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Segovia Scales a Pattern Approach

Diatonic Major and Minor Scales by Andres Segovia ( Columbia Music Company) was first published in 1953. It is still widely used over a half a century later! While there are other publications of scales for Classical Guitar, Segovia's has become the de-facto standard. There are many reasons for this: It was the first publication solely dedicated to playing scales for Classical Guitar. It contains 24 scales, 12 Major and the associated melodic minor scales. The scales allow the student to become familiar with virtually the whole fretboard of the guitar. By following Segovia's suggestions, it enables the student to develop both speed and technique. And, of course, it carries the Segovia name. A name that is synonymous with guitar excellence. Having said that though, the 8 page publication with the 24 scales can be daunting to the student. How am I supposed to remember all those? Couple this with the general approach of teaching the scales, which often involves starting at the beginning with C Major and steadily working through all 24 to D minor. Although the student gradually becomes familiar with all the scales, they may lose their enthusiasm along the way. Is there another way? Yes there is. Segovia in buidling up the scales, used patterns of fingering that apply across several scales. For instance, 10 of the 12 Major scales can be played with just two fingering patterns. In fact, 19 of the 24 scales can be played with just four fingering patterns! There are eight patterns altogether. This publication is aimed at introducing these patterns to the student right from the beginning enabling the sudent to become familiar with them in a more efficient way. The advantages in this approach, I believe, are: The student learns the scales in pattern related blocks. For example, if you can play the C Major scale you can also play D, D b and E b Majors. All you have to do is simply adjust your starting position. The time taken to learn all 24 scales should be reduced substantially. It enables a different approach to the practice of scales. Rather than play the scales from beginning to end the student can practise just those scales related to one pattern or, just practise the eight patterns using one scale for each pattern. Learning the scales more efficiently enables the student to focus on improving technique thusutilisingtheirpractisetimemore productively. This publication is arranged in three sections; one, covering the two octave patterns; two, the three octave patterns; and finally, a single page practise page that covers all the scales with patterns and key signatures. For each of the two pattern sections; the pattern is described; Segovia's scale that I've named the pattern after is included, showing how the pattern is applied; then a brief description of the related scales that includes the sharps/flats/accidentals in the scale & where to start playing. In the case of minor scales, the relative major is indicated The final section is a practise sheet, which lists all the scales in the same order as Segovia's. It includes the pattern and all the sharps/flats and accidentals in the scales. This single page allows the student to see all the scales at a glance and which pattern is to be used. This provides focus during their practice.

David P Aitken 2010. All rights reserved.

Segovia Scales - Pattern Approach


Two Octave Scales
C Major pattern
The first of the scale patterns we will look at is that of C Major. Once this pattern is learnt you will also be able to play D Major, D b Major & E b Major. The left hand fingering pattern is: 2 4 //(change strings) 1 2 4 // 1 3 - (slide) 1 3 // 1 2 4 // 1 3 4 3 1// 4 2 1 // 3 1 - 3 1 // 4 2 1 // 4 2. Let's now look at this with the C Major scale from Diatonic Major and Minor Scales, Andres Segovia (Columbia Music Company). C Major C Major has no sharps or flats in the key signature and being a major scale has no accidentals. To play the scale, start at the 3rd fret of the A (5th) string.
4 3 3 1 1 4 1 4 2 1 3 2 1 # 1 2 3 1 2 4 3 1 1 3 4 2 . ## # . . & . 4 1 2 4 (5) (4) (3) (2) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

D Major D Major has two sharps, F and C. To play the scale start on the 5th fret of the A string and use the C Major pattern. D b Major

D b Major has five flats, B, E, A, D and G. To play the scale start on the 4th fret of the A string. E b Major

E b Major has three flats, B, E and A. To play,start on the 6th fret of the A String. By learning the C Major pattern you have also learnt to play D, D b and E b Majors. A good

way to practise these is to start of with C, slide up to D, then down to D b and finally up to E b. If you're short on practice time, just focus on the pattern in different positions,e.g.,CMajor andEbMajor.
David P Aitken 2010. All rights reserved.

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Segovia - Pattern Approach

Two Octave Scales


C # minor pattern
The next pattern is C # minor. Knowing this pattern will enable you to play C #, D #, C and D minor scales. Relative minor scales share the key signature of the relative major scale but start on the 6th note. The minor scales in Segovia's scales are melodic minor. This means that the 6th and 7th notes are raised by a semitone when ascending the scales but return to the key signature on the way down. The left hand fingering pattern is: 1 3 4 // 1 3 - 1 3 4 // 1 2 4 // 2 4 // 1 2 - 4 2 1 // 4 2 1 // 3 1 // 4 3 1 // 4 3 1. Now to the C # major scale from Diatonic Major and Minor Scales, A Segovia (Columbia Music Company). C # minor

The relative major is E Major. It has four sharps, F, C , G and D. The accidentals are A # and B # (ascending only). To play the scale start on the 4th fret of the A string.

#### &
D # minor

(5)

2 4 1 4 # 2 1 4 3 2 # nn 4 2 1 1 4 nnnn# 1 3 3 4 3 1 3 1 . # n . n # 4 1 3 1 1 2 4 (4) (3) (2) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

The relative major is F # Major and has six sharps, F, C, G, D, A and E. The accidentals are B # and C ## (ascending). To play,start on the 6th fret of the A string. C minor The relative major is E b Major and has 3 flats, B, E and A. The accidentals are An and Bn. To play, start on the 3rd fret of the A string.

D minor The relative major is F Major and has a B b. The accidentals are Bn and C # (ascending). To play, start at the 5th fret of the A string. That's it for the two octave scales. We have learnt two patterns, C Major and C # minor and in doing so have learnt how to play 8 scales. Time to look at the 3 octave scales.

David P Aitken 2010. All rights reserved.

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Segovia - Pattern Approach

Three Octave Scales


G Major pattern
The three octave scales form the bulk of the Segovia scales, 16 out of 24 scales. Most three octave scales start on the E (6th)string of the guitar, the exceptions are B and B b minor.

The first pattern we're going to learn is that of G Major.This pattern is used for 6 scales, G, A, B, F #, A b, B b. The pattern is: 2 4 // 1 2 4 // 1 3 4 // 1 3 - 1 3 // 1 3 4 // 1 3 - 1 3 - 1 3 4 3 1 - 4 2 1 // 4 2 1 // 3 1 // 4 3 1 // 4 3 1 - 4 2 1 // 4 2. Now let's look at G Major with this fingeringpattern. G Major To play G Major start at the 3rd fret of the E (6th) string. G Major has an F#.
3 1 4 3 3 1 1 4 3 2 1 1 4 2 1 4 4 3 3 1 3 # 2 4 1 2 4 1 3 1 & (2) (6) (5) (4) (3) (2) (1) 1 4 1 3 3 1 1 # 4 3 4 2 & 1 4 2 (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

..

A Major A Major has 3 sharps, F, C and G. To play, start at the 5th fret of the E string.

B Major B Major has 5 sharps, F, C, G, D and A. To play, start at the 7th fret of the E string. F # Major

F # Major has six sharps, F, C, G, D, A and E. To play, start at the 2nd fret of the E string.
David P Aitken 2010. All rights reserved.

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Segovia - Pattern Approach

Three Octave Scales


G Major pattern (cont.)
A b Major

A b Major has four flats, B, E, A and D. To play start at the 4th fret of the E string. B b Major

B b Major has two flats, B and E. To play, start at the 6th fret of the E string.

David P Aitken 2010. All rights reserved.

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Segovia - Pattern Approach

Three Octave Scales


A minor pattern
The A minor pattern is used for five scales, A, F #, G #, F and G minors. The pattern is: 1 3 4 // 1 3 - 1 3 4 // 1 2 4 // 1 3 // 1 - 1 3 4 // 1 3 - 1 3 4 2 - 4 3 1 // 4 3 1 // 3 1 - 3 1 // 4 3 1 // 4 2 1 / 4 - 4 3 1. Now let's look at this fingering in the A minor scale.

A minor A minor has no sharps or flats in the key signature, it is the relative minor to C Major. The accidentals are F # and G # (ascending only). To play, start on the 5th fret of the E string.
4 1

1 3 4 1 2 3 1 1 4 3 4 4 3 1 & (3) (4) (5) (6)

4 2 3 1 # 4 3 3 # n n 1 4 3 3 1 1 3 1 3 3 1 1 # 3 4 # 4 1 1 2 1 3 & # # (6) (5) (4) (3) (2) (1) (2)

.. # #

The relative major is A Major and has three sharps, F, C and G. Accidentals are D # and E #. To play, start at the 2nd fret of the E string. G # minor

F # minor

The relative major is B major and has five sharps, C, F, G, D and A. Accidentals are E # and F ##. To play, start at the 4th fret of the E string. F minor The relative major is A b Major and has four flats, B, E, A and D. Accidentals are Dn and En. To play, start on the 1st fret of the E string. G minor The relative major is B b Major and has two flats, B and E. Accidentals are En and F #. To play, start at the 3rd fret of the E string.
David P Aitken 2010. All rights reserved.

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Segovia - Pattern Approach

Three Octave Scales


B minor pattern
B minor pattern is used for B minor and B b minor. The pattern is: 1 3 4 // 1 3 - 1 3 - 1 3 4 // 1 3 // 1 3 - 1 3 4 // 1 3 - 1 3 4 2 - 4 3 1 // 4 3 1 - 4 2 1 - 4 2 1 // 3 1 // 4 3 1 // 4 3 1. This pattern on B minor looks like this. B minor B minor is the relative minor to D Major and has two sharps, F and C. Accidentals are G # and A #. To play, start on the 2nd fret of the A string.
1 3

3 4 2 4 3 1 # n 1 4 # n 4 3 3 1 1 3 3 1 # 1 3 4 1 # ## 1 3 4 1 3 1 3 # & # n 1 2 4 1 3 4 2 1 ## 1 3 4 3 1 & (5) 4 (4) (3) (2) (2) (3) (4) (5) (1) (2)

# .. n n # # #

B b minor

The relative major is D b Major and has five flats, B, E, A, D and G. Accidentals are Gn and An. To play, start at the 1st fret of the A string.

There are three scales left, E, F Major and E minor. These scales each have a unique pattern and will be treated separately.

David P Aitken 2010. All rights reserved.

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Segovia - Pattern Approach

Three Octave Scales


E Major pattern
The E Major pattern is: 0 1 3 4 - 2 4 // 1 2 4 // 1 2 4 // 1 3 - 1 3 // 1 2 4 // 1 3 4 3 1 - 4 2 1 // 4 2 1 // 3 1 // 4 3 1 // 4 3 1 - 1 // 4 3 1 0. E Major has four sharps, F, C, G and D. To play this pattern start with an open E string.
4 3 3 1 1 4 4 2 1 4 1 4 2 1 3 #### 0 1 3 4 2 4 1 2 4 & 1 2 3 1 2 (6) (5) (4) (3) (2) (1) (2) 4 3 1 4 1 #### 3 1 3 1 1 4 3 1 0 & (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

.. n n n n #

E minor pattern
The E minor pattern is: 0 1 2 4 // 1 3 - 3 4 // 1 2 4 - 2 4 // 1 2 4 // 1 3 - 2 4 // 1 2 - 4 2 1 // 4 2 1 // 3 1 // 4 3 1 // 4 3 1 - 4 2 1 // 4 2 1 0. The relative major is G Major and has an F Sharp. Accidentals are C# and D #. To play, start with the open E string.
4 1 3

2 1 4 4 # 2 1 2 # n 4 2 n 2 4 1 3 1 2 1 # 0 1 2 4 1 3 3 4 2 # 4 # & # # (3) (6) (5) (4) (3) (2) (1) 1 4 3 1 1 # 4 3 4 2 & 1 4 2 1 0 (3) (4) (5) (6)

.. n b

David P Aitken 2010. All rights reserved.

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Segovia - Pattern Approach

Three Octave Scales


F Major pattern
F Major pattern is: 1 3 // 0 1 3 - 1 3 4 // 1 3 4 // 1 3 // 1 2 4 // 1 2 4 - 1 3 4 3 1 - 4 2 1 // 4 2 1 // 3 1 // 4 3 1 // 4 3 1 - 3 1 0 // 3 1. F Major has a B b and to play, start at the 1st fret on the E string.
4 3 3 1 1 4 2 1 1 16 3 4 4 2 1 2 4 1 3 3 3 1 4 1 1 3 0 1 b & (6) (5) (4) (3) (2) (1) 2 4 (2) 17 1 4 1 3 3 1 4 1 3 1 0 3 1 b & 3 (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

..

That's it, the 24 scales from Diatonic Major and Minor Scales by Andres Segovia (Columbia Music Co.) can be broken down into eight patterns, C Major, C # minor, G Major, A minor, B minor, E Major, F Major and E minor. Knowing these can help you vary your practise; you can pratice one pattern but with different scales; you can play one scale from each pattern; or play all the scales from C Major to D minor as in Diatonic Major and Minor Scales by Andres Segovia (Columbia Music Co.). The following practise page has all the scales listed in order with the patterns & key signature (accidentals are in brackets).

David P Aitken 2010. All rights reserved.

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