You are on page 1of 165

CE110

Servo Trainer
TecQuipment Ltd 2010
Do not reproduce or transmit this document in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopy, recording or any information storage and
retrieval system without the express permission of
TecQuipment Limited.
TecQuipment has taken care to make the contents of this
manual accurate and up to date. However, if you find any
errors, please let us know so we can rectify the problem.
TecQuipment supply a Packing Contents List (PCL) with
the equipment. Carefully check the contents of the
package(s) against the list. If any items are missing or
damaged, contact TecQuipment or the local agent.
PW/PE/ajp/db/0710

TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
CONTENTS
SECTION PAGE

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1-1
1.1 General 1-1
1.2 CE110 Servo Trainer 1-3
1.3 Electrical Installation, Operating Conditions and
Maintenance
1-6

2.0 CONTROL THEORY 2-1
2.1 Fundamentals of Control Theory 2-1
2.1.1 Introduction 2-1
2.1.2 Control Principles 2-2
2.2 Advanced Principles of Control 2-13
2.2.1 Introduction 2-13
2.2.2 Servo System Modelling: Speed Control System 2-15
2.2.3 Servo System Modelling: Position Control System 2-17
2.2.4 Actuator and Sensor Characteristics 2-18
2.2.5 Measurement of System Characteristics 2-22
2.2.6 Controller Design: Angular Velocity Control 2-24
2.2.7 Controller Design: Angular Position Control 2-28
2.2.8 Controller Design: Disturbance Rejection 2-29
2.3 Advanced Principles of Control: Non-Linear System
Elements

2-32
2.3.1 Amplifier Saturation 2-32
2.3.2 Amplifier Dead-Zone 2-34
2.3.3 Anti-Dead-Zone (Inverse Dead-Zone) 2-35
2.3.4 Hysteresis (Backlash) 2-36
2.3.5 Composite Non-Linearities 2-39

3.0 DIGITAL CONTROL TECHNIQUES 3-1
3.1 Fundamental Digital Control Principles 3-1
3.1.1 Representation of a Digital Controller 3-2
3.2 Software Implementation of a Three Term Controller 3-4
3.2.1 Proportional Control 3-5
3.2.2 Proportional and Integral Control 3-7
3.2.3 Proportional, Integral and Derivative Control 3-10
3.3 Implementation of Computer Control 3-12
i
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
ii

CONTENTS
SECTION PAGE

4.0 EXPERIMENTATION 4-1
4.1 Introduction 4-1
4.2 Experiment 1: Basic Tests and Transducer Calibration 4-3
4.3 Experiment 2: Response Calculating and
Measurements

4-11
4.4 Experiment 3: Proportional Control of Servo Trainer
Speed

4-15
4.5 Experiment 4: Proportional plus Integral Control of
Servo Trainer Speed

4-22
4.6 Experiment 5: Disturbance Cancellation and Feed-
Forward Control

4-29
4.7 Experiment 6: Angular Position Control: Proportional
Control

4-31
4.8 Experiment 7: Angular Position Control: Velocity
Feedback

4-36
4.9 Experiment 8: Angular Position Control and the
Influence of Non-Linearity

4-40
4.10 Experiment 9: Non-Linear System Characteristics 4-44

5.0 RESULTS AND COMMENTS 5-1
5.1 Experiment 1: Results and Comments 5-1
5.2 Experiment 2: Results and Comments 5-7
5.3 Experiment 3: Results and Comments 5-11
5.4 Experiment 4: Results and Comments 5-14
5.5 Experiment 5: Results and Comments 5-20
5.6 Experiment 6: Results and Comments 5-24
5.7 Experiment 7: Results and Comments 5-26
5.8 Experiment 8: Results and Comments 5-31
5.9 Experiment 9: Results and Comments 5-35

APPENDIX 1 BLANK EXPERIMENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM A1-1


TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
SECTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION


1.1 General

The CE110 Servo Trainer is one of a unique range of products designed
specifically for the theoretical study and practical investigation of basic and
advanced control engineering principles. This includes the analysis of static
and dynamic systems using analogue and/or digital techniques.

A typical system configuration is shown in Figure 1.1 where a CE110 is shown
adjacent to a CE120 Controller.



Figure 1.1 CE110 Servo Trainer adjacent to CE120 Controller

The CE110 Servo Trainer relates specifically to velocity control and angular
position control problems as they would typically occur in industry. It may
also, however, be used as a practical introduction to the design, operation and
application of control systems in general.

The CE110 is an intrinsically safe, adaptable and self-contained facility for
students of control engineering to investigate and compare a wide range of
Page 1-1
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
functional control system configurations. In particular with the CE110, they
can examine the control of the velocity of a rotating shaft with differing loads
and inertia's. An additional facility is available to engage, via an electrically
operated clutch, an additional load shaft equipped with a gearbox and
angular position sensor. This extends the experimental possibilities to position
control.

The CE110 includes a set of typical, user-adjustable non-linear elements which
are associated with servo-control. These elements may be set up to
demonstrate a wide range of practical non-linear phenomena.

IMPORTANT
The CE110 is supplied for operation at the local mains supply voltage, either
110/120 V or 220/240V, unless otherwise indicated at the time of ordering. The
set voltage is shown on the Test Certificate Supplied with the CE110 or on the
Serial Number Plate to be found at the rear of the unit.

Section 2 of this manual gives a step by step development of the fundamental
and advanced control theory required to support the educational use of the
CE110. This enables the performance of a particular Servo-System
configuration to be either predicted in the case of an existing system or, at the
design stage, the settings needed to achieve the desired (optimum)
performance specifications.

The CE110 is designed to operate with external analogue, digital or other
standard industrial control elements. TecQuipment also make the optional
CE120 Controller and the CE122 Digital Interface to work with the CE110.

TecQuipment supply the CE120 and CE122 with the CE2000 software (see
their relevant user guides). This allows the units to do open and closed-loop
control investigations on any other item of laboratory equipment with
compatible analogue inputs and outputs. The CE2000 software includes pre-
written files that work with the CE110 and the experiments in this user guide.

As an alternative, the CE110 may be controlled by any other compatible
analogue or digital controller. However, it will be necessary to make the
relevant amendments to the operating procedures and connection diagrams
given in the manuals.
Page 1-2
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
1.2 CE110 Servo Trainer



Figure 1.2 CE110 Servo Trainer

The CE110 Servo Trainer is shown in Figure 1.2. It comprises a motor driven
rotating shaft upon which is mounted, (from left to right):

i. An inertial load flywheel
ii. A tachometer to measure the shaft speed
iii. A generator which provides an electrically variable load upon the
motor.
iv. An electrically driven motor which provides the motive power which
rotates the shaft.
v. An electrically operated clutch to enable the motor driven shaft to be
connected to a secondary shaft called here the position output shaft,
which connects to:-
vi. A 30:1 ratio reduction gearbox
vii. An output shaft position sensor and calibrated visual indicator.
Adjacent to the visual indicator of output shaft position is a manually
operated position dial which can be used for setting desired (set-point)
angular positions

Page 1-3
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
The CE110 includes power amplifiers for the drive motor and load generator
and power supplies/signal conditioning circuits for the associated speed and
velocity sensors.

The motor speed is determined by the voltage applied to the drive amplifier
input socket on the front panel. Likewise, the generator load is determined by
the external load input. Both inputs are arranged to operate in the range 10V
(0 to 10V in the case of the generator). The shaft velocity sensor and the
output shaft position sensor are sealed to give outputs calibrated in the range
10V. A door at the rear of the left hand side allows access to change the size
of the inertial load by adding or removing the inertia discs supplied. For
safety, a micro-switch mounted in the door disables the drive amplifier when
the access door is open or not fully latched.

In addition to the main rotating components, a further facility for
investigating servo-mechanism control is provided in the form of a set of
typical servo-system non-linear elements. These are situated at the top of the
unit and, as shown in Figure 1.3, from left to right comprise:-

i. An anti-dead-zone block, to eliminate any dead-zone deliberately
introduced or inherent in the CE110 motor.
ii. A dead-zone block, to introduce additional dead-zone so it may be
simulated and studied.
iii. A saturation block, to allow servo-drive amplifier saturation to be
simulated and studied.
iv. A hysteresis block, to allow gearbox and servo-drive train backlash to
be simulated and studied.

The operation of the non-linear units is discussed in detail in Section 2.3 of
this manual.

The front panel of the CE110, shown in Figure 1.3, provides a schematic
functional outline of the unit as well as providing quick and easy access, via
2mm sockets, to both the individual transducers and the motor and generator
control circuits.

Page 1-4
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
A
n
t
i
-
d
e
a
d
z
o
n
e
b
l
o
c
k
D
e
a
d
z
o
n
e
b
l
o
c
k N
o
n
-
l
i
n
e
a
r
u
n
i
t
S
a
t
u
r
a
t
i
o
n
b
l
o
c
k
H
y
s
t
e
r
y
s
i
s
b
l
o
c
k
O
u
t
p
u
t
f
r
o
m
N
o
n
-
l
i
n
e
a
r
u
n
i
t
G
e
a
r
b
o
x
O
u
t
p
u
t
s
h
a
f
t
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
i
n
d
i
c
a
t
o
r
I
n
p
u
t
t
o
N
o
n
-
l
i
n
e
a
r
u
n
i
t
I
n
e
r
t
i
a
l
l
o
a
d
V
i
s
u
a
l
r
e
a
d
o
u
t
o
f
t
a
c
h
o
m
e
t
e
r
O
u
t
p
u
t
f
r
o
m
t
a
c
h
o
m
e
t
e
r
0
-
+
1
0
V
i
n
p
u
t
t
o
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r
l
o
a
d
-
1
0
t
o
+
1
0
V
i
n
p
u
t
t
o
d
r
i
v
e
m
o
t
o
r
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
l
y
o
p
e
r
a
t
e
d
s
w
i
t
c
h
R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
(
S
e
t
-
p
o
i
n
t
)
p
o
t
e
n
t
i
o
m
e
t
e
r
G
M
3
0
:
1

1
0
V

1
0
V
q
0
-
1
0
V
w
0
+
v
e
-
v
e
4
2
0
1
0
8
6

1
0
V
0
+
v
e
-
v
e
4
2
0
1
0
8
6
4
2
0
1
0
8
6

1
0
V
1
0
8
64
2
0
2
0
18
16
14
1
2

1
0
V


Figure 1.3 CE110 Front Panel
Page 1-5
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Connection between external power supplies, control modules/measuring
instruments and the motor/transducer circuits of the CE110 are made via
2mm sockets mounted on the front panel. The connecting leads supplied with
the CE110 enable the user to make circuit/unit interconnections and so
assemble a wide range of functional control systems as required.

To readily facilitate the connection of the CE110 to most standard laboratory
equipment and instrumentation, adapters are supplied to convert the 2mm
format of the CE range to either a 4mm/or to a BNC format.

1.3 Electrical Installation, Operating Conditions and Maintenance

Manufacturer
TecQuipment Ltd, Bonsall Street, Long Eaton, Nottingham NG10 2AN,
ENGLAND
Importer
The manufacturer

Electrical Connection

WARNING

The electrical supply must be connected to the apparatus through a
switch, circuit-breaker or plug and socket. The apparatus must be
connected to earth.

Connect the apparatus to an electrical supply using the cord or cables
provided with the apparatus. Refer to the following colour code to identify
the individual conductors:

GREEN AND YELLOW: EARTH (E or )
BROWN LIVE
BLUE NEUTRAL

Maintenance and inspection
A qualified person must carry out electrical maintenance.Ensure that the
following procedures are followed.

1. Assume the apparatus is energised until it is known to be isolated from
the electrical supply.
2. Use insulated tools where there are possible electrical hazards.
3. Check the insulation of the cord or external cables. Replace if damaged.
4. Confirm that the apparatus earth circuit is complete.
5. Find out the reason that a fuse blew, or a circuit breaker tripped, before
replacing or resetting.
6. Confirm that a replacement component is compatible with the item
being replaced.
Page 1-6
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

Periodically inspect the apparatus to ensure that there is no visible damage.
Pay particular attention to connectors, switches, indicators, fuse holders and
cables.

If a fuse needs to be changed, use the following procedure:
1. Switch off the apparatus and disconnect it from the mains.
2. Remove the fuse and replace it with the exact type specified.
3. Reconnect the unit to the mains supply.
4. Switch on and ensure that the unit works correctly.
5. If the fuse fails again contact the importer or TecQuipment for advice.

Handling instructions
Net weight: 17 kg.

Ensure that correct handling procedures are used when moving this
apparatus.

Operating Conditions

Storage temperature range 25C to +55C (when packaged for
transport)
Safe operating temperature range +5C to +40C
Safe operating relative humidity
range
30 % to 95 % (non-condensing)
Operating environment Laboratory environment
Supply voltage (nominal) 230 V 115 V
Current (maximum) 500 mA 1 A
Frequency 50/60 Hz
Fuse type T1.6 A 20 mm
ceramic
(see IEC 60127-III)
T3.15 A 20 mm
ceramic
(see IEC 60127-III)
Supply type TNS (refer to IEC 60364)

Noise Levels
The maximum sound pressure levels measured for this apparatus are fewer
than 70 dB(A).

Spare Parts
Refer to the Packing Contents List for any spare parts that are supplied with
the apparatus.
Contact TecQuipment or the importer if any other spare parts are needed.
Page 1-7
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Page 1-8

TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
SECTION 2.0 CONTROL THEORY


2.1 Fundamentals of Control Theory

2.1.1 Introduction

The object of this section is to provide an introduction to control engineering
principals by firstly considering the operating characteristics of the individual
elements used in typical control engineering systems. It then further considers
the performance of these elements when combined to form a complete control
engineering system.

The text includes the development of control theory relating to servo
mechanism control in velocity and positional control systems. This is
considered essential in ensuring that the student both understands and is able
to explain the results obtained from the practical investigations contained in
Section 4 of this manual. This also allows the initial controller setting for the
individual systems to be set or established as directed. It then helps in the
analysis of how the systems actually respond to various steady state and
transient operating criteria.

The primary object of the CE110 Servo Trainer, of which this manual forms an
important part, is to provide a practical environment in which to study and
understand the control of a servo-system. These systems occur widely
throughout all branches of industry to such an extent that a grounding in
servo mechanism control forms a basic component of a control engineer's
training. A simple but widespread industrial application of servo control is
the regulation at a constant speed of an industrial manufacturing drive
system. For example, in the production of strip plastic, a continuous strip of
material is fed through a series of work stations. The speed at which the strip
is fed through must be precisely controlled at each stage. Similar examples
exist where accurate position control is required. A popular example is the
position control of the gun turret on a battle tank, which must be capable of
both rapid aiming, target tracking and rejection of external disturbances.

The following theory and examples are based upon the need to maintain a
selected speed or position of a rotating shaft under varying conditions.
Page 2-1
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
2.1.2 Control Principles

Consider a simple system where a motor is used to rotate a load, via a rigid
shaft, at a constant speed, as shown in Figure 2.1.

Flywheel (theoretical load)
Coupling shaft Coupling shaft
Shaft speed
Drive
Motor
Generator
Load
Drive
Motor
Amplifier


Figure 2.1 Simple Motor & Load System

The load will conventionally consist of two elements,

i. A flywheel or inertial load, which will assist in removing rapid
fluctuations in shaft speed and,
ii. An electrical generator from which electrical power is removed by a
load.

Under equilibrium conditions with a constant shaft speed, we have


Electrical Mechanical power absorbed by the
power supplied generator and frictional
to motor losses
=


Page 2-2
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
When this condition is achieved the system is said to be in equilibrium since
the shaft speed will be maintained for as long as both the motor input energy
and the generator and frictional losses remain unchanged. If the motor input
and/or the load were to be changed, whether deliberately or otherwise, the
shaft speed would self-adjust to achieve a new equilibrium. That is, the speed
would increase if the input power exceeded the losses or reduce in speed if
the losses exceeded the input power.

When operated in this way the system is an example of an open-loop control
system, because no information concerning shaft speed is fed back to the
motor drive circuit to compensate for changes in shaft speed.

The same configuration exists in many industrial applications or as part of a
much larger and sophisticated plant. As such the load and losses may be
varied by external effects and considerations which are not directly controlled
by the motor/load arrangement. In such a system an operator may be tasked
to observe any changes in the shaft speed and make manual adjustments to
the motor drive when the shaft speed is changed. In this example the operator
provides;

a) The measurement of speed by observing the actual speed against a
calibrated scale.
b) The computation of what remedial action is required by using their
knowledge to increase or decrease the motor input a certain amount.
c) The manual effort to accomplish the load adjustment, required to
achieve the desired changes in the system performance, or by adjusting
the supply to the motor.

Again, reliance is made on the operators experience and concentration to
achieve the necessary adjustment with minimum delay and disturbance to the
system.

This manual action will be time consuming and expensive, since an operator
is required whenever the system is operating. Throughout a plant, even of
small size, many such operators would be required giving rise to poor
efficiency and high running costs. This may cause the process to be an
uneconomic proposition, if it can be made to work at all!

Page 2-3
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
There are additional practical considerations associated with this type of
manual control of a system in that an operator cannot maintain concentration
for long periods of time and also that they may not be able to respond quickly
enough to maintain the required system parameters.

A more acceptable system is to use a transducer to produce an electrical
signal which is proportional to the shaft speed. Electronic circuits would then
generate an Error Signal which is equal to the difference between the
Measured Signal and the Reference Signal. The Reference Signal is chosen to
achieve the shaft speed required. It is also termed the Set Point (or Set Speed
in the case of a servo speed control system).

The Error Signal is then used , with suitable power amplification, to drive the
motor and so automatically adjust the actual performance of the system. The
use of a signal measured at the output of a system to control the input
condition is termed Feedback.

In this way the information contained in the electrical signal concerning the
shaft speed, whether it be constant or varying, is used to control the motor
input to maintain the speed as constant as possible under varying load
conditions. This is then termed a Closed-Loop Control System because the
output state is used to control the input condition.

Figure 2.2 shows a typical arrangement for a closed-loop control system
which includes a feedback loop.







Page 2-4
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Drive
Motor
Inertia load
(flywheel)
Reference signal
(Set speed)
Generator
Feedback
controller
Motor
drive
amplifier
error
Shaft speed signal
Differencing
amplifier
Actuation Signal


Figure 2.2 Closed-Loop Control System including Feedback Loop

The schematic diagram shown in Figure 2.3 represents the closed-loop control
system described previously.




Figure 2.3 Schematic Representation of Closed-Loop Control System
Page 2-5
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Next, consider the situation when the system is initially in equilibrium and
then the load is caused to increase by the removal of more energy from the
generator. With no immediate change in the motor input, the shaft speed will
fall and the Error signal increase. This will in turn increase the supply to the
motor and the shaft speed will increase automatically.

As the speed is being returned to the original Set Speed value, the Error signal
reduces causing the energy supplied to the motor to also reduce. Eventually
the supply to the motor would become so small that it cannot drive the load
and so stalls. In practice the actual motor torque would reduce until a new
equilibrium was produced where the motor torque equalled the load torque
and the Error achieves a new constant value. The difference between the
Actual speed and the Set speed is termed the Steady State Error of the
system.

If the Gain of the amplifier was increased, the Steady State Error would be
reduced but not totally removed, for exactly the same reasons as given
previously. If the Gain were to be increased too much the possibility of
Instability may be introduced. This will become evident by the shaft speed
oscillating and the input of the motor changing rapidly.


Figure 2.4 Proportional Control Amplifier Gain Characteristics
Page 2-6
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
The system described previously is said to have Proportional Feedback since
the Gain of the amplifier is constant. This means that the ratio of the output to
the input is constant once selected. Figure 2.4 shows the characteristic of a
typical Proportional Control Amplifier with the Gain set at different levels,
increasing from K
1
to K
5
.

In order to maintain a non-zero input to the motor drive, there must always
be a non-zero error signal at the input to the proportional amplifier.

Hence, on its own Proportional Control cannot maintain the shaft speed at the
desired level with zero error, other than by manual adjustment of the
Reference. Moreover, proportional gain alone would not be able to
compensate fully for any changes made to the operating conditions.

Operating with zero Error may, however, be achieved by using a controller
which is capable of Proportional and Integral Control - (PI). Figure 2.5 shows
a typical schematic diagram of a PI Controller.




Figure 2.5 Schematic of PI Controller.

The Proportional Amplifier in this circuit has the same response as that
shown previously in Figure 2.4 (K
1
to K
5
).

An Integrating Amplifier is designed such that its output is proportional to
the integral of the input. Figure 2.6 shows the typical response of an
Integrating Amplifier supplied with a varying input signal.

Page 2-7
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure 2.6 Typical Response of an Integrating Amplifier supplied
with Varying Input Signal


From Figure 2.6 it can be seen that,

a) When the input is zero the output remains constant.
b) When the input is positive the output ramps upwards at a rate
controlled by the actual magnitude of the input and also the gain of the
integrator.
c) When the input is negative the output ramps downwards at a rate
controlled by the actual magnitude of the input and also the gain of the
integrator.
d) If the input itself is damping or changing in any way then the output
will follow an integral characteristic, again following the criteria given
in (a) and (b) above.
e) When a change in input polarity occurs the output responds in the
manner described above, starting at the instantaneous output value at
which the change occurred.
f) The magnitudes achieved at the output are dependent on the
magnitude of the input signal and also the time allowed for the
Page 2-8
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
damping to occur. In a practical integrator, the output signal is also
limited by the voltage of the power supply to the integrator itself.

Effectively, when a constant DC signal is supplied to the input of an
Integrating Amplifier its output will 'ramp' at a constant rate. Whether it
ramps up or down is determined by whether the input polarity is either
positive or negative. By arranging the polarity of the Error signal in a control
system correctly, the output from the integrator can be configured to always
drive the system in the correct direction so as to minimise (zero) the Error.

In practice, an integrator would be used, as shown in Figure 2.5, with
proportional amplification to give an overall system response of the required
characteristic. The overall response of the PI Controller to a step change in Set
Speed (or the shaft speed conditions due to the load increasing) is the
combined effects of its two circuits, as shown in Figure 2.7.




Figure 2.7 Overall Response of the PI Controller to a step change in Set
Speed

Consider the system described previously by Figure 2.2, where the load rate is
increased by the load generator, but now with a PI Controller in the Feedback
Loop.

As before, the Proportional Amplifier on its own will leave an Error at the
instance of the change in speed. However, with the Integrator output signal
Page 2-9
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
increasing, ramping upwards in response to this error, the supply to the drive
motor and the motor torque will correspondingly increase. The shaft speed
will rise until the Set speed is achieved and the Error is zero. At this condition
the motor and loads are equal and the system is in equilibrium. This new
operating condition will be maintained until another disturbance causes the
speed to change once again, whether upwards or downwards, and the
controller automatically adjusts it's output to compensate. In practice the PI
Controller constantly monitors the system performance and makes the
necessary adjustments to keep it within specified operating limits.

The amount of Integral Action will affect the response capability of the system
to compensate for a change. Figure 2.8 shows the typical response of a system
with constant Proportional and varying levels of Integral Action.



Figure 2.8 Typical System Response with Constant Proportional and
Varying Integral Action.

With an intermediate level of Integral Action the system moves quickly, with
minimum overshoot, to the Set Level value. In the example shown, the value
of Integral Action chosen is said to achieve Critical Damping.

Page 2-10
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
With a low level of Integral Control there is a very slow response giving rise
to a distinct time delay between when a change occurs and when the control
circuit re-establishes the Set Level again. This type of system is said to be
Over Damped.

With a high level of Integral Control the response of the system may be so fast
that it overshoots the required value and then oscillates about that point
under Integral Action until it finally settles down to the steady state
condition, if at all. Note that, in the example given, the time for the system to
settle down is greater than when the Integral Control value was small. This
type of system is said to be Under Damped. For large levels of Integral
Control, the system oscillations of the under damped system might grow and
become unstable.
In general,

a) Any increase in the amount of integral action would cause the system
to accelerate more quickly in the direction required to reduce the Error
and have a tendency to increase instability.
b) Decreasing the integral action would cause the system to respond more
slowly to disturbances and so take longer to achieve equilibrium.

Where fast response is required with minimum overshoot a Three-Term
Controller is used. This consists of the previous PI Controller with a
Differential Amplifier included to give a PID ( or Three-Term ) Controller.

The performance of a Differential Amplifier is that the output is the
differential of the input. Figure 2.9 shows the characteristic of a Differentiator
supplied with a square wave input.

Each time the input level is reversed the output responds by generating a
large peak which then decays to zero until the next change occurs. In a
practical Differentiator the maximum peak value would be achieved at the
power supply rail voltage levels to the Differentiator itself.

In a PID Controller the polarity of the output would be configured to actually
oppose any change and thereby dampen the response of the system. The gain
of the Differentiator would control the amount of damping provided, both in
amplitude and duration.
Page 2-11
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure 2.9 Differentiator supplied with Squarewave Input

The damping required for the situation described in Figure 2.8 could also,
therefore, be achieved by including a Differentiator in the control loop to
suppress the high acceleration caused by the Integrator without affecting it's
ability to remove the Error. It is the balance between the Integral and
Differential Action which now controls the overall system response to a step
change in Set Level.

The speed and manner with which a system can overcome disturbances is
termed the Transient Response. By careful selection of the parameters of the
proportional, integral and differential amplifiers it is possible to produce a
system Transient Response to suit the specific application.

This section so far has only dealt with control engineering principles in a very
basic way so that the CE110 Servo Trainer can be used by students and
engineers new to control engineering without them having to be familiar with
the mathematics. It is possible to verify these principles by setting up suitable
test circuits with the CE110 and the CE120 and then confirming the various
system responses.

Section 2.2 builds upon these fundamental principles and introduces the
advanced topics of mathematical modelling, system tuning and predicting
Page 2-12
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
system performance. This includes the more complex control of shaft position
in an output shaft of a reduction gearbox by varying the motor drive in the
input shaft of the gearbox.


2.2 Advanced Principles of Control

2.2.1 Introduction

In this Section we build on the introductory material of Section 2.1 and
describe more advanced methods for the analysis and control of the Servo
Trainer.

The ability to analyse a system, real or otherwise, is especially important in
establishing the relevant design parameters for new plant or in predicting the
performance of existing equipment which is to operate under new conditions.
Being able to predict the performance of any complex engineering system in
advance of its construction and operation will both reduce costs and also
minimise project development time.

The ability to represent a control situation using mathematical equations also
allows computers to be used as an invaluable development tool for the
engineer. The computer, once programmed to respond in exactly the same
way as the chosen system, can thoroughly 'test' or simulate that system under
all possible operating conditions, both quickly and cheaply. For some
equipment it may only be possible to simulate certain operating conditions
since in real life the actual condition cannot be safely or economically
reproduced, e.g. the landing on the moon could only be achieved after the
equipment had been designed and built, and yet the engineers had the
confidence to commit vast resources to the development and construction
project as well as gaining experience in advance through the use of
simulators. Most importantly, they were able to commit the safety of humans
to man the vehicles.


Page 2-13
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure 2.10 Servo Control System: Clutch Disengaged


Page 2-14
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Page 2-15
2.2.2 Servo System Modelling: Speed Control System

NOTE: This theory describes how you could find the characteristics of the
servo trainer from the individual properties of its elements including the
electrical properties of the motor. This is only for reference, as this is
impossible without taking the equipment apart, which TecQuipment do not
recommend, as it would cancel your guarantee.

Initially, consider the servo control system with the clutch disengaged. In this
configuration the system is a speed control process which can be represented
as shown in Figure 2.10

The system model is determined by relating the torque supplied by the motor
(
m
) to that required to drive the load generator, the flywheel and frictional
losses. This can be expressed as,

m
= Load Torque + Frictional Torque + Inertial Torque

The load torque can be considered as a torque which is proportional to the
load control voltage (v
l
) while the frictional torque can be considered as a
torque which is proportional to the shaft speed . The inertial torque is
determined by the flywheel inertia and the shaft acceleration
d
dt

. Thus



m
b k I
d
dt
= + +
l l

2.1
Where

b = Friction coefficient of rotating components
k
l
= Gain constant of load/generator
= Inertia of flywheel

The motor electrical circuit is governed by the equation

( ) t Ri L
di
dt
bemf
= + +
2.2
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Page 2-16
Where (t) is the motor input voltage
R is the motor armature resistance
L is the armature inductance
i is the armature current
and
bemf

is the motor back emf


The back emf and the motor torque can be written in terms of the motor
constant k
m
, thus

bemf m
m m
k
k i
=
=

2.3

Combining Equations 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 by taking Laplace transforms and
eliminating variables yields the transfer function relating the output speed
(s) to the input voltage v(s) and the load voltage v
l
(s)

( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )


( ) ( ) s
k s
sI b sL R k
k R sL
sI b sL R k
s
m
m m
=
+ + +

+
+ + +
2 2
l
l

2.4

The transfer function simplifies if the inductance L of the armature circuit is
assumed to be small compared with the inertia of the flywheel. This gives the
first order transfer function

( )
( )


s
k s
Ts
k s
Ts
m
=
+

+
' ' (
1 1
l l
)

2.5a
Where time constant T is given by

T
IR
bR k
m
=
+
2

and
k
k
bR k
m
m
m
' =
+
2


k
k R
bR k
m
'
l
l
=
+
2

2.5b
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

Frequently, we will consider the situation when the servo-control system only
has an inertial load. In this case v
l
(s) = 0 and Equation 2.5 simplifies to

( )
( )
s
k
Ts
s
m
=
+
'
( )
1

2.6
2.2.3 Servo-System Modelling: Position Control System

With the electric clutch engaged, the gearbox and output position shaft are
connected to the main shaft as shown in Figure 2.11



Figure 2.11 Servo Control System: Clutch Engaged

The output shaft position (), is related to the main shaft velocity () by:


( )
( )
s
s
s
=
30

2.7

Where the constant '30' is associated with the 30:1 reduction in speed through
the gearbox. Note that the addition of the gearbox load will also change the
gain and time constant characteristics of Equations 2.5 and 2.6.

Equations 2.5 and 2.6 are used together to provide the system model of the
servo-control system dynamics.


Page 2-17
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

2.2.4 Actuator and Sensor Characteristics

When the servo-control system is used as a feedback control system the motor
speed, , is controlled (or actuated) by adjusting the applied voltage to the
motor drive amplifier, v. Likewise, the shaft speed and angular position are
sensed by transducers which produce output voltages. y

and y

which are
proportional to the shaft velocity,, and position, , respectively.


Figure 2.12 Schematic Representation of Servo Control Feedback System

The overall system may be represented schematically as shown in Figure 2.12.
The motor voltage, v, and the shaft speed, , are related by a steady state
actuator characteristic which is assumed to be linear (more will be said of this
assumption in section 2.3). The velocity sensor and angular position sensor
also have linear characteristics, as shown in Figures 12.13a, b, and c.


Page 2-18
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure 2.13a Speed vs Motor Input Voltage


Figure 2.13b Sensor Output vs Shaft Speed

Page 2-19
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure 2.13c Sensor Output vs Shaft Position
If k
i
, k

, k

are the motor, velocity sensor and angle sensor gain constants
respectively, then



=
=
=
k
y k
y k
i

2.8

Note that k
i
is, as stated previously a steady state gain constant which, from
Equation 2.5, is equal to the gain k'
m
obtained from the modelling exercise.
Combining Equations 2.6 and 2.8 gives the standard first order system
transfer function.

( )
( )
( ) y s
G
Ts
v s

=
+
1
1

2.9

Page 2-20
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Page 2-21
Where G k k
i 1
=

, is the steady state gain of the transfer function from the
In addition, the sensed output shaft position lated to the sensed
velocity y


by
input drive voltage, v, to the sensed shaft position, y

.

y


is re
( ) ( ) y s
G
s
y s

=
2

2.10
where
G
k
k
2
30
=



hen the overall transfer function for the servo-control system can be drawn
as in Figure 2.14 and written thus:

2.10b
T
( )
) (
( ) y s
G G
s Ts
v s

=
+
1 2
1

2.11





Figure 2.14 Overall Transfer Function for Servo Control System
se in loading due to the
earbox, the value of G
1
, T will be changed when the clutch is engaged and
e gearbox and output position shaft are connected.




Again it should be noted that, because of the increa
g
th
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
2.2.5 Measurement Of System Characteristics


Motor and Sensor Characteristics

The motor steady state characteristic, and the speed sensor characteristics are
obtained by running the motor at various velocities and recording the
corresponding voltages. These are then plotted to obtain the characteristics, as
shown in Figure 2.13. The angular position sensor is likewise obtained by
rotating the output shaft (using the motor) to various positions, recording the
corresponding voltages and plotting to obtain the characteristics.

Note that all the servo-control system characteristics are approximately linear.
The output and gains will, however, change slightly over a period of time.
This phenomenon is known as drift and is not uncommon in industrial
sensors and actuators. The motor characteristics will change significantly
according to operating conditions. Specifically, the gain G
1
, and the time
constant T will change when the clutch connecting the gearbox and output
position shaft is activated. Also, the servo-control system allows for the
inertial load to be varied by altering the flywheel thickness (mass) by adding
or removing discs. This will alter the inertia I and hence (via Equation 2.5b)
the system time constant, T.

Page 2-22
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
System Dynamic Characteristics: Step Response Method.

For a first order system, like the servo-control transfer function for shaft
speed, the gain G
1

and time constant T can be obtained from a step response
test as follows:
With reference to Figure 2.15, the gain is determined by applying a step
change, with amplitude U, to the input of a system. The final, or steady state,
value of the output will be the product U x G
1
, from which the gain can be
relatively determined.

The time constant T is defined as the time required for the step response of
the system to reach 0.632 of its final value.



Figure 2.15 Step Response

This method is generally easy to use, and gives reasonably accurate results,
provided the system characteristic is known to be first order.


System Dynamic Characteristics: Direct Calculation

An alternative to step response testing is to measure the system characteristics
individually and then use Equations 2.5b to calculate the gain and time
Page 2-23
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
constant of the process. This method requires a knowledge of the system
model (from Sections 2.2.2 and 2.2.3) and the ability to make basic
measurements of system parameters. In the case of the servo-control system
and with reference to Equations 2.5b, it is possible to determine the
parameters by either experimentation, direct measurements, or use of
manufacture's data sheets (in the case of the motor characteristics). In practice
however, the time required and inaccuracy of certain measurements
(especially the friction coefficient, b) mean that direct calculation of the
system dynamic characteristics would only be undertaken if a detailed
simulation of the process was required.

We will use step response testing methods in this manual.


2.2.6 Controller Design: Angular Velocity Control

Figure 2.16 represents a velocity control system in block diagram form.




Figure 2.16 Velocity Control System

The aim of the feedback controller is twofold. First it is to bring the output
speed, y

, into correspondence with the reference speed y


r
. This necessitates
finding ways of making the error, e, under steady operating conditions. The
second aim of the controller is to alter the dynamic behaviour of the servo-
system to improve the speed of response to changes in the reference speed.
This requires us to find ways of altering the system dynamic response via
feedback control. We will consider the steady operating performance
separately below.

Page 2-24
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Page 2-25

Steady State Errors

A main reason for applying feedback control to a system is to bring the
system output into correspondence with some desired reference value. The
theory developed in Section 2.1.2 'Control Principles' has already explained
that there is often some difference between the reference and the actual
output. In this Section we see how these errors are quantified when the steady
state has been reached.

The steady error ,e
ss
, is a measure of how well a controller performs in this
respect. The steady state is defined as,

( )
[ ]
e e
ss
t
=

lim
t
e s

2.12

Where the error, e(t), is the difference between the reference Set Speed value
and the actual output, as shown in Figure 2.16. Equation 2.12 can be re-
written in the frequency domain as,

( )
[ ]
e s
ss
s
=

lim
.
2.13

For a constant set speed or reference input y
r
, the steady state error (from
Figure 2.16) is,
( ) ( )
e
y
K s G s
ss
r
s
=
+

lim
1
1
.

2.14

Where K(s) is the controller transfer function and G(s) is the servo system
transfer function. If proportional control only is used then,

( ) K s K
p
=
and,
( )
e
y
K G s
ss
r
p
s
=
+

lim
1
1
.

2.15
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

Thus proportional control for the servo control system will involve a steady
error which is inversely proportional to the gain, K
p
. If proportional plus
integral (PI) control is used,

( ) K s K
K
s
p
i
= +
and,
( )
( )
e
s y
s K s K G s
ss
r
p i
s
=
+ +

lim
.
. .
1
0
2.16

Thus, with proportional plus integral (PI) control, for the servo system speed
transfer function the Steady State Error is zero.

Dynamic Response

The effect of feedback upon the dynamic response of the servo control system
velocity controller can be seen from a consideration of the closed-loop transfer
function. From Figure 2.16 it is possible to write

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
y s
K s G s y s
K s G s
r

=
+
1
1
1


2.17

Recall that the speed transfer function is, from Equation 2.9,

( ) G s
G
Ts
1
1
1
=
+

2.18

With proportional control, the closed-loop transfer function is obtained by
combining Equations 2.17 and 2.18 to give

( ) ( ) y s
k G
Ts k G
y s
p
p
r
=
+ +

1
1
1

2.19

Page 2-26
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
or
( ) ( ) y s
G
T s
y s
c
c
r
=
+
1
1
1
1
1

2.20a

Where the closed-loop gain is G
c1
1
given by:

G
K G
k G
c
p
p
1
1
1
1
1
=
+

2.20b
and the closed-loop constant is T
c1
1

given by:
-

T
T
k G
c
p
1
1
1
1
=
+

2.20c

From Equation 2.20c it can be seen that the closed-loop speed of response can
be increased by reducing the time constant T
c1
1
. This in turn is achieved by
increasing the proportional gain k
p
.

If the system controlled by a proportional plus integral controller, the closed-
loop system is given by

( )
( )
( ) y s
k k s G
Ts k G s k G
y s
i p
p i
r
=
+
+ + +

1
2
1 1
1 ( )

2.21

By comparing the denominator of Equation 2.21 with the standard expression
for the denominator of a second order transfer function:-

( ) ( ) y s
s s
y s
n
n n
r
=
+ +


2
2 2
2

2.22
it is possible to show that

n
i
k G
T
2 1
=
2.23
and
Page 2-27
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Page 2-28
2
1
1

n
p
k G
T
=
+


Thus by use of Equation 2.23, it is possible to achieve a desired increase in
system transient response performance in terms of a second order closed-loop
response. This is done by selecting k
i

and k
p
to give desired values of
n
and


2.2.7 Controller Design: Angular Position Control

Figure 2.17 represents the possible block diagram configuration for feedback
control of angular position.



Figure 2.17 Feedback Control of Angular Position

Notice that the control system has two feedback loops. An inner loop feeds
back a proportion, k
v
, of the system velocity, while an outer (position) loop
feeds back the sensed output position y

(s). The role of the inner velocity loop


is to improve transient performance of the overall system. This can be seen by
considering the overall closed-loop transfer function with proportional
control, such that ;
( )
K s k
p
=

( )
( )
y s
k G G y s
s T s k G k G G
p r
v p
=
+ + +
1 2
2
1 1
1
( )
2

2.24

TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Again this can be compared with the standard second order Equation
(Equation 2.22) and the following results obtained:

n
p
n
v
k G G
T
k G
T
2
1 2
1
2
1
=
=
+

2.25

By selecting k
p

and k
v
appropriately it is possible to obtain the desired
dynamic performance, as specified by
n
and . Note that when k
v
=0 (i.e.
there is no velocity feedback) it is not possible to specify the damping factor;
this can lead to very oscillatory behaviour when the system proportional gain
is increased.


2.2.8 Controller Design: Disturbance Rejection



Figure 2.18 Velocity Control System

Consider the velocity control system discussed in Section 2.2.6, but with the
servo-system model extended as indicated by Equation 2.5a to include the
effect of the generator load. Figure 2.18 shows this situation.

The load disturbance transfer function is (from the second term on the right
hand side of Equation 2.5a):
Page 2-29
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
( )
( )
G s
G
Ts
l
i
=
+1

2.26
where G k .
l l
'
=

The closed-loop equation for the system, including the influence of the
generator load is, from Figure 2.18, given by

( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) y s
G s K s
G s K s
y s
G s
G s K s
v s
r
=
+

+
1
1 1
1 1
l
l

2.27


Proportional Compensation:

If proportional control is applied, then K(s) = k
p
and if k
p
is large then the
effect of the load change upon the output will be small. In fact the larger k
p
is
the smaller the effect of the load change upon y

.


Integral Compensation:

If integral plus proportional control is applied, then if a load is applied the
integral term will integrate any non-zero error until the effect of the load is
removed. This can be seen by writing the closed-loop equation for Figure 2.18
with proportional and integral control:-

( )
( )
( )
( )
y s
k sk G
Ts k G s k G
y s
sG v s
Ts G k s k G
i p
p i
r
p i

=
+
+ + +

+ + +
( )
( )
1
2
1 1
2
1 1
1
1
l l

2.28

The numerator of the load disturbance term contains a term s (i.e. a zero at the
origin) which indicates that for constant load voltages
l
(s), the effect upon y

(s) will be zero in the steady state.






Page 2-30
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Feed Forward Compensation:

From the previous paragraphs it is seen that proportional control reduces the
effect of load changes and integral control action removes the steady state
effect of loads. There is, however, a way of reducing the effect of load changes
even more. This involves feeding a signal proportional to the load demand
into control action. This is called Feed Forward control and is shown in block
diagram form in Figure 2.19
Figure 2.19 Feed Forward Control

The idea of Feed Forward control is to take a proportion of the load voltage v

and after passing it through a suitable controller K
f
(s), add it to the motor
input voltage, v, such that it compensates for the effect of the load upon the
speed, y

. By correctly selecting K
f
(s) it is possible to completely compensate
for the influence of the load voltage v
i
. This is done by selecting K
f
(s) such
that,
( ) K s
G s
G s
f
=
l
( )
( )
1

2.29

From the equations defining G
l
(s) and G
1
(s), (Equations 2.26 and 2.29
respectively) the feed forward controller required to exactly cancel the load
disturbance is a constant K
f
, given by

K
G
G
f
=
l
1

2.30
Page 2-31
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Thus by calculating K
f
according to Equation 2.30 it is possible to exactly
cancel the effect of changing load upon the speed signal. In practice, K
f
is
often selected experimentally, to approximately remove disturbances and
combined with a proportional plus integral controller which removes the
remainder of the load effects.


2.3 Advanced Principles Of Control: Non-Linear System Elements

The treatment of the servo-control problem thus far has considered the
system to be linear. In a practical servo-system, however, a number of non-
linearities occur. The most frequently occurring forms of non-linearity are
incorporated into the servo-system in a block of simulated non-linearities. The
non-linear elements can be connected in series with the servo-motor in order
to systematically investigate the influence which non-linearities have upon
practical system performance.


2.3.1 Amplifier Saturation



Figure 2.20 Saturation

In a practical electronic amplifier for a servo-motor drive there are maximum
and minimum output voltages which cannot be exceeded. These maximum
and minimum values are due to the limitation imposed by the values of the
amplifiers. For example, if the power supply to an amplifier provides 15 V,
Page 2-32
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
then the amplifier output cannot exceed these limits, no matter what the gain
of the amplifier. This feature is termed 'Saturation' and is illustrated in Figure
2.20.

The saturation amplifier works normally with a specified linear gain
relationship between the input voltage, v
i
, and the output voltage, v
o
, for
inputs in the range -v
min
and v
max
. Beyond these limits, the output voltage, v
o
,
is constant at either v
max
.
or v
min
.

The servo motor drive amplifier saturates at 10V, but in order to show
separately the effects of saturation the non-linear element block incorporates a
saturation element (Figure 2.21).



Figure 2.21 Saturation Element

The saturation block is switched into the circuit using the enabling switch.
With the saturation disabled the input signal passes through the saturation
block unmodified. The gain of the saturation amplifier is unity and the
voltage at which the amplifier saturates is controlled by a calibrated 'level
control'.
Page 2-33
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
2.3.2 Amplifier Dead-Zone

A further feature of a practical amplifier is the dead-zone (or dead-band as its
is sometimes called), whereby the amplifier output is zero until the input
exceeds a certain level at which the internal losses are overcome, i.e.
mechanical losses such as 'stiction'. Hereafter, the amplifier behaves normally.
Figure 2.22 shows a typical dead-zone amplifier characteristic.



Figure 2.22 Typical Dead-Zone Characteristic

Amplifier dead-zone characteristics are inherent in motors in which a certain
(minimum) amount of input is required in order to turn the motor against
friction and other mechanical losses. Once the motor begins to turn, the
amplifier and motor respond in the normal linear way.

The servo motor amplifier has a small dead-zone, but in order to show
separately the effects of dead-zone the non-linear element block incorporates
a dead-zone element (Figure 2.23).

Page 2-34
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

Figure 2.23 Dead-Zone Controls

The dead-zone block is switched into circuit using the enable switch. With the
dead-zone disabled the input signal passes directly through the dead-zone
block unmodified. The gain of the dead-zone element is the linear region is
unity, and the dead-zone width and location can be controlled by 'width'
control and 'location' control (Figure 2.23).


2.3.3 Anti-Dead-Zone (Inverse Dead-Zone)



Figure 2.24 Inverse Non-Linearity Anti-Dead-Zone Characteristic
Page 2-35
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
One way in which the non-linear characteristics can be compensated for is by
using an inverse of the non-linearity characteristics. In the specific case of a
dead-zone non-linearity, the corresponding inverse non-linearity is the anti-
dead-zone characteristic shown in Figure 2.24.

By selecting the anti-dead-zone levels v
ap
and -v
an
to correspond to the dead-
zone levels v
dp
and v
dn
the two non-linearity cancel exactly.

In order that the effects of anti-dead-zone can be demonstrated the non-linear
element block incorporates an anti-dead-zone element (Figure 2.25).



Figure 2.25 Anti-dead-Zone Block

The anti-dead-zone block is switched into circuit using the enable switch.
With the anti-dead-zone disabled the input signal passes directly through the
anti-dead-zone block unmodified. The gain of the anti-dead-zone element in
the linear region is unity and the anti-dead-zone 'width' and 'location' can be
adjusted by the 'width' control and the 'location' control . These are shown in
Figure 2.25.


2.3.4 Hysteresis (Backlash)

A common and yet unwelcome form of non-linearity in mechanical drives is
hysteresis or backlash. This form of non-linearity is caused by worn or poor
tolerance mechanical couplings (usually gearboxes) in which the two
elements of the coupling separate and temporarily lose contact as the
Page 2-36
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
direction of movement changes. This can be illustrated with reference to
Figure 2.26, in which the worn or incorrectly meshed gears temporarily lose
contact during a change in direction of the driving gear. As a result the driven
(or output) gear remains stationary until the driving (or input) gear has
traversed and made contact again with the driven gear. The region where no
contact exists is termed the 'backlash gap'.



Figure 2.26 Hysteresis or Backlash
Page 2-37
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure 2.27 Input/Output Characteristic of a Hysteresis/Backlash Device

The input/output characteristic of a hysteresis/backlash device is shown in
Figure 2.27. Notice that the hysteresis is a 'directional' non-linearity in that the
output signal depends upon the direction of change of the input signal and
(during the backlash gap) the post direction of change.

The servo-system gearbox has been selected to have a small hysteresis
characteristic, such that backlash in the servo-system should not be a problem.
However, in order to show the effects of hysteresis, the non-linear element
block incorporates a hysteresis element to add realism to the system.

The hysteresis block is switched into the circuit using the enable switch. With
the hysteresis disabled the input signal passes directly through the hysteresis
block unmodified. The magnitude of the hysteresis is adjusted by the
'backlash' control, as shown in Figure 2.28.


Page 2-38
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure 2.28 Backlash Gap (Hysteresis) Control


2.3.5 Composite Non-Linearities

The phenomena of dead-zone, saturation and hysteresis often, unhappily,
occur together in a system. The combined effects of these non-linearities can
be introduced with the non-linear blocks by switching in the desired
combination of non-linearities. For example, a saturating non-linearity with
dead-zone can be produced by enabling these blocks and adjusting the
controls appropriately. Care should be taken to ensure that the composite
non-linearity is practically reasonable. For example, the dead-zone width
should always be less than the level at which saturation occurs.

Used together with the servo-system motor the non-linear blocks enable the
demonstration of important limitations to control system design caused by
non-linearity.

Page 2-39
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

SECTION 3.0 DIGITAL CONTROL TECHNIQUES

In this Section we consider basic ideas and methods used in digital control
techniques and outline the digital form of the algorithms which may be
applied to the CE110 Servo Trainer.


3.1 Fundamental Digital Control Principles

Microprocessors and computers have become increasingly important tools for
the engineer in recent years for design, data analysis and other routine
purposes. However, it is in the field of system control that these devices have
had the most significant impact on most branches of science and engineering.
The speed and flexibility of operation enables them to be programmed for a
much wider range of eventualities than their equivalent analogue circuits.

Software may be written to generate control functions based on the error
between actual and demanded values of the variables such that the optimum
transient response and steady state condition is attained.

As with any system which requires accurate control, whether digital or
analogue, the system must include some method of measuring the relevant
physical parameters and then be able to respond to any changes so detected.
In a computer controlled system, the transducer signals are converted into the
required digital format and then fed to the input port of the computer.



Figure 3.1
Under software control the computer then interprets and compares this data
with a programmed demand value held in memory and uses the result to
affect it's response, as shown in Figure 3.1.
Page 3-1
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


There are, however, disadvantages in using digital techniques in control
applications. These mainly arise because of the periodic sampling of the data
and also the subsequent update of the output signal. Nevertheless, provided
the normal precautions on sample rate selection are followed, digital control
can produce excellent results.

In the sub-sections which follow we will illustrate how common digital
control algorithms are obtained and provide guidance on such issues as
sample rate selection.


3.1.1 Representation of a Digital Controller

The schematic diagram of Figure 3.1 can be re-drawn for control studies in the
form shown in Figure 3.2

In Figure 3.2 the analogue to digital converters (ADC) are represented by
sampling switches which close at T second intervals. The sample interval,
T, is determined by the control system designer/programmer and selected
such that the sampling frequency

=
T
1
f
s
Hz is at least twice the desired
bandwidth of the control system. In Figure 3.2 the output signals y(t) and the
reference signal y
r
(t) (assumed here to be generated externally), are sampled
by the ADC system to become the sampled signals at the sample interval j, YJ
and YRJ. The control signal at sample interval j, UJ, is output to the system via
the digital to analogue converter (DAC). The DAC is represented by a
sampler with a hold mechanism which holds the voltage on the output of the
DAC until it is updated at the next sampled interval. In this way the controller
algorithm output UJ is converted to the control signal u(t).









Page 3-2
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER




Figure 3.2





Page 3-3
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

3.2 Software Implementation of a Three Term Controller

The output of a three-term controller may be written as,

u t e t K K e t dt K
de t
dt
p i d
( ) ( ). ( ). .
( )
= + +

Where, K
p
, K
i
and K
d
are the coefficients of the proportional, integral and
differential terms respectively. Varying each of these terms will directly affect
the response of the controller and so careful selection is important. If any of
these coefficients were to be set to zero, then the whole of the respective term
will be removed from the overall control function.

From the previous section it is clear that there are three possible control
strategies that may require programming on the microcomputer.

a. Proportional only
b. Proportional and Integral
c. Proportional, Integral and Derivative.

Each one shall now be considered in turn, and developed into a flow chart as
the first step in preparing a digital control program.

In the following sections, each physical parameter is represented in the way it
may be written into a computer program. This is not intended to be an
alternative to the symbols used in Section 2, but instead a practical application
of them.

The symbols used are,

YRJ Reference Signal at Sample Interval j
YJ System Output at Sample Interval j
EJ - Error Signal at Sample Interval j
UPJ - Proportional Term of Control Signal at
Sample Interval j
UIJ - Integral Term of Control Signal at
Sample Interval j
UDJ - Differential Term Control Signal at
Sample Interval j
Page 3-4
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

KP - Proportional Constant
KI - Integral Constant
KD - Differential Constant
UJ - Combined Three-Term Controller Output
at Sample Interval j


3.2.1 Proportional Control

This is the simplest form of control and requires the computer to multiply the
error signal by a constant value, KP.



Figure 3-3

From Figure 3-3, the control equation for the computer program can be used
to express the Proportional constant as,

UPJ EJ KP =

Where,
EJ YRJ YJ =

The flowchart shown in Figure 3.4 illustrates how such a procedure would be
implemented on a microcomputer. It shows a simple implementation of the
control loop whereby the computer outputs the control signal to the DAC and
then simply waits for the sample interval to end before commencing the
control actions again.
Page 3-5
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER



Figure 3-4
Page 3-6
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

This form of controller implementation is very wasteful of computer time and
would only be used in the simplest of microprocessor implementations. In all
other situations the computer would be interrupt driven. In this mode of
operation the computer would be performing some main task (such as
updating the computer display) and this task would be interrupted every T
seconds in order to perform the control task for that sample interval. Upon
completion of the control task the computer would resume its main task
again.


3.2.2 Proportional and Integral Control

The additional control function is the integration term. If the process of
integration and its meaning is examined in discrete time format, then,

dt T

This may be graphically represented as shown in Figure 3.5.

In the form of a mathematical series this becomes,

+ + =
0
etc ...... T ) 1 ( f T ) 0 ( f dt ) t ( f

or,
f t dt f t T ( ) ( ) =

From Figure 3.5 the discrete approximation to the integral term is a
summation of all the errors up to the present sample interval. Thus, at the j
th

sample interval, the time is

J T
such that;

=
+ =
TJ
0
J
0 N
1 J
0 N
T EN T EJ T EN dt ) t ( E

Page 3-7
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER



Figure 3-5

If we define the integral component of the controller output at time step J to
be UIJ, then we can write as follows

UIJ EN T
N
J
=
=

0

or
( ) UIJ EJ T UI J = + 1

Where UI(J-1) is the integral controller component at the previous (j-1)
th
sample interval.

A flow chart for a PI controller is shown in Figure 3.6. Note that normally the
digital PI controller would have protective software to prevent it overflowing
or under flowing numerically. This "anti-wind up" software is present in all
commercial implementations.

Page 3-8
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER



Figure 3-6
Page 3-9
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

3.2.3 Proportional, Integral and Derivative Control

The additional function for this mode of control is the derivative of the error
signal,

dt
de
. KD ED =

Again, in discrete time intervals the equation becomes,

T
E
. KD ED =

This is shown graphically in Figure 3.7.



Figure 3.7
Page 3-10
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER



Figure 3.8
Page 3-11
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

Page 3-12
The sample interval T is constant, because the sampling periods are equal,
and so it can be included in the value of KD. This eliminates the need for
division in a machine code program and saves computation time generally.

The change in error at the j
th
sample interval, EDJ, is given by;

EDJ EJ E J = ( ) 1

where E J ( 1) is the error at the previous time step.

The control function for derivative control may be expressed as,

UDJ KD EJ E J = ( ( 1))

The total PID output expression becomes,

UJ UPJ UIJ UDJ = + +

A flowchart to implement the PID algorithm is given in Figure 3.8.


3.3 Implementation of Computer Control

In a practical software package, the above procedure would need to be
embedded within a much larger program so that essential facilities such as
displaying the current input/output/scaling parameters, allowing them to be
amended as required, data logging, and so on, are included.
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
SECTION 4.0 EXPERIMENTATION


4.1 Introduction

The experiments described in this section are designed to provide full
practical support to the theory given in Sections 2 and 3 of this manual. These
experiments, when used in conjunction with the theory, may be considered as
a self-contained course in practical control principles and applications.

Additionally, once the basic principles have been investigated and
understood, the equipment may be easily configured to illustrate a wider
range of control topics. This may be necessary to comply with the
experimental requirements of a particular syllabus.

In each experiment it is assumed that the CE110 Servo Trainer is used in
conjunction with the CE120 Controller. For any other combination it will be
necessary to modify the instructions provided.

It is recommended that each student is supplied at the beginning of the
experimental session with a photocopy, or similar, of the relevant experiment.
Accordingly, TecQuipment Ltd give their permission for any part of this
manual to be copied provided that it is for internal college use only.

On completion, the results, graphs and conclusions can then be compared and
commented upon against the typical results provided in Section 5.

The experimental connection diagrams are given for each experiment to both
reduce setting up time as well as simplifying the presentation. This will not
only increase the proportion of each laboratory period spent performing the
experiments but will also provide a better understanding of what is being
achieved by each configuration. It is, however, important that care is taken to
identify the correct sockets before a connection is made to achieve the
required circuit and performance.

It is recommended that the experiments are completed in the order given
since the performances of the later assignments are to be compared with the
earlier, more basic, ones.
Page 4-1
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
The blank experimentation circuit diagram provided in Appendix 1 is to
allow users to develop their own test circuits. May we suggest that you
photocopy the original outline drawings of the CE110/120 and then add the
required connection leads. In this way the original may be used to produce an
indefinite number of copies.

The CE110 Servo Trainer/CE120 Controller combination has been designed
to provide a totally self-contained control system, with all devices and
facilities required to assemble and investigate a wide range of control
situations. However, the experiments provided may be additionally enhanced
by the use of commonly available laboratory equipment, such as oscilloscopes
and XY/Yt recorders. In the experiments provided, where a transient
response is required to be analysed, the use of an optional Yt Chart Recorder
has been recommended.

Any additional instruments should be suitably connected to the experimental
circuits provided - adapters are provided to change from the 2mm connection
format used throughout the CE Range to either a 4mm or BNC format.

In many cases it may be found convenient to use the Digital Section of the
CE120 Controller (and the software supplied) to monitor system
performance. By connecting the A-D inputs (up to eight are available) to the
relevant points in the analogue control systems, facilities are readily available
via a computer to not only acquire and display data but also to 'save' it for
later consideration. Throughout the experiments the user will be also be able
to produce graphical hard copy of each experiment via a printer.

IMPORTANT
The performance of this equipment, as with any other scientific instrument,
is dependent upon it being connected a reliable and stable voltage mains
supply. The Serial Number Plate, mounted at the rear of the unit, defines the
correct power supply requirements.
Should the power supply vary during usage, for whatever reason, it must be
anticipated that the performance of the equipment will be affected and the
quality of the results impaired. In extreme cases it may be necessary to
consider the use of a voltage stabilising device. TecQuipment can accept no
responsibility for damage caused to equipment which is connected to an
unsuitable supply voltage.
Page 4-2
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
4.2 Experiment 1: Basic Tests and Transducer Calibration

Object:
The object of this experiment is to calibrate the circuits of the Servo Trainer,
namely the input actuator (the motor circuit) and also the output sensors (the
speed and angular position sensors)

Apparatus:
CE110 Servo Trainer
CE120 Controller

IMPORTANT
Access is gained to the inertial load of the CE110 Servo Trainer, by a door to
the rear left of the front panel. When operating the equipment you should
ensure that the selected inertial load is firmly secured by the knurled nut
provided and that the access door is firmly closed. The access door has a
micro-switch which prevents the motor turning when the door is open. It is
important therefore when closing the door to ensure the door is firmly shut
and the micro-switch is engaged.

Procedure

Part 1 Motor Calibration Characteristic

Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E1.1

Initial Control Settings:
CE110 Clutch disengaged (i.e. position shaft not connected).
Rear access panel firmly closed (check micro-switch contact is made)
Smallest inertial load installed. (No additional discs).
CE120 Potentiometer in the centre position and reading 0 V.

Slowly increase the potentiometer voltage (turning the potentiometer control
clockwise) until the motor just starts to turn. This is the size of the positive
dead-zone for the motor drive amplifier, enter it into the second row of the
Table (E1.1) provided. Increase the potentiometer to 1 V, record the
corresponding motor speed from the speed display on the CE110 front panel.

Page 4-3
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure E1.1

Enter your results in Table E1.1. Increase the potentiometer voltage in 1V
steps to 10V and record the corresponding speed in Table E1.1. Repeat the
procedure with negative voltages.

Repeat the above procedure with the clutch engaged, and complete Table
E1.2. Avoid running the Servo Trainer at high speed for prolonged periods
with the clutch engaged, as this may cause excessive wear of the gearbox.
Plot the results from Table E1.1 and Table E1.2.

Page 4-4
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Motor Drive
Voltage (V)
(Positive)
Motor Speed
(rpm)
Motor Drive
Voltage (V)
(Negative)
Motor Speed
(rpm)
0 0 0 0
Dead-Zone Size= 0 Dead-Zone Size= 0
1 -1
2 -2
3 -3
4 -4
5 -5
6 -6
7 -7
8 -8
9 -9
10 -10

Table E1.1 Motor Drive Calibration (Clutch Disengaged)


Motor Drive
Voltage (V)
(Positive)
Motor Speed
(rpm)
Motor Drive
Voltage (V)
(Negative)
Motor Speed
(rpm)
0 0 0 0
Dead-Zone Size= 0 Dead-Zone Size= 0
2 -2
3 -3
4 -4
5 -5
6 -6
7 -7
8 -8
9 -9
10 -10

Table E1.2 Motor Drive Calibration (Clutch Engaged)
Page 4-5
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Part 2: Speed Sensor Setting

Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E1.2




Figure E1.2
Page 4-6
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Initial Control Settings:
CE110 Clutch disengaged
Rear Access panel firmly closed
Smallest Inertial load installed. (No additional discs).
CE120 Potentiometer in the centre position and reading 0 V.

Slowly increase the potentiometer voltage until the speed sensor reads 1 V.
Enter the corresponding speed reading in Table E1.3. Repeat the process in
steps of 1 V for positive and negative speed sensor readings in the range 9 V
to +9 V. Plot your results.

Motor Speed
(rpm)
(Positive)
Speed Sensor
Output
(V)
Motor Speed
(rpm)
(Negative)
Speed Sensor
Output
(V)
1 -1
2 -2
3 -3
4 -4
5 -5
6 -6
7 -7
8 -8
9 -9

Table E1.3 Speed Sensor Calibration


Page 4-7
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Part 3: Angular Position Transducer Calibration

Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E1.3




Figure E1.3




Page 4-8
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Initial Control Settings:
CE110 Clutch Engaged:
Rear Access panel firmly closed
Smallest inertial load installed
CE120 Potentiometer in the centred position and reading 0V output.

Increase the potentiometer voltage slowly until the output shaft begins to
turn. Measure the angular position sensor output at angular increments of
30 starting at -150 and enter your results in Table E1.4 (Hint: with the
output shaft turning at a slow but steady speed, disconnect the potentiometer
from the motor drive input and position the output shaft at the desired angle
by manually making and breaking the connection to the motor drive).

Plot your results.

Indicated Angle () Position Sensor Output
(V)
-150
-120
-90
-60
-30
0
30
60
90
120
150

Table E1.4 Output Shaft Angular Position Sensor Calibration

Conclusions:
In completing this experiment you will have familiarised yourself with the
Servo Trainer's main functions and measured their characteristics. You
should comment on these characteristics (e.g. are they linear?) and discuss
why the motor drive characteristic differs with the clutch engaged and
disengaged.
Page 4-9
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
4.3 Experiment 2: Response Calculating and Measurements

Object:
The object of this experiment is to determine the gain, G
1
and time constant,
T, of the servo-motor transfer function with differing inertial loads where the
servo motor transfer function is given by

y
v
G
Ts

=
+
1
1


and


y

= the speed sensor output voltage


v = the motor drive input voltage

Apparatus:
CE110 Servo Trainer
CE120 Controller
Chart Recorder

Procedure:

Part 1 Motor Drive Input to Speed Sensor Output Gain Characteristic

The steady state gain relating the motor drive input voltage to the speed
sensor output voltage may be calculated by combining the results of Parts 1
and 2 of Experiment 1. Alternatively, the characteristic may be measured
directly as detailed in the following procedure.

Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E2.1 (do not make the dotted
connection)

Initial Control Settings:

CE110 Clutch disengaged
Rear Access panel firmly closed
Smallest inertial load mounted. (No additional discs).
CE120 Potentiometer in the centre position and reading 0 V.

Page 4-10
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure E2.1


Increase the potentiometer voltage in steps of 1 V to 9 V, recording the
corresponding speed sensor output (to do this disconnect the
potentiometer/voltmeter connection and make the dotted connection), in
Table E2.1.


Page 4-11
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Motor Drive
Voltage (V)
(Positive)
Speed Sensor
Output
(V)
Motor Drive
Voltage (V)
(Negative)
Speed Sensor
Output
(V)
1 -1
2 -2
3 -3
4 -4
5 -5
6 -6
7 -7
8 -8
9 -9

Table E2.1 Motor Drive Voltage/Speed Sensor Characteristics (Clutch
Disengaged

Repeat the process for voltages 1 V to 9 V.

Repeat the procedure with the clutch engaged and enter the results in Table
E2.2. Plot the results to obtain the required characteristics and measure the
slope in order to obtain the steady state gain G.

Motor Drive
Voltage (V)
(Positive)
Speed Sensor
Output
(V)
Motor Drive
Voltage (V)
(Negative)
Speed Sensor
Output
(V)
Dead-Zone Size= 0 Dead-Zone Size=

0
2 -2
3 -3
4 -4
5 -5
6 -6
7 -7
8 -8
9 -9
10 -10
Table E2.2. Motor Drive Voltage/Speed Sensor Characteristics (Clutch
Engaged)

Page 4-12
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Part 2 Measurement of Time Constant

Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E2.2


D
D
D
D
D
D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
I I I
P P
P P
a
PID
A
D
D
A
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
3 4
To Chart Recorder
G M
30:1
10V
10V
q
0-10V w
0
+ve
-ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
0
+ve -ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6 10
8
6
4
2
0
2 0
1
8
1
6
1
4
12
10V


Figure E2.2




Page 4-13
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Initial Control Settings:

CE110 Clutch disengaged
Rear access panel firmly closed
No additional inertial loads mounted
CE120 Potentiometer output set to 5 V. Function Generator set to square wave
with frequency of 0.05 Hz and level 1 V

The square wave from the function generator applies a step change of 1 V in
either direction about the operating input of 5 V. The transitions in the square
wave signal provide step changes in the input. The output of the speed
sensor will therefore be a series of step responses. Connect the output of the
speed sensor to a chart recorder and plot the step response (suggested chart
speed 10mm/second or faster).

Repeat the above procedure with each of the inertial loads installed.

From the step responses calculate the time constant T of the servo-motor
transfer function.

Conclusions:
Comment on the shape of the motor drive voltage to speed sensor output
voltage characteristic.

Discuss why the time constant for various inertial loads increases as the size
of the load increases.

Page 4-14
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
4.4 Experiment 3: Proportional Control of Servo Trainer Speed


Object:
The object of this experiment is to implement a proportional controller of the
Servo Trainer speed and to investigate the closed transient response, and the
steady state errors.

Apparatus:
CE110 Servo Trainer
CE120 Controller
Chart Recorder


Procedure:

Part 1: Steady State Errors

Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E3.1, this has the corresponding
block diagram shown in Figure E3.2.


Initial Controller Settings:
CE110 Clutch Disengaged
Large inertial load installed
Rear Access door firmly closed.
CE120 Potentiometer turned fully anti-clockwise (i.e. set to 0V output)
PID Controller: Proportional gain set to 10 and switched in, Derivative
and Integral blocks switched out.

In this part of the experiment we seek to verify that the steady state error, e
ss
,
for a constant reference signal, y
r
, is given by:-

e
y
k G
ss
r
p
=
+ 1
1

E3.1
Page 4-15
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER




D
D
D
D
D
D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
I I I
P P
P P
a
PID
A
D
D
A
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
3 4
k
P
Error Signal, e(t)
G M
30:1
10V
10V
q
0-10V w
0
+ve
-ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
0
+ve -ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6 10
8
6
4
2
0
2 0
1
8
1
6
1
4
12
10V


Figure E3.1

Page 4-16
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure E3.2

First investigate whether the steady state error is proportional to the reference
signal, y
r
. Increase the reference speed, as given by the potentiometer output,
in steps of 1 V from 2 V to 10 V and record the corresponding errors signals in
Table E3.1. Use Equation E3.1, the value of k
p
(10) and G
1
calculated in
Experiment 2 (use G
1
=1 if you have not done Experiment 2) to calculate the
theoretical values of e
ss
for the various values of y
r
and enter your results in
Table E3.1 in the column provided.

Potentiometer Setting
(Reference Speed y
r
)
(V)
Measured Steady State
Error Signal
(V)
Theoretical Steady
State Error Signal
(V)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Table E3.1 Steady State Error For Various Reference Speeds

Investigate whether the steady state error is inversely proportional to the
controller gain k
p
. Set the potentiometer to give a reference speed signal, y
r
,
of 5V. Vary the controller gain from 1 to 10 in steps of 1 and record the
Page 4-17
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
corresponding error signal readings in Table E3.2. Use Equation E3.1 to
calculate the theoretical values of the error for each k
p
value and enter the
results in Table E3.2

Potentiometer
Controller Gain k
p

Measured Steady State
Error Signal
(V)
Theoretical Steady State
Error Signal
(V)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Table E3.2 Steady State Error for Various Controller Gains

Page 4-18
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Part 2: Transient Response

Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E3.3, this corresponds to the block
diagram of Figure E3.4.


D
D
D
D
D
D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
I I I
P P
P P
a
PID
A
D
D
A
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
3 4
k
P
To Chart
Recorder
G M
30:1
10V
10V
q
0-10V w
0
+ve
-ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
0
+ve -ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6 10
8
6
4
2
0
2 0
1
8
1
6
1
4
12
10V

Figure E3.3




Page 4-19
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure E3.4

Initial Controller Settings:

CE110 Clutch disengaged
Large inertial load installed
Rear access door firmly closed
CE120 Potentiometer set to 5V. Function generator set to square wave,
frequency of 0.05H
z
, offset 0V, level 1V. PID Controller Proportional
controller k
p
=1, integral and derivative blocks switched out.

In this part of the experiment we investigate how the transient response of the
Servo Trainer is affected by the proportional controller gain k
p
.

Use the square wave output to generate a series of step changes in reference
speed and plot the corresponding speed response using the chart recorder
(suggested time base 10mm/sec) for proportional gains of k
p
=0.5, 1,2,4.

Calculate the closed-loop time constants, T
c1
1
, from the graph and compare the
results with the theoretical values obtained using the equation.

T
T
k G
cl
p
l
=
+ 1
1

E3.2

Enter the results in Table E3.3.
Page 4-20
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Gain k
p
Measured Closed Loop
Time Constant
(sec)
Theoretical Closed
Loop Time Constant
(sec)
0.5
1
2
4
Table E3.3 Comparison Of Measured Closed Loop Time Constants With
Theoretical Values

Note for the large inertial load the following approximate values may be
used; T=1.5 sec and G
1
=1


Conclusions:
Discuss the steady state error results and in particular give reasons for any
sufficient differences between the measured and theoretical values of steady
state errors.

Discuss the step response results and the differences between the measured
and theoretical closed-loop time constants.

Page 4-21
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
4.5 Experiment 4: Proportional plus Integral Control of Servo Trainer
Speed

Object:
The object of this experiment is to investigate the effect of proportional plus
integral control upon the servo-motor speed control loop in terms of steady
state errors, disturbance rejection and transient response.

Apparatus:
CE110 Servo Trainer
CE120 Controller
Chart Recorder

Procedure
Part 1: Effect of Integral Action on Steady State Errors

Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E4.1, this corresponds to the block
diagram shown in Figure E4.2


Initial Control Settings:

CE110 Clutch Disengaged
Rear access door firmly closed
Largest Inertial Load Installed
CE120 Potentiometer turned fully anti-clockwise (i.e. set to 0V input). PID
Controller: Proportional gain k
p
set to 1, integral gain k
i
set to 0.1 and
switched out. Differential gain switched out.
Function Generator: Select offset zero, level zero DC,










Page 4-22
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

D
D
D
D
D
D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
I I I
P P
P P
a
PID
A
D
D
A
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
3 4
k
P
k
i
To Chart
Recorder
Error Signal
G M
30:1
10V
10V
q
0-10V w
0
+ve
-ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
0
+ve -ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6 10
8
6
4
2
0
2 0
1
8
1
6
1
4
12
10V



Figure E4.1



Page 4-23
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure E4.2

Slowly increase the potentiometer output voltage to 4V, and observe the
steady state error. (for k
p
=1 this should be approximately 2V). Observe the
error signal as integral action takes effect, as follows:- with k
i
=0.1, press the
integrator reset button and switch the integrator into the controller. (Note: it is
most important to press the reset button each time an integrator is switched
into a circuit. Failure to do so can cause unpredictable results).

Observe the speed slowly increase and the error signal slowly decrease to
zero as the integrator output increases so as to cancel the error. Switch the
integrator out of the circuit.

Repeat the above procedure for k
i
=0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10. Note that as k
i
is
increased the error is reduced to zero more rapidly until a point is reached
when the error overshoots zero, and oscillates before settling to zero. The
oscillations became more pronounced as the k
i
is increased.


Part 2: Selection of Integral and Proportional Controller Gains

In Part 1 it was demonstrated that integral action will remove steady state
error, and also that the speed at which it does so is influenced by the size of
the integral gain, k
i
. In this part the effect of k
i

upon the speed of response
and the experimental choice of k
p
and k
i
for optimum transient response are
investigated.



Page 4-24
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Use the equipment connections for Part 1, specifically:-

Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E4.1 and note that this
corresponds to the block diagram of Figure E4.2.


Initial Control Settings
CE110 Clutch disengaged
Rear access door firmly closed
Largest inertial load installed (all discs).
CE120 Potentiometer set to 5V
PID controller: Proportional gain k
p
set to 1, integral gain k
i
set to 3,
differential gain switched out. Function generator: Select square wave,
frequency 0.05H
z
, offset zero, level 1V

The square wave generator signal provides a series of step changes in the
reference signal which can be used to investigate the step response of the
servo-speed control system. Investigate the effect of proportional gain upon
the control system step response by plotting the response for values of k
p
=1,
0.1, and 0.01 (suggested chart recorder speed 2mm/sec). Comment on the
shape of the results in terms of speed of response and amount of overshoot.

Investigate the effect of integral gain upon the control system step response
by setting k
p
= 1, and plotting the step response for values of k
i
= 0.5, 1, 5, and
10. Comment on the shape of the resulting step responses in terms of speed
of response and amount of overshoot.
Page 4-25
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Page 4-26
Part 3: Selection of Proportional and Integral Gains for Specific Transient
Response

Use the equipment connections for Part 1. Specifically:- Connect the
equipment as shown in Figure E4.1 and note that this corresponds to the block
diagram of Figure E4.2

Initial Control Settings
CE110 Clutch disengaged
Rear access door firmly closed
Largest inertial load installed
CE120 Potentiometer set to 5V
PID Controller : see following procedure.
Function generator: Select square wave, frequency 0.05H
z


Select the proportional and integral gains to give a closed-loop transient
response with desired undamped natural frequency
n
, and compare results
with standard plots for second order step responses and discuss possible
reasons for differences between the observed responses and the standard
second order plots.


Damping Factor

k
i

=

T
G
n

2
1

k
p


=
1
n
G
1 T 2

1
0.8
0.6
0.4

Table T4.1 Proportional and Integral Gain Calculations For Desired Natural
Frequency f
n
=
1
4
H
z
And Various Damping Factors



TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Page 4-27
Natural
Frequency
f
n

Natural Angular
Frequency

n n
f = 2
k
i

=

T
G
n

2
1

k
p


=
1
n
G
1 T 2

1
2


1
3

3
2


1
4

2



1
5

5
2



Table E4.2 Proportional And Integral Gain Calculations For Various
Desired Natural Frequencies and a damping factor of 0.5


Calculate the gains k
i
, k
p
, using the equations:-

k
T
G
i
n
=

2
1

E4.1

k
T
G
p
n
=
2 1
1


E4.2

Use the values of open loop gain G
1
, and time constant T obtained in
Experiment 2 (if you have not done Experiment 2, then use G
1
=1 and T=1.5
sec (for the largest inertial load).

With a desired undamped natural frequency of f
n
=
1
4
H
z
(or
n
=

2
rads/sec)
calculate the values of k
i
and k
p
for responses with damping factors of = 1,
0.8, 0.6, and 0.4. Enter your calculated gains in Table E4.1 and plot the step
response for each set of gains (suggested chart recorder time base settings
2mm/sec). [Note: it may be necessary to approximate the theoretical gains
which you calculate to the nearest available gain setting on the CE120 unit].

Compare the results with standard plots for second order step responses.
Discuss possible reasons for differences between the plots.
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Now select a damping factor =0.5 and calculate the values of k
i
and k
p
for
step responses with natural frequencies f
n
=
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
, , , and and enter
your calculated gains in Table T4.2. Plot the step responses for each of the set
of gains (suggested chart recorder time base settings 2mm/sec).


Note:
It may be necessary to approximate the theoretical gains which you
calculate to the nearest available gain setting on the CE120 unit


Conclusions:
Discuss the results in the manner mentioned in the experiments. Could it
happen that the design method for k
i
, k
p
leads to a negative value of k
p
?
How would this be implemented and what does it mean?
Page 4-28
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
4.6 Experiment 5: Disturbance Cancellation and Feed Forward Control

Object:
The object of this experiment is to investigate the ability of a proportional, and
proportional plus integral controller to reject disturbances caused by the load
generator and to show how feed forward control can assist in this respect.

Apparatus
CE110 Servo Trainer
CE120 Controller
Chart Recorder

Procedure

Part 1: Disturbance Rejection Properties of Proportional plus Integral
Controllers

Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E5.1 (do not connect the dotted
connection). The corresponding block diagram is shown in Figure E5.2


Initial Controller Settings

CE110 Clutch Disengaged
Rear Access door firmly closed
Largest Inertial load Installed (all discs)
CE120 Potentiometer set to 6V
PID Controller: Proportional Gain k
p
=1, integral action switched out
differential action switched out

Investigate the effect of the disturbance applied by the load generator on a
proportional speed controller. With a proportional gain of k
p
=1 measure the
error signal. Now apply a 10V load demand on the generator input (do this
by making the dotted connection in Figure E5.3) and note the new error
signal. Record your results in Table T5.1. Repeat the above exercise for k
p
= 4,
7, and 10. Note that the change in the error signal should decrease as k
p
is
increased.

Page 4-29
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER



D
D
D
D
D
D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
I I I
P P
P P
a
PID
A
D
D
A
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
3 4
To Chart
Recorder
k
P
k
i
Error
Signal
G M
30:1
10V
10V
q
0-10V w
0
+ve
-ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
0
+ve -ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6 10
8
6
4
2
0
2 0
1
8
1
6
1
4
12
10V


Figure E5.1


Page 4-30
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure E5.2


k
p
Error Signal
(No Load)
V
Error Signal
(10V Load)
V
Change In Error
(Column 3-Column 2)
1
4
7
10

Table T5.1 Influence Of Load Disturbances rpm Steady State Error For
Various k
p


Investigate the effect of the load generator upon a proportional plus integral
controller. Set a proportional gain, k
p
, of 1 and an integral gain, k
i
, of 1. Press
the reset button and switch in the integral control term. Notice steady state
error go to zero as the integral action comes into effect. Connect the speed
sensor output to the chart recorder (suggested time base 2mm/second) and
plot the speed sensor output as the 10V input is applied to the generator load
input. Repeat the above exercise for k
p
=k
i
=4, 7, 10. Comment on the
disturbance rejection properties for the various gain settings.

Use the voltmeter to measure the output of the PID controller block with and
without the +10V signal applied to the generator load input. Enter your
results in the first row of Table T5.2.

Page 4-31
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Part 2 Feed Forward Control for Disturbance Rejection.

Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E5.3 (do not connect the dotted
connection). This connection diagram corresponds to the control system
block diagram shown in Figure E5.4.


Initial Control Settings

CE110 Clutch Disengaged
Rear Access door firmly closed
Largest inertial load installed
CE120 Potentiometer set to 5V.
PID Controller: Proportional gain k
p
=1, Integral Gain k
i
=1, Differential
block switched out.

Investigate the effect of the feed forward controller gain upon the load
disturbance rejection properties of the speed control system. With a feed
forward gain of k
f
=0.1, and the speed sensor output connected to the chart
recorder (suggested chart speed 2mm/sec), make the dotted connection. This
will apply the 10V load demand to the generator input and to the feed
forward controller block.

Observe the plot of the speed response and measure the output of the PID
controller block before and after the application of the load. Enter the results
in Table T5.2

Repeat the above procedure for k
f
=0.2, 0.3, and 0.4.

Page 4-32
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER




D
D
D
D
D
D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
I I I
P P
P P
a
PID
A
D
D
A
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
3 4
To Chart
Recorder
k
P
k
i
Error
Signal
PID Controller
Block Output
k
f
G M
30:1
10V
10V
q
0-10V w
0
+ve
-ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
0
+ve -ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6 10
8
6
4
2
0
2 0
1
8
1
6
1
4
12
10V



Figure E5.3

Page 4-33
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER



Figure E5.4


Feed Forward
Gain
k
f

PI Controller
Output With No
Load (V)
PI Controller
Output With 10V
Load (V)
Change In
Controller
Output (V)
No feed forward
(k
f
=0)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4

Table T5.2 Controller Output for Various Levels of Feed Forward Gain

Page 4-34
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Page 4-35
For each gain value calculate the change in the output of the PID controller
block as the load is applied. Enter the results in Table T5.2 and comment on
the plots of load rejection response and the contents of the table. Select a
suitable feed forward gain which cancels the influence of loads.

Conclusions

Discuss the relative load disturbance rejection properties of

a) proportional,

b) proportional plus integral

c) proportional plus integral plus feed forward.

TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
4.7 Experiment 6: Angular Position Control: Proportional Control

Object:
The object of this experiment is to investigate the angular position control
performance and response of the Servo Trainer under proportional control.

Apparatus
CE110 Servo Trainer
CE120 Controller
Chart Recorder


Procedure

Part 1: Basic Tests and Dead-Zone Compensation
Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E6.1 (do not make the dotted
connection) this corresponds to the block diagram shown in Figure E6.2.

Initial Control System
CE110 Clutch Engaged
Rear Access Door firmly closed
Largest inertial load installed
Reference position dial set to zero, All non-linear blocks switched out
of circuit
CE120 Proportional gain k
p
=1

Investigate the effect of the motor amplifier dead-zone on the accuracy of the
position control system. Slowly turn the reference position dial clockwise
until the output shaft just begins to move. Note the angle (
1
) on the reference
position and turn the dial anti-clockwise, and note the angle (
2
) at which the
output dial begins to move. The difference between (
1
-
2
) between these two
angles is the effective dead-zone width of the controller. Note the difference
in Table E6.1 Repeat above procedure for k
p
=2, 4, 6, 8, 10.





Page 4-36
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER



D
D
D
D
D
D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
I I I
P P
P P
a
PID
A
D
D
A
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
3 4
Error
Signal
k
P
To Chart
Recorder
Level
Anti-deadzone block
alignment
Output
Angle
Dial
Reference
Angle Dial
G M
30:1
10V
10V
q
0-10V w
0
+ve
-ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
0
+ve -ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6 10
8
6
4
2
0
2 0
1
8
1
6
1
4
12
10V



Figure E6.1
Page 4-37
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure E6.2


Proportional Gain
k
p

Width Of Output Angle
Dead-Zone ()
1
2
4
6
8
10

Table E6.1 Effective Dead-Zone: In Output Angle For Proportional
Controller

Notice that the dead-zone decreases in width as the controller gain is
increased.

Investigate next the compensation for dead-zone using anti-dead-zone. Set
the anti-dead-zone block alignment control (see Figure E6.1), and the level to
zero. Select a proportional gain of k
p
=1, and switch on the anti-dead-zone
block. Slowly increase the anti-dead-zone level to 1V and turn the reference
position potentiometer. Note that the effective dead-zone in the output angle
is much reduced and the error signal is correspondingly reduced. Increase
the anti-dead-zone level to 1.5V (this is approximately the width of the
amplifier dead-zone with the clutch engaged and as measured in Experiment
Page 4-38
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
1). Note that the dead-zone is now almost completely removed. Increase the
anti-dead-zone level to 2V. The Servo Trainer will now start 'humming' due to
high frequency instability due to excessive anti-dead-zone. Decrease the anti-
dead-zone to 1V. Discuss why excessive anti-dead-zone may cause high
frequency oscillations.


Part 2: Servo Trainer Step Response
Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E6.1. This corresponds to the block
diagram of Figure E6.2 (do not make the dotted connection).


Initial Control Setting

CE110 Clutch engaged
Rear access door firmly closed
Largest inertial load installed (all discs)
Reference position dial set to zero
Anti-dead-zone set to 1 V and switched on
CE120 Potentiometer set to 1 V
Proportional gain k
p
=1

Investigate the position controller step response for various levels of
proportional gain. Introduce a step change in reference position using the
potentiometer (to do this make the dotted connection in Figure E6.1). Plot the
angular position output signal using a chart recorder (suggested chart speed
5 mm/sec). Repeat for k
p
= 2, 4, and 8 and discuss the relative performance of
the controller with the various gains.

Conclusions
Comment on the use of anti-dead-zone as a method of cancelling amplifier
dead-zone.
Page 4-39
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
4.8 Experiment 7: Angular Position Control: Velocity Feedback


Object:
The object of this experiment is to investigate the use of velocity feedback as a
means of improving the transient response of an angular position control
system.

Apparatus
CE110 Servo Trainer
CE120 Controller
Chart Recorder

Procedure
Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E7.1 (do not make the dotted
connection). Note that this corresponds to the block diagram shown in Figure
E7.2

Initial Control Settings

CE110 Clutch Engaged
Rear Access Door firmly closed
Largest inertial load installed (all discs)
Reference position dial set to zero
CE120 Proportional gain k
p1
=1, k
p2
=5
Velocity feedback gain k
v
=0.01
Function generator: select square wave, frequency
0.1Hz, offset zero level 1V.

Investigate the effect of very large proportional gains on the system transient
and steady state error response.

Plot the square wave response as the proportional gain is increased from k
p
(=
k
p1
k
p2
)= 5 to 100 in the following steps: k
p
= 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 100. Note the
corresponding error signal in Table E7.1. The chart speed suggested for the
plotter is 5 mm/sec.


Page 4-40
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER




D
D
D
D
D
D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
I I I
P P
P P
a
PID
A
D
D
A
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
3 4
k
P1
k
P2
k
v
Error Signal
G M
30:1
10V
10V
q
0-10V w
0
+ve
-ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
0
+ve -ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6 10
8
6
4
2
0
2 0
1
8
1
6
1
4
12
10V


Figure E7.1


Page 4-41
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure E7.2


Proportional Gains
k
p
= k
p1
k
p2

Error Signal
(V)
5
10
20
40
80
100

Table E7.1 Steady State Errors For Verifying Proportional Gains

Note that the steady state error becomes rather small, even without anti-dead-
zone compensation, when the proportional gain becomes very large (e.g.
greater than 80). However, the transient response becomes more oscillatory.
Thus, while the controller designer would like to have very large k
p
for good
steady state performance, the associated transient performance is not
acceptable.

Investigate how the transient response can be improved for a high gain
proportional controller by the addition of velocity feedback. Make the dotted
connection in Figure E7.1. This completes the velocity feedback loop shown in
Figure E7.2. Set the proportional gain k
p
(= k
p1
k
p2
) to 80 and the velocity
Page 4-42
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
feedback gain k
v
=1. Plot the square wave response of the controller for k
v
=1,
3, 5, 8, and 10. Note the reduction in oscillatory behaviour in the step
responses which are formed by the square wave transitions (suggested chart
speed 5 mm/seconds)

Investigate how the inertial load influences the position controller response.
Open the rear access panel and remove the inertial load. Close the access
panel firmly to ensure the micro-safety switch re-engages. Plot the square
wave responses again with k
p
= 80 and k
v
= 10, 5, 3, 1, and 0. Discuss the
responses.

Conclusions
Explain why velocity feedback has a beneficial effect on the system transient
response.
Page 4-43
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
4.9 Experiment 8: Angular position control and the influence of non-
linearity

Object:
The object of this experiment is to illustrate the practical effects of non-
linearity upon the performance of a position control Servo Trainer using the
non-linear blocks provided.

Apparatus:
CE110 Servo Trainer
CE120 Controller
Chart Recorder

Procedure:
Part 1: Amplifier Saturation
Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E8.1 (this corresponds to the block
diagram of Figure E8.2)

Initial Control Settings:
CE110 Clutch Engaged
Rear Access Door Firmly Closed
Large inertia load installed (all three discs)
Reference signal set to 0 degrees
Saturation non-linearity switched on and set to 10 V, all other non-linear
elements switched out.
CE120 Proportional gain k
p1
= 8, k
p2
= 10
Velocity feedback gain k
v
= 0.01
Function generator: select square wave, Frequency 0.05 H
z
offset zero.
Adjust the level control to give a +1 V (step). This gives a 1V pulse for ten
seconds, then no pulse for ten seconds while the system recovers.









Page 4-44
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER



D
D
D
D
D
D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
I I I
P P
P P
a
PID
A
D
D
A
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
3 4
k
V
To Chart
Recorder
To Chart
Recorder
Saturation Level Hysteresis Level
k
P2
k
P1
G M
30:1
10V
10V
q
0-10V w
0
+ve
-ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
0
+ve -ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6 10
8
6
4
2
0
2 0
1
8
1
6
1
4
12
10V



Figure E8.1


Page 4-45
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure E8.2

Investigate the influence of amplifier saturation level upon the Servo Trainer
step response. With the saturation level set to 10 V, plot the input to the motor
drive amplifier and the output position step response using the square wave
input from the function generator (suggested chart speed 5mm/sec). Repeat
the above procedure for saturation levels of 8 V, 5 V, 3 V. What happens
when the saturation level is reduced to 1 V and why?

Investigate the effect of input step amplitude on the Servo Trainer response
when saturation is present. Set the saturation level to 4 V and plot the
response of the servomotor input and the angular position response for
square wave input levels of 0.5 V, 2 V and 5 V. Comment on the response
characteristics.


Part 2: Hysteresis
Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E8.3, this connects the hysteresis
block between the angular position output and the controller. In this way it
simulates backlash in the gearbox.

Initial Control Settings
CE110 As for Part 1 except saturation non-linearity is now switched out.
The hysteresis block switched on and its control set to 0. All other non-
linear elements switched out.
CE120 As for Part 1 except k
p1
=1 (giving a total gain of 1 x 10 =10)




Page 4-46
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER



D
D
D
D
D
D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
I I I
P P
P P
a
PID
A
D
D
A
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
3 4
k
V
To Chart
Recorder
To Chart
Recorder
Saturation Level Hysteresis Level
k
P2
k
P1
G M
30:1
10V
10V
q
0-10V w
0
+ve
-ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
0
+ve -ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6 10
8
6
4
2
0
2 0
1
8
1
6
1
4
12
10V




Figure E8.3


Page 4-47
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Investigate the effect of hysteresis/backlash non-linearity upon the Servo
Trainer step response. With the hysteresis level set to 0V, plot the input to the
motor drive amplifier and the output position step response (suggested chart
speed 5mm/sec) using the square wave input from the function generator.

Repeat the above procedure for hysteresis levels of 1V, 2V, 3V, 4V and 7V.
Explain what happens when the hysteresis level is increased and why?


Conclusions

Discuss the ways in which non-linearity adversely affects system response.
Page 4-48
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
4.10 Experiment 9: Non-linear System Characteristics


Object:
The object of this experiment is to examine the characteristics of the non-linear
elements and to investigate their influence upon typical signals.

Apparatus:
CE110 Servo Trainer
CE120 Controller
Chart Recorder

Procedure

Part 1: Non-Linear System Characteristics (static)

Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E9.1 (do not make the dotted
connection).

Initial Control Setting:

CE110 Rear Access panel firmly closed. All non-linear elements switched out
CE120 Potentiometer turned fully anti-clockwise.

Investigate the dead-zone characteristic for a dead-zone width of 2V. Switch
the dead-zone on, adjust the dead-zone offset to zero and set the dead-zone
level at 2V. Use the CE120 voltmeter to set the potentiometer to -10V
(disconnect the existing connection to the voltmeter and put the dotted
connection in place to do this).

Note the corresponding non-linear block output in Table E9.1.

Increase the potentiometer voltage to -9V and repeat the above procedure up
to +10V. Plot the resulting characteristic.




Page 4-49
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER





D
D
D
D
D
D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
I I I
P P
P P
a
PID
A
D
D
A
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
3 4
Anti-deadzone
Level
Anti-deadzone
Offset
Deadzone
Level
Deadzone
Offset
Saturation
Level
Hysteresis
Width
G M
30:1
10V
10V
q
0-10V w
0
+ve
-ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
0
+ve -ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6 10
8
6
4
2
0
2 0
1
8
1
6
1
4
12
10V



Figure E9.1



Page 4-50
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Dead-Zone Input Voltage Dead-Zone Output Voltage
-10
-9
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
+1
+2
+3
+4
+5
+6
+7
+8
+9
+10

Table E9.1 Dead-Zone Characteristics for a Dead-Zone Width of 2V

Investigate the anti-dead-zone characterised for an anti-dead-zone width of
2V. Switch off the dead-zone. Switch on the anti-dead-zone, adjust the offset
to zero and set the level to 2V. Set the potentiometer to -8V and note the
corresponding non-linear block output in Table E9.2. Repeat the above
procedure in potentiometer voltage steps of 1V to +8V. Plot the resulting
characteristic.






Page 4-51
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Anti-Dead-Zone Input
Voltage
Anti-Dead-Zone Output
Voltage
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
+1
+2
+3
+4
+5
+6
+7
+8

Table E9.2 Anti Dead-Zone Characteristics for an
Anti-Dead-Zone Width of 2V

Investigate the saturation characteristic for a saturation of 5V. Switch off the
anti-dead-zone, switch on the saturation characteristics and set the level to 5V.
Set the potentiometer to -10V and note the corresponding non-linear block
output in Table E9.3. Repeat the above procedure in potentiometer voltage
steps of 1V to +10V. Plot the resulting characteristic.
Page 4-52
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

Saturation Input Voltage Saturation Output Voltage
-10
-9
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
+1
+2
+3
+4
+5
+6
+7
+8
+9
+10

Table E9.3 Saturation Characteristic for a Saturation Level of 5V

Investigate the hysteresis characteristic for a hysteresis width of 1V. Switch
off the saturation characteristic. Switch on the hysteresis characteristic and set
the width to 1V. Starting from a potentiometer setting of 0V, decrease the
potentiometer voltage to -5V (Note - the hysteresis is a directional non-
linearity so that it is important in which direction a voltage is approached.
Therefore do not go past a voltage and then go back to it as this will alter the
measured characteristic. Make sure that you approach the specified voltage
from the specified direction). Record the output voltage in Table E9.4.
Increase the potentiometer voltage in steps of 1V to +5V, noting the output
voltage at each stage and on no account decreasing the voltage during the
steps. Enter the results in Table E9.4
Page 4-53
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Next start to decrease the potentiometer voltage in steps of 1V to -5V and note
the results in Table E9.3. Plot the characteristic.


Hysteresis Input
Voltage
(Increasing)
Hysteresis
Output Voltage
Hysteresis Input
Voltage
(Decreasing)
Hysteresis
Output Voltage
-5 5
-4 4
-3 3
-2 2
-1 1
0 0
+1 -1
+2 -2
+3 -3
+4 -4
+5 -5

Table E9.4 Hysteresis Characteristic for a Hysteresis Width of 1V


Page 4-54
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Part 2: Non-linear Characteristic (Dynamic)



D
D
D
D
D
D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D D D
D
D
D
D
D
D
I I I
P P
P P
a
PID
A
D
D
A
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
D
D
3 4
To Chart
Recorder
G M
30:1
10V
10V
q
0-10V w
0
+ve
-ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
4
2
0
1 0
8
6
10V
0
+ve -ve
4
2
0
1 0
8
6 10
8
6
4
2
0
2 0
1
8
1
6
1
4
12
10V



Figure E9.2

Page 4-55
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Page 4-56
Connect the equipment as shown in Figure E9.2

Initial Control Setting
CE110 Rear Access Panel firmly closed
All non-linear elements switched out.
CE120 Function generator: select sine wave,
Frequency 0.02, offset zero, level 5V.
Investigate the anti-dead-zone characteristic's influence on a sine wave.
Switch the anti-dead-zone on, adjust the offset to zero and set the level of anti-
dead-zone to 1.5V. Plot the anti-dead-zone block response using the chart-
recorder. (suggested time-base, 1mm/sec)

Investigate the dead-zone characteristics influence on a sine wave. Switch the
anti-dead-zone off. Switch the dead-zone on, adjust the offset to zero and set
the level to 2V. Plot the dead-zone block response using the chart-recorder
(suggested time-base, 1mm/sec)

Investigate the hysteresis characteristics influence on a sine wave. Switch the
saturation off. Switch the hysteresis on and adjust the hysteresis width to 2V.
Plot the hysteresis block response using the chart recorder.
(suggested time-base, 1mm/sec).

Conclusions:
Discuss how the various non-linearities would affect a control system.


TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
SECTION 5.0 RESULTS AND COMMENTS

Note: These results are typical only actual results may differ slightly.

5.1 Experiment 1: Results and Comments

Your results should comprise the following completed tables and plotted
calibration curves.

a) Motor drive calibration (clutch disengaged and engaged)
b) Speed sensor calibration
c) Output shaft angular position sensor calibration


Part 1: Motor Calibration Characteristic

Motor Drive
Voltage, V,
(positive)
Motor Speed
(rpm)
Motor Drive
Voltage ,V,
(Negative)
Motor Speed
(rpm)
0 0 0 0
0.50
(enter dead-zone size)
0 -0.50
(enter dead-zone size)
0
1 130 -1 -130
2 325 -2 -320
3 525 -3 -525
4 726 -4 -723
5 929 -5 -926
6 1145 -6 -1127
7 1328 -7 -1330
8 1530 -8 -1533
9 1740 -9 -1735
10 1943 -10 -1951
Table E.1.1 Motor Drive Calibration (Clutch Disengaged)





Page 5-1
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Motor Drive
Voltage, V,
(positive)
Motor Speed
(rpm)
Motor Drive
Voltage ,V,
(Negative)
Motor Speed
(rpm)
0 0 0 0
1.60
(enter dead-zone
width)
0 -1.60
(enter dead-zone
width)
0
2 145 -2 -140
3 360 -3 -365
4 540 -4 -535
5 745 -5 -740
6 940 -6 -915
7 1140 -7 -1110
8 1335 -8 -1300
9 1520 -9 -1490
10 1700 -10 -1675
Table E1.2 Motor Drive Calibration (Clutch Engaged)


The completed Tables E1.1 and E1.2 give typical calibration data required.
Figure E5.1.1 shows the corresponding plots. Note the dead-zone is increased
with the clutch engaged because of the increased static friction in the gearbox.
The slope of the characteristic with the clutch engaged is nominally unaltered
since the rotating friction coefficient is low for the gearbox.

From Figure E5.1.1 the shape of the linear region gives the motor drive
sensitivity as

k rpm volt rev s volt
k rev volt
i
i
= =
=
1550
8
1550
60 8
3 2
/
.
/ .
. / sec.


where we are using one revolution as the angular unit.




Page 5-2
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER








Figure E5.1.1. Motor Calibration Curve
Page 5-3
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Page 5-4
Part 2: Speed Sensor Calibration

The completed Table E1.3 gives a typical set of results. Figure E5.1.2. shows
the corresponding plots.

Motor Drive
Speed (rpm)
Speed Sensor
Input (V)
Motor Speed
(rpm)
Speed Sensor
Output (V)
198 1 -202 -1
410 2 -405 -2
605 3 -601 -3
805 4 -796 -4
1003 5 -1000 -5
1198 6 -1197 -6
1402 7 -1400 -7
1597 8 -1500 -8
1806 9 1800 -9
Table E1.3 Speed Sensor Calibration

From Figure E5.1.2 the speed sensor sensibility, k
1
is given by the slope

k
V
rpm
V rev
volt rev

= =
=
6
1200
6 60
1200
0 3
.
/ . se
. / sec.

c


Figure E5.1.2 Speed Sensor Calibration
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Page 5-5
Part 3: Angular Position Transducer Calibration

The completed Table E1.4 shows typical results for this characteristic. Figure
E5.1.3 shows the corresponding plot.

Indicated Angle
()
Position Sensor
Output (V)
-150 -8.50
-120 -6.85
-90 -5.0
-60 -3.4
-30 -1.74
0 0
30 1.65
60 3.3
90 4.95
120 6.6
150 8.3
Table E1.4 Output Shaft Angular Position Sensor Calibration

From Figure E5.1.3, the slope of the characteristic gives the transducer
sensitivity as:-

Angular Position Sensor Sensitivity = K V

= =
5 5
100
0 055
.
. / degree

Alternatively, and because the speed and motor sensitivity are measured with
respect to revolutions per second, the angle transducer sensitivity can be
written as
k

= 20 volts/revolution.

The sensitivity of the amplifier/motor and the associated sensors can now be
depicted in schematic form:-

where k

= 0.3 volt sec/rev


k
i

= 3.2 rev/sec volt
k

= 20 volts/rev

TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER



Figure E5.1.3 Angle Position Sensor Calibration
Page 5-6
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
5.2 Experiment 2: Results and Comments

Your results should comprise;

a) Completed Tables E2.1, E2.2 for the steady state motor drive voltage to
speed sensor output.
b) The step responses of the Servo Trainer with various inertial loads.


Part 1: Motor Drive Input to Speed Sensor Output Gain Characteristic

The completed Tables E2.1 and E2.2 give typical calibration data for this
characteristic.

Figure E5.2.1 is a plot of these characteristics from which the gain G
1
is
obtained as the slope. Thus clutch disengaged:

G
V
V
1
6 1
6
1 =
.


clutch engaged:
G
V
V
1
6 2
6
1 =
.


Motor Drive
Voltage, V,
(positive)
Speed Sensor
Input
(V)
Motor Drive
Voltage ,V,
(Negative)
Speed Sensor
Output
(V)
1 0.7 -1 -0.6
2 1.65 -2 -1.65
3 2.68 -3 -2.65
4 3.65 -4 -3.67
5 4.66 -5 -4.70
6 5.67 -6 -5.74
7 6.68 -7 -6.66
8 7.70 -8 -7.75
9 8.80 -9 -8.70
Table: E2.1 Motor Drive Voltage/ Speed Sensor Characteristic (clutch
disengaged)
Page 5-7
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Motor Drive
Voltage, V,
(positive)
Speed Sensor
Input
(V)
Motor Drive
Voltage ,V,
(Negative)
Speed Sensor
Output
(V)
1.6
Dead-Zone value
0 -1.5
Dead-Zone value
0
2 0.7 -2 -0.75
3 1.85 -3 -1.70
4 2.75 -4 -2.80
5 3.80 -5 -3.75
6 4.70 -6 -4.73
7 5.70 -7 -5.62
8 6.65 -8 -6.55
9 7.55 -9 -7.5
10 8.20 -10 -8.42
Table E2.2 Motor Drive Voltage/Speed Sensor Characteristic (clutch
engaged)

Figure E5.2.1
Page 5-8
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Part 2: Measurement of Time Constant



Figure E5.2.2 Step Response Tests With Various Inertial Loads (Chart
Speed 10mm/sec)
Page 5-9
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Figure E5.2.2 shows typical step response tests for various inertial load. The
step amplitude was 2V from an initial steady level of 4V.

Using the construction for time constant calculation given in Section 2.2.5 the
following typical results were obtained from Figure E5.2.2

Large inertial load T 1.5 sec
Medium inertial load T 1.0 sec
Small inertial load T 0.5 sec

Note: The measurements are approximate, and typical of those found with the
Servo Trainer. The time constant increases with inertial load because, from
Equation 2.5b (Section 2.2.2), the time constant is directly proportional to the
inertia. The inertia of a disc is approximately proportional to its thickness,
hence, the increase in T is approximately proportional to the thickness of the
inertial loads.
Page 5-10
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
5.3 Experiment 3: Results and Comments

Your results should comprise the following

a) Completed Tables E3.1, E3.2;
b) Measured closed-loop step responses with proportional controller
gains k
p
= 0.5, 1, 2, 4;
c) A comparison of measured closed-loop time constants with those
predicted by theory.

Potentiometer Output
(reference Speed y
r
)
(V)
Measured Steady Speed
Error Signal
(V)
Theoretical Steady State
Error Signal
(V)
2 0.22 0.18
3 0.32 0.27
4 0.42 0.36
5 0.5 0.45
6 0.59 0.54
7 0.68 0.64
8 0.77 0.77
9 0.86 0.86
10 0.95 0.95
Table E3.1 Steady State Error for Various Reference Speeds

Proportional Controller
Gain k
p

Measured Steady State
Error Signal (V)
Theoretical Steady State
Error Signal (V)
1 2.69 2.5
2 2.34 1.67
3 1.53 1.25
4 1.23 1
5 1.01 0.83
6 0.86 0.71
7 0.73 0.62
8 0.64 0.55
9 0.56 0.5
10 0.51 0.45
Table E3.2 Steady State Errors for Various Controller Gains
Page 5-11
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Part 1: Steady State Errors

The completed Tables E3.1, E3.2 give typical results for steady state errors.
The theoretical values of steady state error e
ss
where is calculated using

e
y
k G
ss
r
p
=
+ 1
1

and
G
1
=1

Notice that the difference between the measured and theoretical steady state
errors decreases as the value of y
r
increases. This is because the small dead-
zone in the Servo Trainer introduces errors which become smaller as the
reference signal becomes very much larger than the dead-zone width.

Part 2: Transient Response
Figure E5.3.1 shows typical step responses of the proportional speed
controller with the gains k
p
= 0.5, 1,2,4. Using the construction outlined in
Section 2 the experimental closed-loop time constants are tabulated in Table
E3.3, along with the theoretical values from the Equation shown in the
experiment.



Figure E5.3.1 Transient Response of Servo Trainer under Proportional
Control of Speed (Chart Speed 10mm/sec)

Page 5-12
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

Gain k
p
Measured Closed Loop
Time Constant
(sec)
Theoretical Closed
Loop Time Constant
(sec)
0.5 1.0 1.00
1 0.75 0.75
2 0.48 0.50
4 0.34 0.30
Table E3.3 Comparison of Measured Closed Loop Time Constants with
Theoretical Values

Given the inaccuracy associated with measuring time constants from graphs
the correspondence between actual and theoretical time constants is good.
The actual and theoretical values will start to diverge at far higher values of
k
p
, since under high gain conditions the drive amplifier saturates under
transient conditions.
Page 5-13
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
5.4 Experiment 4: Results and Comments

Your results should comprise:

a) A set of step response plots for k
i
=3 and various k
p
settings
b) A set of step response plots for k
p
=1 and various k
i
settings completed
Tables E4.1 and E4.2
c) A set of step response plots corresponding to the gain setting in
Tables E4.1 and E4.2


Damping Factor k
i

=
|
\

|
.
|
T
G
n

2
1

k
p
=

|
\

|
.
|
2 1
1

n
T
G


1 3.7 3.7
0.8 3.7 2.8
0.6 3.7 1.8
0.4 3.7 0.9
Table E4.1 Proportional and Integral Gain Calculations for a Closed Loop
Desired Natural Frequency f
n
=hz and Various Damping Factors


Natural
Frequency f
n

Natural Angular
Frequency
n

k
i

=
|
\

|
.
|
T
G
n

2
1

k
p
=

|
\

|
.
|
2 1
1

n
T
G

1
2

14.8 3.7
1
3

2
3


6.6 2.1
1
4

2

3.7 1.4
1
5

2
5


2.4 0.9

Table E4.2 Proportional And Integral Gains. Calculation for a Closed Loop
Damping Factor of =0.5 and Various Natural Frequencies
Page 5-14
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Part 1: Effect of Integral Action on Steady State Error

Your observation should be that integral action removes steady state error.
The rate at which it removes the steady state error increases as k
i
increases,
with eventually oscillations beginning to appear.


Part 2: Selection of Integral and Proportional Controller Gains.



Figure E5.4.1. P+I Controller With Various Proportional Gains
(Chart Speed 2mm/sec)

Figure E5.4.1 shows typical responses as the proportional gain is altered. The
damping is altered, but the natural frequency (or speed of response) does not
change. Figure E5.4.2 shows typical responses as the integral gain is altered.
The damping and the speed of response are effected by changes in k
i
.
Page 5-15
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure E5.4.2. P+I Controller With Various Integral Gains (Chart Speed
2mm/sec)

Page 5-16
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Part 3: Selection of Proportional and Integral gains for specified Transient
Response





Figure E5.4.3 P+I Controller Design For Various Damping Factors (Chart
Speed 2mm/sec)

Page 5-17
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER



Figure E5.4.4 P+I Controller Design For Various Natural Frequencies
(Chart Speed 2mm/sec)

The completed Tables E4.1 and E4.2 give the theoretical gains required. Note
that the smallest value of k
p
is 0.005 which is smaller than the smallest
available on the CE120. Approximate this value with k
p
= 0.01. Likewise
other values are approximately to the nearest decimal place.

Figures E5.4.3, E5.4.4 show typical step response results associated with these
gain settings. Note that the results correspond approximately with the
standard second order response which would be expected. The exception is
the plot for f
n
=1/2 which is more oscillatory than the corresponding standard
response. This is because in representing the servo-transfer function as first
order, the dynamics of the motor armature circuit were neglected (see Section
2.2.2). At fast response rates this is no longer a valid assumption.
Page 5-18
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
The proportional gain k
p
is given by:

k
T
G
p
n
=
2 1
1



Thus for sufficiently small, the required value of k
p
will become negative.
This means that the proportional control action provides a positive feedback
component. This can be realised in the CE120 by making up a P + I controller
using the separate amplifier blocks rather than the PID block.
Page 5-19
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
5.5 Experiment 5: Results and Comments

Your results should comprise:-
a) A completed Table E5.1
b) A set of plots showing the speed sensor output for various integral
and proportional gains when a 10V load demand is applied to the
load generator.
c) A completed Table E5.2
d) A set of plots showing the speed sensor output for various feed
forward controller gains when a 10V load demand is applied to the
load generator.


Part 1: Disturbance Rejection Properties of Proportional Plus Integral
Controllers

Table E5.1 shows typical results for the influence of proportional gain upon
disturbance rejection. As k
p
is increased the relative effect of a load
disturbance on the control system is reduced but not completely removed.

k
p
Error Signal No
Load,
V
Error Signal 10V
Load
V
Change in Error
(Column 3 -
Column 2)
1 3.21 3.64 0.43
4 1.5 1.92 0.42
7 0.82 1.12 0.3
10 0.59 09.82 0.23

Table E5.1 Influence of Load Disturbance Upon Steady State Error For
Various k
p

Page 5-20
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER



Figure E5.1 Plot of Speed Response to 10V Load Disturbance applied to
Generator for Various Proportional & Integral Controller Gains

Figure E5.1 shows plots of the speed response during the application and
removal of a 10V input to the generator load control input. Note that the
integral action removes the steady state value of the disturbance, and that the
transient effect is reduced as the controller gains are increased.

Page 5-21
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Part 2 Feed Forward Control for Disturbance Rejection

Feed Forward
Gain, k
f

PI Controller
Output With No
Level Input (V)
PI Controller
Output With 10V
Load Input (V)
Change In
Controller
Output (V)
No Feed Forward
(k
f
=0)
5.5 8.1 2.6
0.1 5.5 7.1 1.6
0.2 5.5 6.1 0.6
0.3 5.5 5.1 -0.4
0.4 5.5 4.1 -1.4
Table E5.2 Controller For Various Levels of Feed Back Gain


Figure E5.2 Plot of Speed Responses to 10V Load Disturbances applied to
Generator for Various Feed Forward Gain Values
Page 5-22
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Table E5.2 shows typical results for the effect of feed forward on the PI
controller contribution to the control system with a load disturbance. Notice
that as the feed forward gain is increased, the change in the PI control output
during the application of a load reduces. A level of feed forward gain (k
f
=
0.3) is deduced at which the PI controller output changes hardly at all. At this
level of k
f
the feed forward controller is almost completely cancelling the
effect of the load disturbance. Increasing k
f
beyond this level over
compensates for the load and the PI controller output will reduce
correspondingly. (e.g. k
f
= 0.4).

Figure E5.2. shows plots of the corresponding transient response of the speed
output during load application with various levels of k
f
. Note that with k
f
=
0.3 the speed is almost unaffected by the load disturbance.

Your results should show that the proportional plus integral controller with
feedback is the best way of removing the effects of load disturbances. The
additional comment should be made that the load may affect the system
differently at different operating points. For example, reduce the reference
speed potentiometer voltage from 6V to 4V and apply feed forward. You will
find k
f
should be 0.2 to achieve cancellation of the load disturbance. This is
because the load imposed by the generator is speed dependent. In industry
the feed forward gain would be adjusted according to the operating speed of
the system.
Page 5-23
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
5.6 Experiment 6: Results and Comments

Your results should comprise:
a) A table (E6.1) of effective dead-zone widths for various controller
gains.
b) A set of step response plots for the position input for various
controller gains.

Proportional Gain
k
p

Width of Output Angle
Dead-Zone ()
1 35
2 10
4 7
6 4
8 3
10 2

Table E6.1 Table of Effective Dead-Zone in Output Angle for Proportional
Controller


Part 1: Basic tests and Dead-Zone Compensation

A typical set of results for dead-zone widths are contained in Table E6.1. The
use of the anti-dead-zone should reduce the dead-zone width and eventually
cancel it completely. If excessive anti-dead-zone is used it over compensates
for the amplifier dead-zone and introduces a very high gain element in the
motor drive characteristic. Most systems will become unstable for very high
feedback gains. The Servo Trainer is no exception and oscillates with an
amplitude equal to that of the excess anti-dead-zone.


Part 2: Servo Trainer Step Response

Figure E5.6.1 shows typical step responses for the Servo Trainer position
controller under proportional control, k
p
. The response becomes faster as the
Page 5-24
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
value of k
p
is increased, and more oscillatory. The tendency for excess anti-
dead-zone to cause oscillations increases as k
p
is increased.



Figure E5.6.1 Step Response of Position Control System with Proportional
Controller. (Chart Speed 5mm/sec)

In general anti-dead-zone is used to remove the majority of large amounts of
dead-zone. The remainder is removed by increasing the proportional gain. In
the experiment, the use of k
p
=10 alone decreased the dead-zone to 4,
combined with a little anti-dead-zone the final closed-loop dead-zone was
very small. Increasing k
p
, however, makes the system more oscillatory (see
Figure E5.6.1.). This can be compensated for using velocity feedback (see
Experiment 7).
Page 5-25
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
5.7 Experiment 7: Results and Conclusions

Your results should comprise:

a) A completed Table E7.1
b) Step/square wave responses with various proportional controller
gains.
c) Step/square wave responses with various velocity feedback gains,
with and without inertial loading.


Proportional Gain
k
p
=k
p1
k
p2

Steady State Error
(V)
5 -0.15
10 -0.03
20 -0.03
40 -0.02
80 -0.01
100 -0.00
Table E7.1 Steady State Errors for varying Proportional Gains

The completed Table E7.1 shows typical results for the steady state error
experiment. Note that for Experiment 2 an error of 0.05 corresponds to an
angle of 1.

Figure E5.7.1 shows the influence of increasing the proportional gain. Note
response becomes very oscillatory for high gains. It would become even more
oscillatory if it was not for the fact that the servo-amplifier is being driven into
saturation by the highly amplified error signal.

The conclusion should be that high gain is good for removing steady state
error without recourse to anti-dead-zone, but that it leads to a very oscillatory
response.





Page 5-26
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure E5.7.1 Position Controller with various values of Proportional Gain
(Chart Speed 5mm/sec)





Page 5-27
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER



Figure E5.7.2 Position Controller with various levels of Velocity Feedback
(k
p
=80) (Chart Speed 5mm/sec)





Page 5-28
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER



Figure E5.7.3 Position Controller with various levels of Velocity Feedback
and minimum Inertial Loading

Figure E5.7.2 shows the influence of velocity feedback. Notice that the
velocity feedback reduces the oscillatory behaviour as it is increased. This is
confirmed by Equations 2.25 (Section 2) which show that proportional and
velocity feedback together lead to a second order response in which k
p

Page 5-29
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
controls the natural undamped frequency,
n
, and (for a fixed
n
), k
v
controls
the damping faster, e.g.

n
p
n
v
k G G
T
k G
T
2
1 2
1
2
1
=
=
+
(

(
(
(
(
(
E5.7

Using the actuator/sensor sensitivities calculated in Experiment 1, it is
possible to determine appropriate values of G
1
, and G
2
. Likewise, the time
constant T evaluated in Experiment 2 may be used, to find theoretical values
for
n
, and from Equation E5.7. However, with the high gains used in the
experiment the amplifiers are saturating such that the linear analysis
calculations (Equation E5.7) will be only approximate. See the next
experiment for confirmation of this.

Figure E5.7.3 show the influence of reducing the motor inertial load. The
response is much faster and requires less velocity feedback to reduce the
oscillations.

Velocity feedback in a position control system is useful because it feeds back
the rate of change of the output position. Thus it gives some prediction of
large changes in the angle and supplies a compensating signal. The net result
is a less oscillatory response.






Page 5-30
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
5.8. Experiment 8: Results and Conclusions



Figure E5.8.1. Servo system Step Response With Various Levels Of
Amplifier Saturation (Chart Speed 5mm/sec)


Your results should comprise:-

a) Plots of the Servo Trainer square wave/step response with various
levels of amplifier saturation and for various reference input levels.
b) Plots of the Servo Trainer response with various levels of hysteresis.

Page 5-31
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure E5.8.2. Servo Trainer Step Response With Saturating Amplifier And
Various Input Amplitudes (Chart Speed 5mm/sec)


Part 1: Amplifier Saturation

Figure E5.8.1 shows the typical effects of saturation upon the Servo Trainer
response. As the saturation level is decreased, the controller spends more
time in saturation mode. This limits the speed of output response and causes
the step response to differ significantly from the linear response.

When the saturation level is at 1V, it is below the amplifier dead-zone.
Therefore no signal gets through to the motor and the controller fails to
function.

As the size of the input demand increases, the amplifier spends more time in
saturation such that for long periods the output is 'slewing' at a rate
Page 5-32
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
determined solely by the saturation level. Figure E5.8.2 shows typical results
illustrating the longer periods in saturation as the input amplitude increases.


M
o
t
o
r
A
m
p
l
i
f
i
e
r
I
n
p
u
t
P
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
A
n
g
l
e
O
u
t
p
u
t
H
y
s
t
e
r
e
s
i
s
=
0
H
y
s
t
e
r
e
s
i
s
=
3
H
y
s
t
e
r
e
s
i
s
=
7



Figure E5.8.3 Servo Trainer Step Response with various levels of
Hysteresis (k
p
= 10, k
v
=0.01) (Chart Speed 5mm/sec)
Page 5-33
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Part 2: Hysteresis

Figure E5.8.3 shows typical results for various levels of hysteresis . The
system oscillates uniformly as soon as you add hysteresis, but the important
point is that the response period increases (frequency becomes lower) as you
increase the hysteresis. This is because the hysteresis delays the feedback
signal so the system takes longer to respond. Note that the need to move
across a backlash region at each step input makes the output more oscillatory.
In the limit a certain width of backlash is achieved that the Servo Trainer
inertia builds up a sufficient amount of momentum as it crosses the backlash
region to make it oscillate about zero.

Generally, amplifier saturation is a fact of life which is not necessarily bad. It
does not necessarily destabilise the closed-loop system, but it sets an upper
limit on the speed at which the output can move between two levels. This is
called the 'slew rate' of the system and must be kept in mind when designing
the linear part of the system. Hysteresis or backlash is to be avoided at all
costs since it limits the accuracy of control. Also it causes the system to
oscillate (at worst) and fail at best. Mechanical design changes are usually the
only remedy.

Dead-Zone is likewise undesirable, but its effect is reduced by high controller
gain, anti-dead-zone or dither. These last two remedies cause some high
frequency oscillations in the system and are to be handled with care to
prevent mechanical damage or wear.





Page 5-34
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
5.9 Experiment 9: Results and Comments

Saturation Input Voltage Saturation Output Voltage
-10 -7.9
-9 -7.0
-8 -5.9
-7 -4.9
-6 -3.9
-5 -2.9
-4 -1.9
-3 -0.8
-2 0
-1 0
0 0
+1 0
+2 0
+3 1.1
+4 2.1
+5 3.1
+6 4.1
+7 5.1
+8 6
+9 7
+10 8

Table E9.1 Dead-Zone Characteristics for Dead-Zone Width of 2V
Page 5-35
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

Anti-Dead-Zone Input
Voltage
Anti-Dead-Zone Output
Voltage
-8 -10
-7 -9.0
-6 -8.1
-5 -7.03
-4 -6
-3 -5
-2 -3.85
-1 -2.85
0 -
+1 2.8
+2 3.9
+3 5
+4 6
+5 7.1
+6 8.1
+7 9
+8 10.1

Table E9.2 Anti-Dead-Zone Characteristics for Anti Dead-Zone Width of 2V
Page 5-36
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

Saturation Input Voltage Saturation Output Voltage
-10 -5
-9 -5
-8 -5
-7 -5
-6 -5
-5 -5
-4 -4.0
-3 -3
-2 -2
-1 -1
0 0
+1 +1
+2 +2
+3 +3
+4 +4
+5 +5
+6 +5
+7 +5
+8 +5
+9 +5
+10 +5
Table E9.3 Saturation Characteristics for Saturation Level 5V
Page 5-37
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

Hysteresis Input
Voltage
(Increasing)
Hysteresis
Output Voltage
Hysteresis Input
Voltage
(decreasing)
Hysteresis
Output Voltage
-5 -4.4 5 4.2
-4 -4.3 4 4.2
-3 -4.1 3 3.8
-2 -3.1 2 2.8
-1 -2.2 1 1.78
0 -1.2 0 0.8
1 -0.2 -1 -0.2
2 0.9 -2 -1.2
3 2.2 -3 -2.4
4 3.3 -4 -3.8
5 4.2 -5 -4.9
Table E9.4 Hysteresis Characteristics for Hysteresis Width of 1V


Figure E5.9.1. Dead-Zone Characteristics for 2V Width Dead-Zone
Page 5-38
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER



Figure E5.9.2 Anti-Dead-Zone Characteristics for 2V Width Anti-Dead-
Zone
Page 5-39
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER




Figure E5.9.3 Saturation Characteristics for 5V Level of Saturation

Page 5-40
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure E5.9.4 Hysteresis Characteristics for a Hysteresis Width of 1V



Your results should consist of

a) Tables of input/output characteristics for the various non-linear
elements.
b) Plots of the input/output characteristics.
c) Chart Recorder plots of the response of the non-linear elements to a
signal wave input.

Part 1: Non-Linear System Characteristics (Static)
Tables E9.1 to E9.4 show typical results for non-linear element characteristics.
Figures E5.9 to E5.9.4 show the corresponding plots. Note that you may have
problems obtaining a reasonable hysteresis plot because of the need to
proceed in one and only one direction when completing Table E9.4.
Page 5-41
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Figure E5.9.5. Plot of Non-Linear Responses to Sine Wave Inputs (Chart
Speed 1mm/sec). Sine Wave Amplitude: 4.5V, Frequency 0.02 Hz.
Page 5-42
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Part 2: Non-Linear System Characteristics (Dynamic)

Figure E5.9.5 shows typical sine wave responses of the four non-linear
elements. Note the following facts which can be important in assessing the
influence of these non-linearities on a dynamical system:

a) Anti-dead-zone: This gives a very high gain region about the zero
point. In normal use this would be employed to cancel the effect of
dead-zone. However, used on its own or in excess it will lead to rapid
low amplitude oscillations in a feedback loop since it creates an infinite
feedback gain at low amplitudes.

b) Dead-Zone: This gives a zero gain region around the zero point. In
normal situations it gives a reduced control system accuracy.

c) Saturation: This sets an upper limit on the maximum and minimum
output of an amplifier. In normal use it sets a limit on the maximum
rate at which a system can operate.

d) Hysteresis: This gives a gain reduction and phase lag between input
and output. It is this phase lag (see Figure E5.9.5) which gives rise to
instability when hysteresis occurs in a feedback system.
















Page 5-43
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER
Page 5-44

TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER

APPENDIX 1. BLANK EXPERIMENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM








Page A1-1
TECQUIPMENT CE110 SERVO TRAINER


Page A1-2