P. 1
Baloch Nationalism by Baloch Warna

Baloch Nationalism by Baloch Warna

|Views: 12|Likes:
Published by Hamza Shafqaat
Issues of Balochistan
Issues of Balochistan

More info:

Published by: Hamza Shafqaat on Apr 01, 2014
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/01/2014

pdf

text

original

Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development

BalochWarna.org

Table of Contents
List of Maps Acknowledgement Abstract A Note About Transliteration and Calendar Foreword Map of Bahchistan

CHAPTER ONE
Theories of Nationalism • Introduction • Ethnicity • Nation, Nationalism and State • The Baloch and the Concept of Ethnic and Nation • Nationalism and the Globalization • A Critique of Existing Theories of Nationalism • The Right of Self-determination • Summation

CHAPTER TWO
Cohesive Bases of the Baloch Nationalism Introduction The Names "Baloch and Balochistan" Location and Climate Demographics Language and Religion Cultural Development Baloch social organisation Economic Development Summation

CHAPTER THREE
Historical Development • • • • • • • • • Introduction The Early History The Expansion of Baloch Ethno-linguistic community Rise of the Baioch Rule The Khanate of Balochistan The British Superiority The early revolts The Persian Occupation Resistance in Western Balochistan

Summation

CHAPTER FOUR
Nationalism in Practice • National Consciousness and Nationalism • The Founding Fathers • Anjuman-e Ittehad-e Balochan • The Anjuman and the Issue of Independence • Kalat State National Party (KSNP)• Independence: its Emergence and Collapse • Oppression and First Baloch Resistance • Summation Pos CHAPTER FIVE The Colonial Balochistan • Introduction • The Punjabi Domination • From Federation to Province • Western Balochistan: end of the Hakomates • Iranization or Persianization • The Second Uprising: nationalism marches on • Baloch Nationalism and the Pashtuns • Summation

CHAPTER SIX

The Autonomy, its Rise and Fall • Nationalists in power
CONTENT

Sabotage and organized rebellion by Centre

The third Baloch uprising (1973-77): • a new test for the Baloch Nationalism • The apex of insurgency • Forces in the third uprising • Baloch Nationalism and the Iranian Revolution • Baloch Nationalism and the Sistanis • Baloch Nationalism: The Role of the Great Powers • Summation

CHAPTER SEVEN
• •

Glossary Bibliography

List of Maps
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Map of Balochistan British Balochistan Natural Resources Major tribal areas in eastern Balochistan Khanate of Ba/ochistan (1758-1795) First Map of Greater Balochistan Balochistan States Union (1951-1954) Balochistan Provinces: (Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan) Pashtun and Persian majority areas

Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development CHAPTER FOUR

Nationalism in Practice National Consciousness and Nationalism In the mid-19th century, the nationalistic, sentiments, along with the first reproduction of European nationalist historical works in India and other lands of Asia started to spread all over the continent. For example, Sir William Jones and other founding European scholars of the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1784 eventually yielded a sizeable accumulation of knowledge about the history of India. In this manner "educated Indians increasingly were to learn about their own culture through the mediation of European ideas and scholarship". Then, in these circumstances, "Indians began to write history in the European mode".1 The lumping together of the vast and diverse multiple civilisation of the Indian subcontinent not only demonstrates distorting effects of nationalistic doctrinal restrictions but also reveals an overarching contempt for sound and principled methods of historiography. Thus India became the subject of rigidly maintained misconceptions among its native scholars as well among Western historians who conceptualised India in a nationalistic context. In the same fashion, the Baloch, educated from the Indian universities introduced this new concept of history for their homeland in the turn of the 20th century.2 The British occupation of eastern Balochistan and the martyrdom of Mehrab Khan in 1839, the Persian occupation
1

Bernard S. Cohn, "Representing Authority in Victorian India", in: E. Hobsbawn, T. Ranger (ed.), Invention of Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983, pp. 182-183. 2 Inayatullah Baloch, The Problem of Greater Baluchistan, p. 90.

Balochwarna.org

209

The Baloch nationalist writers and poets recapitulated these events in subsequent decades. Entering the first decade of the 20th century. and became a political force of great importance in the affairs of the region. the 1917 Russian revolution. This movement coupled with other developments and events within and without the British Indian Empire. Since the 1920s. the destruction and suffering stimulated a political consciousness that was unprecedented in the region. External events such as the First World War. What had been good enough for securing imperial frontiers was inadequate to cope with the needs and aspirations of a people entering the "modern world". the Baloch national awareness grew rapidly with every fresh Baloch outbreak. Noora Megal by the British. hastened the emergence and growth of doctrinaire nationalism among the Baloch.org 210 . the war economy retarded the consolidation of the Baloch as a nation. and the subsequent execution of its leader Mir Dost Mohammad Khan. Balochwarna. and the imprisonment of the rebellious tribal chief. Although at times it may have seemed deceptively like modern nationalism. the death of famous freedom fighters. Political unrest took various forms and there was an increase of sporadic tribal uprisings.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development of western Balochistan in 1928. as well as the awkward political and social system. Baloch national awareness did not actually attain to this stage until the early 20th century. Moreover. the twentieth century inherited all the territorial and administrative ambiguities. which were the consequences of the events of the nineteenth century in Balochistan. The Baloch national sentiment thus acquired a new motive power. mark the beginning of far-reaching changes in Baloch political history. the Baloch peoples7 discontent found new forms of expression. such as Barkat Khan of Jask and Jiand Khan of Sarhad in the Persian jails. Although. the subsequent civil war. especially after the Young Baloch movement and the Anjuman Ittehad Balochan in 1920s.

Balochwarna. This group he termed as revolutionaries. Inayatullah Baloch writes. the Hijrat Movement was started by some Muslim Ulama calling for the migration of British Indian Muslims to Afghanistan and Muslim Central Asia. p. according to Inayatullah Baloch. "The failure of the Baloch resistance movement".3 It should be remembered that at the same time as the Baloch tribes were in revolt. p. who were educated in British educational institutions and had a middle class background. 143. Nushki and Quetta migrated to Afghanistan. but also accelerated the trend toward west to east migration. who did not understand peaceful agitation against British imperialism..Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development revolution in Turkey and the Indian nationalist struggle acted as catalysts for the Baloch nationalist tendencies. The war economy. It wanted to put pressure on the British to change its anti-Ottoman policy during and after the World War 1. and followed the style of the Indian nationalists. not only retarded the consolidation of the Baloch as a nation. The religiousminded people and a few Baloch from Derajat. 147. "gave rise to groups of nationalists". 7 Ibid. the movement. G. one of the leaders of the MarriKhetran uprising in 1917. Pikuiin. there were more Baloch in the British Indian Provinces of the Punjab and Sindh than there were in the 3 4 M. this group which organised the Anjuman and later on the Kalat State National Party. By the end of 1930s. Baloch.6 He classifies them into two categories: those who decided to migrate from Balochistan to Soviet Union and got Soviet support against British imperialism.5 From the end of the First World War the Baloch nationalists increased their efforts to achieve unity among the people and work to create an independent Balochistan.4 However.7 It is. The Problem of Greater Balochistan. p. led by Misri Khan Baloch. 6 Ibid.org 211 . 5 Ibid. 181 Inayatullah Baloch. had very little appeal for the Baloch tribesman. Jacobabad. the second group consisted of the constitutionalists. as indicated above.

102-117. this mass migration of the Baloch.8 However. 12 7-26 Richard W. The Persian-dominated governments have turned their statebuilding strategies into a Tersianization" campaign aimed at socio-cultural assimilation and the absorption of subordinate nationalities into the Persian-dominated state structure. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Most of these people settled in Karachi. and provoked their sympathy and national feeling towards western Balochistan and Baloch nationalism as a whole. All decisions in respect to the Baloch and other nationalities were made in Tehran and carried out through provincial bureaucracies dominated overwhelmingly by the Persians. The Baloch of Sindh and Punjab sympathised with the cause of the Khanate-based Baloch Movement. although there was no mechanism to transform this romantic sympathy to meaningful and effective action. and the subsequent atrocities of the Iranian armed forces. Balochwarna. "The National Question in Baluchistan". pp. V. led to mass migration of the Baloch towards eastern Balochistan and Sindh. 3. western Balochistan was subjugated in 1928.9 As mentioned in chapter 3. Cottam. The People of Pakistan. Selig Harrison opined that the idea of Baloch nationalism originates with Mir Dost Mohammad's resistance against the Persians in Western Balochistan. p. Harrison. This. pp. affected their brethren on the eastern side. This movement called the "Darkhani" 8 Aijaz Ahmad. 1979. it was against this background that in 1981.12 Having responded to the missionary activities.10 Perhaps. the first anti-British intellectual movement started in the 1880s in Balochistan. 11 Selig S. the destruction and suffering of war and migration as well as the new Sardari system (Sandeman System) stimulated the Baloch nationalism. Nationalism in Iran.11 The Persians' state system not only denied the Baloch national identity but also subjected it to political. 10 Interview with Yusuf Naskanti. economical. In Afghanistan's Shadow.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development Khanate. 9 Yu. after much blood was shed on both sides. 203-209.org 212 . pp. culture and society. Accordingly. cultural and military domination. the Baloch and Persian.Gankovsky.

13 Maulana Huzoor Bakhsh Jatoi translated the Koran into Balochi in 19021903. I. Vol. and it was decided that they would translate religious books into Balochi and Brahui. G. out of a total number of 24 schools in the country in 1902. Moulai Shaidai "Education During British Rule in Balochistan".Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development movement was inspired and pioneered by Maulana Mohammad Fazil of Darkhan (now called Fazil Abad). p. the servicemen of the British administration were enrolled in these schools (only 349 children of the local citizens were included). 17 Ibid. 1990. however.17 The people were usually given some religious education and primary-level knowledge in Persian through the mosque schools. Karachi. Medium of instruction was in Urdu. 13-21. in: Pakistan Studies. 9-10. and at the secondary schools in English and not in Balochi. Exact numbers are disputed but Syed Abdul Quddus lists as many as 600 books. There were 27 boys and 15 girls enrolled in these schools. which were published from the "Maktaba-e Darkhani" (the Darkhani school). I: No. Such books were in Persian or Arabic but it was now felt that they would be more effective in countering missionary propaganda if they were available in Balochi. This number had risen to 14 schools mostly in Quetta municipality. in: Ouman.15 Maulai Shaidai. it was estimated that some two thousand people were being given religious education in these Nadir Qambrani. 14 15 16 13 Balochwarna.14 The Baloch intelligentsia gradually developed political awareness during the British rule.org 213 . Pikulin. there were 21 Schools with 800 students.16 Mostly the children of non-Baloch. "Brahvi Adabi Akabereen". August 1951. pp. In 1891 there were only one high school and one middle school for girls in eastern Balochistan. in 1901. The Tribal Balochistan. 72. Syed Abdul Quddus. It is said that this literary movement wrote a fairly large number of books up to the end of the 19th century. In 1903. In 1903. pp. M. mentions 2 secondary and 22 primary schools. 84-85. The Maulana is said to have called a gathering of the Ulama in 1883. pp. Baloch.

quit school before completing a high school education. their political activism distracted them before they could fit into the Imperial Indian system. The British introduced an entirely new administrative system in Balochistan. with a Political Agent at the head of the District Administration. the Baloch nationalists. As the British authorities established themselves in Balochistan in the mid-19th century. there were curbs on open expression of political opinions and there was no press. 19 Interview 20 with Anwar Sajidi. Thus the Baloch nationalists had no other options but to express their thoughts in Urdu or English.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development mosques. the thanas (prisons) and the Levies men played an important part in the matter of law and order. together started publishing a newspaper called "Balochistan" in Delhi. mostly from Sardar families received modern education. Balochwarna. Monthly. Many of them.18 As the Muslim University of Aligarh was created in 1912.org 214 . Abdul Aziz Kurd and Master Pir Bakhsh. and Sub-tahsils were administered by the Extra-Assistant Commissioner. Hab. the British changed from Persian to Urdu an Indian language. which they decided with the help of local Jirgas. the District Judges. June 1995. It is said that to isolate Balochistan from its western part (Iranian Balochistan).20 In 1927. while in the towns where regular law 18 ibid. also known as Nasim Talwi. a number of Baloch.19 Consequently Urdu and English languages became the medium of communication. Balochi Labzank. Political Agencies were established in every District. however. The Political Agents. however. they made Urdu the official language alongside English and replaced Persian. Tahsildars and Naib-Tahsildars respectively who also supervised the revenue matters in their respective jurisdiction and were also vested with judicial powers to deal with judicial cases. Along with financial difficulties. In the late twenties. in Balochistan. education and administration in Balochistan. Tahsils (district). below the SubDivisions.

215-16. The works of Longworth Dames (1904) and (1907). the maintenance of law and order was the responsibility of the Police. deserve credit and appreciation. In: Ehsan Yarshater. history and politics (1809-10) of Balochistan. in his work.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development was enforced. Balochwarna. which included the "Balochistan" District Gazetteer. 1989.22 Moreover. the Baloch history. Quetta: Gosha-e Adab. III. pp. Encvclopadia Iranica. Charles Masson (1842) published his work in four volumes. and ranks among the best of all the Indian gazetteers as well as other literature of the same type. The British secret agent. topography. which reached a total number of 24 by 1902. p. the British brought a completely new concept of province and administrative system to the region. served as an important channel of new awareness. was an extraordinary compendium of information. Baluchistan District Gazzetteer Series: QuettaPishin. 9-10. giving a detailed account of the geography. "Baluchistan: Geography. 22 Moulai Shaidai.org 215 . and Ethnography". 2nd Edition (1st Pubished. 23 Brian Spooner. pp. "Educatiion During British Rule in Balochistan". in a modern style. in: Oui _. London . the intellectual works of the European writers and travellers in the ninetieth and early twentieth centuries had a stimulating role for the Baloch awareness and the imagination of the modern Baloch nationalism. In the mid-19th century. and many other valuable documents during the first quarter of the 20th century. Karachi. we see 21 R. Lt. History. (ed). Hughes (1877) introduced. ethnology and a comprehensive map of Balochistan for the first time.New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Vol. Travels in Beloochistan and Sinde (1816) wrote freely.21 Thus. and other British officials and scholars who prepared the Provincial Series of the Imperial Gazetteer of India (1908). 1986. Hughes-Buller (ed. pp. 598-632. geography. however. As mentioned above. 614. Henry Pottinger.). 1906). It should be remembered that the Balochistan series of Imperial Gazetteer of India. August 1951. the opening of Western-style schools in the early 20th century. JQ .23 In the last decades of the British rule.

from the Khan family. the organizational break with feudal and tribal politics occurred in the late 1920s. 101.141. individuals from all classes and from many different tribes in the rank of its activists.163. However. for the first time in Baloch history. Eastern Balochistan.113. Yaddashtain. educated youth. The Founding Fathers Influenced by Indian nationalistic thought. from the top Sardar houses. During this period of Baloch resurgence. Abdul Aziz Kurd. but national in its nature. Shahbaz Khan Nausherwani and Abdul Rahman Bugti. Ibrahim Khan and Agha Abdul Karim. in the early 20th century the western methodology for the conceptualisation of the Baloch nation was established. was non-tribal.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development also the further consolidation of such methodology and acceleration qf publications on various topics both by the British and the Baloch writers like Magassi. however. large and small. The bulk of its leadership and membership were largely drawn from the urban bourgeoisie. the Anjuman was replaced by the "Kalat State National Party" in 1937. The modern Baloch movement. and 24 Malik Faiz Mohammad Yusufzai. from the upper middle class related to the lesser Sardar families. with the formation of the "Anjuman-e Ittehad-e Balochan" (Organisation for Unity of the Baloch) in Mastung. in order to establish constitutional rule in the Khanate and an independent Balochistan after the British departure. urban dwellers as well as the tribes were caught up in a new sense of Baloch nationalism. unlike the past. Ahmad Yar Khan. some Baloch called for an independent state of Balochistan with the end of the First World War. Yusuf Ali Magasi. After Magasi's death in 1935. Anka and Sardar Khan Baluch. Gul Khan Nasir and Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo. Balochwarna. as it will be discussed in this chapter. pp. It included.151.org 216 . and nationalist-minded members of the clergy and tribal aristocracy.24 The change could be observed in the involvement and participation of Azam Jan. Thus.

Balochistan Men Urdu. Later a graduate (BA) from Lahore was employed for his modem education including English. Baluch a Nation.26 Yusuf Ali Magasi had rightly been considered as the organiser and the moving spirit of the modern Baloch national movement.org 217 . 28 Inamul Haq Kausar. The Problem of Greater Baluchistan. in 1947. His father Qaisar Khan had earlier received the title of "Nawab" from the British government. the British administrative personnel and most of the greater Sardars as well as lesser Sardars who were recognised by the British Establishment as members of decision-making Jirgas on various levels were against the national movement. 109-115 29 Ibid. 26 Inayatullah Baloch. Naseem Talavi (Master Pir Bakhsh). 131.25 Thus. Baluch a Nation.27 Magasi (1908-1935) was the son of the chief Sardar of the Jhal-Magasi region. Qaisar Khan's liberal and populist attitude did not suit the British authorities in those days.156. 1947. to the British intervention. stated Sardar Khan Baluch in his book. from the commoners. 152. This universal aspect of the movement owed much to the emergence of modern nationalism all over the world and. "This young man". a private tutor was engaged for the young Magasi's religious and traditional classical education. However. pp. the ethnic element was a present and conscious force facilitating popular mobilisation and providing focus to the movement. 27 Muhammad Sardar Khan Baluch. The Magasi Sardar enjoyed not only traditional political prestige in the Baloch system but also occupied a part of the most productive agricultural lands in Balochistan and Sindh28 The Magasi Sardar was traditionally included in the Kalat Darbar (The State Council). Balochwarna.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development Mohammad Hossein * Anka. p.29 The 25 ibid. pp. Lahore. In 1913. and Addul Karim Shorish. "preached a crusade against the Pharoahs of capitalism. nevertheless. the highest decision making institution under the Khan. though he himself was a capitalist". However.

Sir Shams Shah later became a target of the movement. 32 M. es kalam ke Yusuf Ali Aziz (The word Baloch is the word for love and affection.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development British-appointed Chief Minister of the Khan.org 218 . 1927-1947. he completed his college degree in Lahore. who belonged to the British Political Department.30 In these cities of the British Indian Province of Punjab. Balochwarna. Dehwar. M. p. S. 129 Maulana Zafar Ali Khan quoted in Shah Mohammad Marri. Yusuf Ali Magasi lived with his family in exile in Multan and Lahore until 1929. Manee hay. Admiring his growing popularity. The meaning of this word is Yusuf Ali Azi).33 Yusuf Ali Magasi kept in contact with news from the Khanate and the British Balochistan. Maulana Zafar Ali Khan commented: Lqfz-e Baloch mehr-o-wafa ka kalam hay. forced Qaisar Khan to abdicate from this Sardarship. 244.31 During this period the ongoing political movements in India more closely influenced him. After that Shams Shah became practically the ruler of Kalat State with vast powers to run the administration of the State for the next ten years. Zafar Ali was a prominent pressman and was famous for his writings for the cause of independence of India and the rights of the Muslim population. Maulana Zafar Ali Khan and Maulana Mohammad Ali. he isolated the Sardar of Jhal-Magasi.32 Through Magasi's political poems and essays in some Urdu language newspapers and periodicals in Punjab and other parts of Muslim India. Magasi had better chances for education and political training. p. Baloch Qaum. Contemporary History of Balochistan. 285. in a poem. Sir Edward Wakefield. Sir Shams Shah. the famous scholar-journalistactivists of Muslim India. In 1916. was given the post of the Political Adviser to Khan Mahmud Khan and later he assumed the title of Wozir-e-Azam. 33 p. especially impressed him. According to one report. By 1929. Sir Shams Shah (a non-Baloch Indian). Past Imperative: Mv Life in India. he was introduced to wider Indian circles. 30 31Ibid. In 1920 Khan Mahmud Khan lost his eyesight and became blind.

and sentenced to a year of imprisonment in the central prison at Mastung.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development Among the independent minded and nationalist circles. 38 Monthly. p. bitterly criticised the policies of the Shams government and demanded constitutional rule through elected representation. Magasi became the president and Abdul Aziz Kurd General Secretary. December 1984. 39 Carina Jahani. his article. issue of Weekly Hamdard. The Problem of Greater Baluchistan. Magasi was arrested. 36 IOR.37 He had almost regular contact with the politically minded young men of the town and its suburbs.34 In 1929 when Magasi returned to the Khanate. pp. the "Faryad-e-Balochistan".000. he started his political career by publishing an article. After his release in 1931. fined Rs. Azad Baluchistan. a town well known for the political initiatives of its residents throughout the history of Kalat State.35 It is said that Magasi's "Faryad-e-Balochistan" was the first Baloch literary document for the cause of Baloch nationalism.org 219 . (Cry of Balochistan).36 In 1929. and these contacts and the exchange of ideas greatly encouraged him for the achievements of his future objectives. Lahore. p. Magasi. resulted in his arrest and 34 Ibid. in the 17th November 1929. 150-62. 4. In the article an appeal was made to the Baloch to organise themselves for the liberation and unity of Balochistan. The Broblem of Greater Baluchistan. in 1929. 14.. Criticising the policies of the British government and the Prime Minister of Kalat State Sir Shams Shah. 150. the "Faryad-e-Balochistan". L/P+S/12/45 file PZ 7548/31. he also demanded for constitutional reforms. Sir Shams was considered the most notorious official. Balochwarna. 20. 37 Inayatullah Baloch.38 Magasi was also a wealthy young man and financed the publication of several Urdu language Baloch nationalist newspapers in Karachi. Standardization and Orthography in the Balochi Language. p.39 As mentioned earlier. 134. the Anjuman was reorganised. pp. 35 Inayatullah Baloch.

org 220 . he is 40 Gul Khan Nasir. entitled "Balochistan ki Awaz" (the voice of Balochistan). Multan.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development detention for nearly a year. was another popular leader in this period. Anka passed his elementary school in Mach. p. His family and a number of labourers had migrated from the cpastal areas to Mach. Apart from the fact that Anka came from a non-tribal commoner family. 168. 420. He was born in 1904. Mohammad Hossein Anka who in real terms represented the commoners. condemning the undemocratic manner of his government. 43 Pakistan. There are. His father was a civil servant of Kalat State. some differences with those of Yusuf AH Magasi who came from an upper stratum of the Baloch society. His early childhood and teenage experiences.42 It is said that after he was appointed as the president of the Nation Party in 1937. Tyranny of Shams.41 Next to Magasi. this contact meant establishment of elementary schools and access to publications and information from other parts of India. II. he hung a map of the "Greater Balochistan" behind his desk. Interview with Agha Naseer Khan Ahmadzai. vol. Essays on Baloch National Struggle in 42 Baluchi Dunva. the most popular figure in the movement was Abdul Aziz Kurd. June-July 1968. On the 20th November 1931 Magasi published a pamphlet. a small town along the Balochistan railroad in the'leased Khanate territory. p.40 In another pamphlet in 1933. however. his socio-political background and the resulting state of mind and political career are similar to those of many other activists of the Anjuman. and in 1924 he graduated from a High School in Quetta.43 This may have shown Kurd's intention to be the leader of all the Baloch in southwest Asia. He was born in 1907. the prime minister of Kalat. Balochwarna. Tarikh-e Balochistan. Though basically for the non-local migrants. 41 Janmahmad. "Shamsgardi". Life in such places of British oriented activities had the advantage of contact with the outside world. Magasi informed the British Parliament about the grave socio-political conditions in Balochistan.

Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development important for his role as a poet and journalist for the movement. a Kalat-State region close to Sindh. Turkey. the artisans and the poets. Balochistan Men Urdu. and Russia. educated in India.45 Thus. was deprived of the Sardarship of the largest and most powerful Baloch tribes (Bugti) by the British because of his anti-British political activities46. The commoners. as well as the anti-colonial movement in British India itself. This mass participation was a new phenomenon. (Urdu in Balochistan-in Urdu). Anjuman-e Ittehad-e Balochan Inspired by the political upheavals in Iran.44 It must be bom in mind that traditionally. participation in politics was restricted only to the upper classes. a commoner from coastal Makkoran. Yaddashtain. Abdur Rahman Bugti who later. the new political activists (the nationalists) consisted of different classes in the Baloch society. Organ of "Jonbesh-e Khalq-e Baloch-Iran. the Khans and the Sardars or the Hakoms as they were called in Makkoran. No. were not expected to be involved in the affairs of the state and nation. like Magasi. 1967. Quetta and Kalat. Being expanded beyond the traditional political centres like Mastung. 1364/1985 (Persian). they included Magasi from Jhal. an underground organisation. Afghanistan. Lahore. pp. and Mohammad Hossein Anka. Baloch nationalism became established in the 1920s.org 221 . and Abdul Aziz Kurd son of a 44 45 Malik Faiz Mohammad Yusufzai. 46 Balochistan. called "Young Baloch" was formed by a group of Baloch nationalists under the leadership of Yusuf AH Magasi. 163-177 Inamul Haq Kausar. Balochwarna. 107-137. which indicated the emergence of a Baloch nationality with a sufficient developed national consciousness and distinctive characteristics shared by the members of all classes of the Baloch nation. pp. Anka was among the few intellectuals of the movement who participated in militant and para-military activities on several occasions. 7. Nevertheless. In 1920.

Being a clandestine organisation for many years. non-tribal nationalist movement. 49 Taher Bizenjo. 1997. Kia Hoqa. observation and contemplation. promoting different ideas of reform within the state. and advocating the need for more representative institutions. 51 Ibid. hereafter called Anjuman) and its direction from being a clandestine organisation to being an open political party under Magasi's leadership in 1931. and maintained contacts through correspondence and the media. Balochwarna. 121 50 Balochi Dunva. The Anjuman called for political and constitutional reform within the Khanate. June-July 1968. Karachi: Pakistani Adab Publisher. p. continued their self-education. the Anjuman started to work openly.50 The newspapers and periodicals published by some likeminded Baloches of Karachi during this period. the movement changed its name to the "Anjuman-e Ittehad-e Balochan" (Organisation for Unity of the Baloch. and ultimate unification of all Baloch lands into an independent state. Punjab and Karachi. December 1984 It also is known by some sources as the "Anjuman-e Ittehad-e Balochan wa Balochistan" (Organisation for the Unity of the Baloch and Balochistan). the movement worked underground. p. 1989. 48 Azad Baluchistan.48 In many ways the Anjuman marks the beginning of a new force in Balochistan . acted on an individual basis. which was the formative decade of modern Baloch nationalism.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development Kalat state official.51 47 Monthly. from 1931.the secular.47 A few years later. No 6. During this period. the leaders accumulated experience. Multan. Firenze: II Maestrale. Its leaders.49 During the early 1920s.org 222 . As noted above. The Father's Bow: The Khanate of Kalat and British India. adherents and other likeminded persons in the Baloch regions including those in Sindh. the exact date of the movement's early formation is not certain. see Riccardo Redaelli. 143. 19th -20th Century. Balochistan: Kia Howa. organised as a political party. and the sympathetic attitude of some Indian newspapers with mass circulation played an important role in communication and training.

Simultaneous with formation of the Anjuman. a famous merchant. Maolavi Mohammad Osman. Maolavi Abdul Samad Sarbazi.Establishment of a sovereign. the League condemned Magasi's imprisonment and openly demanded his immediate release from the British authorities. The Anjuman. 52 53 Interview with Yusuf Naskanti. such as the Frontier Crime Regulation. They demanded establishment of an elected parliament for the Khanate. started a new and open career. which curbed political freedom. Such an act would mean the end of the Sardari-Jirga system as well as the end of indirect. In its annual conference in 1930. December 1984 Balochwarna. it seems. but overwhelming. after his graduation from Aligarh University. Mir Ghous Bakhsh Bizenjo also joined the League. British rule. 2 . Pir Bakhsh Shahdad and Allah Bakhsh Gabol. the Anjuman. Karachi has played an important role for the development of the Baloch national consciousness.Unification of the traditional Baloch lands which were divided between different administrative units (and countries). Azad Baluchistan. but also the centre of the modern Baloch politics. In the late 1930s. as noted. independent and united Balochistan. The other members of its leadership were: Waja Omar Bakhsh Sabera. Mehrab Khan Issa Khan. educated from Bombay. and consequently. the legendary nationalist leader. Monthly.org 223 . Khan Sahib Osman.52 In 1931. called the Baloch League. the Baloch intellectuals in Karachi formed a nationalist organisation. 3 .53 For initiation of reform in the Khanate the party demanded abrogation of rules and regulations. Karachi is not only the cradle of the modern Balochi literary movement. was more interested in political-structural change rather than education.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development Being the largest Baloch urban centre. Gholam Mohammad Noor udDin. with the presidency of Yusuf Ali Magasi. of a responsible constitutional cabinet under the Khan. was appointed as its president. Its activities evolved around three fundamental demands: 1 -Reform in the Khanate.

54 The British used the Sardari system as their main instrument of oppression in Balochistan. Essays on Baloch National Struggle in Pakistan. a leftist Pakistani writer wrote.55 To confront the British. and on whose presence the imperial hold itself was predicated". when the Khan fell ill. p. pp. one of the main objects of the movement and the party when organized under the latter's auspices was the abolition of the Sardari system."58 In the middle of 1930. M. S. the nationalists attacked the Sardari system. Mahmud Khan.56 Under these circumstances through the mandate given by Yusuf Ali Magasi and his principal colleague Abdul Aziz Kurd. p. According to historian Dehwar. Contemporary History of Balochistan. 58 M. would certainly depend upon him for 54 Malik Faiz Mohammad Yusufzai. 150-62.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development and economic and social reform. "he [the Khan] knew that none of his sons had the capability to be his successor. 23. as his successor. 57 Aijaz Ahmad. By this gesture Shams wanted to perpetuate his tenure of office indefinitely. "by fighting the British. Dehwar. thus selected. Aijaz Ahmad. Being closely allied with the colonial government. the Khans nominated their successors. however. The Problem of Greater Baluchistan. who was more accessible and vulnerable. but they could fight both the Sardars and the British by fighting against the Sardar whose aggression was more immediate. p. Balochwarna. Mohammad Anwar Khan. the prime minister Shams Shah realised the gravity of the situation and started to make endeavours to contact the British authorities to get the nomination of Mahmud Khan's elder son. 53-58 55 Janmahmad. "The National Question in Pakistan". 240. even to the extent of oppression and abuse. did not. 170 56 Inayatullah Baloch. with the view that Mohammad Anwar. pp.57 Traditionally. Yaddashtain. "They could not fight the Sardars11.org 224 . which they depicted as one in which the Sardars were able to exert total power over their subjects. It was a reflection of their belief that nothing could be done before bringing change in the political structure. the Sardars were intolerable in the eyes of the young nationalists.

But. His formal coronation ceremony. "Baloch Sardaroun ka Ghair Mustahsen Rawiya". 13 August 1933.60 Moreover. however. succeeded. who was pro-Anjuman. Mengal. Contemporary History of Balochistan p. M. 61 The British conditions for the selection of Azam Jan as the new Khan were: 1. The treaty of 1876 shall remain in force.org 225 . Instead the British administration accepted Mohammad Azam Jan's nomination as the new Khan. the British authorities made Sir Shams Shah responsible for the popular unrest and rejected his proposal to appoint prince Mohammad Anwar Jan. and announced its support to him for the Khanship. The state council should be expanded to include the Sardars of the big tribes with two sessions in a year in order to acquire their opinion in important matters of the state. the mass migration of Magasi tribesmen into Sindh had given rise to complications in the social life of the people of the area and created problems of law and order. the Khan's brother. 60 Balochwarna. The Anjuman thus directed its efforts against the pro-British Sir Shams Shah. personally attended the darbar. 3. 4. which directly or indirectly may affect their position or interest. Dehwar. Karachi. in the same year. 59 S. who were the supporters of Sir Shams Shah or the British. The Khan and his Wazir-e Azam should abstain from issuing such orders without the consent of the State Council. and Bugti tribes revolted against their Sardars. 2. his brother. Hossein Anka. The Sardars must consider themselves as right hand of the Khan while the Khan should also consider them as such giving due weight to their wishes (cited in: M. 134. the Anjuman secretly negotiated with the imprisoned prince Mohammad Azam Jan. Mohammad Azam Jan. p. the viceroy of India. in: Al Baluch. The Fearful State.59 The migration of Magasis had a great impact on the neighboring Baloch tribes. M.61 With Mahmud Khan's death in 1931. under certain conditions. Its leaders initiated a mass migration from the Magasi area to Sindh and Punjab to force Shams into resigning.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development running the administration of the State. Azam Jan's ascendance to the Kalat throne was Mahmud AH. When the reports regarding this situation were disclosed. 241). Lord Willington. the Rind. S. The present system of administration shall remain intact including the revenue system without any drastic change. was held on 26th April 1932. Sympathising with them.

Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development considered a victory for the Anjuman. The educated people had received education up to secondary level and some of them received employment in niabats (districts) as moharrers (clerk) while grade posts and posts of teachers were filled by non-locals most of whom came from Punjab. You should rest assured that our officers will provide all kinds of help and advice on such occasion. 1954. The people of the State after a long period of stalemate 62 63 64 Gul Khan Nasir. it is appropriate for you to work and think together with the Sardars". This was considered as an important development during the reign of Khan Azam Jan. after his nomination. Quetta. 407. political awakening was sharply progressing. Ibid. Balochwarna. Khan Bahadur Gul Mohammad Khan. the Khan asked Abdul Aziz Kurd to stop his political activities. In the same month as he ascended to the throne (December 1931). Although the educated people were limited in number in the State. the authorities and the Sardars. it seems.62 The British government's attitude may be ascertained from Lord Willingdon's speech during the coronation ceremony.63 Pointing to the danger posed by the Anjuman to the Sardari system. Be sure that I would personally continue my deep interest in your State's affairs. Multan. he removed Sir Shams Shah and installed a new prime minister.org 226 . p. Tarikh-e-Balochistan. Therefore.64 When Azam Jan assumed the reins of the Khanship of Kalat. Addressing the Khan he said: 'You are not only the ruler of Kalat State but also the head of an old and powerful confederacy. After a dialogue with Magasi on 22 December 1931 about the Anjuman's demands. the state was extremely backward. Lord Willingdon assured the Khan of his help for the maintenance of the system: "Every State Ruler is sometimes confronted with difficulties and concerns. warned the Khan about the Anjuman. Baluchi Dunva. Two volumes. The sphere of education was limited and the schools for children were few in number and hospitals for health care were almost unknown except in Quetta. June-July 1968. However.

the General Secretary of the Anjuman. December 1984. which I had formulated not today but twelve years ago in 1920 in view of local conditions. just as I cannot like the fact that Baluchistan remains under the slavery of the Hindus.66 However. 68 244. contrary to the expectations of the younger generation.68 It must be remembered that the All India Muslim League had not yet formulated the demand for Pakistan. 67 Monthly. and which I had expressed before the world earlier in 1922 in a publication of the newspaper "Hamdam". The Problem of Greater Baluchistan. Daily Zamindar. Abdul Aziz Kurd said. 66 M. Dehwar. S. Being an aged person65. during his short rule (19311933) the political awakening of the people intensified and soon took the form of a full-fledged political movement under the leadership of Yusuf Ali Magasi and AbdulAzizKurd. Khan Azam Jan could not therefore involve himself directly with politics. "In the magazine Zamindar of September 9.67 The Anjuman and the Issue of Independence After having declared its (Anjuman's) goal to be the establishment of an independent and united Balochistan with a representative form of government.. quoted in Inayatullah Baloch. cancel the illegal taxes. Lahore. That is. 153-54. 1932. Inside Baluchistan. p.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development were jubilant at his election as the Khan.org 227 .. pp. which was considered to be a change for the good. I want to see a constitutional government in Balochistan which is purely Islamic and independent in all aspects. 65 Mir Ahmad Yar Khan Baluch. because the Sardars opposed such reforms. 18 September 1932. M. Azad Baluchistan. I have presented an ideology to separate Balochistan from India and form an independent Muslim government in this country. 110. and stop the encroachment of Sardars over state land in Kacchi remained unfulfilled. Contemporary History of Balochistan. His promise to abolish bigar (forced labour without due remuneration). p. Balochwarna. I am also opposing to my country wearing the enslaving chains of the colonizing Europe".

Having decided to summon all the Baloch nationalists to the "Balochistan and All India Baloch Conference". having faith in a United India. and The Daily Zamindar. Our objectives are the following extremely important aims.. quoted in ibid. We have faith that members of our nation will spare no efforts to make this conference a success" . protection of rights. on October 20. principally Punjabi bureaucracy. Otherwise. the problem of Hindu bureaucracy was non-existent. we have no choice but to organize ourselves by establishing bonds of unity and alliance. The Baluch are properly acquainted with democratic principles but our nation is being tremendously affected by external influences.. the Anjuman leaders issued the following statement regarding its purpose: "It has been decided to convene the Baluchistan and All Baluch Conference at Jacobabad in the month of December (1932). this will result in our lagging behind all other nations. quoted in ibid. Lahore (1932). opposed the idea and advised for the creation of a "United Muslim front against the Hindu bureaucracy" . Muslim as well as Hindu. Unity of Baluch. compulsory education. "The Muslim Outlook". Balochwarna. 1932. 22 October 1932.70 dar. For the Baloch. a pro-Muslim League newspaper. they were struggling for the preservation of the rights of Indian Muslims. religious education and legal reforms. called the idea of a free Balochistan "a British imperialist conspiracy". 28 September 1932.org 228 .69 The Baloch activists were confronted in Balochistan with a Muslim. was not favourable to the Anjuman's increasingly explicit demands for the secession of the Baloch land from the sub-continent and the formation of a sovereign. dar. independent Balochistan. Consequently.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development Instead. The debate over independence was still continuing when the Anjuman decided to convene the Balochistan and All India Baloch Conference in 1932. The Indian reaction.

The deliberations of this first Conference lasted for three days.The establishment of industries in Balochistan. "Mir Mohammad Yusuf Ali Khan Magasi". who later became a member of the Movement and survived as a local journalist.The establishment of a constitutional government in Balochistan.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development On 27 December 1932. 1968: Malik Ramazan. p. Karachi. B.72 Numerous resolutions were passed. December 1984. London". p.The abolition of the Frontier Crime Regulation in Balochistan. in which he called on the Baloch for unity. Sindh. p. 25 December 1932. The conference commenced with the Presidential address by Mir AH Nawaz Khan Talpur. Multan. alBaluch. 2 . 1 May 1933. the territories of the Kalat Confederacy. including the non-Baloch Abdus Samad Achakzai participated in it. Sindh and Punjab. published a map of Greater Balochistan. 71 72 Balochwarna. 4.71 More than 200 delegates from Balochistan. 5 . Baluchi Dunva.org 229 . 3 . Awan. showing the Baloch areas of Iran. 165 73 Khan Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai. in its issue of 25th December 1932. p. in: Monthly Azad Baluchistan. see also Baluchi Dunva.The establishment of colleges of advanced education in Balochistan. Essays on Baloch National Struggle in Pakistan. Ltd. 7. the Anjuman's weekly. Baluchistan.74 It should be noted that a few days before the Conference.Conference condemned the Iranian occupation of western Balochistan and demanded an end to Persian atrocities. Before the Joint Parliamentary Committee. the ruler of Khairpur State. 74 Inayatullah Baloch. 75 Weekly AJbBaluch. The following aims were the most significant:73 1 .75 The "Balochistan and all India Baloch Conference" was a great opportunity for the Baloch nationalists from different Janmahmad. Multan. "A Brief Summary of Evidence. 4 . June-July. Punjab and Balochistan proper attended the Conference. See also A. London. June-July 1970.. 6 .. had mentioned that 200 delegates from Karachi. the Anjuman-organised "Balochistan and All India Baloch Conference" was held at Jacobabad. 169. in: Daily Gazette st Press.To unite the Baloch that is to create the unification of the different regions of Balochistan. the leased areas under the British control and the Baloch land in Punjab and Sindh. Sindh. from Karachi.

"Azad Baluchistan aur Hokumat-e-Iran" in: Weekly. 15 January 1934. The Baluch nation should not imitate Afghan. the Anjuman's General Secretary. The Problem of Greater Baluchistan. it stressed the establishment of a constitutional government in Balochistan. al-Hanif. Baluchistan.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development parts of Balochistan. he was demanding the return of leased districts of Queta. Western Balochistan (Iranian Balochistan) was represented by the Baloch refugees living in Karachi. Balochwarna. He was sentenced to three years rigorous imprisonment by the Shahi-Jirga at Sibi. p. Baluchistan. Indian or any foreign politics. Bolan and and Nasirabad to the Kalat state. Do not view it from the perspective of Indian politics. 145. In his message to the party at the time of his arrest Kurd said: Comrades! You must understand Britain's position in Baluchistan very well. Abdul Aziz Kurd was arrested. such a conference could not be held in Balochistan proper. Sindh and Punjab to communicate their views about the destiny of the Baloch nation and Balochistan. Awan. B. Jacobabad. which had been integral part of the Khanate in the past. Saeedi Baluch. Keeping in view the significance of our country for all of Asia constitutes your political ideology under provisional exigencies in accordance with local conditions and national aspirations. 78 Given the existing restrictive rules and regulations. 79 A. 77 Monthly. and also the tribal areas of Marri and Bugti. Balochistan Jadid (Karachi) and daily Azad (Lahore). 165.org 230 .79 In January 1934. 1937. You should impress on your minds 76 Weekly Young Baluchistan. p. While supporting the resolutions of the previous conference. Special Number on Balochistan.78 A famous political poem of Yusuf Ali Magasi was recited in the last day's session of the Conference. By issuing statements and publishing articles in weekly Al-Hanif (Jacobabad). cited in: fnayatullah Baloch.76 A second Baloch Conference was convened at Hyderabad (Sindh) towards the end of December 1933. 4 March 1936.77 The Baloch conferences were a demonstration of a common Baloch forum shared by all (British) Baloch regions.

p. 81 M.80 Having been hardly two years in power. Tarikh wa Mazhab. he carried out some important reforms in the state. A. 154. Quetta: Edareh Tadris. In fact.82 th Mir Ahmad Yar Khan was a supporter of the programme and manifesto of the Anjuman and his policies gave the movement legitimacy. Scholarships were given to students to study in Indian and other foreign universities. p. 13000 to 400.org 231 . Therefore you are not her slave and she is not your master. Influenced by the Baloch nationalist movement. and other family members were imprisoned by the British. 161. Inside Baluchistan. For example. The education budget was raised from Rs. 142. Therefore you must always be aware of your true status and political dignity. Balochistan. He was married to the granddaughter of the famous leader of Pan-Islamism. where his grandfather (Mir Khudadad Khan). p.000. The Problem of Greater Baluchistan. Ahmad Yar Khan was bom in 1902 at Loralai. and was succeeded by his son Ahmad Yar Khan on the 20th of the same month in 1933. The Problem of Greater Baluchistan.83 Abdul Aziz Kurd. 83 Mir Ahmad Yar Khan Baluch. quoted in Inyaytullah Baloch. father (Mir Azam Jan). Mohammad Azam Jam died on 9 September 1933. 126. Arabic and English. p. he abolished the bigar system. 82 Inayatullah Baloch. Syed Jamal al-Din Afghani.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development the fact that Britain has neither conquered your country nor bought it from any one. 1994. Britain has set up temporary camp in your country with the status of a trader holding special concessions by virtue of friendly and equal treaties. 80 Balochwarna. Consequently.81 He received his early education from private tutors in Persian. Preference in employment was given to the Baloch. improved the judiciary and education. and he also established a printing press in Kalat. his accession to the throne led to the development of more favourable conditions for the Anjuman's work aimed at achieving independence for Balochistan. Shaheen Qaisarani.

he paid due attention to agriculture. before Magasi's compulsory departure. 155. Balochwarna. p. by establishing numerous farms. An extensive chain of fruit farms was set up under the direct management of the state government to streamline the horticulture production on commercial basis. 126-127. he sent Magasi to Britain as his personal representative to discuss the sovereignty of the Khanate of Kalat with the highest authorities and to negotiate the return of all the leased area to the Khanate. 1994. Progressive Writers Association. Tarikh wa Mazhab. Balochistan. 1997. according to Malik Faiz Mohammad Yusufzai. To link towns and ports. however.85 However. 1994. Mir Ahmad Yar Khan established a factory for manufacturing small arms and ammunition. Balochistan Quetta. Inayatullah Baloch. Small-scale industries like spinning and cloth weaving. was his sympathetic and cooperative role in the Anjuman's struggle for independence.87 84 Ibid. p. Shaheen Qaisarani. a leading figure of the Anjuman.. and by giving the Baloch students special stipends to specialise in this field. In this respect his contribution is much greater than the previous Khans. thereby providing employment to people and the needed equipment for the state army. The British thought that in the absence of Magasi the Anjuman could not survive. Quetta: Edareh Tadris. M. In 1934. 204. p. carpet making and leather tanning were opened at various places. Tarikh wa Mazhab. Quetta: Edareh Tadris. 204 86 Malik Faiz Mohammad Yusufzai. The Problem of Greater Baluchistan. Balochistan. Shaheen Qaisarani. attention was given to road and communication. Moreover. Magasi's travel to London was in fact a secret conspiracy against the Anjuman by the British. Yaddashtain.86 Of course. A. A. 30. p. 87 M.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development To improve the woeful economic condition.org 232 .84 More important. the Khan asked him to look for means and ways in London for the freedom of the Khanate. 85 pp. This created a good and healthy competitive atmosphere between the state-run and private sector farms.

He wrote to his friends about his plan to expel the pro-British element from the Anjuman and to devote himself to the cause of Balochistan. a frontier state. and made it difficult to ascertain the degree of his seriousness about the armed struggle. Apparently he was advised to keep his activities peaceful and constitutional. Magasi's talks in London were not very productive and the British Government refused to introduce reforms in Balochistan. which limited political activities and the development of modern institutions similar to those evolving 88 Inayatullah 89 Ibid. which suffered from a lack of urban population centres and an abundance of restrictive rules and regulations. 90 Baloch. social and economic reforms within the jurisdiction of the Khanate. in other words to generate public opinion pressure through organisation. British-Indian style.89 Magasi's relaxed mood when he returned to Balochistan and his unexpected death in 1935. strikes and resolutions. In his last days he planned to reorganise the Anjuman on revolutionary lines. public meetings. The death of Magasi was the greatest loss for the future of the Baloch national movement. Magasi tried to contact some British circles. 155 Ibid.90 Up to 1937 the activities and the strategies of the modern Baloch national movement (1920-1937) were based on demands for political. Ironically. where a degree of constitutional reforms. p. As written by the historian Inayatullah Baloch. Balochwarna. The movement opposed special administrative and judicial arrangements in the Baloch regions. these activities were possible only in British India. providing comparative freedom for political action.88 According to some sources. Magasi as president of the Anjuman favoured an armed struggle with the help of the USSR. added to the lack of available sources. had taken place.org 233 . "The failure of Magassi's mission resulted in radicalism". The Problem of Greater Baluchistan.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development While in London. It was not possible in the Khanate.

As a result of gradual constitutional reforms.6 First map of Greater Ba/ochistan By: AbduJ Aziz Kurd.org 234 . the provinces of British India were moving towards home rule and parliamentary representative government. political activities and public opinion and a more equitable judiciary Balochwarna. This development implied greater freedom of the press.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development Dozap(Za hedan) Khash O Banpur "" ^^ Ormwrt> Karachi ( Map .25 December 1932 in British India. Karachi. the general secretary of the Anjuman (1933) Adopted from weekly AI-Ba/och.

Since 1937. After Magasi's death the Anjuman's left wing decided to reorganise.org 235 . Political workers from the Kalat state and a few members of the Anjuman attended a convention at Sibi on the 5th of February and formed the National Party. Malik Faiz Mohammad Yusefzai and Mir Gul Khan Nasir were elected as Vice President and General Secretary of the party respectively. hoping that Kalat would become the nucleus of a Baloch state after the departure of Great Britain and would attract other Baloch areas. 93 In the same convention.93 The party convention discussed the prevailing situation in Balochistan and views were exchanged regarding Baloch national identity in the fast-changing political conditions of 91 92 Janmahmad. The process was similar to annexation of many Baloch region to Sindh and Punjab. the Anjuman's programme and activities involved the Khan. and the Muslim politicians of India.92 the Indian National Congress. which included the Khan and his loyal Sardars. the Pashtun population. and the British who ruled the country. p.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development system on western lines. Balochwarna. the Baloch national movement concentrated its activities on the consolidation of the Kalat State's legal status as a sovereign state. lies in the fact that while the nationalists favoured a united front. the "Kalat State National Party" emerged with the Anjuman's objective articulated more ardently. The Baloch national movement established the goal of liberalisation of colonial political rules for the enhancement of its struggle. the Sardars. Essays on Baloch National Struggle in Pakistan. Kalat State National Party (KSNP) Yusuf Ali Magasi was killed in the Quetta earthquake in 1935. according to Baloch nationalist writer Janmahmad. which was working for a free united India. the National Party elected Mir Abdul Aziz Kurd as its first President.91 In different ways. In February 1937. it aspired to identify itself with the Baloch Confederacy of Kalat. 170 The "British Balochistan" included some areas populated by Pashtunspeaking people. as the goals of the movements on the subcontinent shifted rapidly toward independence. The idea behind the party's political support to the Khan.

org 236 . with a representative government which could reflect their glorious traditions. Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo. by temperament and practice were more impressed by Abul Kalam Azad and other 94 Gul Khan Nasir. Gul Khan Nasir. determined to work for the liberation of their country.96 The National Party's programme was very similar to that of its predecessor. p. Abdul Aziz Kurd and most of the'other National Party leaders.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development the region. pp. The manifesto took pride in the traditional heritage and glorious past of the Baloch people. The party manifesto was one of the best documents ever produced on the Balochistan situation. pp. consisting primarily of employees of the Kalat state. linking it with the ancient people of Babylonia. It reflected the deep nationalistic sentiments and conscious expression of a political elite.. Baluch a Nation. The party's nationalist programme influenced the intelligentsia in Balochistan. the Anjuman. p. and India. Balochwarna. the document maintained. In the meantime the party expressed its desire to fill the political vacuum of a sensible and responsible government in the state. 1947. 95 Ibid. 98 Ibid.. Tarikh-e Balochistan. 453-456. were committed to achieve the goal of national independence. 443-45.94 The party manifesto issued at the convention maintained that Balochistan had gained immense importance because of its geographical position as a buffer state separating Afghanistan. and it tried to broaden its base of support among all Baloch classes. anti-imperialist and populist elements. Lahore. The National Party recruited educated Baloch youth and state employees.95 "The Baloch". The National Party also persuaded the Khan to abolish a number of taxes levied on tribes by the Sardars.98 The National Party was dominated by the more secular-minded. 97 Muhammad Sardar Khan Baluch.97 This group was responsible for the party's financial support. 444 96 Ibid. 127. Iran. It declared its objective of uniting the Baloch people under one centre.

pp.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development moderate Muslims. the latter having evolved from a tribal toward a form of "feudal" system. V/10/636. promoting different ideas of reform within Kalat and advocating the need for more representative institutions. the Baloch Ulama (clergymen) in the Baloch. more directly. the Khans were dependent upon a consensus being reached on every major issue with the Sardars. Baloch. as well as growing demands for the formation of democratic institutions. Even if a Khan like Mir Ahmad Yar Khan personally sympathised with the nationalists. The leaders and adherents of the Deoband School all over India were overwhelmingly opposed to the Muslim League. expressed their loyalty and their spirit of continuity with the traditional democratic tribal organisation and thus indirectly threatened the autocratic features of the Khanate as well as.org 237 . They also had to consider the maintenance of their historical legitimacy. etc.100 It was possibly under the pressure of the movement that in 1938. who supported a secular federal United India. The leaders of the Anjuman and its offspring. of Greater Baluchistan. the power of the Sardars. Lohris.101 The Baloch nationalists had based themselves on the argument that the Kalat state like Nepal had direct treaty 99 Interview with Maulana Abdul Haq 100 Inayatullah Baloch. the National Party. on the other. rather than the Muslim League leadership. equalising the status of all his subjects and fixing an equal amount of blood compensation for all persons including Ghulams. On the one hand. the Khan issued a farman (order). drawn from the ancient confederacy. they were under the tight control of the British political agents." As the National Party started to work intermittently in the open. Jamots. there was little room in which to manoeuvre. Almost all . regions had graduated from the famous Deoband School of Islamic studies. the reaction of the Khanate was mixed. 155- Balochwarna. Some of these Baloch Ulama such as Maulavi Mohammad Umar and Maulaui Arz Muhammad were among the National Party's activists. The Problem 101 56.

on the Khan of Kalat. Although the National Party declared its backing for the government of the Khan. "Aqelan Sassa Kan et" in: Monthly. the National Party conferred the title of "Khan-e-Muazzam" (the great respected Khan). it never gave up its progressive stand against the Sardari system which the British. Balochistan: Sevasi Kash-makash. in Monthly. 86. p. Quetta: Gusheh-e Adab. London. could not go very far in the party's support without compromising his position with the British or annoying the Sardars.104 In its struggle against social injustices. in 1938.org 238 .102 They declared their goal as being the restoration of an independent. the National Party continuously encouraged the Khan to follow its programme. In this regard. While avoiding any conflict with the Khan. though he agreed with certain viewpoints of the party. Thus for his services and his cooperation to materialising the party's radical programme. for example were abolished. 105 Mir Ahmad Yar Khan Baluch. Quetta February 1988. Mukhtaser Tarikh-e-Baloch aur KhawanineBaloch. 104 Shaih Ragam. p. 86. 1972. the party succeeded to correct many political wrongs. to which the British must revert the forcibly leased area of northern Balochistan and the self-made principalities of Las-Bela and later on Kharan. and which was the main instrument of oppression in the state. Quetta: Aiwan Kalat. December 1982. Inayatullah Baloch. Mir Ahmad Yar Khan. "Baloch Qaumi Tahrik Men 'Kalat State National Party' Ka Kerdar". with the Khan's connivance. p. The bigar system and the illegal taxes.103 The Khan for his part. Azad Baluchistan. especially its demand for a sovereign independent Balochistan and its committed goal of maintaining the traditional norms of the Baloch people. Balochi.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development relationships with London. unified Balochistan.105 Munir Ahmad Marri. had established in Balochistan. the party worked secretly against the Sardari system. it appears that the Khan had little enthusiasm for the activities of the party and the convention. which by implication meant the Khan's continued over-lordship. However. which it held at Mastung in June 1937. 4. 103 102 Balochwarna. 1989.

5. 2. This annoyed the Sardars. Balochistan was a sovereign state independent of India. 110 M. February 1988. p. S. pp. Contemporary History of Balochistan.108 On July 6. Balochi. the party was gathering tremendous support especially from the educated people.107 As noted above. "Baloch Qaumi Tahrik Men 'Kalat State National Party' Ka Kerdar".org 239 . M. They were conscious of the fact that Balochistan faced a peculiar geographical situation and the National Party had a tremendous task to achieve the predetermined objectives of national independence. when the British Government failed to obtain the Jiwani port. 108 Inayatullah Baloch. it gave the British and the Sardars sufficient cause to ally themselves against the National Party. 156. Quetta. vol. in Kalat State. one of the National Party's objectives was to abolish the Sardari System. The Khan and his British-Indian dominated administration sided with the tribal chiefs opposed to the party. The British had certain treaty relations with the Baloch stating that they were not to be treated like the Indians whom the British claimed to be their conquered people. "Aqelan Sassa Kan et" in: Monthly.106 The party workers and its leaders were not unaware of political movements in India but they wanted a separate identity and were by no means ready to lose their political sovereignty.110 106 107 Gul Khan Nasir. For this.109 On the next day the Sardars. the tribal lashkar (tribal armed force) of the Sardars launched an armed attack against the Mastung convention of the National party and disrupted the gathering. in: Monthly. 446. They also demanded the closure of Darul-Uloom (a religious school) of Mastung and a ban on the entry and circulation of all the newspapers and especially weekly al-Hanif and the Kamal of Jacobabad. 109 Shaih Ragam. Tarikh-e Balochistan. p. headed by Nawab Mohammad Khan Shahwani demanded that the National Party should be banned and its leaders arrested. Dehwar. Azad Baluchistan. p. Inayatullah Baloch. In 1939. the weekly Balochistan Jadeed and the Baluchistan of Karachi. 266-67.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development The National Party wanted an independent and sovereign state for the Baloch people. The Problem of Greater Baluchistan. Balochwarna. because of the Party's opposition.

Thus political wisdom demands that we should avoid such shortsightedness. which would ultimately destroy the Baloch identity. The party shifted its headquarters to Quetta but the Second World War brought open political activities to an end all over India.112 On 25th August 1939. Tarikh-e Balochistan. Maulavi Arz Mohammad. Moreover. 114 Ibid. If this is broken into pieces today it renders the inevitable disorganisation of the Baloch. Maulavi Mohammad Umar and numerous others to leave Kalat territory. Balochwarna. 270. The National Party's Secretary. the Party remained a strong force over public opinion.org 240 . from its headquarters at Quetta. the Prime Minister of Kalat banned the National Party within the Khanate and asked its activists.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development On July 20.. In the meantime the party 111 112 113 Ibid. 472. Mirab Shahnawaz. 2.111 After the banning of the National Party and the forcing of its leaders to exile. independent of Kalat. "The Baloch Question in Pakistan and the Right of Self Determination". 1939. Mir Gul Khan Naseer. Abdul Karim Shourish. which contains the seeds of disintegration and ignominy". Malik Abdur Raheem Khwaja Khel. p. He feared that Kharan's separation would be one in a series of similar actions. p. it continued its struggle as a clandestine organisation even inside the Kalat State. 195. vol. Mian Noor-ul-Haq. The National Party strongly condemned the move by the British government to recognise Kharan as a separate state. Rais Mulla Hossein Abizai. He said: ". Gul Khan Nasir. at present Kalat state is the name of the surviving Baloch front in whose name we can form a united front of all the Baloch in time to come. p..114 After the War the banishment orders on the National Party leaders were withdrawn. Abdul Karim Shourish. quoted in Inayatullah Baloch.113 He called upon the people to demand the merger of Kharan and Lasbela with Balochistan. termed the move an attempt to break-up Balochistan. Abdul Karim Shourish. he warned against attempts at the further disintegration of Balochistan.

116 Gul Khan Nasir. when the independence issue was in its apex. pp. p. In a meeting held in Srinagar on 6th . Mir Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo and Malik Faiz Mohammad attended many meetings of the Conference held in Jodhpure. Malik Abdur Raheem Khwajakhel. When the Khan held elections. banning of the party president and others. They explained the Balochistan situation in the context of the Indian freedom movement. Tarikh-e Balochistan.8th August 1945. Multan. 99.org 241 . Contemporary History of Balochistan. the Secretary-e-/c/?as (principal 115 M. A corrupt and inefficient government manipulated by the British agents was running the state. not only received tremendous support from the general people but also from some tribal elders and Sardars of the country. 2. but it left a tremendous impact on the people. 270-71. vol. Quetta. with the All India States People Conference. The National Party started its activities in society with a strictly tribal setup in which politics circled round the figure of the Sardars. Balochwarna. federal India reflected the complication and ambivalence which had developed in relations between the Khan and the Party.116 Between 1937 and 1948. and the restrictions on entry into the state of newspapers from British Balochistan.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development entered an alliance in 1945. S. Sardar Khan Baluch.115 This decision of the National Party in 1945 to join a Congress dominated movement which was working for a united. Jaipure and Delhi. Dehwar.117 Independence: its Emergence and Collapse In the early 1947. M. 117 Aziz Mohammad Bugti. June 1973 and Nokien Dour. the party was allowed to operate for less than two years. headed by Jawaharlal Nehru. the Standing Committee of the All India States People Conference discussed the question of the alliance of Kalat State National Party with the conference. 21 October 1966. see also Baluchi Dunva. The National Party. The committee also expressed concern over the ban by the government of Kalat on the struggle launched by the National Party. the party was returned to parliament with a quite large majority in spite of the fact that it was not allowed to contest as a party and its members contested in their individual capacity. Tarikh-e Balochistan. 457. p.

Lahore.20 Century. Sardar BK Memon and Sir Walter Monkton. With his case prepared by eminent lawyers like I I Chundrigar.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development secretary) to the Khan of Kalat. and including M. 173-174. arguing that Kalat like Nepal enjoyed a legal status based on direct treaty relations with Whitehall and was not bound to deal with the British Raj government in New Delhi as was the case with the other princely or "native states" of the subcontinent. the National Party and other nationalist organisations joined the Khan of Kalat to seek independence for Balochistan. wrote. In Afghanistan's Shadow.120 He invoked the treaty of 1876. 121 Mir Ahmad Yar Khan Baluch. 255-2%.118 As the prospect of the British withdrawal was coming closer. which committed Britain to respect the "independence of Kalat" and to protect its territory against external aggression. AV Alexander and Sir Stafford Cripps arrived in India on March 24. pp. see also Selig S. 1946. the main concern of the Government of Kalat regarding the future position of the Khanate at the time. 1947. Baluch a Nation. pp. th th 19 . the question of a Greater Baluchistan is inevitable". Firenze: II Maestraie. Harrison. Sir Sultan Ahmed. according to the document. "To begin with the question of a united and freed Baluch race. 174-175. p. after considerable debate. pp.119 The Khan made a strong legal case for independence. A. In the memorandum the Khan of Kalat. Inside Baluchistan. 119 Riccardo Redaelli. 1997. The Father's Bow: The Khanate of Kalat and British India. The Problem of Greater Baluchistan. 120 Inayatuliah Baloch. the Khan of Kalat Mir Ahmad Yar Khan approached the Mission on behalf of his government to discuss the future status of his state in the scheme of independence for India. Balochwarna. pp. The Mission comprising the Secretary of State for India. The Labour Party Government headed by Clement Atlee in Britain. 205. was to restore its independence with the British withdrawal.121 Submitted in the form of an official memorandum to the Mission in March 1946. stated that Kalat expected 118 Muhammad Sardar Khan Baluch. 24-25. Jinnah.org 242 . Lord Pethick Lawrence. decided to send a three-member Cabinet Mission to India in a final bid to devise the methodology for the transfer of power in India.

is just like Afghanistan and Persia.. p."123 The Baloch nationalists also point out to another petition prepared the same year by Pakistan's future prime minister. M A Jinnah quoted in Mir Ahmad Yar Khan Baluch.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development to restore its pre-1876 status by regaining its full independence and recovering its sovereign rights over all the Kalat territories held or leased by Britain upon the cessation of her power in India. The Khan. in which he stated: "Kalat. his government. But the treaty is with him as ruler only.. wrote as follows: there cannot in my opinion. H H the Khan is the de facto and de jure ruler of that country. As stated by the memorandum. The State had no intention of entering into a federal relationship with successive government or governments in British India 122 123 Ibid. M A Jinnah. Balochwarna.. 141-42. the Khan of Kalat Mir Ahmad Yar Khan retained a barrister. and his people can never agree to Kalat being included in any form of Indian Union. the future founder of Pakistan. pp. and will be free to conclude treaties with any other government or state. Inside Baluchistan. Sir W L Merewether. the state of Kalat: "will become fully sovereign and independent in respect to both internal and external affairs. who was in charge of the British Government's relations with Kalat. be the least doubt of the course which should be followed with regard to Kalat or Baluchistan as it should be correctly termed. Defining the case of Kalat state. 265. Jinnah wrote to the Cabinet Mission in 1946: "Several representatives of the British have described Kalat as a sovereign and independent state. We have treaty engagements with him under which he is bound to keep his subjects from injuring British territory or people to protect trade etc.org 243 .122 It is interesting to note that in 1936.. I I Chundrigar. to defend Kalat's claim to independence in post-colonial India.". which is not an Indian state and which was brought in relation with the British Government on account of its geographical position on the border of India.. In 1872.

org 244 .126 Similarly. One month before Kalat's declaration of independence.Merger with Iran: also rejected since Tehran was already engaged in brutal suppression of the Baloch demanding self-determination. 181-182. 3 . I. cited in Inayatullah Baloch.Merger with Afghanistan: supported by some members of the royal family but Mr.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development and I have. the directly administered "British Balochistan" had taken a different course. a memorandum signed by the Baloch chiefs of the Marri-Bugti areas. was sent to the British government demanding to join the Khanate.) Pakistan in the 80s. however. the devoutly religious Khan then rejected this option. The Khan asked the Prime Minister to accept the fifth proposal. Douglas Y. Memorandum to Viceroy. 4 Merger with India: recognised as awkward geographically and an option that would be unpopular. Sardar Jamal Khan Leghari and several other Baloch chiefs of Derajat also demanded their separation from Punjab and to be linked with the Kalat state. pp. (Macch. 2 May and 16 1947.125 Simultaneously. 2 . Bolan. Inside Baluchistan. the Shahi Jirga (royal assembly). p. to request your Excellency to declare the independence of Kalat State"124 Apart from the independence. 8 April. A merger was not considered.Kalat becoming a British protectorate: rejected by the foreign minister of the Khan. Chundrigar. Such a decision would be seen in Pakistan as a provocation. see also Mir Ahmad Yar Khan Baluch. "The Baluch Question in Pakistan and the Right of Self Determination". 124 Balochwarna. the Britishnominated council of tribal elders. 143-144. Mastung). therefore. and the Quetta municipal council had voted I. 5 -Independence: Kalat would maintain friendly relations with Pakistan and ensure sovereign equality. 125 Inayatullah Baloch. 1946. Sardar Doda Khan Marri and Sardar Mohammad Akbar Khan. Lahore. 350. The Problem of Greater Baluchistan. 126 Weekly. in Zingel Lallement (ed. 1985. Fell. pp. Fell pointed to the possibility of Communist infiltration of the Khanate through Soviet influence in Afghanistan. ignored all these requests and demands. the Kalat cabinet considered four other possibilities: 1 . The British.

(vol. p. Quetta: Balochistan Press. the outlines of the Constitution of a Free Baloch State were explained. Firenze: II Maestrale. II). the Anjuman-e Watan a local party and the Muslim League were active in British Balochistan. treated the Khanate as an Indian state. but the state was 127 It should be noted that since the early 1940.Baluchistan. Redaelli's opinion. The foreign policy of Balochistan. 187. besides the National Party. a unilateral English act. 130 Declaration of Government of Kalat. in R. Gul Khan Nasir. p. 171-172. according to the Ailamiah would be based on "friendly treaties with the government of Afghanistan. 1997. and because of the Government of India's own evident loss of authority. India and other countries". but an independent state linked to Great Britain by a Treaty of Alliance. For more detail see. For more detail see Inayatullah Baloch. the Ailamiah said that he had been a consultant to the Khan and the former had "fully agreed with the freedom of Kalat. 129 Shah Mohammad Marri. would become a welfare state and protect minority rights. 5-6). A. 128 Riccardo Redaelii. in 1935.129 Balochistan according to the Ailamiah. that decision was not changed. Balochwarna.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development to join Pakistan. in the Ailamiah (The Declaration of Independence). Baloch Qaum. Anjuman-e Watan a supporter of All India Congress was struggling for constitutional reform in British Balochistan. 5. cited in Inayatullah Baloch. The Problem of Greater. Tarikh-e-Balochistan. Jinnah. 131 Inayatullah Baloch. The Father's Bow: The Khanate of Kalat and British India th th (19 . pp 300-301. which was published and distributed as a pamphlet by the KSNP. both because of the Muslim League's opposition to any concessions being made to the Khan. nor part of the Indian Federation. 158-159. return of the leased regions and inclusion of Baloch territory to Kalat".131 However. 481. pp. The Pashtuns dominated both parties. the "Government of India Act".20 Century).130 The Khanate was neither an English protectorate. Muslim League was founded in 1938 in Quetta and its main aim like the Anjuman-e Watan was the constitutional change in the province. The Problem of Greater Balochistan.128 On 11 April 1947. Pakistan. Arab countries. Iran. 1947 (pp. p. failed to settle any of the matters put forward by Kalat. About M.127 The British representatives. pp.org 245 . "Baloch Qaumi Tahrik Men "Kalat State National Party" Ka Kerdar".

having friendly relations with its neighbours.132 The territories of the Kalat State being outside the limits of the legislative authority of the British parliament. to be an infringement of the treaty of 1876. Kalat will exercise its right of self-determination. In case the relations of Kalat with any future government become strained. Sir Sultan Ahmed. Jinnah. p. II). the Chief Secretary of Kalat State was sent to Delhi with a draft of the new position of Kalat State as prepared by legal experts. The following points were agreed upon: "Kalat State will be independent on August 5. the Legal Advisor of Kalat State and the Khan of Kalat took part in the deliberations. nor was it a party to it in any manner. see also Gul Khan Nasir.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development never consulted in the drafting of the Act. however. Nevertheless. Balochwarna. and the British Government should take precautionary measures to help Kalat in the matter as per the Treaties of 1839 and 1841"134 Thus. On June 1939. 1947. LVP&S/13/1847 133 Ibid. 1948". held on August 4. accepted the sovereign status of 132 IOR. (vol. Liaqat Ali Khan. p. He considered that the "Government of India Act". the British Government informed the Khan that "His Excellency (the Crown Representative) recognises the treaty of 1876 as fully valid in every respect and that it would henceforth form the relations between the British and Kalat"133 To discuss the future position of Balochistan and the return of leased areas hitherto under the control of the British Government. the "Standstill Agreement" (formally announced on the 11th August 1947). to the Government of India. The Problem of Greater Balochistan. 487. the Khan of Kalat lodged a protest against the provisions of this Act. Prime Minister of Kalat. 134 India Office Record "Independence of Kalat. in which Lord Mountbatten. the Act could not be held binding on the state. enjoying the same status as it originally held in 1838. 1947. cited in: Inayatullah Baloch. This resulted in a round table conference. 352. Tarikh-eBalochistan.org 246 .

(vol.org 247 . It stated: "The government of Pakistan recognises the status of Kalat as a free and independent State which has bilateral relations with the British Government. pp.the unity of the Baloch as a nation spread over a large part of Asia in large numbers. The Problem of Greater Balochistan. Addressing his audience in Balochi. A khutba (a welcome address) was read in his name. pp. 1-complete independence of the country from the foreign yoke and domination.138 135 136 Inayatullah Baloch.). 1947. 407-413. 138 Gul Khan Nasir. the Khan of Kalat proclaimed Khanate's independence on August 15. the Khan announced holding of election for the new dituan. Malik Allah-Bakhsh (ed.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development Balochistan. 150-66. 352. which was convened specially for that purpose in September of 1947. Inside Baluchistan. Quetta. 1979. the Khan announced. pp. II). Tarikh-e Khawanin-e Baloch. After the prayers the Khan addressed his audience in a lengthy speech expressing his determination to achieve three important objectives. Immediately after declaration of Independence.137 The traditional flag of the state in green over red colour and the crescent and star in the centre was hoisted. and whose rank and position is different from that of other Indian states". 3.135 After the formal announcement of the Standstill Agreement on 11th August 1947. the Daru/-Atuam. Tarikh-e-Balochistan. 137 Mir Ahmad Yar Khan Baluch. The majority of the fifty-two assembly members voted for independence. as the independent ruler of the state. 2. Balochwarna. but did not foreclose the possibility of a special relationship between the independent Kalat and the newly established state of Pakistan. "Today our country is independent. 489-490. at the beginning of the Friday prayers in the Jamia masque of Kalat. and I can express my views freely and openly."136 The lower house of the Kalat dituan. overwhelmingly approved this move.Promulgation of Shariat Law with a constitution based on the injunctions of the Holy Quran as understood. p.

140 Janmahmad. The Darul-Awam in its first three-day meeting. p. recognised Balochi as the "official and national language" of the state of Kalat and decreed that it should be taught in schools. Quetta. It should be noted that the 1947 election was held only in Kalat and Makkoran. besides the Rawaj. pp. the Kalat Act of 1946 was used as the written constitution.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development The diwan. 142 Inayatullah Baloch.139 The Rawaj (unwritten constitution) continued to be valid as the constitution of the Khanate. 1948 and "a committee was formed to study and report on the adaptation of measures and methods for the introduction of Balochi as a medium of instruction in schools".141 The decision was then approved unanimously by the Darul-Umara in its meeting of January 4. it was a big victory for the Baloch nationalists. and it was the first general election in Balochistan's history. Tarikh-e Balochistan.org 248 . 35 in number. DarulAwam had 52 members. 1996. the National Party won 39 out of 52 seats in the Darul-Awam. One of the important decisions taken during the brief life of the Kalat parliament was the recognition of the Balochi language as the state and national language of Balochistan. Balochwarna. the Khan urged the Baloch to 139 Aziz Mohammad Bugti. of whom 47 were elected and 5 nominated by the Khan.142 As the head of a sovereign state. However. during his visit to Pakistan in October 1947.1^ Struggling since 1920s for the independence of their country. 499. 1947. 99-102. the Khan was received as the King of Balochistan by thousands of Baloch in Karachi. The legislative period was five years. Essays on Baloch National Struggle in Pakistan. In a reception at Masti Khan Lodge. held in Dadar on December 12 and!4. p. p. Darul-Umara was composed of the hereditary chiefs of the tribal provinces of Jhalawan and Sarawan. 173 141 Gul Khan Nasir. consisted of the Darul-Umara (the House of the tribal chiefs or Upper House) and the Darul-Awam (the House of Commons or Lower House). The Problem of Greater Baluchistan. 180. a bicameral legislative body. Tarikh-e Balochistan.

In Dr. Jinnah advised the Khan to expedite the merger with Pakistan. 146 Mir Ahmad Yar Khan. 1948. p. in its meeting on January 4. under the Kalat-Pakistan Agreement of August 1947. "it was a clear signal of a shift in Pakistan's policy towards the Khanate". 145 Inayatullah Baloch. cited in ibid. the Khan of Kalat summoned the Kalat State diiuan. 147 182. however. The Khan.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development make every effort for the uplift of their country and to raise their educational standard. as well as against the Independence Act of 1947. the diiuan. Essays on Baloch National Struggle in Pakistan. on December 12.146 Following Jinnah's proposal on Kalat's merger. Baloch's opinion. late in September 1947 143 Janmahmad. said proudly. although refused his demand and argued: As Baluchistan is a land of numerous tribes. then a young participant. which can be binding upon them unless they are taken into confidence by their Khan. The Problem of Greater Baluchistan. Opposing unanimously the merger proposal of Kalat's state with Pakistan. I take.. 144 Interview with Ysuf Naskanti. In view of this opposition. Ibid.147 In order to discuss the leased areas. accordingly to the prevalent tribal convention. p. Similarly the Dar-uJ-Umara (Upper House) composed of the majority of the Sardars. Balochwarna. contrary to diplomatic tradition. p. 183. 1947. 184. The Khan appealed to the gathering to inspire the people with freedom and equality. he was not received by the Governor General or by the Prime Minister of Pakistan. the people there must be consulted in the affairs prior to any decision. no decision. A.org 249 . supported the Khan's decision to initiate talks with Pakistan. the Dar-ulAwam (Lower House) argued that the proposal militated against the spirit of the earlier agreement arrived at between Kalat Government and the spokesmen of Pakistan on August 4. hailed the decision of Dar-u/Atuam.143 "It was a great occasion" the seventy years old Yusuf Naskanti.144 However.145 M. 1947.

149 Realizing the gravity of the situation. separate accessions by the states of Lasbela and Kharan. Quetta: Balochi Publications.152 Accession of Makkoran. In December 1947. which were feudatories of the Khan.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development Kalat's Prime Minister. and of Makkoran. however. 34. General Purves failed in his efforts. 310-311. .UP&S/13/184. the Government of Pakistan announced on March 18th. Balochwarna. approaching the Commonwealth Relations office and the Ministry of Supply in London. but also prepared to use coercive methods for a forced merger of the state. to reorganize the forces and arrange the arms and ammunition. S. 151 Shaih Ragam. Thus negotiations provided for by the "Standstill Agreement" of August 1947 did not take place. 150 IOR. but with no success.151 When it became apparent to Pakistan that the Khan was merely playing for time. the Khan instructed the Commander-in-Chief of the Khanate's forces. Kharan and Lasbela robbed Kalat of more than half its territory and its access to the sea. the Khan desperately requested to the Indian authorities and the Afghan king for help. The following day the Khan of Kalat issued a statement refusing to believe that Pakistan as champion of Muslim rights in the world would infringe the rights of small 148 M. were sent to Karachi to meet the Secretary to the Government of Pakistan's Ministry of Foreign and States Affairs. 2000. Dehwar. pp. 149 Janmahmad. M. Brigadier General Purves. because of British refusal to supply any arms to the Khanate without the Pakistan Government's approval. Essays on Baloch National Struggle in Pakistan. The meetings between the officials of the two states were not fruitful because their host advised a merger with Pakistan rather than a treaty relationship. 183-184. and Foreign Minister Douglas Y Fell. which was never more than a district of the State of Kalat. Nawabzada Mohammad Aslam.L/P&S/13/1847.148 Since then the Pakistani authorities not only started a campaign against the Khan to compel him to join Pakistan.org 250 . pp. Contemprarv History of Balochistan. Shap Roch Shap. p. 152 IOR.150 In the same time.

the merger document as a "dictate of history". 1948. 156 Mir Ahmad Yar Khan Baluch.156 Even so. Mir Ahmad Yar Khan. acceded to Pakistan on March 27. 155 Ibid. I knew I was exceeding the scope of my mandate. 158 161-162. and is believed to have distributed large sums of money to MuIIas in the hope of obtaining their support. In Afghanistan's Shadow.. All others refused to attend. according to India Office Reports. but the State Muslim League emissaries counteracted these efforts. had no separate status and that the foreign policy of Lasbela and Kharan was placed under Kalat by standstill agreement... 154 IOR. Harrison.. Ibid.L/P&S/13/1847 155 Ibid. pp. Inside Baluchistan. adding. the. 157 Selig S. three days before accession.153 In a desperate attempt on 25th March. pointing out that Makkoran as a district of Kalat. The Khan. came to an end when the Khan of Kalat.155 The independence moves. hearing of the movements of troops in Pasni and Jiwani and fearful of further problems.158 The independence case was 153 ibid. 24.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development Muslim neighbours. a letter of 27 March from the Khan to Jinnah denied reports that he had attempted to urge Sardars and people against Kalat's accession to Pakistan.[but] had I not taken the immediate step of signing Kalat's merger. 1948 with orders to overcome resistance from the nationalists. the Khan tried to summon his Sardars and persuade them against accession. the Pakistani Army moved to Kalat on April 1.British Agent to the Governor-General could have played havoc by leading Pakistan into a fratricide war against the Baluches". "I confess. however. But only two unimportant Sardars obeyed the summons.org 251 . p. In it he also denied reports that he had entered into negotiations with India or Afghanistan. then intensified his efforts to rally people to his side. 25.157 Obviously the Baloch nationalists never even entertained the merger idea with Pakistan.. The Khan defines the matter of signing. Balochwarna.154 However.

1948. and if the mere fact that we are Muslims require us to amalgamate with Pakistan. then Afghanistan and Iran should also be amalgamated with Pakistan. 162 MM. who argued in the diwan meeting of December 1947 that: "We have a distinct culture like Afghanistan and Iran. The government of Pakistan was threatening to use force to achieve the accession of the country. the Khan silently signed the Document of Accession. then an assembly member from the majority party.. p. They say we Baloch cannot defend ourselves in the atomic age.159 Rejecting the merger proposal with Pakistan. Islamiyah Press. p. a lot of others cannot do so either". 43. Pakistan. p 160.org 252 . Bizenjo continued. 160 Ibid. Iran and even Pakistan capable of defending themselves against the superpowers? If we cannot defend ourselves. repeatedly rejected accession to Pakistan and insisted on preservation of a free Balochistan.161 The National Party and the diwan. 20 September. which were already annexed to Pakistan. Mahmud Ali. Well. On March 27. We cannot be guilty of this major crime to humiliate the Baloch nation to a merger with a non-Baloch nation. 313 163 S. 159 Balochwarna."160 A well-known authority on Pakistani affairs. The Enigma of Political Development.162 They also demanded return of those Khanate territories. "This mean signing the deathwarrant for 15 million Baloch in Asia. 1980. The Fearful State. Wm Dawson & Sons Ltd. Baluch Qaum Ke Tarikh ke Chand Parishan Dafter Auraq. The Baloch nationalists were ill prepared to ignore this fact. S.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development best articulated by Mir Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo. are Afghanistan. 137. the Kalat State National Party. p. Dehwar. Contemporary History of Balochistan.163 Malik Allah-Bakhsh. Quetta:. 161 Lawrence Ziring. which it dominated. after Pakistan's armed forces had been mobilized for military operations against the State. Lawrence Ziring maintains that Baloch leaders did not enter into the arrangement to join Pakistan willingly. 1957.

which had espoused the cause of a "Greater Balochistan" incorporating all Baloch areas into an enlarged Kalat state. A Political Agent. buried all. the Khanate became a part of Pakistan. Nasir 11 endeavoured to maintain it.164 With this. the Baloch Confederacy and rule came to an end after nearly three hundred years (1666-1948). 164 Gul 165 Balochwarna. Mir Gaus Bakhsh Bizenjo. rejected accession and was behind much of the agitation. centralising forces appeared that the Baloch tribes could not easily accept. Its leaders. 525-26. The Khan's decision was opposed by the Baloch nationalists.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development The accession of Balochistan into Pakistan was one of the epochmaking events in the history of Baloch people and their country. pp.. an officer subordinate to the AGG was appointed to look after the administration of the state and guide the Prime Minister in all internal affairs. 521-22. and most of the members of the Balochistan Cabinet were arrested or exiled from Balochistan. Mahmud Khan 11 prepared the coffin for the state. 167 Ibid.. Tarikh-e-Balochistan. Under the Raj. On 28 March. Muhammad Sardar Khan Baluch. wrote a Baloch writer. pp. now. Khan Nasir. "Nasir 1 united all. and Ahmad Yar. p. pp. were arrested. the legal entity of the Khan of Kalat was abolished. Mir Abdul Aziz Kurd and others. Tarikh-e-Balochistan. 166 Gul Khan Nasir. Khudadad Khan fought for the whole of his life to organise a government. the present Khan.166 The National Party. Baloch affairs outside of British Balochistan had been left to the Baloch. By this. 522. 125-126.167 This first encounter between the Baloch and the forces of the Pakistan state was crucial in shaping nationalist insecurity and fear of repression at the hands of foreigners."165 Oppression and First Baloch Resistance The merger of the Khanate into Pakistan in 1948 resulted in unrest and anti-Pakistan rallies throughout Balochistan. History of Baluch Race and Baluchistan.org 253 . and the glory and vanity of his line.

"came in April 1948.169 On 16 May 1948. Mohammad Hossein Anka. to join him in the struggle against Pakistan. favoured armed struggle in the form of guerilla war. "The showdown between Kalat and Pakistan" Harrison wrote. neither the Baloch nationalist parties nor the Darbar (Royal Court) of Kalat were prepared for any armed resistance. about 1000 in number. In Afghanistan's Shadow. Abdul Wahid Kurd. Contemporary History of Balochistan. Agha Abdul Karim was educated in Karachi. the nationalist leaders were also divided on the future line of action. after brief skirmishes with the well-trained and wellequipped army of Pakistan. crossed the border into Afghanistan and erected their camp at Karez Nazar Mohammad Khan situated in no man's land known as Sarlat in search of help. Qadir Bakhsh Nizamani and some other activists. and served as the governor of Makkoran province until March 1948. p. In addition to this."168 However. Malik Saeed Dehwar. on 15 April 1948.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development Under theses circumstances. Harrison. S. p. as they called themselves. Agha Abdul Karim. while Abdul Aziz Kurd. when the Pakistani army ordered its garrison Commander in Baluchistan to march on Kalat and arrest the Khan unless he signed a agreement of accession. a prominent journalist. M. Agha Abdul Karim and his partisans.org 254 . Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo and Gul Khan Nasir along with some other leaders of the Kalat State National Party "were cool to the idea of a military showdown with Pakistan" because of the lack of preparation and internal and external support. The National Party 168 169 Selig S. He invited the leading members of the nationalist parties (the Kalat State National Party and the Baloch League). 323 Balochwarna. the Secretary General of the National Party. 25. brother of the Khan of Kalat. M. Mir Ahmad Yar Khan (1933-1948) started an armed movement in the Jhalawan area backed by some nationalist leaders and with the secret approval of the Khan. Dehwar. the "Baloch Mujahideen" (holy warriors).

joined the Prince. 3 . p. disturbances.The search for international support.170 While staying in Afghanistan. May 1980. who was also chosen as the supreme commander of the Baloch Mujahideen. Baloch Qaum. Maulaui Arz Mohammad. B.The sending of messages to the Baloch chiefs of eastern and western Balochistan. asking them to join in the struggle. in: People's Front. The Problem of Greater Baluchistan. Maulaui Nazeer Hossein. and revolt as well as the enlistment of a national liberation force. Prince Abdul Karim had 2500. "Kaumi Azadi ki Council ka Qeyam". issued an appeal to personages to help with the recruitment.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development members who were still free.The running of a propaganda campaign in Balochistan. aiming to cause an uprising against the oppressive rule of Pakistan. London. the party distributed a series of pamphlets all over Balochistan. the Mujahideen adopted the following measures to achieve their goal: 1 . 4. 173 ibid. 307.org 255 . particularly from Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. aimed at the creation of unrest. 193. However.171 The propaganda campaign was to be carried out on two fronts: The national cultural front and the religious front. A person recruiting 100 men was offered the rank of a major and a person 170 Shah Mohammad Marri. On the religious front the Baloch nationalist Maulauis. p.172 Addressing the government servants and military personnel of Pakistan the fatwa demanded that the Muslims of Pakistan and particularly the soldiers. supporter with him (interview with Agha Naseer Khan Ahmadzai). should engage in Jihad against the non-Islamic Government of Pakistan. Maulaui Mohammad Afzal and a few others issued the fatwa (decree by a learned religious figure) and proclaimed Jihad (holy war) against Pakistan and demanded that the Baloch people join the national movement. Maulaui Mohammad Umar. p. Balochwarna. 2 . 172 K. when crossed the Afghan border. according to Agha Naseer Khan Ahmadzai. Nizamani.173 The Prince. along with a few Baloch individuals from Sindh and Derajat. On the national cultural front. 171 Inayatullah Baloch.

the Prince returned to Balochistan with his militia. 200. there was a secret unit Janbaz (volunteers). in: Zingel. The Prince approached the Soviet Embassy in Kabul for help. As argued by Dr. Under these circumstances. refused to provide any sort of help and told the Baloch Mujahideen either to reside as political refugees at Kandahar or to leave. 176 Azad Baluchistan. 1983. Hamburg. since the rise of Ahmad Shah. Balochwarna. Pakistan in its Fourth Decade. In the 19th century. London. But. Kabul's irredentist claims included what had now become Pakistan's Balochistan province. it was only fitting in Kabul's view that its historical claims be fulfilled.176 174 ibid. and watch the activities of traitors.). to kill all traitors.org 256 .175 The Afghans were not happy hosts. Inayatullah Baloch. a fact Prince Karim's nationalists failed to appreciate. Kabul-Karachi relations had been embittered over the Pakhtunistan issue. The Baloch Mujahideen had a secret agency called Jannisar (devotee). (ed. the Afghan had treated Balochistan as a vassal state until the Baloch-Afghan war in 1758. Afghan rulers like Shah Shuja and Amir Abdur-Rehman desired to occupy Balochistan. destroy the communication system. Inayatullah Baloch. The Soviet embassy was sympathetic. but offered no material assistance.174 The Afghan authorities. The headquarters of the agency was known as Bab-i-Aali (secret war-office) and headed by the Prince himself. whose duty was to provide information. p. which was to be the pattern for relations between Baloch nationalists and Moscow. "the idea of an independent Baluchistan was contradictory to the Afghans because Pakistani Balochistan was a part of Afghanistan's concept of Pashtunistan". W. 175 Monthly. In addition to this. January 1983. however. "The Baluch Question in Pakistan and the righ of self determination".Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development recruiting 50 men was entitled to the rank of captain. With the ending of Imperial paramountcy. when an agreement of "non-interference" was signed between the parties.

p. messages were sent to Mir Ghulam Faruq of the Rudini tribe. Agha Abdul Karim. Prince Agha Abdul Karim and his party returned to Balochistan on 8 July 1948. Mir Wazir Khan Sanjrani of Chagai.178 Meanwhile. S. the Prince along with more than one hundred of his followers was arrested.org 257 . Mahmud Mi. M. At the same time. Sardar Mehrab Khan. it was impossible for the Afghan Government to neglect its own national interests and to support the movement of an independent Greater Balochistan. before the Khan signed the Accession Document. p. The other members of his party were given various sentences and fines. 321. Sardar Mir Jumma. Dehwar. His colleague and advisor. the Baloch Mujahideen. 181 Gul Khan Nasir. Tarikh-e-Balochistan. p. Balochwarna. and several other chiefs.179 Agha Abdul Karim and his partisans. The Fearful State. p.177 Whatever the authenticity of this controversial report. were soon asked by the Afghan government to leave. 145. which claimed the Baloch region in Afghanistan. also received ten years' imprisonment. 526. On 27 November 1948. The Problem of Greater Baluchistan. In 1948. p. Contemporary History of Balochistan.. 138. 193.181 177 M. All India Radio announced that the Baloch Khanate had offered and requested accession to India. Mohammad Hossein Anka. After a minor clash near Harboi with the Pakistan army. a poet and intellectual. approached the "Iranian" Baloch Sardars for help but his appeal was refused because the Sardars were afraid of repression.180 Being disillusioned. 178 Inayatullah Baloch. he was tried by a special Jirga in Mach Jail and sentenced to ten years of rigorous imprisonment and a fine of Rs 5000.. As earlier mentioned.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development It must be borne in mind that the Afghan expansionist policy reflected the economic considerations of a landlocked state. the government of India did not take any effective action to accept the offer and protect the allegedly Congressite leaders of the National Party. 179 Ibid. 180 S.

Greater Balochistan would have encompassed Balochwarna. the Baloch intelligentsia . Summation The twentieth century marked a major watershed for the Baloch. the ambitions of the Baloch national movement failed to materialise. Middle East and Europe. and some others in the 1920s continued through the 1930s and 1940s. Due to these developments. Afghanistan. In 1947-48. the introduction of modern education. and on the other hand the publications prepared by British administrators. telegraph lines.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development Thus in 1948. which had inherited a part of the British Imperial Indian Armies. and the related servicing facilities in that part during the second half of the 19th century. as we will see in the next chapters. Direct British rule in northern Balochistan led to the construction of the first networks of roads.and through them.org 258 . Though the elected diwan (parliament) of the Khanate had noted what the leaders of the movement wanted: a sovereign independent Balochistan. The Baloch had never lost their freedom before their conquest by the modern armies of Britain and Iran.came to know more than their forefathers had known about their country and the world at large. though on a limited basis. their relatives. The surviving leaders and their new adherents. Abdul Aziz Kurd. From the end of the First World War. railways. underground activities and propaganda were strengthened mostly around a "classical" nationalist ideology not adverse to the concept of "Greater Balochistan". continued the same movement on various lines after 1948 when the party was outlawed by the government of Pakistan. the establishment of several large cantonments. orientalists and missionaries contributed to the development of Baloch national consciousness. friends and tribesmen . the Baloch national movement was crushed by Jinnah's Pakistan. however. treasury and administration. On the one hand the political developments in India. the development of several coal fields. The Baloch political movement began by Yusuf Ali Magasi.

org 259 . the alien domination. was formed. as the partition of the subcontinent approached after the World War II. created a backlash against the nationalists. Inspired by the political upheaval in Turkey and Russia. which remained underground until 1929. replaced the Anjuman. as submitted to the Cabinet Mission in 1946. however. the "Kalat State National Party". But within the state the party could not ignore the strength of the Sardari system or the designs of the British Government. British administered territories and western Balochistan. These policies. some Baloch called for an independent state of Balochistan. the movement was continued under the leadership of Abdul Aziz Kurd.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development the Khanate of Kalat. However. Both of these were obstructions to national liberation that is to the establishment of an independent Balochistan. the British and the Persians motivated the rise and development of Baloch nationalism in the early 20th century. the National Party intensified its activities for independence. The Baloch bitterly resisted their forcible incorporation into Iran by Reza Shah in 1928. In February 1937. In 1920 under the leadership of Magasi and Kurd. After Magasi's death in 1935. Yusuf Ali Magasi and Abdul Aziz Kurd were the early leaders in the Baloch national movement. a secret political organization called 'Young Baloch". the Government of Kalat maintains. a formal political party. commonly known as the "National Party". The views of the Government of Kalat regarding the future position of the Khanate at the time of the British withdrawal. Later on the organization was renamed as "Anjuman-e-Ittehad-e-Balochan" (Organization for the Unity of the Baloch). as well as the anti-colonial movement in British India itself. Consequently. were as follows: In view of the foregoing considerations. Thus. The party persuaded the Khan to abolish a number of taxes levied on tribes by pro-British Sardars. and they are supported in this by the unanimous will of the Balochwarna. the pressure from the British and several Sardars forced the Khan to declare the party illegal in 1939.

The Fearful State. 135. that its Indian associations are merely due to its connections with the British Government. declared the independence of his country. This was the first instance of elections in Balochistan's history. the Khan. 5. p. Mohammad Ali Jinnah. An assembly was formed. The National Party's members won 39 seats out of the total 52. Mahmud Ali. at first seemed ready to allow independence to Kalat and to return to it some of the surrounding areas under direct British administration.org 260 . UP & S/13/1846. It seems odd that the Khan of Kalat should have turned to the leader of the Muslim League. IOR. the Muslim League. "Baloch Qaumi Tahrik Men. elections were held and the national forces became dominant in the parliament. p. Inayatullah Baloch. Kalat State National Party Ka Kerdar".182 "N Despite the good prospects for independence after British withdrawal. his government.LVP&S/13/1847. as well as the departing British. and his people can never agree to Kalat being included in any form of Indian Union. though linked by a treaty (frequent parallels were drawn to Nepal). S. formally a sovereign state under the Raj.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development subjects of the state: That the Kalat State is an independent sovereign state whose relations with the British Government are governed by the Treaty of 1876. Despite the poor state of political life in Kalat. the frozen social structure. Different possibilities for the future of the Kalat state and the British leased territories were considered. which was the legacy of the Sandeman system. and that with the termination of the treaty with the British Government.183 On the 15th August 1947. the Khan of Kalat. 183 Balochwarna. Ahmad Yar Khan. that Kalat being an independent state. directed Balochistan along a gloomier path. Although the National Party was still an illegal organisation. thus taking the Government of Kalat and the Sardars by surprise. the Kalat State will revert to its pretreaty position of complete independence and will be free to choose its own course for the future. it participated indirectly in the elections through its members as individual candidates. 182 IOR.

he demanded formal accession by the Khan. the old and dying tribal and feudal system. since then. p. Sir Conrad Corfield. pp. Tarikh-e Balochistan. However. however. 146.org 261 . the Khan continuously referred the matter to the Khanate's elected diwan. The Princely India I Knew: From Reading to Mountbatten. and the lack of sufficient unity among the Baloch tribes for the cause of independence. Balochwarna. 184 185 Gul Khan Nasir.185 The independence of Kalat.Baloch Nationalism its Origin and Development As the events immediately following the 1947 partition were to reveal. did not last for more than eight months. Thus. represented by the Sardars. 139-160. Jinnah arranged the annexation of some part of the Khanate territory to Pakistan by controversial means. hastened the process. To counteract Jinnah's pressure. Jinnah had no interest in bolstering the Khan's position. This action was in accordance with the letter and spirit of the Indian Independence Act of 1947. they (the Khan and Jinnah) confronted each other as political foes. or in giving him any hope of independence. the principal reason for the collapse of the Khanate was the overwhelming force of the Pakistani army. which required that the "Princes' decision about tlwfuture of their States will take the desire of their people into consideration". the state of Kalat with its weak socio-economic and political structure collapsed in the face of the Pakistan's relatively very strong economic infrastructure and its modern civil and military institutions. India: Indo-British Historical Society. The Khan and the National Party insisted on an independent sovereign Balochistan. 1975. On 27th March the Khan was forced to accept the incorporation of his state into Pakistan. Consequently.184 For the remaining part • of Balochistan. 509. Thus. This event provoked a rebellion led by his brother Agha Abdul Karim who unsuccessfully sought to gain help from Afghanistan.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->