of Polder and Floodwater Pumping Schemes. Equal emphasis has been put on the operation and maintenance aspects which are essential to the proper functioning of the stormwater drainage systems. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all colleagues who have contributed to the production of this Manual, including those participating in the Working Group and the Subgroups. It is our wish that this document will provide guidance on good engineering practice, however, its recommendations are not intended to be exhaustive nor mandatory. I would expect that from time to time experienced practitioners could adopt alternative methods to those recommended herein. Practitioners are welcome to comment at any time to the Drainage Services Department on the contents of this Manual, so that improvements can be made to future editions.
( J COLLIER ) Director of Drainage Services December 2000
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GENERAL PLANNING AND INVESTIGATION 3.3.2 Detailed Considerations 3.2.3 Location of Public Drainage System INFORMATION FOR SYSTEM PLANNING 3.1 Overview 3.2 GENERAL SYSTEM PLANNING 3.1 THE HONG KONG SITUATION 19 19 3.2 SCOPE ABBREVIATIONS 1 3 5 17 17 17 2.4.3. Town Plans and Drainage Records 3.2 Environmental Assessment 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 24 24 24 3.3 18.104.22.168 Location of Utilities ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 3. STORMWATER DRAINAGE IN HONG KONG 2.5 CONTENTS Page No. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Aesthetics/Landscape 3.1 Maps. TITLE PAGE FOREWORD CONTENTS 1.2.4 .1 1.1 3.
2.1 4.1 Applications 4.2 Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) Relationship 4.3 Design Sea Level Profile 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 5.2.1 5.3 Storm Duration 4.3.3 Astronomical Tides 5.2.2 Data Availability 5.3.6 Frequent Rainstorms 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 4.6 Page No.3 Areal Rainfall SYNTHEIC RAINSTORMS 4.6 SITE INVESTIGATIONS SAFETY ISSUES 24 24 4. SEA LEVEL ANALYSIS 5.4 Design Rainstorm Profile 22.214.171.124.2 GENERAL HISTORIC RAINSTORMS 4.1 Applications 5.2.4 Storm Surges 126.96.36.199.3 .5 3.1 Applications 4.3. RAINFALL ANALYSIS 4.3.2 Design Extreme Sea Levels 5.3.3. 3.2.2 Point Rainfall 4.5 Infilling of Gaps in Tidal Data SYNTHETIC SEA LEVELS 5.1 Applications 5.2 GENERAL HISTORIC SEA LEVELS 5.3 5.5 Areal Reduction Factor 4.
1 7.6 GENERAL DESIGN RETURN PERIODS PROBABILITY OF DESIGN FAILURE DEFINITION OF FLOOD LEVELS FREEBOARD STORMWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 6. FLOOD PROTECTION STANDARDS 6.3 Streamflow NEED FOR CALIBRATION/VERIFICATION 188.8.131.52 Flow Gauging Methods 7.3.2 6.3.1 Village Drainage and Main Rural Catchment Drainage Channels 6.4 SEA LEVEL TRENDS 5.3 Practical Difficulties 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 40 7.3 6.2.5 184.108.40.206 Choice of Runoff Estimation Method 7. RUNOFF ESTIMATION 7.4 6.2 Regional /Local Trends 33 33 33 6. 220.127.116.11 Page No.1 Rainfall 7.7 37 7.1 Global Trends 5.2 GENERAL DATA AVAILABILITY 7.2.3 .2 Urban Drainage Branch and Urban Drainage Trunk Systems INTERFACE WITH RESERVOIRS/CATCHWATERS 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 D 6.2 Evaporation/Evapotranspiration 7.1 6.
3 Partially Full Circular Sections GRADUALLY VARIED NON-UNIFORM FLOW 8.2.3 Subcritical vs Supercritical Flow 8.2 Compound Roughness 8.8 Page No.3 47 47 47 48 48 48 48 49 49 50 50 50 50 8.5.2 Surcharge vs Free-surface Flow 8.5 Uniform vs Non-uniform Flow 8.1 8.4 7.5 STATISTICAL METHODS DETERMINISTIC METHODS 7.2.3 Solution Techniques RAPIDLY VARIED NON-UNIFORM FLOW FLOW ROUTING 8.5 18.104.22.168 8.1 Basic Formulations 8.5. 7.1 Frictional Resistance Equations 8. HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS 8.1 Introduction 22.214.171.124.3.5.2 Rational Method 7.6.4 Unit-Hydrograph Method 7.2 Hydrologic Routing 8.2.3 Time-Area Method 7.3 Hydraulic Routing 45 45 45 45 45 46 46 46 47 8.2 Types of Flow Profiles 126.96.36.199 GENERAL FLOW CLASSIFICATIONS 8.4 Steady vs Unsteady Flow 188.8.131.52 Reservoir Routing Methods 40 41 41 41 43 44 44 8.1 Laminar vs Turbulent Flow 8.1 Introduction 8.6 Gradually Varied vs Rapidly Varied Non-uniform Flow UNIFORM FLOW 184.108.40.206 .2.
1 10.3 Fill Loads 10. EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION 9.5.4 9.5 54 55 55 10. DESIGN OF BURIED GRAVITY PIPELINES 10.6 .4 DEPTH OF PIPELINE 10. 8.3 GENERAL MATERIALS LEVELS 57 57 57 57 57 58 58 59 59 61 62 63 63 65 65 10.5.2 Design Procedures for Rigid Pipes 10.1 Introduction 10.5 STRUCTURAL DESIGN 10.3 220.127.116.11 Design Strength 10.5.5.9 Page No.4 Superimposed Loads 10.7 LOCAL HEAD LOSSES IN PIPE FLOWS 51 9.2 GENERAL RIVER BED AND BANK PROTECTION BY ARMOUR STONE VELOCITY DESIGN IN CHANNELS AND PIPES SCOUR AROUND BRIDGE PIERS QUANTIFICATION OF SEDIMENTATION 53 53 53 9.5.5 Water Load 10.8 Effect of Variation in Pipe Outside Diameters PIPE AT SLOPE CREST 10.2 10.1 9.5.6 Bedding Factors 10.
MANHOLES 11.1 11. 11.3 11. DESIGN OF BOX CULVERTS 12.6 GENERAL DESIGN INVERT LEVEL AT DOWNSTREAM END DESIGN LOADS DURABILITY MOVEMENT JOINTS FOUNDATIONS 71 71 71 71 71 72 72 .4 11.3 12.2 11.2 12.10 BACKDROP MANHOLES 12.5 11.4 12.8 11.7 11.10 Page No.9 GENERAL LOCATION ACCESS OPENINGS ACCESS SHAFTS WORKING CHAMBERS INTERMEDIATE PLATFORMS INVERTS AND BENCHINGS COVERS STEP-IRONS AND CAT LADDERS 67 67 67 67 67 68 68 68 68 69 69 11.6 11.1 12.5 12.
2 Dry Weather Flow Channel 13.7.8 Additional Provisions for Tidal Box Culvert 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 73 74 13.2 Desilting Opening Type 1 12.6 Tidal Channels 13.7. 12.3 13.7.7 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS 12.7 Staff Gauge 13.3 Design of Amour Layer CHANNEL SHAPE COLLECTION OF LOCAL RUNOFF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS 13.9 Marine Access and Marine Traffic 13. DESIGN OF NULLAHS.5.5.1 13.2 GENERAL CHANNEL LININGS 18.104.22.168.7.4 Safety Barriers and Staircases 13.7.6 Freeboard 12. ENGINEERED CHANNELS AND RIVER TRAINING WORKS 13.5 .22.214.171.124 Maintenance Road 13.3 Desilting Opening Type 2 126.96.36.199 Page No.5.5 Internal Openings 188.8.131.52.1 General 13.4 Access Shafts 12.2 Types of Channel Linings 13.5 Grit Traps/Sand Traps 13.4 13.11 Operation and Maintenance Manual 75 75 75 75 75 76 76 76 76 76 77 77 78 78 78 78 78 78 79 79 184.108.40.206.8 Chainage Marker and Survey Marker 13.7 Safety Provisions 12.1 Access Ramp 13.1 Access 12.10 Maintenance and Management Responsibilities among Departments 13.
4 Methods of Analysis 220.127.116.11 14.8 Geotechnical Instrumentation 13.6 Sensitivity Analysis 13.9 Sign Boards for Slopes OTHER CONSIDERATIONS 13.2.1 Type of Floodwater Storage Pond 18.104.22.168.7.6 13.2 Surface Water Management 22.214.171.124. 13.2 Use of Inflatable Dam as Tidal Barrier 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 82 13.2 Sizing of Floodwater Storage Pond 126.96.36.199 14.3 Choice of Pump Type 14.7.5 Drainage Impact to Surrounding Area FLOOD PROTECTION EMBANKMENT/WALL INTERNAL VILLAGE DRAINAGE SYSTEM FLOODWATER STORAGE POND 14.4 Environmental Considerations 14.3 Operation and Maintenance Requirements 83 83 83 83 84 84 84 84 85 85 86 86 86 87 188.8.131.52 GENERAL PLANNING AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 14.5 .7.5 Seepage 13.1 Embankment Design 13.8 14.7 BRIDGE AND UTILITY CROSSINGS GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS 13.2 Factors of Safety 13.7 Methods for Stability Improvement 13.1 Land Requirement 14.7.3 Loading Cases 13.12 Page No.1 14.5.5. POLDER AND FLOODWATER PUMPING SCHEMES 14.1 Reprovision of Irrigation Water 13.
3.4 Desilting Programme 15.7 14.5 Methods for Desilting/Cleansing STORMWATER DRAIN REHABILITATION 15.9. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF STORMWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 15.9 184.108.40.206.4.1 General Requirements 14.6 FLOODWATER PUMPING STATION 14.2 Design Capacity 14.3.1 Procedures for Handing Over 15.3 Inspection of Special Drains 15.1 GENERAL 15.3 Operation and Maintenance Requirements TRASH SCREENS MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEMS MISCELLANEOUS ISSUES 14.4 .1 System Commissioning 14.1 Inspection Programme 15.2 Operation and Maintenance Issues 14.3 Division of Maintenance Responsibility 14.3 15.1.13 Page No.1 Pipe Replacement 15.2 15.9.9. 14.2 Handing Over in Dry Conditions 220.127.116.11.3.1 Maintenance Objectives HANDING OVER OF COMPLETED WORKS 15.4.3 Documents to be submitted INSPECTION AND GENERAL MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS 15.6.4 Future Extension 87 87 88 88 89 89 90 90 90 91 91 14.2 Closed Circuit Television Surveys 18.104.22.168 14.2 Trenchless Methods for Repairing Pipes 93 93 93 93 93 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 97 98 98 98 15.
1 Safety Requirements for Working in Confined Space 15.1 Operation 15.8.2 Schedule of Inspection 15.5.8 .5.5.6. 15. Tropical Cyclones or Similar Situations CONNECTIONS TO EXISTING DRAINAGE SYSTEM 15.8.6 101 101 101 102 102 102 102 103 15.1 Existing Capacity 15.3 Documentation 15.4 Operation during Rainstorms.2 Working under Adverse Weather Conditions and during Flooding 100 100 101 101 101 22.214.171.124.2 Terminal Manholes 15.5 POLDER AND FLOODWATER PUMPING SCHEMES 15.3 Provision of Manholes DRAINAGE RECORDS SAFETY PROCEDURES 15.7 15.14 Page No.
REFERENCES TABLES LIST OF TABLES TABLES 105 109 111 113 FIGURES LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES 143 145 147 .15 Page No.
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polders and floodwater pumping facilities.1 SCOPE This Manual offers guidance on the planning. river training works. box culverts. 1. design. Such works include stormwater pipelines. operation and maintenance of stormwater drainage works which are commonly constructed in Hong Kong. Some sections of the manual are also relevant for the management of natural watercourses.17 1. nullahs. INTRODUCTION 1. Fisheries and Conservation Department Architectural Services Department British Standard British Standards Institution Civil Engineering Department District Lands Office/Yuen Long District Office/Yuen Long Drainage Services Department Environmental Protection Department Food and Environmental Hygiene Department Fire Services Department Geotechnical Control Office Geotechnical Engineering Office Glass Reinforced Plastic High Density Polyethylene Hong Kong Observatory Hong Kong Observatory Headquarters Highways Department Hong Kong Police Force Leisure and Cultural Services Department Labour Department Medium Density Polyethylene North East New Territories North West New Territories Public Works Department Soil Conservation Service (United States) Territorial Land Drainage and Flood Control Strategy Study Transport Department Territory Development Department Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride .2 ABBREVIATIONS The following abbreviations are used throughout this Manual: AFCD Arch SD BS BSI CED DLO/YL DO/YL DSD EPD FEHD FSD GCO GEO GRP HDPE HKO HKO Hqs HyD HKPF LCSD LD MDPE NENT NWNT PWD SCS TELADFLOCOSS TD TDD uPVC Agriculture.
18 USBR WBTC WSD United States Bureau of Reclamation Works Bureau (or Works Branch) Technical Circular Water Supplies Department .
Rainfall distribution is seldom uniform spatially and temporally and remarkable extremes in storm rainfall are also experienced. and lack of comprehensive maintenance of natural watercourses due to land access problems. STORMWATER DRAINAGE IN HONG KONG 2. can cause flooding. life and property are from time to time under the threat of flooding due to heavy rainfall. Examples are changes in land use resulting in increase in runoff and depletion of flood storage. There are also other studies relating to the drainage system of Hong Kong. The average annual rainfall of Hong Kong is about 2200 millimetres. separate systems are provided for the collection and disposal of stormwater and sewage. culverts and nullahs in the urbanized areas. Drainage legislation. agricultural wastes or silt arising from both natural erosion and construction activities. it is necessary to undertake flood mitigation measures in the rural areas such as the construction of river training works to improve the flow capacity and the installation of polders and floodwater pumping systems for low-lying villages. These include: (a) Development control requiring Drainage Impact Assessments for new development proposals which are likely to have a significant impact on the existing drainage systems. In Hong Kong.1 THE HONG KONG SITUATION Stormwater drainage and sewerage are part of the essential infrastructure of a modern city. Apart from natural causes. blockage of natural drainage systems by refuse.3. sometimes coupled with high sea levels associated with storm surges during the passage of tropical cyclones. In addition to the provision of a comprehensive system of stormwater pipelines. including TELADFLOCOSS Studies. Such heavy rainfall. These studies should be referred to when planning for new drainage projects. human activities can also influence the prevalence of flooding. For example. Land Drainage Ordinance (enacted on 31. the conditions of the associated existing drainage system and the proposed measures for the improvement of the system recommended by the recent relevant studies should be checked for reference. (b) .19 2. In Hong Kong. Efforts have also been stepped up to implement a wide range of non-structural measures to relieve the problem of flooding. When planning new drainage projects. DSD commenced seven Stormwater Drainage Master Plan Studies in 1996 to review the performance and conditions of the existing drainage system all over Hong Kong.1994) empowering Government to carry out maintenance of main natural watercourses. indiscriminate land filling. Figure 1 shows the boundaries of the study areas of these Stormwater Drainage Master Plan Studies.
20 (c) Enhancement of the flood warning service and distribution of advisory/educational information pamphlets on flood prevention to people living in flood-prone areas. (d) . Operation of an Emergency and Storm Damage Organisation to deal with emergency cases of flooding.
21 3. consequences of flooding including risk to life and limb. topography. the planning and implementation of drainage systems shall allow for the eventual provision of the flood protection standards recommended in this Manual. Catchments in Hong Kong vary considerably from rural areas with natural watercourses to old. This Chapter gives further guidance on this subject.2 Detailed Considerations Specific guidance on aspect of hydrological and hydraulic analyses for system planning and design are addressed in Chapters 4 to 8.2 3. parameters and recommendations contained in the guidelines in this Manual. intensively developed urban areas and. an experienced practitioner may propose alternatives to the guidelines to suit particular circumstances however the adoption of any such alternatives shall be fully justified. (a) If the new drainage system is at the downstream end of an existing network. particularly for large scale or strategic system planning. soil type. the designer shall take into account the possibility of future improvement of the upstream systems. In the ultimate. . 1987). 3. Considerations on this issue may include proper analyses conducted on risk assessment. configuration and land use of the catchment. highly congested. 3. potential disruption to the community of major new works and the cost/benefit of new works.1 GENERAL PLANNING AND INVESTIGATION GENERAL A stormwater drainage system should be designed to collect and convey run-off generated within a catchment area during and after rainfall events. General information on the planning and investigation required for stormwater drainage systems is given in BS 8005 (BSI. The new system should be designed to accept the increased flow after improvement of the existing upstream network. however. After a detailed analysis of all the characteristics of a catchment and the performance of the drainage systems.1 SYSTEM PLANNING Overview System planning involves the assessment of the performance of the existing stormwater drainage system within a catchment and the design of a new or upgraded system to allow for the impact of new development within the catchment and/or to assess the necessity and feasibility of bringing the flood protection standards up to the levels recommended in this Manual. it is important to fully investigate and validate the adoption of the criteria. 3. for safe discharge into a receiving watercourse or the sea.2.2. however there are other factors that require special attention at the system planning stage and some examples are as follows. The magnitude of peak flows that have to be accommodated will depend primarily on the intensity of rainfall and the size.
There is the potential for this effect not only in the New Territories floodplains. repairs and maintenance. vehicular access for construction plant. blockage of a major culvert by a fallen tree or failure of a stormwater pumping station may result in substantial overland flows causing deep flooding of low-lying areas. Depressed roads. 3. which are non-building areas. Such reserves are essential in order to ensure that there is free and unrestricted access at all times for construction. depth of the stormwater drain and clearance from adjacent existing structures and foundations. stormwater drainage systems should be located on Government Land and all nullahs.3. If land is required from LCSD. necessary consultation and arrangement with LCSD should be initiated at the earliest possible stage. Town Plans and Drainage Records Government regularly publishes maps and town plans from which information on land use and topography of catchment areas can be extracted. 3. The consequences of performance failure of stormwater drains should therefore be addressed and mitigation measures such as the provision of overland flood paths may be necessary. culverts and pipelines should be located either in road reserves or specially designated drainage reserves. The effect on sea levels of tropical cyclones. For large-scale works. but also in important. Drainage reserves should be included where necessary on the various statutory and non-statutory town plans.1 INFORMATION FOR SYSTEM PLANNING Maps. .22 (b) (c) (d) The provision of adequate protection of low-lying areas within floodplains in the rural New Territories. Performance failure or partial failure of stormwater drains during heavy rainfall events may have very serious consequences e. The width of a reserve should be determined from the requirements for working space. In general.3 Location of Public Drainage Systems As far as possible. For the implementation of public projects. Attention should be drawn to the general principle that the land intake for each project should be kept to the minimum. the acquisition and allocation of land should follow the prevalent Government procedures.3 3. low-lying urban areas such as Wan Chai where reclamation has taken place with higher ground levels than the hinterland.g. aerial photographs may provide an essential source of reference. pedestrian underpasses and road tunnels are similarly at risk.2. Reference should also be made to Drainage Services Department’s drainage records for information on the existing stormwater drainage systems. a minimum width of 6 m plus the outside diameter of the pipeline or outside width of culvert is recommended.
TD. DSD.2 Location of Utilities (a) General Utility companies and the appropriate Government authorities should be consulted regarding the effect of a project on their existing and proposed services and regarding any facilities required of the project. permits. In particular. etc. (b) Existing Utility Services The procedure for obtaining approval for the removal and/or diversion of existing services belonging to utility companies can be lengthy and may require the sanction of the Chief Executive-in-Council in exceptional circumstances. The diversion/resiting of tram tracks of Hong Kong Tramways Limited and the associated posts and cables is an exception to this general rule. block licences and permits should be referred to if necessary. attention should be drawn to the fact that there are some underground tunnels and the associated structures constructed or being proposed by the Hong Kong Electric Company Limited. etc.3. Relevant Ordinances. Hence these underground tunnels and structures have to be protected against damage by the construction or site investigation works of a new project. The installation of services by utility companies on Government land is in general governed by block licences. Mass Transit Railway Corporation. HyD. (c) Utility Companies (The list may not be exhaustive) (i) Public utility companies may include: CLP Power Hong Kong Limited Hong Kong Cable Television Limited Hong Kong Tramways Limited Hutchison Telecommunications (Hong Kong) Limited i-Cable Communications Limited Kowloon Canton Railway Corporation Mass Transit Railway Corporation New T&T Hong Kong Limited New World Telephone Limited Pacific Century CyberWorks HKT Rediffusion (HK) Limited The Hong Kong & China Gas Company Limited The Hong Kong Electric Company Limited (ii) Government departments having utility installations may include: Drainage Services Department Highways Department .23 3. Engineers should therefore make the necessary arrangement and obtain agreement with the utility companies in concern at the earliest possible stage. Under the block licences. WSD. Government can order the private utility companies to carry out diversion works without any charge.
noise. 3. operation. general arrangement/layout of the works.4.4. Landscape architect of the relevant office in TDD.4 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 3. It is necessary for the designer to identify all potential risks arisen from the proposed works and to design the works in such a way as to remove. plant and materials to be used. accessibility of the works by the public. dust and water aspects which are usually considered for most civil engineering works. All projects and proposals that are covered under Schedule 2 or 3 of the EIA Ordinance shall follow the procedures as laid down in the Ordinance. and finally decommissioning and demolition. 3.5 SITE INVESTIGATIONS Reference should be made to GCO (1987) for guidance on good site investigation practice and GCO (1988) for guidance on description of rocks and soils in Hong Kong. . Mitigating measures such as wetland compensation should be devised accordingly.g. technique involved.24 People’s Liberation Army Hong Kong Garrison through Security Bureau Transport Department Water Supplies Department 3.1 Aesthetics/Landscape All the drainage works should be designed to blend in with the environment. etc). consideration should be given to the following aspects when carrying out risk assessment at the design stage: (a) The anticipated method of construction – site constraints. The Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance (EIAO) was enacted on 4 February 1997 and came into operation on 1 April 1998.6 SAFETY ISSUES Every project has its own particular and distinctive features (e. Arch SD or HyD may be consulted for advice on landscape treatment. In general. site location and constraints. In addition to the air. issues such as dredging and disposal of contaminated mud and the impact of large-scale drainage works on the ecology of the surrounding areas should also require detailed assessment. maintenance.2 Environmental Assessment The necessity for and the extent of a Project Profile and an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for stormwater drainage projects should be determined in accordance with the prevailing Government procedures. Special attention should be paid to the aesthetic aspects of the structures and landscaping works. reduce and/or control the identified hazards present during the course of construction. 3.
work on or near water. and diversion of flow for the pumping station.25 (b) (c) The operation of works – warning signs. penstocks and flap valves. . contaminated grounds. The decommissioning and demolition of the works – pre-stressed members. replacement of pumps. means of emergency communication. (d) Designers may refer to DSD (1994) or its latest version for information on the hazards of different types of works and the suitable control measures. The maintenance of the works – confined space. desilting. life buoys. grilles. fencing.
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Rainfall analysis is based on historic or synthetic rainstorms. For design purpose, synthetic rainstorms based on Gumbel Distribution are recommended although other types of statistical distribution may also be appropriate for specific rainstorm duration. 4.2 4.2.1 HISTORIC RAINSTORMS Applications
Historic rainstorms are used in actual storm event simulations, which are carried out in conjunction mostly with the calibration/verification of hydrological/hydraulic models, and to a lesser extent, with flood-forecast and post-event flood evaluations. 4.2.2 Point Rainfall
There are 179 operational rain gauge stations in Hong Kong, as summarized in Table 1. The locations of automatic reporting rain gauge (i.e. telemetered) and other conventional rain gauges which include ordinary and autographic types are indicated in Figure 2 and Figure 3 respectively. Some of the gauging stations may contain both ordinary and autographic (monthly) gauges at the same location. The density of rain gauges in Hong Kong is higher than the World Meteorological Organization’s minimum standards. Nevertheless, the variations of local rainfall are rather extreme both spatially and temporally, and additional rain gauges may still be needed for individual projects, either on long-term or short-term basis, for defining the areal rainfall. 4.2.3 Areal Rainfall
The areal rainfall of a sub-catchment or catchment should be derived from the records of a number of rain gauges based on an appropriate technique, such as the isohyetal method. 4.3 4.3.1 SYNTHETIC RAINSTORMS Applications
Synthetic Rainstorms are recommended to simplify the planning, design and management of stormwater drainage systems. They are artificial design storms built upon statistics of the historic rainfall records.
28 4.3.2 Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) Relationship
Despite some variations in extreme rainfall across the Territory, the rainfall statistics at HKO Hqs/King’s Park are recommended for general application because long-term and good quality records at other stations are not readily available for statistical analysis. The recommended IDF Relationship is based on the Gumbel Solution in the frequency analysis of the annual maximum rainfall recorded at HKO Hqs and King's Park (RO, 1991). The relationship is presented in both Table 2 and Figure 4 for durations not exceeding 4 hours. The IDF data can also be expressed by the following algebraic equation for easy application:
a (t d + b) c
i = extreme mean intensity in mm/hr, td = duration in minutes ( td ≤ 240), and a, b, c = storm constants given in Table 3.
For durations exceeding 4 hours, the rainfall depth instead of the mean intensity is normally used. The Depth-Duration-Frequency (DDF) Relationship for duration exceeding 4 hours is given in Table 4 again based on RO (1991). The IDF data can be generated by dividing rainfall depth with duration. 4.3.3 Storm Duration
The design rainstorm duration should be taken as the time of concentration of the catchment under consideration. The time of concentration is defined as the time for a drop of water to flow from the remotest point in the catchment to its outlet. For modeling analysis, a longer storm duration may be required if the recess arm of the hydrograph is required. 4.3.4 Design Rainstorm Profile The time distribution of the design rainstorm should be taken as: (a) (b) For the Rational Method of runoff estimation, a uniformly distributed rainfall with an intensity determined by the IDF relationship should be used. For other methods of runoff estimation and for storm durations equal to or shorter than 4 hours, a symmetrically distributed rainfall is recommended with the following formulation based on RO (1991):
a[b + 2(1 − c)t ] ( 2t + b ) c + 1 F ( −t ) , , 0≤t ≤ − td 2
td ≤t ≤0 2
29 where F(t) = rate of rainfall or instantaneous intensity in mm/hr at time t (in minutes) rainstorm duration (in minutes) (td ≤ 240) storm constants given in Table 3, which are the same as those given for the algebraic equation of the IDF relationship
td = a, b, c =
The recommended rainstorm profiles for various return periods are given in Figure 5 and a tabulation of the relationship is shown in Table 5. The connection between the tabulated data in Table 5 and the curves in Figure 5 is elaborated in Figure 6. For storm durations longer than 4 hours, the rainstorm profile can be derived from the IDF or DDF relationship. 4.3.5 Areal Reduction Factor
The design rainstorm profile relates to point rainfall only. The areal rainfall of a catchment can be obtained by multiplying the point rainfall with an areal reduction factor (ARF). DSD (1990) gave the following ARF based on a Depth-Area-Duration (DAD) analysis on local rainstorms: Catchment Area A (km2) ≤ 25 > 25 ARF 1.00
( A + 28)0.11
Sometimes, for the design of certain drainage components, rainfall with a frequency of more than once per year is used. The IDF data of such frequent rainstorms are given in Table 6, according to Cheng & Kwok (1966).
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1 GENERAL SEA LEVEL ANALYSIS Sea level forms the downstream hydraulic boundary condition of stormwater drainage systems. 5.31 5. With the exception of Tai Mui Wan and Shek Pik tide gauges.146 m below Principal Datum (PD). Tai Mui Wan and Shek Pik. with spring tides at new and full moons. Sea levels are monitored at one-minute intervals.2. Chi Ma Wan. Tai O and Tamar. . 5. 5. Tides in Hong Kong are of the mixed dominantly semidiurnal type with significant daily inequality. Ko Lau Wan.146 m where mCD is metre above Chart Datum and mPD is metre above Principal Datum. all are telemetered to the HKO Hqs in real-time. but these have been discontinued. Lok On Pai. Tai Po Kau. Brief particulars of the tide gauges are given in Table 7 and their locations are shown in Figure 7.2 Data Availability There are 6 operational tide gauges in Hong Kong: Quarry Bay. 5.2. Daily tidal fluctuations throughout the month are due to the combined effect of the moon and the sun. The relationship between the two datums can be represented as mCD = mPD + 0.2. there were also tide gauges at North Point. Tsim Bei Tsui. Plans to telemeter the remaining two tide gauges are being investigated. and neap tides at the first and last quarters. Each year HKO publishes a tide table giving the astronomical tide predictions (based on a Harmonic Analysis) for most of the operational tide gauge stations. Tidal data are normally recorded in Chart Datum (CD) which is 0.3 Astronomical Tides Tides arise from the gravitational attractions between the sea water masses and the moon and between the same masses and the sun. Periodic hourly tidal fluctuations are mainly due to the moon's effect. Waglan. Formerly.1 HISTORIC SEA LEVELS Applications Historic sea levels are used in actual event simulations for the calibration and verification of hydraulic models.2 5.
5. which describes the sea level variations at locations within the bays and inlets. An open coast surge model with a coarse grid is used to simulate the influence of a tropical cyclone on sea level variations with times at locations along the open coast.3. 5. The associated wind field also piles up water through surface friction (wind set-up).e.3. and the observed tides may differ from those predicted when the conditions deviate from the normal.2. Tai Po Kau. Such numerical predictions can be used to fill gaps in measured tidal data both in space and time.32 5.2 Design Extreme Sea Levels Table 8 shows the design extreme sea levels at North Point/Quarry Bay. The sea level rises through barometric suction.3. Other factors affecting storm surges include the Coriolis Effect. 5. The data have been converted to mPD for easy application. storm surges) can be large. The Mean Higher High Water (MHHW) levels for the 4 tidal stations are shown in Table 9.3 Design Sea Level Profile For simplicity. with the parameters estimated by the Method of Moments.3 5.1 SYNTHETIC SEA LEVELS Applications Synthetic sea levels are recommended to simplify stormwater drainage planning. coastline configuration and sea bed bathymetry. design and management. Tsim Bei Tsui and Chi Ma Wan.4 Storm Surges The predicted astronomical tides are based on normal meteorological conditions.2. during tropical cyclones.5 Infilling of Gaps in Tidal Data The HKO has a nested numerical model for the computation of storm surges at various locations in Hong Kong waters. A storm surge is induced by a low pressure weather system. the sea level should be assumed constant with time. The resultant sea level variations are then used as inputs to a bay model with a much finer grid. based on the Gumbel Distribution. . For instance. such differences (i. 5.
A possible explanation is the regional uplift of the coast of the South China Sea. a wait-andsee approach is considered appropriate regarding design for sea level rise in Hong Kong. This trend is contrary to those observed in other parts of the world.4. 1990). . WB (1990) on greenhouse effect is referred.2 Regional/Local Trends A weak trend of falling mean sea levels in Hong Kong has been suggested (DSD.4 5. In this respect. 5. is the global trend of rising sea levels.1 SEA LEVEL TRENDS Global Trends Of concern to the design of coastal stormwater drainage systems.4. at least for the time being. In view of the observed trend and its apparently contrasting manifestation with the global phenomenon.33 5. This trend may continue if global warming takes place as forecast.
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. 6. for new drainage systems or drainage upgrading in some existing areas. for a drainage system designed for a 50-year design life and a 200-year return period. For the same design life. the chance is 64% for a system sized for a 50-year return period. the design return period should be based on local experience and appropriate risk assessment taking into account the duration of the works. particularly low lying ones or those in congested urban locations. there is a 22% chance of flooding at least once during the design life.35 6. A pragmatic approach should be considered.2 DESIGN RETURN PERIODS Ideally. Table 10 gives the recommended design return periods based on flood levels. the probability (P) of the system's capacity being exceeded at least once over its design life is given by: P = 1 − (1 − 1 L ) T For instance. Hence.6. However. the seasons during which the works are being carried out and other contingency measures to be implemented. 6. For temporary works such as temporary river diversions. category and design life of the drainage systems. 6. The consequential losses ranging from major casualties to minor inconvenience to daily life due to inadequate flood protection standards should be carefully considered in major improvement works. the choice of a design return period should be based on an economic evaluation in which the costs of providing the drainage works are compared with the benefits derived. the recommended standards may not be suitable or achievable. Definitions of stormwater drainage systems are discussed in Section 6. Admittedly.1 GENERAL FLOOD PROTECTION STANDARDS Flood protection standard is generally defined as the design standard for drainage system that is adequate to accommodate a T-year flood. whereas T is the design return period of the flood event. Suitable freeboard and reduction in flow capacity due to sedimentation should be allowed in flood level computations. comprehensive local flood damage data are normally not available to the degree of precision required for cost-benefit analysis. Suppose the drainage system has a design life of L years. For this reason. Appropriate flood protection standards should be chosen to suit the type. hazard to public safety and community expectations is more appropriate. a general policy decision based on such considerations as land use.3 PROBABILITY OF DESIGN FAILURE It should be noted that a drainage system designed for a T-year return period event does not mean that its capacity will only be exceeded once in every T years. the recommended design standard may be too stringent.
5 or 10 The design return periods for combined rain and tide events are tabulated in Table 11 for easy reference. 100 or 200 when T = 2. X = 10. a X-year sea level in conjunction with a T-year rainfall. those of the others are outlined below.4 DEFINITION OF FLOOD LEVELS The following approximate pragmatic rule for determining the T-year flood level in the fluvial-tidal zone of a drainage system is recommended. The T-year flood level is taken as the higher of those flood levels due to the following two cases: Case I Case II a T-year sea level in conjunction with a X-year rainfall. Allowance should also be made for ground settlement and bank erosion. or manhole cover level in the case of an urban drainage system. when T = 50. and the design flood level.3. In the above rule.6 STORMWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Table 10 stipulates the flood protection standards for five categories of stormwater drainage systems according to the nature of catchment served or the hierarchy of the drains within the overall drainage system.5 FREEBOARD The freeboard is the vertical distance between the crest of a river embankment. etc. In addition to other allowances made. please refer to Section 9. a margin of safety (300 mm minimum) is recommended to account for inaccuracies in flood level computations. For the amount of sedimentation in stormwater drains. 6. X = 2.36 6. . wave run-ups. Sediment thickness at the bed should be excluded from the freeboard calculation and provision for such thickness may be achieved through a lower design bed level. These are: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Intensively Used Agricultural Land Village Drainage including Internal Drainage System within a Polder Scheme Main Rural Catchment Drainage Channels Urban Drainage Trunk Systems Urban Drainage Branch Systems While the meaning of Agricultural Land in Category (a) is self-evident. 6. Freeboard should be provided to cover super-elevations at bends.
Pipes with size or box culverts with an equivalent diameter equal to or larger than 1. and . In any case. Notwithstanding the above delineation of Urban Drainage Trunk and Branch Systems. the impact of a 50-year event should be assessed in the planning and design of village drainage system to check whether a higher standard than 10 years is justified. reference should be made to HyD (1994).8 m. and conveys the flow to outfalls in river or sea. An ‘Urban Drainage Trunk System’ collects stormwater from branch drains and/or river inlets.8 m are normally considered as trunk drains.7 INTERFACE WITH RESERVOIRS/CATCHWATERS When part of a drainage basin is a WSD catchment.1 Village Drainage and Main Rural Catchment Drainage Channels ‘Village Drainage’ refers to the local stormwater drainage system within a village. the stormwater drainage should be designed for the greater of the following: (a) maximum runoff assuming the absence of the WSD catchwaters.6. It is however noted that small catchments do not necessarily have to have a trunk drain at all. An ‘Urban Drainage Branch System’ is defined as a group or network of connecting drains collecting runoff from the urban area and conveying stormwater to a trunk drain. 6. A stormwater drain conveying stormwater runoff from an upstream catchment but happens to pass through a village may need to be considered as either a ‘Main Rural Catchment Drainage Channel’ or ‘Village Drainage’. The higher standard is needed for a trunk drain because it conveys higher flows and comparatively serious damage or even loss of life could occur if it floods. 6. reference should always be made to the relevant Drainage Master Plan Study.37 6.2 Urban Drainage Branch and Urban Drainage Trunk Systems The classification is basically a hierarchical grouping of the drainage network for assigning the flood protection standards according to the perceived importance of the individual drainage system.6. the largest pipe size or the equivalent diameter in case of a box culvert in a branch system will normally be less than 1. any surcharge in a trunk drain will prevent the adjoining branch drains from draining the catchment and discharging the stormwater into the trunk drain effectively. For a simple definition. advice from DSD should be sought in case of doubt. depending on the nature and size of the upstream catchment. In view of the ongoing evolvement of drainage development and requirements. river or sea. In addition. For the design of gully system for road pavements.
38 (b) runoff from the catchment excluding the part of the WSD catchment but include the estimated overflows from the catchwaters and reservoir spillways as provided by WSD. .
3 7. These DSD gauges are primarily for flood monitoring. 7. Locations of DSD’s river stage gauges are also shown in Figure 8. Rating curves for the gauges can be obtained from WSD. The two fundamental pre-requisites for any reliable runoff estimates are good and extended rainfall/ evapotranspiration data and adequate calibration/verification of the rainfall-runoff model parameters by sufficient number of gauging stations. 7.3. rainstorms are described in Section 4.2 Flow Gauging Methods The commonly used flow gauging methods are listed below: (a) Velocity-Area Method . 7. The locations of these gauges are given in Figure 8.2 7. The common deterministic methods are the rational method. the time-area method. if available. 7. 7.3 Streamflow WSD operates a network of stream flow gauges for water resources planning purposes.2.1 GENERAL RUNOFF ESTIMATION Methods to estimate runoff from single storm event can be based on statistical or deterministic approaches.126.96.36.199.1 NEED FOR CALIBRATION/VERIFICATION Choice of Runoff Estimation Method There is no single preferred method for runoff estimation. Flow-Duration curves are available in the Annual Report on Hong Kong Rainfall and Runoff – WSD (annual).2. A chosen model for any given application should be calibrated and verified with rainfall-runoff data.2 Evaporation/Evapotranspiration Daily evaporation data are measured at the HKO King's Park Meteorological Station. 7.39 7.2.1 DATA AVAILABILITY Rainfall Design The rain gauge network in Hong Kong is described in Section 4. the unit hydrograph method and the reservoir routing method. Three lysimeters to measure potential evapotranspiration are also available at the station.
for extreme events. On the other hand.40 (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Slope-Area Method Weirs and Flumes Dilution Method Ultrasonic Method Electromagnetic Method Float Gauging Method Details of various methods of flow gauging are described in Herschy.4 STATISTICAL METHODS The statistical approach to runoff estimation can give good results if the streamflow records are long enough. The limitation is that it only gives the peak of the runoff and not the whole hydrograph. The flow data series can be treated in the following manner: (a) (b) (c) A Complete Duration Series. Such changes can better be estimated by Deterministic Methods. . This consists of data which are selected so that each is greater than a predefined threshold value. runoff may be subject to changes by urbanization and drainage improvements. In both cases. R. A Partial Duration Series. 7. An Annual Maximum Series.3. The statistics on the streamflow records are expressed in the form of a frequency analysis of the flow data. the flow cross-section may be too wide for flow gauging to be practical.3 Practical Difficulties There are practical difficulties in the runoff estimation in drainage systems within floodplains and in those subject to tidal influence. In the latter case. the frequency analysis is normally done on the partial duration series for shorter records and on the annual maximum series for longer records. the runoff estimation cannot be calibrated/verified directly and the calibration/verification of the parameters in the rainfall-runoff model has to be included in the hydraulic model's calibration/verification. Also. A complete duration series is commonly used in low-flow analysis and estimation of frequent events. This consists of the maximum value recorded in each year.W. the discharge in the drainage system may be affected by the sea level as well as rainfall. This consists of all the data available. This relates the magnitude of flows to their frequency of occurrence through the use of probability distributions. Full details of frequency analysis are given in Chow. In the former. (1985). 7. Maidment & May (1988).
The peak runoff is given by the following expression: Q p = 0. This has introduced complications to the statistical analysis of the data. etc. Despite valid criticisms.5 7. There are changes to the rainfall-runoff responses due to land use changes. the design can be refined by dynamic routing of the flow hydrographs through the system. Runoff data have to be generated from rainfall data which are usually more plentiful.5. which have upset the homogeneity of the streamflow data.2 Rational Method The Rational Method dates back to the mid-nineteenth century. Details on the application of the Rational Method are described below: (a) Basic Formulations. Such methods are used when: (a) (b) There are limited streamflow records for frequency analysis.5. when the whole catchment is contributing flows to the outlet. The idea behind the Rational Method is that for a spatially and temporally uniform rainfall intensity i which continues indefinitely. A runoff hydrograph is required. 7. it is still the most widely used method for stormwater drainage design because of its simplicity.278 C i A where Qp C i A = = = = peak runoff in m3/s runoff coefficient (dimensionless) rainfall intensity in mm/hr catchment area in km2 For a catchment consisting of m sub-catchments of areas Aj (km2) each with different runoff coefficients Cj. the runoff at the outlet of a catchment will increase until the time of concentration tc. However.1 DETERMINISTIC METHODS Introduction Deterministic methods are based on a cause-effect consideration of the rainfallrunoff processes. the peak runoff at the drainage outlet is given by the following expression: Q p = 0 . it should be noted that the Rational Method is normally used to estimate the peak runoff but cannot provide a runoff hydrograph. drainage improvements.41 7.278 i ∑ C j A j j =1 m . Once the layout and preliminary sizing of a system has been determined by the Rational Method. (c) Commonly used deterministic methods are outlined below.
For an urban drainage system.0.95 0. In Hong Kong. tc = to + tf tf = ∑ n Lj Vj j =1 . the designers should exercise due care in the selection of appropriate C values in order to ensure that the design would be fully cost-effective. (b) Runoff Coefficient. C 0.13 .42 Due to the assumptions of homogeneity of rainfall and equilibrium conditions at the time of peak flow. C is the least precisely known variable in the Rational Method.20 (c) Rainfall intensity. Surface Characteristics Asphalt Concrete Brick Grassland (heavy soil) Flat Steep Grassland (sandy soil) Flat Steep Runoff coefficient.05 . slope and retention characteristics of the ground surface. Proper selection of the runoff coefficient requires judgement and experience on the part of the designer. the duration and intensity of rainfall.95 0. (d) Time of concentration. the following C values may be used but it should be checked that the pertinent catchment area will not be changed to a developed area in the foreseeable future. tc.3. It is important for designer to investigate and ascertain the ground conditions before adopting an appropriate runoff coefficient. Especially for steep natural slopes or areas where a shallow soil surface is underlain by an impervious rock layer.0. Particular care should be taken when choosing a C value for unpaved surface as the uncertainties and variability of surface characteristics associated with this type of ground are known to be large.5 km2 without subdividing the overall catchment into smaller catchments and including the effect of routing through drainage channels.9 may be applicable.15 0. the Rational Method should not be used on areas larger than 1. Designers may consider it appropriate to adopt a more conservative approach in estimation of C values for smaller catchments where any consequent increase in cost may not be significant. The Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationship is given in Section 4.25 0. i is the average rainfall intensity selected on the basis of the design rainfall duration and return period. etc. for larger catchments.80 . It also depends on the characteristics and conditions of the soil.35 0.0.4 .0 is commonly used in developed urban areas. a value of C = l.85 0.15 . vegetation cover.25 . The value of C depends on the impermeability. In less developed areas. and the antecedent moisture conditions.0. However. a higher C value of 0. The same consideration shall also be applied when ground gradients vary greatly within the catchment.0.2. tc is the time for a drop of water to flow from the remotest point in the catchment to its outlet. The design rainfall duration is taken as the time of concentration.0.0.70 .70 .0.
C = runoff coefficient A1. It consists of the combination of a rainstorm profile with an incremental time-area diagram.3 Time-Area Method This method is modified from the Rational Method. from the summit of the catchment to the point under consideration distance (on plan) measured on the line of natural flow between the summit and the point under consideration (m) L = 7. i2.278 (C i1 A3. + C i2 A2 + C i3 A1) where …. etc = successive increments of the time-area diagram The above formulation is the basis of the Hydrograph Method in Watkins (1962) used in the United Kingdom for urban drainage design since it was published in the first .2 A 0. i3. measured along the line of natural flow. A2.43 where to = inlet time (time taken for flow from the remotest point to reach the most upstream point of the urban drainage system) flow time length of jth reach of drain flow velocity in jth reach of drain tf Lj Vj = = = The inlet time. the successive ordinates of the runoff hydrograph can be written as: Q1 = 0.278 C i1 A1 Q2 = 0.) catchment area (m2) average slope (m per 100 m). the Brandsby William's Equation is commonly used: to = 0. etc. Given a rainstorm profile in which the average rainfall intensities within successive time increments are i1.1 where to A H = = = time of concentration of a natural catchment (min.278 (C i1 A2 + C i2 A1) Q3 = 0. is commonly estimated from empirical formulae based on field observations. or time of concentration of a natural catchment. In Hong Kong.5.14465 L H 0.
As with unit hydrograph method. reservoir routing methods need to work in conjunction with appropriate loss models. 35 in 1963. Moreover. The above three methods are explained with worked examples in Chow. The unit hydrograph for a catchment can be derived from rainfall-runoff monitoring. Details are given in PWD (1968).4 Unit-Hydrograph Method The classical theory of unit hydrograph refers to the relationship between net rainfall and direct runoff. If the input is a uniform net rainfall with a duration tdur and a unit depth. the unit hydrograph may be derived synthetically from known unit hydrographs of gauged catchments of similar characteristics. .5. The flood storage volume (S) in the catchment is assumed to be a function of the outflow. The direct runoff due to any net rainfall with different depths for successive increments of tdur is obtained by linear superposition of the responses of the various net rainfall depths at each increment of tdur. Application of the Unit Hydrograph Method requires: (a) Loss Model. the WSD mean dimensionless unit hydrograph was developed for upland catchments. SCS losses) constant proportional losses (runoff coefficient) The loss model parameters can be derived from rainfall-runoff data. 7. the system is considered linear and time-invariant. In Hong Kong. 1983) for urban catchment. Moreover.5 Reservoir Routing Methods The net rainfall-direct runoff routing can be looked at as a reservoir routing process with the inflow (I) due to the net rainfall falling on the catchment and the outflow (Q) as the direct runoff from the catchment. The catchment is treated as a black box with the net rainfall as input and the direct runoff as response. Maidment & May (1988). the response is the tdur . Linearity of this function determines whether the reservoir is linear or non-linear. 7. Flow routing in pipes was later incorporated in the second edition of Road Note No. This process is called convolution. the reservoir can either be single or a series of reservoirs in cascade. There are 3 classical methods of determining the net rainfall hyetograph from the rainfall hyetograph: (i) (ii) (iii) initial loss + constant rate of losses (∅-index) initial loss + continuous losses (for example.unit hydrograph. (b) Unit Hydrograph. Examples of Reservoir Routing Methods are the Australian RORB model for rural catchment (Laurenson & Mein. For an ungauged catchment. Other examples of synthetic unit hydrographs are those according to Soil Conservation Service (1972). 1986) and the hydrological component in the Wallingford Procedure (HRL.44 edition of Road Note No. 35 in 1974.5. The direct runoff is added to the base-flow to give the total runoff.
. 8. the whole conduit conveys flow and there is no free surface. 8. Re = VR ν where R ν A P V = = = = = = hydraulic radius (m) A/P kinematic viscosity (m2/s) cross-section area of flow (m2) wetted perimeter (m) cross-sectional mean velocity (m/s) The transition from laminar to turbulent flow happens at Re = 500 to 2. In free surface flow (or open channel flow) which predominates in stormwater drainage systems.000 It is considered to be good practice to check the value of Re before applying the laws of turbulent flow. The Reynolds Number (Re) is used to distinguish whether a flow is laminar or turbulent.1 GENERAL HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS Hydraulic analysis for drainage planning or design makes use of the runoff results of the various subcatchments and the characteristics of the drainage system to determine flood levels throughout the system.1 FLOW CLASSIFICATIONS Laminar vs Turbulent Flow Laminar flow is characterized by fluid moving in layers. flood levels are also affected by the downstream boundary condition at the drainage outfall as defined by a sea level analysis. there exists a free surface and the hydraulic cross-section varies with the flow. The flow cross-section is the cross-section of the conduit and this does not vary with the flow.2.2 8. In turbulent flow. Nearly all practical surface water problems involve turbulent flow. In the tidal reaches of the system.2 Surcharge vs Free-surface Flow In surcharged flow (or pipe flow). with one layer gliding smoothly between the adjacent layers.2. there is a very erratic motion of fluid particles. 8. with mixing of one layer with the adjacent layers.45 8.
When Fr > l. the flow is non-uniform.2. the flow is supercritical and a wave disturbance can only travel downstream. The Froude Number (Fr) is defined as: Fr = V c Q A = gA αB ∴ Fr 2 = αBQ 2 gA3 where α B Q A g = Coriolis Coefficient (or Energy Coefficient) = width of free surface (m) = discharge (m3/s) = flow area (m2) = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) When Fr < 1. 8. In unsteady flow. the flow is subcritical and a wave disturbance can travel both upstream and downstream. V. T. the flow is uniform.3 Subcritical vs Supercritical Flow In open channel flow. . Chow.46 8. Critical flow has a minimum energy for a given discharge or a maximum discharge for a given energy. Otherwise. 8.2. flow conditions vary with position as well as time. (1959) quotes values of α. When Fr = 1. discharge and water level) vary with the position only. the flow is critical.2. it is important to compare the mean flow velocity ( V ) and the surface wave celerity (c). Steady flow can be either uniform or non-uniform.5 Uniform vs Non-uniform Flow If the flow is also independent of position.4 Steady vs Unsteady Flow In steady flows. flow conditions (viz.
k2.3. kN.. . nN.3. Manning equation is more convenient to work with in open channel flow calculations.. if the flow conditions vary slowly with location and bed friction is the main contribution to energy losses. Manning and Colebrook-White are the most popular in local applications. All the equations are converted to the Chézy form for easy comparison. Colebrook-White equation has been presented in design charts in HRL (l990).1 UNIFORM FLOW Frictional Resistance Equations Most of these equations apply to turbulent uniform flow in open channels. .2.. the equivalent roughness coefficient is A5 / 3 2/3 n = P 5/3 A ∑ i 2/3 ni Pi If the surface roughnesses are k1. P2. AN are known. .47 8.. 8. Otherwise. the flow is gradually varied..2 Compound Roughness Suppose the flow area is divided into N sub-sections of which the wetted perimeters P1. the equivalent surface roughness is ks = ∑ Pi ki P 8. If the corresponding Manning roughness coefficients are n1.6 Gradually Varied vs Rapidly Varied Non-uniform Flow In non-uniform flow.. The notations are: V R Sf C n f ks ν g CHW = = = = = = = = = = cross-sectional mean velocity (m/s) hydraulic radius (m) friction gradient (dimensionless) Chézy coefficient ( m½/s) Manning coefficient ( s/m1/3) Darcy-Weisbach friction factor (dimensionless) surface roughness (m) kinematic viscosity (m2/s) acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) Hazen-William coefficient (dimensionless) Amongst the equations in Table 12. 8. the flow is rapidly varied. n2. Design values of n and ks are given in Tables 13 and 14 respectively.... PN and areas A1.... . The common equations are given in Table 12 using a consistent set of notations.3 Partially Full Circular Sections .3 8. A2.3.
1 Basic Formulations Using the definition sketch at Figure 9.4. (1959). the basic equation is: (a) In differential form: dy so − s f = dx 1 − Fr 2 Q2n2 A2 R 4 / 3 = αQ 2 B 1− gA 3 so − (b) Alternatively.3 Solution Techniques . in finite difference form: α1V1 2 2g so ∆x + y1 + = s f ∆x + y 2 + α 2V22 2g or s o ∆x + y1 + α 1Q 2 2 gA12 = s f ∆x + y 2 + α 2Q 2 2 2 gA2 8.2 Types of Flow Profiles Depending on the bed slope and the flow depth. The computational methods are summarized below. V.4. 8.T. All local losses have been ignored. For simplicity.48 Charts for partially full circular sections are available for both Manning and Colebrook-White equations. The classification is described in Chow. 8. 8.T. 13 types of flow profiles can be distinguished. V. (1959) and HRL (1990).4.4 GRADUALLY VARIED NON-UNIFORM FLOW The determination of free-surface profiles in non-uniform flow is of fundamental importance in steady-state hydraulic analysis. the Manning equation is used below to describe the frictional gradient. See Chow. An example is the backwater curve analysis in the tidal section of a drainage system.
Finally.6 FLOW ROUTING . it is necessary to establish the normal flow depth (yn) and critical flow depth (yc) by solving: so = Q2n2 2 4/3 An Rn and 1= αQ 2 Bc 3 gAc Next. culverts. (l959).49 First. or solution of the unknown flow section from the known one using the difference equation above and the Standard Step Method or the Direct Step Method. the calculation starts at some known section at the upstream side and proceeds in a downstream direction. 8. For important applications in rapidly varied flows. This complex subject is treated thoroughly in Chow. physical modelling is recommended to verify or refine the design. Energy dissipators should be provided at transitions from supercritical flows to subcritical flows. as for the actual calculations. V.T. etc.5 RAPIDLY VARIED NON-UNIFROM FLOW Rapidly varied non-uniform flows are commonly encountered in drainage applications. 8. these can be: (a) (b) a numerical integration of the differential equation above. For subcritical flows. it is important to distinguish: (a) (b) For supercritical flows. the calculation starts at some known section at the downstream side and proceeds in an upstream direction. Examples of such flows happen at: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Weirs or spillways Gates Sudden channel expansions or contractions Hydraulic jumps Bends Channel junctions Constrictions due to bridge piers.
5 8. In hydraulic routing.6.2 Hydrologic Routing The basic formulation of hydrologic routing is the solution of the outflow hydrograph Q(t) from the inflow hydrograph I(t) through the continuity (or storage) equation and storage function. based on the upstream inflows and attenuation due to storage.6. Using the notations in Figure 10.1 Introduction Flow routing is a procedure to determine the flow hydrograph at a point in a drainage system based on known inflow hydrographs at one or more points upstream. It is based on the solution of the basic differential equations of unsteady flow. S: dS = I (t ) − Q(t ) dt Depending on the choice of the storage function. 0 ≤ X ≤ 0.6. In hydrologic routing. two hydrologic routing methods can be distinguished: (a) Reservoir Routing S = f (Q) (b) Muskingum Method S = K [XI + (1-X) Q] where K = proportional constant X = weighting factor.50 8.3 Hydraulic Routing The basis of hydraulic routing is the solution of the basic differential equations of unsteady flow (the Saint Venant Equations). the flow is calculated as a function of space and time throughout the system. 8. the flow at a particular location is calculated as a function of time. Two methods of flow routing can be distinguished: hydrologic routing and hydraulic routing. these equations can be written as follows: Continuity Equation: ∂Q ∂A =q + ∂x ∂t Momentum Equation: .
These are briefly described below: (a) Kinematic Routing. Depending on the number of terms to be included in the Momentum Equation. Common finitedifference schemes used are the Priessman 4-point Implicit Scheme and Abbot-Ionescu 6point Implicit Scheme. The full Saint-Venant Equations are not amenable to analytical solutions. and downstream influence due to. Other factors such as discontinuities at the pipe joints. etc will all affect the head losses. Other sources of resistance which occur in pipes include inlets. Kinematic wave routing and dynamic wave routing are commonly used. These limitations can be overcome by Dynamic Routing. The resistance in pipes will be influenced by the pipe material but will be primarily dependent on the slime and sediment that deposit on the pipe surface. They are normally solved by numerical methods. the selection of the pipe materials and the joint details are very important. tidal backup. outlets. number of manholes. The calculations for flow Q and water depth y are performed on a grid placed over the x-t plane. (1969) gives hydraulics-based definition of the parameters K and X in the Muskingum Method. Initial flow conditions and the design of the computation grid are important factors affecting the stability of the calculations. Cunge. This is analogous to hydrologic routing.7 LOCAL HEAD LOSSES IN PIPE FLOWS In order to minimize the head losses in pipe flows. loops. number of branch pipes at manholes and their directions of flow in relation to the main stream. 8. valves. manholes and other fittings and obstructions can all be referred to as head loss and formulated as: . for instance.51 1 ∂Q 1 ∂ + A ∂t A ∂x βQ A 2 ∂y + g − g so − s ∂x ( f )= 0 Local acceleration term Convective acceleration term Pressure Gravity force force term term Friction force term Kinematic Wave Diffusive Wave Dynamic Wave where β is the momentum correction factor and Sf is the friction gradient.A. diffusive wave and dynamic wave. elbows. One of the kinematic routing methods is the Muskingum-Cunge Method. bends. joints. J. (b) Dynamic Routing. the routing may be kinematic wave. The limitations of kinematic routing are the failure to consider out-of-bank flows.
W.L.T. Reference should also be made to Streeter. Part 1 of BSI (1987) and Chow. The head loss coefficient K can be found elsewhere in the literatures of hydraulics. Table 15 contains some of the most commonly used head loss coefficients in Hong Kong as abstracted from the Preliminary Design Manual for the Strategic Sewage Disposal Scheme. E. (1985). (1959). . and Wylie. V.52 hL = KV 2 2g in which K may refer to one type of head loss or the sum of several head losses. V.
These are given in the following table: Researcher Lane/Shield Isbash USBR α 0. 9.1 GENERAL Erosion of natural and artificial sediments in a drainage basin. Chapter 13 of this Manual gives a more comprehensive list of different forms of channel linings. masonry facing and gabion wall. and their subsequent deposition at the lower reaches of such systems are natural processes in the hydrological cycle. river bed and bank protection. Designers shall check the allowable maximum velocity with the supplier or manufacturer when selecting the form of channel lining. such as concrete lining. velocity design in channels and pipes. scour around bridge piers and the quantification of sedimentation at the lower reaches of drainage systems.5 for Normal turbulence 1.7 y (1/3) (where y is the flow depth in m) 0. their transport along the drainage systems.5 0.4 for Major turbulence . This is an evolving subject known as sediment transport.2 RIVER BED AND BANK PROTECTION BY ARMOUR STONE The sizing of non-cohesive stones for river bed and bank protection against scouring induced by river flows is given by the following expression adapted from Zanen (198l): Dm ≥ α V2 ⋅ 1 1 ⋅ ∆ 2 g K β Kγ ⋅ where Dm α Kβ Kγ g ∆ V = = = = = = = mean grain size of armour stone (m) a dimensionless factor given below dimensionless adjustment factor for side-slope of bank dimensionless adjustment factor for river sinuosity acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) difference between the relative densities of stone and water mean flow velocity (m/s) (a) α values.2 for Minor turbulence 0.53 9. amongst others.3 to 0. There are different forms of river bank protection available. EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION 9. This section deals with its common applications in the drainage field including.
65 1.90 0.4 1.3 to 1. for which a factor of 1 can be assumed.4 1.75 0. For the permissible degradation between desilting cycles. Kβ adjusts for reduced shear stress on the bank and reduced stabilizing forces due to side slope. 9.2 to 1.5 to 2.60 The sizing of armouring stones for wave resistance in the estuarine reach of drainage channels can be carried out in accordance with guidelines in CED (1996). the following guideline is proposed to take into account the effects to flow capacity due to materials deposited on the bed: (a) (b) 5% reduction in flow area if the gradient is greater than 1 in 25.54 (b) ∆ values. Kβ = 1− where (d) sinuosity: sin 2 β 1 sin 2 φ 0. gravel concrete asphalt concrete granite ∆ 1. 10% reduction in flow area in other cases.3 VELOCITY DESIGN IN CHANNELS AND PIPES Deposition of sediment in stormwater channels and pipes is inevitable and suitable allowance should be made in the design.1 (c) Kβ values.8 β = side slope of river bank in degrees φ = angle of repose in degrees Kγ values. Lane suggested the following table for Kγ to account for river Degree of Sinuosity straight canal slightly sinuous river moderately sinuous river very sinuous river Kγ 1.00 0. . Common ∆ values are given in the following table: Material dense sand. This factor is not applicable to the bed.
4 SCOUR AROUND BRIDGE PIERS Scour around bridge piers is a combination of three phenomena: (a) (b) (c) Local scour near the bridge pier caused by the disturbance of the flow field around the pier.C. Details can be found in DSD (1990). particularly those within new reclamations. Short term degradation of the river bed around the bridge site during floods.C.W. Nicollet. (1977). Actual sedimentation rates can be determined by repetitive hydrographic surveys on the cross-sections of the drainage systems. 9. generally have the potential for siltation due to flat gradients and also due to the phasing of their handing over upon completion. based on the likely quantity of sediments arising in the drainage basins: (a) Natural Erosion. Sediments from construction sites are extremely variable in quantity. Sedimentation must therefore be expected in the middle and lower reaches of drainage systems. facilities must also be provided for regular desilting works to safeguard the drainage capacities. C. L. However. Even if self-cleansing velocities could be derived. 9. grading. Measurements of sediment transport can also be carried out but this requires specialist techniques (Van Rijn. Quantitative assessments of annual natural erosion are available in DSD (1990) for various land categories.N.. some crude quantification can be made. While some allowance for this could be made in sizing the channels and pipes. and transport rates as well as the size of the channel or pipe. H. concentration. .55 Recent research on sediment movement in channels and pipes has shown that there is no unique design self-cleansing velocity since it depends on sediment type. Large stormwater drainage systems. Long term degradation of the river bed due to increased flow velocity caused by the contraction of the river cross section at the bridge site. (b) Artificial Sediments. G.. as a reference for the evaluation of maintenance commitments.. The first aspect is discussed in detail in a review article by Breusers.(ed) (1973). H. The estimated livestock populations and sediment loads from agricultural sources are available from EPD.R.5 QUANTIFICATION OF SEDIMENTATION There is currently insufficient data to enable a comprehensive estimate of the sedimentation rates in drainage systems. it would be difficult to achieve them in designs except in steep upland catchments. and Shen. The last two aspects are discussed comprehensively in Neill. 1986).
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full account should be taken of their acceptability from the operation and maintenance point of view. the maximum depth of a pipeline should not be more than 6 m. 10. and may not be achievable especially over reclaimed land. there have been technological improvements on the use of trenchless methods including pipe jacking. Normally. If such alternative materials are proposed. In recent years. Similarly when a lateral drain joins a main drain. Other pipeline materials are available and may be considered in relation to their advantages and disadvantages for particular situations. Under this circumstance.4 DEPTH OF PIPELINE Designers should avoid deep underground pipeline. one should always consider other alternatives including the use of intermediate pumping station.57 10.2 MATERIALS In general. Designing for flush soffit requires adequate fall along the stormwater drain. In general. If the situation allows. If the situation warrants such deep pipeline. This is to prevent the drain being surcharged by backwater effect when the downstream pipe is flowing full. maintenance and reconstruction of the pipeline will be very difficult. Where the stormwater flow is severely polluted. it is preferable to maintain the soffits at the same levels at the manhole. concrete pipes have been used extensively for stormwater pipelines throughout the Territory and are normally available in sizes up to 2500 mm diameter in the local market. Below such depth. 10. 10.1 DESIGN OF BURIED GRAVITY PIPELINES GENERAL This Chapter provides guidelines on the materials. directional drillings.3 LEVELS As the size of a stormwater drain increases downstream. 10. it is preferable to have the lateral at a higher level to minimize possible surcharge of the lateral. the minimum cover from the surface of the carriageway to the top of the . level and structural design of buried gravity pipelines laid by cut and cover method. microtunnelling. the inverts shall be kept at the same level to achieve a smooth flow when the stormwater drain is flowing partially full. consideration may be given to the use of vitrified clay pipes to provide better protection against corrosion. Reference should be made to the relevant literature and manufacturers’ catalogue in designing pipelines laid by trenchless method. auger boring and online replacement techniques for laying pipelines in congested urban areas. the soffit of the lateral shall not be lower than that of the main drain.
10. static and moving traffic loads superimposed on the surface of the fill. depending on their wall thickness and stiffness of pipe material. Flexible pipes may change shape by deflection and transfer part of the vertical load into horizontal or radial thrusts which are resisted by passive pressure of the surrounding soil. The load on flexible pipes is mainly compressive force which is resisted by arch action rather than ring bending.5 10. thus creating bending moments. The effect of differential settlement can be catered for by using either flexible joints (which permit angular deflection and telescopic movement) or piled foundations (which are very expensive). The load on rigid pipes concentrates at the top and bottom of the pipe. loads of the second type are not readily calculable and it affects the longitudinal integrity of the pipeline. The loads on buried gravity pipelines are as follows: (a) The first type comprises loading due to the fill in which the pipeline is buried. temperature change and differential settlement along the pipeline. uPVC. ground subsidence. Provided the longitudinal support is continuous and of uniform quality.1 STRUCTURAL DESIGN Introduction Pipes can be categorised into rigid.58 pipeline shall be 900 mm. (b) Loads of the first type should be considered in the design of both the longitudinal section and cross section of the pipeline. and water load in the pipeline. Flexible pipes rely on the horizontal thrust from the surrounding soil to enable them to resist vertical load without excessive deformation. the minimum cover shall be 450 mm. They are also called semi-rigid pipes. ductile iron. MDPE and HDPE pipes may be classified as flexible or intermediate pipes. Intermediate pipes are those pipes which exhibit behaviour between those in (a) and (b). If the pipeline is partly or wholly submerged. there is also a need to check against the effect of flotation on the empty pipeline when it is not in operation or prior to commissioning. and the pipes are properly laid and jointed.5. Concrete pipes and clay pipes are examples of rigid pipes while steel. flexible and intermediate pipes as follows: (a) (b) (c) Rigid pipes support loads in the ground by virtue of resistance of the pipe wall as a ring in bending. For footway. The second type of load includes those loads due to relative movements of pipes and soil caused by seasonal ground water variations. . it is sufficient to design for the cross-section of the pipeline. Differential settlement is of primary concern especially for pipelines to be laid in newly reclaimed areas. In general.
3 Fill Loads (a) Narrow trench condition.5. 10. 10. which is influenced by the conditions under which the pipe is installed.2kµ’ H Bd )] k = (µ 2 + 1 −µ ) .3 to 10.5. i.59 The design criteria for the structural design of rigid pipes are the maximum load at which failure occurs while those for flexible pipes are the maximum acceptable deformation and/or the buckling load. plain or reinforced concrete) on which the pipe will rest. etc. The design approach for rigid pipes is not applicable to flexible pipes. (c) Specific guidance on the design calculations is given in Sections 10.8. Apply the appropriate bedding factor and determine the minimum ultimate strength of the pipe to take the total design load. narrow trench or embankment conditions.2 Design Procedures for Rigid Pipes The design procedures for rigid pipes are outlined as follows: (a) Determine the total design load due to: (i) the fill load. (iii) the water load in the pipe. For the structural design of flexible pipes. When a pipe is laid in a relatively narrow trench in undisturbed ground and the backfill is properly compacted.5. Select a pipe of appropriate grade or strength. details of joints. The load on the pipe would be less than the weight of the backfill on it and is considered under ‘narrow trench’ condition by the theory and experimental work of Marston: Wc Cd = = Cd w Bd2 1 2kµ’ [1 . the backfill will settle relative to the undisturbed ground and the weight of fill is jointly supported by the pipe and the shearing friction forces acting upwards along the trench walls. (ii) the superimposed load which can be uniformly distributed or concentrated traffic loads.exp( . it is necessary to refer to relevant literature such as manufacturers’ catalogue and/or technical information on material properties and allowable deformations for different types of coatings. (b) Choose the type of bedding (whether granular.e.5.
He + Bc He 2kµBc rsd p 3 1 He ( 2 Bc [ ][ + ] + )2 + rsd p 3 ( - ) exp 2kµHe Bc - - H He Bc2 = rsd p H Bc where Wc w Bc Cc He H rsd p k µ fill load on pipe in kN/m unit weight of fill in kN/m3 external diameter of pipe in metres load coefficient under embankment condition height of plane of equal settlement above the top of pipe in metres actual height of fill above the top of pipe in metres settlement ratio ratio of projection of pipe’s crown above firm surface to the external pipe diameter Rankine’s ratio of lateral earth pressure to horizontal earth pressure coefficient of internal friction of backfill material . resulting in the vertical load transmitted to the pipe being in excess of that due to the weight of the fill directly above the fill. the fill directly above the pipe yields less than the fill on the sides. Embankment condition. µ’ = = = = = = = 2 +1 +µ ) fill load on pipe in kN/m unit weight of fill in kN/m3 the width of trench in metre measured at the top level of the pipe (as shown on the relevant DSD Standard Drawing) narrow trench coefficient actual height of fill above the top of pipe in metres Rankine’s ratio of lateral earth pressure to vertical earth pressure coefficient of friction of backfill material and that between backfill and trench side respectively For practical applications. and use Figure 11 to obtain values of Cd. The equation for the embankment condition as proposed by Marston is as below: Wc = Cc w Bc2 exp ( Cc = 2kµHe )-1 Bc 2kµ H – He Bc 2kµHe Bc +( ) exp ( ) It is given by: exp ( 2kµHe )-1 Bc 2kµ H Bc = = = = = = = = = = He Bc 1 2kµ H . Shearing friction forces acting downwards are set up. When the pipe is laid on a firm surface and then (b) covered with fill. take µ = µ’.60 (µ where Wc w Bd Cd H k µ. The load on the pipe will then be determined as in the ‘embankment’ condition.
5 for yielding foundations Narrow trench and embankment conditions are the lower and upper limiting conditions of loading for buried rigid pipes. are shown in Table 16. Bc. If the actual soil density Φ differs from 2000 kg/m3. are fixed. If the width of the trench. The values of kµ assumed in deriving this table are 0.0 for rock or unyielding foundations 0. there is a unique value of cover depth at which the embankment or narrow trench calculations indicate the same load on the pipe. The fill load on a pipe and value of transition depth. when the depth is greater than the transition depth. One method for deciding whether the narrow trench condition or embankment condition of the Marston equations is to be used to determine the fill load on pipes was proposed by Schlick.5 − 0. The lower of the two calculation results is suggested to be adopted in design. values of Cc can be obtained from Figure 12.19 for embankment condition. for this trench width and external diameter of pipe. 10. This value of cover depth is termed the ‘transition depth’ Td.13 for narrow trench condition and 0. the pipe is in the ‘embankment’ condition and the fill load will be dependent on the external diameter of the pipe. the fill load is dependent on the assumed trench width. Calculations are carried out for both conditions. Bd. The tabulated fill load on the pipe in Table 16 will be exceeded unless the trench width is restricted to the assumed value in order that the pipe is in the ‘narrow trench’ condition. elastic mass: p= ( 3L 2π )( H3 )α Hs5 . No restriction to trench width is required. when restricting the trench width is not practical because of the presence of underground utilities. At depths less than the transition depth.7 for pipes up to 300 mm nominal diameter and 0.0 − 0.5 for larger pipes.5. and external diameter of the pipe. the fill load may be adjusted by a multiplying factor of Φ/2000. assuming a saturated soil density of 2000 kg/m3.61 For practical applications. Under certain site conditions.4 Superimposed Loads The equivalent external load per metre of pipe transmitted from superimposed traffic loads can be calculated by the Boussinesq Equation. Other intermediate loading conditions are not very often used in design. rsd p for embankment condition is taken as 0. by assuming the distribution of stress within a semi-infinite homogeneous. In other cases. Use rsd = = = 1. Method of construction will be specified in accordance with the design trench conditions if necessary.8 for ordinary foundations 0. consideration should be given to design the pipe for fill loads under the worse scenario of narrow trench and embankment conditions.
In general. is the internal diameter of pipe in metres.5. the water load is not significant for small pipes of less than 600 mm diameter.62 where L p H Hs = = = = α concentrated load applied at surface of fill in kN unit vertical pressure at a specific point within the fill in kN/m2 Depth of such point below the surface in metres slant distance of such point from the point of application of concentrated load at surface in metres = impact factor The traffic load will be calculated as below: Wp = Σ p Bc where Wp = design traffic load in kN/m 2 Σp = unit vertical pressure due to the various concentrated loads in kN/m Bc = external diameter of pipe in metres Values of traffic loads for design are shown in Table 17 with the following assumptions: Main road : pipelines laid under main traffic routes and under roads to be used for temporary diversion of heavy traffic.9 m apart. pipelines laid under roads except those referred in main roads.3 and arranged as in BSI (1978) Type HB Loading. each of 70 kN static weight. where provision is made for two wheel loads. Light road : 10. where provision is made for eight wheels loads. each of 90 kN acting simultaneously with an impact factor of 1.5 Water Load The weight of water in a pipe running full generates an additional load.81 4 4 2 where Ww D is the equivalent water load in kN/m. acting simultaneously with an impact factor of 1. spaced 0. the equivalent external load on the pipe can be calculated from the following equation: 3 πD Ww = 9.5. The equivalent water load of pipes of 600 mm to 1800 mm diameter are as below: Nominal Diameter (mm) Equivalent Water Load (kN/m) .
When the pipe is installed under fill and supported on a bedding.9 2.1 3. The ratio of the maximum effective uniformly distributed load to the test load is known as the ‘bedding factor’.3 4.3 10. The values of the bedding factors below are average experimental values and are recommended for general purposes: (a) (b) (c) (d) granular bedding 120o plain concrete bedding 120o reinforced concrete bedding with minimum transverse steel area equal to 0. The load required to produce failure of a pipe in the ground is higher than the load required to produce failure in the standard crushing test.6 Bedding Factors 2.6 3. it is required that the total external load on the pipe will not exceed the ultimate strength of the pipe multiplied by an appropriate bedding factor and divided by a factor of safety.4 8.5.0 15. which varies with the types of bedding materials under the pipe and depends to a considerable extent on the efficiency of their construction and on the degree of compaction of the side fill.5 On the basis of the experimental and numerical modelling work carried out.6 13. the distribution of loads is different from that of the standard crushing test.5. The design formula is as follows: We ≤ Wt Fm Fs .4% of the area of concrete bedding concrete surround 1. bedding factors used with vitrified clay pipes for class F.63 600 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 10.8 18. B and S bedding are shown in Figure 13.8 The strength of a precast concrete or vitrified clay pipe is given by the standard crushing test.4 4. 10.7 6.7 Design Strength For design. The various methods of bedding used with precast concrete pipes are shown on the relevant DSD Standard Drawing.
5 kN/m Case B: check wide trench condition when cover depth is 3. take the maximum design load.7 = 57. the effective trench width. Bd.0 m From Tables 16 and 17 Case A: check narrow trench condition when cover depth is 4.9 = 65.1 kN/m . values of the total external design loads in main roads and light roads are shown in Table 18.8 m to 4.9 For nominal pipe size 375 mm. Wt = We x Fs / Fm = 65. 10. Table 19 may be used for direct evaluation of the minimum crushing strength or grade of precast concrete or vitrified clay pipes using different bedding factors in main roads.6.5 kN/m for whole section of pipe Required ultimate strength of pipe.5. 10.5. is 1.3. Fm is 1.0 + 13.0 m maximum design load = fill load + traffic load = 44. We = 65.5.9 = 43.25 / 1.5.6 m Pipe to be laid in main road To determine strength of concrete pipe required. Solution: Bedding factor.6 +7.7 kN/m Therefore.6 m maximum design load = fill load + traffic load = 57.64 where We Wt Fm Fs = = = = total external load on pipe ultimate strength of pipe bedding factor design safety factor of 1. Alternatively. Td.9) Cover depth range 1. Worked Example: Given: Nominal pipe size 375 mm (outside diameter 500 mm) Class B bedding (bedding factor = 1.4. is 3.05 m (see Hong Kong Government (1992) Table 5.5 x 1.25 for ultimate strength of pipe Based on the assumed design parameters in paragraphs 10.9) Transition depth.5 and 10.
However.6 PIPE AT SLOPE CREST Any leakage from pipeline which is close to the crest of a slope may affect the stability of the slope. the load in Table 18 will then err on the safe side. 10. It may be worthwhile making a more accurate computation of the design load as described in sections 10. appropriate leakage collection system shall be provided to prevent any adverse effects to the slope in case of pipe leakage.5.8 Effect of Variation in Pipe Outside Diameters The outside diameters in Table 18 are the general maxima for the majority of pipes.65 From BSI (1988/2) Part 100. If the pipes employed have an outside diameter less than that being assumed. Provided the excess is not greater than 5%. Reference shall be made to GCO (1984). . If pipeline is to be laid within the crest of a slope. the effect can be ignored.4 with a view to achieving economy where the difference in outside diameter is considerable.3 and 10.5. Attention shall be paid to avoid routing of pipeline near slope crest. Class H Pipe with ultimate strength of 45 kN/m is required. a few pipes with outside diameters exceeding the tabulated dimensions may be encountered.5. 10.
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11. MANHOLES 11.3 ACCESS OPENINGS Access openings are generally of two types. If cat ladders are installed in a manhole. 11. where a stormwater drain changes direction/gradient. junctions between different size of stormwater drains. one for man access and the other for desilting purposes. The minimum size of an access shaft is 675 mm by 750 mm. manholes should.2 m. A man access opening should be placed off the centre line of the stormwater drain for deep manholes and along the centre line of the stormwater drain for shallow manholes with depths less than 1.1 GENERAL This chapter provides guidelines on the design of manholes.67 11. 11. and it should be placed along the centre line of the stormwater drain to facilitate desilting. on long straight lengths at the following intervals: Diameter of Pipe(mm) smaller than 600 between 600 – 1050 larger than 1050 Maximum Intervals (m) 40 80 120 In addition. the minimum clear opening should be 675 mm by 675 mm. . A man access opening should not be smaller than 550 mm by 550 mm. be positioned such that the disruption to the traffic will be minimum when their covers are lifted under normal maintenance operations.4 ACCESS SHAFTS Access shafts should be sufficiently large for a person to be able to go down in comfort and yet give him a sense of security. A desilting opening should not be smaller than 750 mm by 900 mm.2 LOCATION Manholes should be provided at: (a) (b) (c) (d) intersections of stormwater drains. wherever possible.
Manhole covers should not rock when initially placed in position.5 WORKING CHAMBERS For manholes less than or equal to 1. 11. Suitable gradient of the benching is 1 in 12. and should be durable especially under corrosive environment. The working chambers should enable a person to work inside.e. In order to facilitate rescue operation in case an accident occurred. intermediate platforms should be provided at regular intervals. 11. Manholes of this type should be provided with working chambers and access shafts leading from ground level. Split triangular manhole covers supported at the three corners are commonly used to reduce rocking. Heavy duty manhole covers should be used when traffic or heavy loading is anticipated.2 m deep. work in them generally can be performed from ground level. designers are advised to provide an additional manhole opening where space permits. 11. A working chamber is generally not required for this type of manhole.68 11.6 INTERMEDIATE PLATFORMS When the invert of a manhole is more than 4.25 m from the cover level. The socket ends of pipes should be cut off and not projected into the manholes. and should match the cross-sections. The inverts should be curved to the radius of the inverts of the pipes and carried up in flat vertical faces. The size of the platform should not be smaller than 800 mm by 1350 mm. Foul sewer and stormwater drain manhole covers should be differentiated by the grid patterns which are shown on the DSD Standard Drawings. For manholes deeper than 1. the workmen standing on the ground can reach the invert of the stormwater drain without great difficulty. The platform should be fitted with handrailing and safety chains at the edge to protect persons from falling down. The benching should be a plane surface sloping gently downward towards the stormwater drain.. The two pieces of triangular cover should be bolted together to avoid a single piece of the cover being accidentally dropped into a manhole. work in them generally cannot be easily carried out from ground level. levels and gradients of the respective stormwater drain.2 m. otherwise medium duty covers can be used. . i. or develop a rock with wear. The headroom between platforms should not be less than 2 m nor greater than 4 m.8 COVERS Manhole covers should be sufficiently strong to take the live load of the heaviest vehicle likely to pass over.7 INVERTS AND BENCHINGS Inverts and benchings of the manholes should be neatly formed.
Step-irons and ladders should start at not more than 600 mm below the cover level and continue to the platform or benching. When downpipes are used. a gradual drop in the form of cascade or ramp. 11. A cascade is preferred for drains larger than 450 mm diameter. The backdrop can be provided by means of: (a) (b) a vertical drop in the form of a downpipe constructed inside/outside the wall of a manhole. Step-irons and ladders. the following are recommended: (a) (b) proper anchoring of the backdrop at the bottom in the form of a 90o pipe bend surrounded by concrete. 11. and should be used where the level difference is greater than 600 mm. should be made of or protected with corrosion resistance materials.g.25 m or where manholes are frequently entered. . e. Downpipes are suitable for drains less than 450 mm diameter. and should be equally spaced and staggered about a vertical line at 300 mm centres. Relevant Highways Department Technical Circular should be referred to for providing recessed manhole covers for paving blocks infilling. being constantly in a damp atmosphere and prone to corrosion. galvanized iron or stainless steel. a T-branch at the top fitted with a flap valve inside the manhole to avoid splashing.9 STEP-IRONS AND CAT LADDERS Step-irons should be securely fixed in position in manholes. Cat ladders should be used in manholes deeper than 4. It is safer and easier to go down a ladder when carrying tools or equipment.69 Special attention should be paid to the manhole covers when manholes are located in precast paving area.10 BACKDROP MANHOLES Backdrop manholes are used to connect stormwater drains at significantly different levels.
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DESIGN OF BOX CULVERTS 12.5 m. 12. For hydraulic design of box culvert. THD (1962) and CIRIA (1997). Reference should be made to Table 20 of HyD (1997). the internal dimensions of each cell of a box culvert should not be less than 2. agreement should be sought from maintenance authority.4 DURABILITY The durability of a reinforced concrete box culvert depends mainly on the concrete grade. the “Very Severe” condition of exposure in the Table is recommended. Smaller culverts may be used in special situations.2 DESIGN INVERT LEVEL AT DOWNSTREAM END The design invert level of the box culvert at the downstream end should be kept at a high level as far as possible to allow for future extension of the culvert.3 DESIGN LOADS If the box culvert is subject to permanent vehicular or pedestrian live loads. The minimum width should be further increased if corner splays are used. The invert level of the box culvert should be designed to maintain free discharge of the flow at the outlet and to avoid backwater effect. such as steep gradients. where siltation or sedimentation will not be a problem. as culverts at the downstream reaches of a drainage system are constantly in contact with water. Given the required water retaining properties of box culverts. 12. For cells smaller than this size. Section 2 of HyD (1997) should be followed.l GENERAL Box culverts are required where precast pipes cannot be obtained in a sufficiently large size or where a box culvert configuration would better suit the available space between or adjacent to other structures or utilities. concrete Grade 40 is recommended. In general. At the upstream reaches where the culverts are not subject to sea water attack. To facilitate the use of mechanical plant inside box culverts. the “Severe” classification may be used. reference can be made to FHWA (1985). If the filling material above the culvert contributes to the major superimposed load and the culvert is not classified as a highways structure. the load combinations and the partial factors as specified in BSI (1997) should be adopted in the design.71 12. cover and crack width. Superimposed load from the loading/unloading and stockpiling of material and the manoeuvring of mechanical plant during desilting operations should also be catered for.5 m × 2. The selection of the size and number of cells in a culvert depends not only on the hydraulic capacity but also on the requirement for maintenance and desilting. . 12.
In general. For further details. One of the exceptions is in newly reclaimed land or in other areas where substantial or unacceptable differential settlement is expected. The minimum width and maximum gradient of the access ramp should be 3. Where the subsoil comprises residual soil (completely decomposed volcanic or completely decomposed granite) or suitable filling materials. 12. Section 4. The desilting opening should be provided at a maximum interval of 200 m for each cell.7. there is no need to consider cracking due to temperature difference from seasonal variations. If movement joints are provided at spacing not exceeding 15 m. The cover of the desilting opening should be a heavy-duty multi-part metal cover that can support vehicular load. an access ramp should be provided for mechanical plants to enter the box culvert. 12. if a ramp is not feasible due to site constraints. However.6 FOUNDATIONS A layer of rock fill material is usually placed below the culvert. It should be provided at locations suitable for desilting operations and just behind each seawall outfall. a 300 mm to 500 mm thick layer of rock fill material will generally suffice.7 12.5 m and 1 in 12 respectively. Generally. 12. For the design of piled foundations.3 of HyD (1997) should be referred to. 12. . culverts do not need to be supported on piles.5 m × 3.5 MOVEMENT JOINTS Movement joints at suitable spacing should be provided to control cracking in box culverts.1 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS Access Wherever possible.2 Desilting Opening Type 1 Type 1 desilting opening is normally designed for large or multi-cell box culvert and the size of the opening is 2 m × 2 m minimum and may be up to 3. joints in the structure should pass through the whole box in one plane.5 m. Section 9 of BSI (1988/1) concerning the applicability of limit state design to foundations shall also be referred to. Cat ladder should also be provided in the culvert on one side of the inspection manhole. The desilting opening should be accompanied with an inspection manhole. The thickness of rock fill to be used in such cases depends very much on the subsoil conditions and needs to be assessed under the particular circumstances. guidance is given in BSI (1986). For adverse foundation conditions.72 Reference should also be made to the latest guideline on Concrete Specification for Reinforced Concrete Structures in Marine Environment by the Standing Committee on Concrete Technology. However. consideration should be given to removing the unsuitable sub-soil and replacing it with rock fill. then desilting openings should be provided.7.
8 m. The shaft can serve as an inspection manhole and for ventilation purpose during maintenance operation.7.6 Freeboard Under normal operation conditions. 12.5 Internal Openings For multi-cell culverts.3 Desilting Opening Type 2 Type 2 desilting opening is normally designed for single cell box culvert of cross sectional area less than 5 m2.7. 12.4 Access Shafts Access shafts of 900 mm × 750 mm should be provided for each cell of a box culvert at no more than 100 m intervals. For ease of plant movement inside the multi-cell box culvert.7 Safety Provisions Grilles should be provided at the entrance to box culverts from open channel to prevent people from being washed into the culvert.73 12. . there should be a minimum freeboard of 500 mm above the highest water level for ventilation and to allow some air space in order to prevent drowning of maintenance personnel. 12. The openings can serve as balancing holes and can also be used for flow diversion during maintenance of the box culvert. The cover of the desilting opening should be a heavy or medium-duty multi-part metal cover that can support vehicular load. internal openings with minimum size of 2 m × 2 m should be provided at the partition walls at 100 m intervals for access between cells. 12. A cat ladder should be provided in the culvert on one side of the shaft.5 m × 1. The desilting opening should be accompanied with an inspection manhole. Cat ladders should also be provided in the culvert on one side of the inspection manhole.7. The height and spacing of the grilles should avoid the excessive collection of debris/vegetation which may cause stormwater overflowing from the system. The grilles should be so designed that they will not prevent mechanical plant from entering the culvert to carry out maintenance operations. and the size of the opening is 1.7. The opening should be provided at 100 m intervals. the internal openings should be located in line or at close distance to the desilting opening locations.7.
Access to the culvert shall be by full width openings to allow the installation of stop logs or gates and to allow pumping over the stop logs or gates. For the maintenance of box culvert affected by tidal flows. provisions for the installation of stop log or gate and winching equipment both in the structure of the box culvert and at the seawall should be considered. an area for temporary storage of silt removed from the box culvert should be considered. Maintenance access must be provided at each seawall outfall.8 Additional Provisions for Tidal Box Culvert To facilitate maintenance operation.74 12. .7.
while CRCPG is becoming more popular for ecological reasons. Rigid linings are usually made of concrete. V. (b) Flexible Linings.2 13.T. acquisition and the channel appearance should be carried out before a rectangular section is adopted. stone masonry or cellular reinforced concrete paving with infill soil for grassing (CRCPG). 1959).2. careful considerations should be given to ensure that there are suitable grass species to be established under such condition. DESIGN OF NULLAHS. the design should make due allowance for the appearance of the channel.1 GENERAL Where land use permits. 13. shotcrete. bottom lining is usually not required. Flexible linings may consist of rip-rap. the top level of the proposed channel embankment or wall should tie in with that of the seawall at the estuary. Weep-holes should be provided in the lining for the free passage of groundwater. An analysis of land availability. 13. In general. If CRCPG is to be used in locations subject to tidal influence. open channels should be the preferred option when compared with underground pipelines and culverts since the latter are more expensive to construct and maintain than open channels. Rectangular open channels are usually most costly to construct and have limited scope for improving the aesthetics when compared with trapezoidal channels. the selection of suitable lining materials and the provision of landscaping. which is also adjacent an estuary. They should only be used in locations where little settlement is anticipated. Stone masonry is preferred for aesthetics reasons in the past.2. They are used in locations where large embankment settlement is anticipated. . open trapezoidal channels provide the most economical cross-section for the conveyance of stormwater. grass. In the downstream reaches where the flow velocity is likely to be low.2 Types of Channel Linings There are two types of channel linings as follows: (a) Rigid Linings. In order to ensure effective protection against flooding of low-lying area behind a drainage channel. both in terms of construction and maintenance costs.75 13.. gabions or random rubble.1 CHANNEL LININGS General Side slope and bottom lining should normally be provided along the whole channel if the flow velocity exceeds 1 to 2 m/s (Chow. precast concrete slabs. in particular for those box culverts affected by the tide. Whichever section is adopted. ENGINEERED CHANNELS AND RIVER TRAINING WORKS 13.
multi-cell flap valves should be used so as to reduce the possibility of malfunctioning of the flap valves due to blockage. Desilting facilities shall be provided near flap valve in the drain pipe/box culvert if the section of drain pipe/box culvert is too long.2 of this manual should be followed. the perimeter of channel cross-section should be minimised.5. The side slope of the trapezoidal section normally ranges from 1 in 1. The access ramp should have a width of 5 m and a slope ranging from 1 in 12 to 1 in 15.1 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS Access Ramp Concrete or similar hard paved access ramps should be provided along the drainage channel at intervals of about 400 m for the access of maintenance vehicles. 13. a semi-circular shape provides the maximum hydraulic capacity for the minimum channel perimeter. Proper design of the armour layer is essential to protect the stability of the embankment/revetment. The hydraulic impact of the flap valves on the upstream flow should be checked against potential flooding risk.2. Usually. 13.4 COLLECTION OF LOCAL RUNOFF In low-lying areas behind a drainage channel embankment/floodwall.5 13.76 If the channel is subjected to tidal influence.5 to 1 in 3.5 mPD with minimum size of 5 m x 20 m to facilitate mobilization of dredging plant and loading and unloading of dredged materials. For channel which base slab is always submerged due to tidal effect.0. the flexible linings should be designed to withstand wave action.3 CHANNEL SHAPE The lining is generally the most expensive component of a lined channel. For the design of the armour layer for the tidal reach of drainage channels. 13. intermediate platform should be provided in the ramp at level of 2. reference to CED (1996) is recommended.3 Design of Armour Layer The armour layer of a flexible lining is susceptible to erosion by wave forces and flow-induced drag forces. concrete upstands instead of railings are preferred for ease of maintenance. Theoretically. For economical reasons. and can accommodate a wider range of flows than the simple rectangular channel. For large diameter drain pipes or large box culverts. depending on the subsurface condition and maintenance method. For protection against scour due to river flows. Along the edge of the access ramp. the surface runofff has to be collected by a system of U-channels and discharged into the drainage channel via pipework or box culvert through the embankment/floodwall. flap valves are installed at the drainage outlets to prevent back flows when water levels in the drainage channel are high. A trapezoidal section which is a pragmatic approximation to the semi-circular shape is often adopted because it is easier and cheaper to construct. the guidance in Section 9. 13. .
access points at strategic locations should be provided such that the whole length of the channel can still be accessed by the maintenance vehicles via the invert of the channel. In case the dry weather flow channel is very wide. In the determination of the dry weather flow. If the provision of a maintenance road is restrained by the availability of land. If the dry weather flow is polluted.6 m wide footpath should be provided along the top of the channel bank for regular inspection of the channel. In this connection.75 to 1 m/s is normally used to size the dry weather flow channel. With the agreement of TD. If the maintenance road is open for public use. such channels should be so designed that they will not obstruct the movement of maintenance plant along the bottom of the channel. 13. In this case. reference could be made to the flow records of the stream/river which are published in the Annual Report on Hong Kong Rainfall and Runoff prepared by WSD – WSD (annual). pavement design.2 Dry Weather Flow Channel To minimize siltation during low flow conditions in non-tidal channels. should be obtained from relevant maintenance authorities. it is usually necessary to block off the road to guard against illegal parking.77 13. proposed road markings and street furniture. comments on the road layout design. However. The design criteria in sizing the dry weather flow channel is to ensure the dry weather flows should be confined within the dry weather flow channel at 80% of the time. Fire hydrants and proper road lighting should also be installed according to the current standards for public road.3 Maintenance Road A maintenance road with a minimum width of 3. consideration should be given to divert the flow to the nearby sewerage system in order to reduce the pollutants in the storm water drainage system. For a narrow drainage channel. etc. It is also considered good practice to construct small channels branching off from the dry weather flow channel to intercept runoff from the lateral drainage inlets. a 1.5 metres should be provided along one or both sides of the channel bank for maintenance works. a notice declaring the maintenance road to be a restricted zone should be posted at all entrances of the maintenance road.5. It should be shallow and narrow and of trapezoidal or rectangular cross-section.5. a dry weather flow channel should be provided in the invert of the main channel. For maintenance road not open to public. A self-cleansing velocity of about 0. if the site situation warrants. a crossing over the dry weather flow channel should be provided for the maintenance personnel and vehicles. . the dry weather flow channel may be located on one side of the invert to accommodate maintenance plant. the capacity of the sewerage system to cope with the increased flow due to the intercepted dry weather flow should be checked. In this case. the maintenance road could be provided only along one side of the channel bank or at the channel base.
5. Exact details and locations of these markers should be agreed with the respective operation and maintenance division of DSD.8 Chainage Marker and Survey Marker Chainage markers and survey markers are to be installed at 100 m and 200 m intervals respectively on the coping of both sides of the channel. both sides of the channel should be provided with handrailings or parapets. 13. prior consultation with Port Works Division (CED) is required to determine the minimum water depth for the marine plant. 13. grit traps/sand traps should be provided to intercept and collect the silt and grit conveyed along small watercourses in times of storms. The grit trap/sand trap is normally in the form of a sump or a chamber which should be accessible by grab-mounted lorries with for easy desilting.5.5. marine access should be considered to facilitate future desilting operation. Details and installation locations of staff gauges should be agreed with the respective operation and maintenance division of DSD.5. Staircases should be provided at the channel sides at intervals of 400 m.4 Safety Barriers and Staircases In order to safeguard the safety of the maintenance personnel and the public. The staircases should not protrude from the surface of the channel sides to obstruct the flow.5 Grit Traps/Sand Traps For drainage channels at the upstream reaches of a drainage basin. No opening shall be provided in the parapet or handrailing as entrance to these staircases. 13.9 Marine Access and Marine Traffic For large drainage channel near the sea where the quantity of desilting is anticipated to be enormous.78 13. Warning signs should be erected at the parapet or handrailings near these staircases and other prominent locations to remind the public not to enter into the channel. 13. Some guidance on design details of the grit trap/sand trap can be found in GCO (1984). . Consideration should also be given to the effect of the design invert level of a tidal channel on its rate of sedimentation which is the prime factor affecting recurrent cost of the channel.7 Staff Gauge Staff gauges should be installed at the channel sides for the checking of water level in the channel.6 Tidal Channels For tidal channels where maintenance dredging is envisaged. 13.5. Gates with locks should be provided at the entrances of access ramps to prevent vehicles from inadvertently entering the channel.5.
Alternatively. 13. Such utilities should be accommodated as part of the highway or utility bridge crossings at suitable locations so that no part of the services will be below the bridge soffit. Such undercrossings must be designed and constructed to a standard to minimize the chance of digging up the channel for repair or replacement in the future. spare parts provided.10 Maintenance and Management Responsibilities among Departments The maintenance and management responsibilities of various departments concerned including DSD should be clearly defined in early planning/design stage especially in abandoned meanders.79 Marine Department should be consulted regarding the requirements for marine traffic management if marine access is necessary. the utility crossings should be placed beneath the open channel with a minimum cover of 1 m. 13. Due consideration should be given to ensure that sufficient headroom is provided for the passage of maintenance plant and equipment. an operation and maintenance manual should be provided by the design office upon the handing over of the project. division of maintenance responsibility among departments.7. safety requirements in relation to the operation and maintenance of the works and other maintenance items.5. system hydraulics. 13. Utilities crossing a drainage channel which will reduce the design flow capacity and prevent the passage of desilting plant should be avoided.1 GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS Embankment Design The embankment design should be checked for the stability of each of the following failure modes for both the short-term and long-term conditions and the finalized design should be endorsed by GEO: . trigger levels for maintenance dredging. wetlands adjacent to the drainage channels. bridge supports should not be positioned within channels. 13.7 13.6 BRIDGE AND UTILITY CROSSSINGS The soffit of all bridges crossing open channels should be designed such that no part of the bridge soffit will be submerged in water under the design rainstorm. suggested monitoring schedule during operational phase. As far as possible. fish ponds. An example of the schedule of responsibilities for a completed main drainage channels project is shown in Table 20. It should include as-built channel profiles.11 Operation and Maintenance Manual For major drainage channel. geotechnical monitoring schedule of channel embankment. maintenance roads and landscaping works.5. the supports should be designed and streamlined so that the obstruction to the water flow is minimal and debris and boulders are not easily trapped. But if this is unavoidable. environmental issues relating to maintenance dredging.
As such.7. the settlement of the embankment and its rate of consolidation should also be checked and allowed for in the design. It is recommended to follow the guidelines as stipulated in GCO (1984).7.3 Loading Cases The design loading cases should taken into considerations the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) loading due to future maintenance vehicles on the embankment. in case of a temporary condition such as during the construction stage of the embankment. excess pore water pressure would be built up instantaneously during the filling of the embankment. For the construction of a channel embankment over a layer of soft marine deposits. the longterm stability should be checked for the drained condition. global stability of the embankment and its foundations. the effects of rapid drawdown during flood recession (critical for riverside slope stability). the effects of steady seepage through the embankment when the river is at high flows (critical for leeward side slope stability). 13. Moreover. 13.2 Factors of Safety The factor of safety for an embankment design is defined as the ratio of average available shear strength of the soil along the critical failure surface of the embankment to that required to maintain equilibrium.80 (a) (b) (c) adequacy of bearing capacity of the foundation soil. internal stability of the embankment’s riverside and leeward side slopes. For the long-term condition. a balance should be made between the potential economic loss in the event of a failure and the increased costs of construction required to achieve a higher factor of safety. The adopted factor of safety against the failure of an embankment would be related to risks causing loss of life or property. . Thus. the consolidation process of soil underneath the embankment would be completed or nearly completed. loading due to overfill of the embankment. However. undrained shear strength of the marine deposit should be adopted for the short-term condition.
13. In designing the geotechnical instrumentation details. the methods by Janbu. 13. & Price.7.81 13. A detailed comparison of various methods of slope stability analysis is given in Table 5. is a very useful tool in confirming the assumptions made in the design of an embankment. N.5 Seepage Where appropriate. A.9 Sign Boards for Slopes All embankment slopes formed in association with the construction of the channel should be registered with GEO according to the relevant technical circular.7.7. Some guidance on the sensitivity analysis can be found in GCO (1984). for those with a non-circular slip. For those potential failures with a circular slip.E.5 of GCO (1984). it is advisable to liaise closely with GEO.7. (1965) are commonly adopted. 13.R.7. subsoil drains with proper filters should be provided at the toe of the leeward slope of the embankment to keep the phreatic surface within the embankment. Thus. the problem of seepage through the channel embankment should be addressed especially at locations where fish ponds are reinstated behind the embankment.W. (1972) or by Morgenstern. 13. such as settlement marker and inclinometer. The water quality of floodwater is not suitable for fish farming. N.6 Sensitivity Analysis A sensitivity analysis may be warranted to account for the variability of the ground conditions and the uncertainty associated with the design values of soil strength. .7. Standard DSD sign boards for slopes should be erected alongside the slope edges according to the relevant technical circular before the slopes are handed over to the maintenance department. It can also review the performance of the method adopted in improving the stability of the embankment. the method by Bishop.7 Methods for Stability Improvement Various methods have been developed for improving the stability of an embankment on soft foundation soil as shown in Table 21.4 Methods of Analysis Various methods commonly adopted for slope stability analysis can be applied for analyzing the stability of an embankment. 13.8 Geotechnical Instrumentation Geotechnical instrumentation. (1955) is simple to apply. V. The method that should be applied depends on the potential failure mode of the embankment.
Under normal weather conditions. During severe rainstorm.1 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS Reprovision of Irrigation Water If existing stream courses are to be intercepted by the drainage channel.8.82 13. Inflatable dam shall be equipped with an alarm system to inform the operator/controller/public in case of any unexpected deflation of the dam or loss of pressure inside the dam. the dam will be inflated to prevent tidal water from flowing into the channel and the dry weather flow retained at upstream of the dam will be pumped into downstream receiving water body. Other devices such as steel gate and stop-log may also be used for tidal barrier. This is to ensure that necessary measures can be taken immediately to evacuate any people who may be present either upstream or downstream of the dam and who may be threatened by the sudden release of flood water. Designers should consider the possible options for their own cases.8 13. an inflatable dam together with a low flow pumping station installed near the downstream end of the channel may be adopted to prevent tidal water from flowing into the channel. . The inflatable dam will be automatically inflated/deflated and the operation of the low flow pumping station will be suspended according to the pre-set conditions. the inflatable dam will be deflated and the operation of the pumping station will be suspended.2 Use of Inflatable Dam as Tidal Barrier For tidal channel where the downstream receiving water body is polluted or for some other reasons that the channel at upstream has to be kept dry.8. 13. Inflatable dams and pumping facilities may be considered for such purpose. AFCD should be consulted during planning/design stage to confirm whether flows in the stream courses need to be maintained for irrigation.
the pumps will be operated automatically to discharge the stored stormwater to nearby watercourses outside of the polder.1 GENERAL Polder and floodwater pumping schemes have been in use in Hong Kong since the early 1980s. Basically.2 PLANNING AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS In the planning and design of a polder and floodwater pumping scheme.2. In order to reduce the area of land resumption. External floodwater are prevented from entering the polder and surface runoff collected inside the poldered area will be pumped to nearby existing watercourses outside the poldered area. Although floodwater pumping schemes in Hong Kong have mostly been implemented for villages under rural settings. it is necessary to minimize . and to directly discharge into the downstream watercourse. the flow control devices enable the runoff to bypass the storage and pumping facilities. flood protection embankment or flood protection wall) internal drains. the following should be taken into consideration: 14. a polder and floodwater pumping scheme would comprise the following components: (a) (b) (c) (d) flood protection structure (e. Typical layout and arrangements for a polder and floodwater pumping scheme are shown in Figures 14 & 15. Under normal rainfall conditions. it is always favourable to provide some flow control devices to facilitate gravity drainage of stormwater when rainfall is small and the water level in the nearby watercourse outside the polder is not high. floodwater pumping station) The flood protection structure polders and separates the low-lying villages from the surrounding land and prevents external floodwater from entering the poldered area.g.83 14. When the water level has risen to a pre-determined level. it has scope for implementation in the urban areas. in which the water level is independent of that outside the embankment. They have been adopted to protect villages in low-lying catchments in NWNT and NENT. 14. However.g. surface runoff within the polder would drain by gravity via the internal village drains to the floodwater storage pond for storage and subsequent disposal. floodwater storage facilities and floodwater pumping facilities.1 Land Requirement A polder and floodwater pumping scheme requires substantial uptake of land to accommodate the flood protection embankment. floodwater storage pond) floodwater pumping facilities (e. In this case. flow control devices and associated hydraulic structures floodwater storage facilities (e.g. A polder refers to a piece of lowland enclosed within an embankment. POLDER AND FLOODWATER PUMPING SCHEMES 14. It can be formed by the construction of flood protection embankment or similar structures in association with roads and other developments.
more environmental friendly design.4 Environmental Considerations Environmental considerations should be carefully integrated into the design of various components for a polder and floodwater pumping scheme. especially when wetland compensation is required. flood storage for the basin may be reduced and . On the contrary. unlined pond and channel bottom.2 Surface Water Management When planning for floodwater storage and pumping facilities.2. In view of the rising ecological concern. Smoke emitted from diesel generator should be properly catered for to reduce air pollution. 14. Model tests may be required if such major problems are anticipated.84 the size of these major components.3 Choice of Pump Type The most commonly used pump for floodwater pumping stations is the Archimedian screw pump. Acoustic linings and other noise reduction facilities can be installed to reduce the noise level. should be adopted. Suitable measures should be provided to facilitate effective surface water management for the polder on a case by case basis. Firstly. cavitation and creation of vortex in pump sump. design of a centrifugal floodwater pumping station and its associated rising mains should be carried out carefully to avoid hydraulic problems caused by hydraulic surge. a screw pumping station is generally massive. Due to the high pressure involved. With the polder in place. However.2.2. The construction of a polder and floodwater pumping scheme will inevitably alter the hydrology of the drainage basin. 14. it is also necessary to consider the effect of implementation programmes of other nearby projects. The discharge from the surface runoff. 14.2. the catchment will become a separate water-body which is susceptible to contamination. For example. The pump motors and the standby generator are the major noise sources of a floodwater pumping scheme. the detention time as well as the pump start/stop frequency. It is most suitable for situation in which large pumping rate at low head is required.5 Drainage Impact to Surrounding Area The drainage impact of the proposed floodwater pumping scheme has to be assessed thoroughly with the necessary remedial actions considered. grassed slopes. Both types have their own merits and demerits. However. deep floodwater storage tank could be adopted to replace the shallow floodwater storage pond. 14. etc. In the detailed design stage. it is necessary to study carefully the hydrology of the catchment. noisy and visually intrusive. centrifugal pumps have also been used in some of the floodwater pumping stations in Hong Kong. The Archimedian screw pump has been proven to be robust and efficient. It is most suitable for pumping water at high pumping head. such as wet pond. while underground pump chamber can be built with its cover reserved for other structures and facilities. centrifugal pump is prone to damage due to clogging. the ground water level and the quantity of dry weather flow will affect the volume of storage required.
Such flow control devices should preferably be connected to the floodwater pumping station by telemetry for central monitoring and control. the design of the internal drainage system and the flow control devices should enable the by-passing of dry weather flow away from the floodwater storage . For construction of embankment in soft ground. particular attention should be paid to the rate of filling to avoid catastrophic failure due to non-dissipation of pore water pressure. have to be installed to facilitate flow diversion during routine maintenance and emergency repair of the floodwater pumping station and floodwater storage pond. concentrated discharge from the floodwater pumping station to an existing streamcourse with inadequate capacity would aggravate the flooding in the surrounding area. Secondly. The designer should initiate necessary steps to upgrade the downstream streamcourse to accommodate the pumped discharge. It is worthwhile to manipulate the pump setting so as to sensibly alter the outflow hydrograph of the polder to avoid clashing with the peak flow of the streamcourse. flood protection wall has to be built instead. it is necessary to refer to the relevant Drainage Master Plan for the overall flood risk situation of the catchment. The size of the floodwater storage pond as well as the pump cut-in/cut-out settings can also affect the flooding situation in the discharging streamcourse. Whenever possible. Moreover. the peak water level in the streamcourse could be reduced. A vehicular access with minimum width of 3. Considerations should also be given to open the vehicular access for public use. such as penstocks and flap valves. With careful design. 14.5 metres should be provided on top of the flood protection embankment for maintenance purpose. The design standard for internal drainage system should be equivalent to that of the village drainage as shown on Table 10. Flow control devices. Section 13. There are requirements on submission of geotechnical design to GEO for checking and the procedures laid down in the relevant technical circulars should be followed.4 INTERNAL VILLAGE DRAINAGE SYSTEM The objective of the internal drainage system is to collect and to convey surface runoff inside the polder to the floodwater storage pond for storage and subsequent disposal. Under such circumstance. 14.7 of this manual and the relevant technical circulars. In case reduction of land uptake is required or due to other special reasons. The embankment design should follow the guidelines as stipulated in GCO(1984). Railing/Fencing shall be provided at the top edges of the flood protection embankment if there is a risk of falling from height.3 FLOOD PROTECTION EMBANKMENT/WALL Flood protection embankment is constructed to exclude external floodwater from intruding the polder.85 flood depth in the flood plain outside the polder may be increased. seepage through the embankment should be checked to ensure that it is small enough to be ignored in the sizing of the pumps and the storage ponds.
a smaller pumping capacity . When there is land constraint. 14. 14.1 Type of Floodwater Storage Pond Floodwater storage ponds are mainly classified into two types: wet and dry ponds. A wet floodwater storage pond is a pond purposely kept wet by allowing some floodwater to remain in the pond.5 FLOODWATER STORAGE POND The open-air floodwater storage pond is less expensive to build and easy to maintain. size. In general. deep floodwater storage tank can be considered. Smax represents the storage volume required.5. 14. In the design of wet pond. However. the floodwater storage pond (wet or dry) shall be fenced off against entry by the public as far as practicable. location and any other proposed facilities should be sought. the villagers’ view on the type. It can also be utilised for other purposes such as basket ball field and playground. and it is often continuously recharged by dry weather flow and groundwater seepage. However. When necessary. proper signage should be provided to warn the public against the possibility of flash flood. or upon the request of residents on “fung shui” reason. The pumping capacity and the storage volume have to be balanced to arrive at a most cost-effective combination.2 Sizing of Floodwater Storage Pond The sizing of storage pond for a given pumping capacity is given by the following equation: Qin – Qout where Qin Qout S = = = = dS dt inflow into the storage pond at time t pumping rate at time t. During the initial planning stage. A dry pond is preferable to a wet pond from the maintenance point of view. A dry floodwater storage pond is normally kept dry. and storage (volume) in pond at time t Figure 16 illustrates the case for a pumping scheme with two duty pumps. If for whatever reason it must be opened for public use. It is usually adopted for ecological reason.86 pond and the pumping station. The floodwater storage pond should best be located at the lowest point of the polder. special precautionary measures (other than signage) shall be in place to ensure that all persons staying within the storage pond will be evacuated at times of heavy rainfall. water level sensors can be used to enable automatic operation of these flow control devices. care must be taken to ensure that water inside the pond will not stay stagnant and become septic. If a larger storage is chosen.5. the construction and maintenance cost of a storage tank is generally much higher.
e. In addition.6. Adequate ventilation and other necessary provisions for enclosed area should be considered. 14.2 Design Capacity .. which also serve to prevent children from venturing in the pond. The minimum cost can be obtained with the optimisation of the storage facilities and the pumping capacity. a smaller storage can be chosen if larger pumps are provided.87 can be provided and hence there will be savings in future operation and maintenance costs. Cat-ladder shall be provided at the side of the access manhole. this will incur a higher land resumption cost. Openings. vehicular access to the pond shall be provided to enable mechanised maintenance at regular interval.6 14. the floodwater storage tank shall be regularly drained to avoid any water/contaminants detained inside from becoming septic. safety fences etc.g. Pictorial illustrations to help illiterate people are suggested. warning signs are required to warn the public of the fact that the area may be subject to flash flooding in case of heavy rain and of the slippery condition of the pond area. On the other hand. Of course.1 FLOODWATER PUMPING STATION General Requirements Floodwater pumping stations should be designed to operate automatically with appropriate type of pumps which are controlled by water level sensors installed in the pump sump. Vehicular access to the pond should be provided for maintenance and desilting purposes.3 Operation and Maintenance Requirements The operation and maintenance requirements of the floodwater storage facilities are as follows: (a) Dry Type Floodwater Storage Pond Peripheral surface channels should be provided around the bottom of the floodwater storage pond to convey runoff to the gravity outlet under normal situations. On the other hand. If the dry pond is to be used also for other purposes. a satisfactory arrangement with the relevant authorities should be made concerning the future management and maintenance of the pond and the facilities before this concept can be adopted. In addition. Accumulated stormwater from the flood storage facilities is pumped to the nearest main drainage channel outside the polder. accesses and heavy duty lifting appliances should be provided to enable future maintenance. (c) Floodwater Storage Tank A floodwater storage tank is usually an enclosed underground chamber and differs distinctly from a pond. 14. 14.6.5. a playground. (b) Wet Type Floodwater Storage Pond The public must be kept away from the pond area by warning signs.
In the determination of the pumping requirements.88 The design capacity for all duty pumps should be adequate to handle rainstorm runoffs collected inside the polder with a return period of 10 years. the design capacity of the pumping station can still be maintained. Lifting appliances should also be provided for lifting of pumps and other heavy equipment. A fuel oil storage tank is required to be installed in compliance with FSD’s requirements. The generator must be designed to supply sufficient power to operate the control system and the pumps. The standby pumps should be so designed such that they can also be activated in case of exceptionally severe rainstorms. To facilitate maintenance of the pumps. the following guidelines should be followed: (a) (b) The desirable design freeboard for floodwater storage facilities should be 300 mm for a storm with a 10-year return period.3 Operation and Maintenance Requirements In designing a floodwater pumping station. an emergency power generator must be provided within the station compound to provide back-up electricity automatically during power failure. vehicular access and parking area should be provided for maintenance vehicles. Both duty pumps and stand-by pumps should be interchangeable. Gateway of adequate size should be provided for vehicles to deliver and remove the bulky equipment. As a simple rule. Stand-by pumps must be available and should be able to automatically take over the failed duty pumps. Unhindered direct access from a public road to the pumping station is required for the acceptance of FSD for fire fighting purpose. the total capacity of the stand-by pumps should be at least 30% of the total capacity of the duty pumps. a loading platform is normally required. penstocks should be installed within the pump sump for isolation of pumps from the floodwater storage pond/tank. Combinations of stand-by pumps and duty pumps can be formulated for an individual village flood protection scheme so that should any of the duty pumps in the station be inoperable due to routine maintenance or mechanical failure. For future maintenance of screw pumps.6. Water level sensors should also be adjustable such that the pump cut-in/cut-out levels could be varied to suit different operating conditions. In addition. Power supply should be adequate for running the control system and all the pumps. The minimum capacity of the fuel storage should allow for 36 hours of operation of the generator . the capacity of the storage facilities should be increased to suit. 14. (c) The flood depths inside the polder during a 50-year and a 200-year rainstorm under the proper functioning of duty pumps and the floodwater storage facilities should be checked. If the flood depth is considered intolerable. Water level sensors controlling the operation of pumps should be installed at suitable locations which will not be subjected to local fluctuation of water level and the interference of floating debris. The total maximum pumping capacity (both duty pumps plus stand-by pumps) of a pumping station should be able to accommodate a storm with a 50-year return period.
status of power supply. It is essential that proper access to each screen be provided and a working platform installed over every screen above flood levels to facilitate routine and emergency raking. 14.89 when running all duty and standby pumps. structures. fuel oil storage tank. etc. If it is found to be cost-effective. The system should comprise: (a) a telemetry system for monitoring and control of plant operation status of the pumping station as well as other hydraulic structures. Noise abatement measures should be provided to minimise disturbance to nearby residents and the operation and maintenance (O&M) personnel. inspecting and control of floodwater pumping schemes. a monitoring and control system should be provided for monitoring. penstocks.7 TRASH SCREENS Trash screens at the inlets to the pump sump and those at the outlets from the floodwater storage pond are required to prevent large flooding objects from damaging and clogging the pumps. a portable pump can be put in place to pump as much floodwater as possible from the storage pond to the pumping station outlet. fire alarms. a video surveillance system for the visual monitoring of crucial electrical and mechanical (E&M) and civil components (such as the pumping station outlets (b) . screens. The configuration. louvers. the following points should also be considered for the operation and maintenance of a pumping station: (a) (b) (c) Pumping station should be isolated from flood storage pond by fence or boundary wall to prevent trespassing. Details of the pump house including parapet walls on the roof. The monitoring and control signals should include water levels in the floodwater pond. (d) 14. In addition to the above. The trash screen is considered to be one of the crucial components of a floodwater pumping scheme. should be agreed with the relevant maintenance parties. telemetry fault. It would be preferable that a dual-feed power supply could be obtained from the electricity company. The bar spacing and the bar size of the trash screens should be properly designed to avoid possible blockage of the pumps. pumps. generator set. mechanical raking devices should be provided to save manpower in raking. pump sump and designed level of lift of the pumping station should be such that in the event of a dire emergency. and should be monitored by video surveillance. such as the inlet chambers.8 MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEMS By utilising the latest information technology. The screens are normally of manual hand-raked type. etc.
Upon commissioning of a floodwater pumping scheme. A Master Control System (MCS) should be implemented to minimise the staffing requirement on manning the floodwater pumping stations. the respective Operation and Maintenance Division and the Building & Civil Maintenance Team of DSD.9. 14. Prior arrangements have to be made with GEO and the maintenance agency as to the registration of the slopes. the control centre should be able to provide emergency support to the outstations. The control centre should be manned 24 hours when necessary throughout the wet season. 14. The control centre should preferably be able to serve several floodwater pumping stations and be situated at a convenient location with all-weather unhindered vehicular access. a control centre will function as the master station with other pumping stations connected to it as outstations. system manual of the scheme. and all required test reports and warranty documents should be provided to the operation and maintenance parties to facilitate the future operation and maintenance activities. In general. the maintenance responsibilities and the display of the registration numbers on site. a full set of civil. The surveillance signals of outstations will be transmitted to the master station (a control centre) where remote monitoring and control of the system can be carried out. Their comments should be sought as early as the design stage to agree on the construction details.9. a system commissioning test should be conducted successfully in at least three consecutive days. Standard DSD sign boards for slope should be used for the display of the registration numbers. flood protection embankment slopes and associated retaining walls have to be registered in GEO according to the relevant technical circular. electrical and mechanical drawings. Prior arrangement for the provision and storage of water and the re-circulation facilities have to be made to enable smooth running of the pumps.1 MISCELLANEOUS ISSUES System Commissioning To ensure proper functioning of the floodwater pumping station. operation and maintenance manual of the plant equipment. . In case operational fault in outstation is reported.2 Operation and Maintenance Issues The major operation and maintenance parties for floodwater pumping schemes are the Sewage Treatment Division. Under this system.9 14.90 to existing watercourses) to ensure proper functioning of the whole scheme at any time.
4 Future Extension Although the area of catchment inside a polder is usually constant. will affect the response of the catchment and thus the amount of surface runoff to be pumped. especially from fish pond and agricultural land to paved area. . 14.9.3 Division of Maintenance Responsibility The maintenance and management responsibilities of various departments concerned should be clearly defined in the early planning/design stage.91 14.9. such as the additional of some more pumps and the deepening of the storage pond. change in land use. In designing the general layout of the floodwater pumping scheme. the pumping station and the floodwater storage facilities should be carefully sited to enable future extension. An example of the schedule of responsibilities for a completed polder and floodwater pumping scheme is shown in Table 24.
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to prevent excessive infiltration and inflow. During the planning and design stages of a project. to achieve the above service objectives making the best possible use of manpower and resources at the least cost and least disruption to the public.1 GENERAL The proper maintenance and operation of stormwater drainage systems is essential if the works are to achieve their designed objectives. having regard to costs and the effects on the environment. etc. the maintenance authority must be consulted as soon as possible so that the changes can be accepted.1. If unforeseen problems are encountered during construction and changes have to be made. Additionally. any . to monitor the capacity of the system and to restore the flow capacity by removal of excessive accumulation of silt and grease.2. For non-standard drainage items. and to remedy recognised deficiencies. to monitor and maintain the structural integrity of the system. This Chapter describes some recommended practices and gives guidance on this aspect to assist personnel who are involved in the day-to-day operation and maintenance of the stormwater drainage system. to desilt for environmental reasons so as to mitigate nuisance to the public. to provide feedback when necessary on the need for improvement and upgrading works.1 HANDING OVER OF COMPLETED WORKS Procedures for Handing Over To ensure that the works can be readily handed over to the maintenance authorities on completion. detailed consultation is required such that the operation and maintenance requirements can be incorporated into the design. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF STORMWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 15. a design memorandum should be prepared so that the design parameters.93 15. close consultation and liaison should be maintained between the design office and the maintenance authorities at each stage of the project.1 Maintenance Objectives The objectives for proper maintenance and operation include: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) to offer a quality of service that is acceptable. the standard of design and maintenance requirements laid down in this Manual must be fully complied with. handing over requirements or partial handing over arrangement of large project can be agreed by the maintenance authority.2 15. On completion. 15. 15.
Prior to handing over of the works. due to the requirement to maintain the existing flow or staged completion) and a temporary diversion of flow is not feasible. maintenance manual for slope embankment. the following documents should be submitted as soon as possible. O&M manual and system manual. hydraulic and structural design calculations. Records of material quality and acceptance tests should also be available for scrutiny. marked up prints of the working drawings showing the final amendments and the extent of works to be handed over should be provided. joint inspection must be carried out and any outstanding works agreed. as-built drawings and calculations should be submitted. closed circuit television (CCTV) survey of the pipes before commissioning can be adopted as an alternative to the joint inspection but prior agreement with the respective operation and maintenance division of DSD should be sought. .g. culverts or channels have to be commissioned prior to handing over (e. In certain circumstances. the final operation and maintenance (O&M) manual for electrical and mechanical (E&M) works. In the event that as-built drawings are not available at the time of the handing over inspection. where appropriate. channels and culverts. a joint inspection should again be carried out to check if further works are required and that all outstanding or remedial works have been completed.3 Documents to be submitted After the satisfactory handing over inspection. an additional inspection should be arranged prior to the commissioning. but it should not be later than 3 months under any circumstance: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) as-built drawings.2. In the case where the pipes. Reference should be made to the Project Administration Handbook and the relevant technical memoranda for details of handing over and taking over procedures. 15. On substantial completion of the works. Prior to the end of the Maintenance Period. Within 3 months of issuing the completion certificate. product specifications and warranties. etc.94 changes made should be incorporated in the design memorandum before handing over of the completed works to the maintenance authorities. in electronic format if available. a handing over inspection should be carried out to ensure that all outstanding works have been completed before the issue of the completion certificate. 15. to be handed over should be inspected in dry conditions wherever possible. where appropriate.2 Handing Over in Dry Conditions All pipes. in hard-copy and electronic format if applicable.2. construction records including major acceptance tests and material quality records.
3. An adequate lighting system should also be adopted so as to produce a clear picture of the drain.3. blockage. Each case should be considered individually according to its specific circumstances. Table 25 shows the recommended frequency of inspections of some typical drains. The frequency of inspection should be determined principally based on the nature and importance of the installations.3 15. If the flow quantity is large.1 INSPECTION AND GENERAL MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS Inspection Programme Inspection of all existing drainage installations should be carried out regularly to ensure that the systems operate properly. leakage or siltation detected at its early stage of formation would allow preventive remedial works to be carried out at lower cost.95 15. Due to the importance of these routes. Pink Routes and Expressway ‘Red’ and ‘Pink’ Routes are classified by HyD as the major road network in Hong Kong. The Red Routes and Pink Routes are sections of the major road network where the capacity and nature of the alternative routes is limited and the potential impact is very high if these routes are either partially or totally closed. It is essential that CCTV surveys are conducted during low flow conditions. Details of the Red and Pink Routes are shown in the relevant Highways Department Technical Circular. 15. Special attention should be paid to any signs of deterioration in the systems both hydraulically and structurally. In order to minimize the occurrence of emergency or crisis drainage repair and clearance works.2 Closed Circuit Television Surveys Apart from general visual inspections. since any structural defect. The scoring system on the CCTV result in accordance with WRC (1986) should be adopted to determine the priority of remedial works and the future inspection programme. 15. in particular the structural integrity of the drains in close details. Pipes which are silted and the surfaces coated with grease should be cleansed prior to the survey. it would be highly undesirable to carry out unplanned works within these areas. the drain upstream should be temporarily blocked and the flow diverted. the likely consequence in the event of malfunctioning of the system.3 (a) Inspection of Special Drains Drains within Red Routes. the frequency of drainage complaints received in the vicinity and the resources available. drains in some locations may require more frequent inspections to meet particular needs. Priority should be given to the system installations where the result of any failure would be serious or the remedial works particularly expensive. regular inspections of the drainage system within the Red and Pink routes . However.3. closed circuit television (CCTV) surveys can also be used to investigate the condition.
Particular attention should be paid to pressurized rising mains as their leakage or bursting may lead to severe damage. Detailed procedures and criteria for working in expressways are given in the relevant Highways Department Technical Circular. Consequence-to-life) Category as classified by GCO (1984).4 Desilting Programme Desilting of pipes and culverts is required so as to maintain their capacity. 15. channels. and in particular the safety aspects. gradient. but can also be a serious risk to the stability of slopes and retaining walls. regular monitoring or survey should be carried out to ascertain the degree of siltation so as to determine the frequency of desilting. Where defective drains are found. More frequent leakage detection may be desirable for those rising mains behind slopes and retaining walls in the high Risk-to-Life (i. The frequency shall be decided based on the prevailing conditions of the slopes/retaining walls and the rising mains. and is subject to verification by inspection results.96 should be carried out so that preventive maintenance can be well planned and performed outside the peak traffic hours.3. Such leakage can deliver a significant amount of water into the ground and its potential effect on the stability of the slope or retaining wall should not be disregarded. Where open channels. . The frequency of desilting varies from pipeline to pipeline. Records of inspections should be sent to the maintenance agent of the slope likely to be affected by the sewers or drains. Past experience indicates that regular desilting at complaint black spots can reduce the number of complaints. Drainage inspection programmes should be carried out in conjunction with Highways Department’s cyclic lane closure programmes. in many cases desilting may not be the most effective method and consideration should be given to long-term solutions including improvement or modification of the existing drainage system. It should be noted that all expressways are either Red Routes or Pink Routes and allowable working time may be restricted.e. should be observed. nullahs and rivers are subject to tidal effect. flow condition. However. repairs should be carried out immediately. For works to be carried out within expressways. the requirements as stipulated in the Road Traffic Ordinance. Sewers and drains located within a distance of 4H from the crest of a man-made slope/retaining wall. (b) Drains behind Slopes Persistent leakage of water from sewers and stormwater drains (including gravity pipes. In open channels and inlets to box-culverts. should be inspected at least once every 5 years. where H is the vertical height of the slope/retaining wall. Reference can be made to WB (1996). desilting operations are sometimes necessary for aesthetic or environmental reasons. tunnels and rising mains) not only causes nuisance. Preventive measures in the form of regular inspection and maintenance should be carried out with reference to GEO (1998). etc. The most common situation is where squatter areas or agricultural activities are present upstream of the engineered channel. This depends on the pipe size.
desilting operations are often required at a much more frequent interval and there are areas where desilting is carried out more than once every month. there are proprietary products available in the market for mounting onto the head of the water jetting hose for breaking through hard material. For large open channels. the effectiveness of water jetting decreases with the increase in pipe diameter and is seldom used for pipes greater than 900 mm diameter.5 Methods for Desilting/Cleansing Manual rodding and scooping is the simplest method used in pipe cleansing. nullahs and rivers with invert level below the tidal range. . Winching is the most frequently used method for the thorough cleansing of pipes. For pipes of length exceeding 100 m. Some of the products have been used in Hong Kong and are found to be useful for breaking out cement mortar in a semi-solid state deposited inside the pipe. However. For large size box-culvert subject to tidal effect. Apart from normal cleansing. Solids produced will be collected at the downstream manhole and removed by scoops. A hose is led into the pipe. However. Water jetting is a more sophisticated method for pipe cleansing. desilting under submerged conditions is labour intensive and very difficult. This method requires the least equipment and the set-up time is minimal. specially made floating pontoons with excavators or cranes mounting on them have been used in conjunction with grabs. This method can be used for various sizes of pipes and is very effective in removing silt and medium sized particles inside the pipe. Some specially made ‘ball’ can also be used for breaking out hard material. This action is repeated several times and the silt and debris inside the pipe can be scraped out completely. It is very effective in clearing local blockages caused by refuse or debris. the use of water jetting is also not effective due to the excessive headloss in the hose. It is also very effective in clearing the grease coated onto the interior surface of the pipes so as to explore the pipe surface condition. and water is jetted out under high pressure up to 20 MPa pushing the hose forward while at the same time washing away the substances accumulated inside the pipe. usually from the downstream.3. A ‘ball’ or bucket is towed along a section of drainage pipe between two manholes by a pair of winches.97 Under such circumstances. This can be achieved by using stop-logs or other device together with pumping. A rattan rod with its head mounted with a hook or spike is driven manually into the pipe to pierce the blockage. length of the pipe is long or the pipe size is large. This method is particularly effective in clearing blockages caused by oil and grease. it does not clean the pipe thoroughly and the blockage may reoccur very shortly. It is desirable to desilt the box-culvert in dry condition. Its application is restricted when the manhole is deep. air lift/suction or dredging for desilting. 15.
people’s aspiration is rising and they are becoming less tolerant of traffic disruption. It should be noted that the list is not exhaustive and other methods may also be applicable. . opportunity should be taken during the remedial works to replace them by larger pipes so that the overall capacity of the network can be increased to cope with any anticipated developments.2 Trenchless Methods for Repairing Pipes For most trenchless methods. Some typical trenchless methods which can be used for the rehabilitation of defective drains are described in the following paragraphs. the unit cost of trenchless renovation is higher than conventional open cut technique where the pipeline to be replaced is shallow and there is no obstruction due to underground utilities or other physical structures. However. Replacement of damaged pipes by open excavation is a commonly used method.4. the scope to increase the flow capacity is rather limited. trenchless methods for pipe rehabilitation should be considered as alternatives to open excavation.4. In general. when drainage repair or improvement is required. As a result. trenchless renovation method can be employed with benefits of keeping social costs and economic losses to a minimum as well as avoiding physical obstruction problems that would otherwise arise if conventional method is used. At the same time.98 15.4 15. To replace defective pipes by open excavation method. attention should be drawn to the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) maintenance of the existing flow road traffic conditions presence of underground utilities nuisance and inconvenience to the public excavation dewatering working area and shoring requirements Close liaison with the utility undertakings and traffic authorities is required before the replacement work is carried out so that suitable construction methods can be determined. In the urban area with heavy traffic. 15.1 STORMWATER DRAIN REHABILITATION Pipe Replacement When pipes are found to be damaged. the economic loss due to traffic disruption as a result of open excavation is becoming hard to justify. if the defective drains in the urbanized area have become under-capacity. repair work should be carried out as soon as possible. when the need for increased flow capacity is not a deciding factor. However. The drawback of the open excavation method is that it may occupy substantial road space for a long period of time.
and may even improve the flow capacity. which forms a seal with the inner surface of the pipe. Any branch connection to the relined drain can then be reopened with a remotely controlled hole cutting machine. it may be more convenient to send people into the drains to carry out the grouting directly. It has the advantage of not relying on in-situ chemical reaction. The proper use of inhibitors and the control of the surrounding temperature are important to prevent premature curing before insertion. then wound on a reel and delivered to site. Internal Lining (c) Internal Lining using Epoxy Impregnated Liner. The packer can then be deflated and withdrawn. This method involves placing a factory made polyethylene liner inside the defective drain. It adds extra structural strength to the original pipe and by proper design of resin. harden and form a continuous solid pipe inside the original pipe. For large pipes. The method is expensive due to the high mobilization cost. especially if only a short length is to be lined. and even for oval and egg shaped drains. . The polyester lining is firstly impregnated with specially formulated resin in the factory. Chemical grout is injected into the leaking joint filling up the void surrounding it to stop further leakage. the chemical grout is internally applied by an inflatable packer guided by a CCTV camera and the same packer is used to test for air tightness of the grouted joint. A high temperature environment is introduced inside the liner to enable the resin impregnated polyester felt to cure. (d) Internal Lining using Pre-deformed Polyethylene Liner. the liner is inserted into the defective drain and properly expanded so that its external surface is in contact with the interior of the defective drain. it offers good chemical and corrosive protection from all sort of environment. For small drains. The liner is first deformed. This method uses a factory fabricated lining tube conforming with the internal dimension of the drain to be rehabilitated. After delivery to site. Special equipment is required to ensure proper and even impregnation and to remove the air inside the polyester felt. For non-man-entry pipe. Mechanical sealing systems are available for spot repair of pipe of either man-entry or non-man-entry. It can negotiate through smooth bends but wrinkles may develop at sharp bends. This method is applicable to drains which are leaking through the joints but the drains are still structurally sound. It provides a smooth surface to the pipe. This method involves the installation of a metal band or clip faced with an elastomeric material at the damaged section of pipe. (b) Mechanical Sealing. The set up for insertion and heating is also demanding. The method is generally applicable for small to large size pipes. The liner consists of one or more layers of polyester felt in contact with impervious polyurethane membrane.99 Localised Repairs and Sealing (a) Joint Grouting. It is pulled through the existing drain by winches. and can also be installed quickly. Water at high temperature and pressure is then used to cure and to restore the circular shape so that the liner fits snugly inside the old pipe. the repair modules are installed by means of an inflatable packer which expands the clip and presses the rubber against the pipe wall. the thickness of which are chosen to suit individual requirements.
As PFPS’s are designed for the protection of lives and properties of villagers. computer aided design checks are now available to assess whether this technique is safe. sometimes called the pipe eating system.100 The method is applicable for drains ranging in size from 100 to 450 mm diameter. The routine operation functions should include the regular inspection of the floodwater storage pond.5. It can be used to seal up joints and cracks. it is considered that a close surveillance is required. The main disadvantages of this method are the large reduction in size and the need for a large working space at the inlet.1 POLDER AND FLOODWATER PUMPING SCHEMES Operation Polder and floodwater pumping schemes (PFPS) are designed for unmanned automatic operation under the control of water level electrodes in the floodwater storage ponds. and is not as flexible as the liner in paragraph (c) above.5 15. the interior of the old pipe should be adequately smooth and no serious obstructions should exist in order that the liner can be pulled through. It can only negotiate through large radius bends. The external size of the new pipe is smaller than the internal size of the old pipe. operation of penstocks/flap-gates. The monitoring is by way of video surveillance and a telemetry system to transmit fault alarm signals to the nearest manned DSD installation. is pulled in behind the bursters. Any defect or irregularity identified should be reported immediately so that prompt action can be taken to maintain the service conditions and the PFPSs can operate effectively when the need arises. generally of larger size. For proper upkeep and running of PFPSs. This method involves pulling/pushing a thin walled pipe such as steel pipe. The annular space between the new and the old pipes is grouted by cement/concrete. (e) Internal Lining using a Smaller Pipe. employs powerful hydraulic expanders or bursters which progressively destroy and expand the old pipe as it advances itself through the pipe. . test running of machinery. The replacement pipe. testing and trial operations must be put into effect. telemetry devices. 15. drainage channels. The operation and detailed regular inspection and maintenance activities should be well recorded. The method has been used overseas but its potential applicability in Hong Kong is rather limited as it may easily cause damage to other utilities in the close proximity. through a defective drain. Branch connections are quite difficult to restore except for large drains that are manually accessible. and the schedule of inspections in the following sub-section should be followed. and to improve the flow characteristics and chemical resistance. it is necessary that regular inspections. However. On-line Replacement (f) Pipe Bursting. This method. etc. This method is normally employed only for small diameter pipes as huge bursting force is required for the burster. pumps. HDPE pipe and so on. However. The pipes are generally jointed by welding as the pipes are pushed. Specialist should be consulted when considering employing this method. GRP pipe.
6 15.1 CONNECTIONS TO EXISTING DRAINAGE SYSTEM Existing Capacity When a connection to the existing drainage system is required.6. etc.4 Operation during Rainstorms. park or housing estate. a terminal manhole in accordance with relevant DSD Standard Drawings should be provided and positioned within the allocated land as near to the site boundary as possible. taken at prescribed locations and angles.6..2 Schedule of Inspection Table 26 shows a Schedule of Inspection for Polder and Floodwater Pumping Schemes. The frequency of inspection should be adjusted according to the prevailing circumstances of the individual station or the weather conditions. Dated photo reports with simple descriptions.5. continuous monitoring of the situation will become necessary even though the PFPSs remain in the automatic mode of operation.5. It is recommended that an inspection should be made after each significant storm event. 15. It is suggested that all representative inspection reports should be kept in file for future review purposes.2 Terminal Manholes For every drainage connection from a private development.3 Documentation The staff responsible for the operation and maintenance functions as described in the above sub-section should record down the inspection results in a brief tabular report. Regional patrol teams should be set up and they should be called in to inspect and attend to the electrical-mechanical installations under such circumstances. the capacity of the existing system should be checked to see whether it has adequate spare capacity to accommodate the additional flow from the proposed connection and whether enlargement or duplication work is required. government building. Video recording may be used as a feasible alternative if more extensive viewing is required. 15.101 15. 15.5. Tropical Cyclones or Similar Situations During rainstorms and other similar situations. 15. . will generally be sufficient for the majority of the uses. especially as regards the routine inspections.
Conduct atmospheric testing of the confined space before entry.8. For other special installations and special manholes. tanks. diameters and directions of all the connecting pipes should be given in the drawings. box culvert. The results of survey should be passed to the drawing office of DSD for updating the drainage records. Operate a permit-to-work system. connections should be made to existing manholes. for information on the legislative requirements and good safety practice for working in confined space. in hard copy and electronic format containing the hydraulic models. Monitor the air quality throughout the entire working period by means of a gas detection device. invert levels. a survey should be conducted on completion of the works to record all changes in levels. 15.3 Provision of Manholes Manholes should be provided for connections made to existing pipes. The hydraulic and structural calculations. 15. Allow only certified workers to work in the confined space. For all repair works. is potentially dangerous.7 DRAINAGE RECORDS The existing drainage records should be continually updated to include all the newly constructed stormwater drains and installations. 15.8 15. containing the geographical and topographical data should be passed to the drawing office for retention and incorporation into the existing drainage record drawings.1 SAFETY PROCEDURES Safety Requirements for Working in Confined Space Working in a confined space such as an underground drain. The legislative requirements of the Factories and Industrial Undertaking (Confined Space) Regulation have to be followed. For all new works handed over to DSD for maintenance. in hard copy and electronic format. Reference should be made to LD (2000) and DSD (1994) or their latest versions. drainage connections and minor improvement works carried out during maintenance operations. as-built drawings as specified in para. detailed drawings are required. .3. should be provided to supplement the drawings.2. For existing large diameter pipes where construction of new manholes will be difficult. Isolate the confined space. All manhole positions with details on cover levels. Provide adequate ventilation. etc.. Great care must be taken at all times. positions and sizes. particularly when working under adverse weather conditions. Direct connection by Y-junction to existing pipes should only be allowed in exceptional cases and should be well justified.102 15. The essential elements of which include: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Appoint a competent person to carry out a risk assessment and make recommendations on safety and health measures before undertaking work in confined space.6.
103 (h) (i) (j) (k) Ensure a person is stationed outside the confined space to monitor the weather condition and maintain communication with the workers inside. Ensure the use of approved breathing apparatus (if recommended in the risk assessment report) and other necessary personal protective equipment by workers inside the confined space. Formulate and implement appropriate emergency procedures to deal with serious or imminent danger to workers inside the confined space. Provide necessary instructions, training and advice to all workers to be working within a confined space or assisting with such works from immediately outside the confined space.
Working under Adverse Weather Conditions and during Flooding
Officers should always take note of the prevailing warning messages issued by the Hong Kong Observatory, in particular the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Thunderstorm Warning Flood Warning Rainstorm Warning Signals Tropical Cyclone Warning Signals Landslip Warning Strong Monsoon Signal Special Announcement on Flooding in the Northern New Territories
Some safety guidelines for working under adverse weather conditions are given in DSD (1994) or its latest version.
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