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# Construction 11.1 : To construct the bisector of a given angle. Given an angle ABC, we want to construct its bisector.

Steps of Construction : 1. Taking B as centre and an radius, draw an arc to intersect the ra s BA and BC, sa at ! and " respectivel #see $ig.11.1%i&'. (. )e*t, taking " and ! as centres and with the radius +ore than 1 "!, draw arcs to ( intersect each other, sa at $. ,. "raw the ra B$ #see $ig.11.1%ii&'. This ra B$ is the re-uired bisector of the angle ABC..et us see how this +ethod gives us the re-uired angle bisector. /oin "$ and !$. 0n triangles B!$ and B"$, B! 1 B" %2adii of the sa+e arc& !$ 1 "$ %Arcs of e-ual radii& B$ 1 B$ %Co++on&

draw arcs on both sides of the line seg+ent . e t u s s e e h ow t h i s +e t h o d g i v e s u s t h e perpendicular bisector of AB. Then line 465 is the re-uired perpendicular bisector of AB. . A5. Taking A and B as centres and radius +ore than 1 ( AB %to intersect each other&. . A4 1 B4 %As before& 46 1 46 %Co++on& AB. /oin 45 %see $ig. . ∠ A46 1 ∠ B46 %C4CT& )ow in triangles 46A and 46B.Therefore. Given a line seg+ent AB.(&. B4 and B5. Steps of Construction : 1. we want to construct its perpendicular bisector.11..( : To construct the perpendicular bisector of a given line seg+ent. 3 4A5 ≅ 3 4B5 %SSS rule& So. /oin A and B to both 4 and 5 to for+ A4. . A4 1 B4 %Arcs of e-ual radii& A5 1 B5 %Arcs of e-ual radii& 45 1 45 %Co++on& Therefore. (. 0n triangles 4A5 and 4B5.et 45 intersect AB at the point 6.et these arcs intersect each other at 4 and 5. 3B!$ ≅ 3B"$ %SSS rule& This gives ∠!B$ 1 ∠ "B$ %C4CT& Construction 11.

Steps of Construction : 1. 11. 465 is the perpendicular bisector of AB. 46. Taking A as centre and so+e radius. . that is. %ii&'. Taking " as centre and with the sa+e radius as before.inear pair a*io+&. we get ∠ 46A 1 ∠ 46B 1 . A! 1 A" 1 "! %B construction& Therefore. Then.%i&'. A6 1 B6 and ∠ 46A 1 ∠ 46B %C4CT& As ∠ 46A 7 ∠ 46B 1 189: %.? : To construct a triangle. . Then ∠ CAB is the re-uired angle of <9:. =e want to construct a ra AC such that ∠ CAB 1 <9:.∠ A46 1 ∠ B46 %4roved above& Therefore. 3 46A ≅ 3 46B %SAS rule& So. which is the sa+e as ∠ CAB is e-ual to <9 Construction 11. >ne wa of doing so is given below. "raw the ra AC passing through ! #see $ig 11. sa at a point !. draw an arc intersecting the previousl drawn arc.. : To construct an angle of <9 at the initial point of a given ra . which intersects AB. draw an arc of a circle. Construction 11. /oin "!.9:. )ow. a base angle and su+ of other two sides...et us take a ra AB with initial point A #see $ig. given its base.. 3 !A" is an e-uilateral triangle and the ∠ !A". let us see how this +ethod gives us the re-uired angle of <9:. (. sa at a point ". . Therefore.

. Then draw perpendicular bisector 45 of C" to intersect B" at a point A %see $ig 11. 2e+ark : The construction of the triangle is not possible if the su+ AB 7 AC D BC Construction 11. sa @BC e-ual to the given angle. Base BC and ∠B are drawn as given. "raw the base BC and at the point B +ake an angle. 11. . ∠AC" 1 ∠ A"C %B construction& Therefore. Cut a line seg+ent B" e-ual to AB 7 AC fro+ the ra B@.?&. . )e*t in triangle AC".C&. /oin AC. ou are re-uired to construct it. (. )ote that A lies on the perpendicular bisector of C"..et CA intersect B@ at A %see $ig. sa ∠B and the su+ AB 7 AC of the other two sides of a triangle ABC. . a base angle. therefore A" 1 AC. Then. a base angle and the difference of the other two sides. /oin "C and +ake an angle "CA e-ual to ∠B"C. ABC is the re-uired triangle.C : To construct a triangle given its base. Steps of Construction : 1. AC 1 A" and then AB 1 B" B A" 1 B" B AC AB 7 AC 1 B" Alternative +ethod : $ollow the first two steps as above.et us see how ou get the re-uired triangle. ?.Given the base BC. Then ABC is the re-uired triangle.

say . . Steps of Construction : 1. /oin "C and draw the perpendicular bisector. ABC is the re-uired triangle. / o i n A C %see $ig.et 45 intersect B@ at A. Cut the line seg+ent B" e-ual to AB B AC fro+ ra B@. (.<&. A" 1 AC So. sa 45 of "C. ou have to construct the triangle ABC. "raw the base BC and at point B +ake an angle sa @BC e-ual to the given angle. 11. Construction 11. Steps of Construction : 1. ?. a base angle. The point A lies on the perpendicular bisector of "C. Aou can Hustif the construction as in case %i&. then ABC is the re-uired triangle. /oin AC %see $ig. Base BC and ∠B are drawn as given. .6 : angles. To construct a triangle. . /oin "C and draw the perpendicular bisector. Then.et us now see how ou have obtained the re-uired triangle ABC.Given the base BC. sa ∠B and the difference of other two sides AB B AC or AC B AB. Sa+e as in case %i&. e t i t i n t e r s e c t B@ a t a p o i n t A. Clearl there are following two cases: Case %i& : . sa 45 of "C. .. (. Therefore. ?. . given its perimeter and its two base Given the base angles.. B" 1 AB B A" 1 AB B AC.et AB EltF AC that is AC B AB is given. Case %ii& : . Cut line seg+ent B" e-ual to AC B AB fro+ the line B@ e*tended on opposite side of line seg+ent BC.G&.et AB EgtF AC that is AB B AC is given. 11.

5.ig !!.ig.. ∠ B and '$# e%ual to ∠ C.i/0.. "raw a line segment. . !!.-. #B 8 AB and similarly. C$ 8 AC. Again ∠ BA# 8 ∠ A#B . 'a(e angles )#$ e%ual to *. &. say #$ e%ual to BC + CA + AB.ii/0. )et 23 intersect #$ at B and 4S intersect #$ at C. ∠B and ∠C and BC + CA + AB.. you have to construct Steps of Construction !. Therefore.. !!. you observe that. )et these bisectors intersect at a point A . . This gives BC + CA + AB 8 BC + #B + C$ 8 #$.the triangle ABC.ii/ Then ABC is the re%uired triangle.or the 7ustification of the construction.As in Δ A#B.∠)#$ and ∠'$#.ig. ABC 8 ∠ BA# + ∠ A#B 8 & ∠ A#B 8 ∠ )#$∠ ACB 8 ∠ '$# as re%uired. Bisect +see .-. "raw perpendicular bisectors 23 of A# and 4S of A$. AB 8 #B/ and ∠ Σιµιλαρλψ. !!.ig.i/ 1. . B lies on the perpendicular bisector 23 of A#. 6oin AB and AC +see .

then 3 A>B ≅ 3 C>" %=h J& Can ou now see that AB 1 C"J Theore+ 19. >A 1 >C %2adii of a circle& >B 1 >" %2adii of a circle& AB 1 C" %Given& Therefore.1. then the chords are e-ual. then the chords are e-ual. if ou take ∠ A>B 1 ∠ C>". if ou take ∠ A>B 1 ∠ C>".( : 0f the angles subtended b the chords of a circle at the centre are e-ual. Aou want to prove that ∠ A>B 1 ∠ C>".1 : !-ual chords of a circle subtend e-ual angles at the centre.( : 0f the angles subtended b the chords of a circle at the centre are e-ual.1. The above theore+ is the converse of the Theore+ 19. 0n triangles A>B and C>".Theore+ 19. 4roof : Aou are given two e-ual chords AB and C" of a circle with centre > . The above theore+ is the converse of the Theore+ 19. 3 A>B ≅ 3 C>" %SSS rule& This gives ∠ A>B 1 ∠ C>" %Corresponding parts of congruent triangles& I Theore+ 19. then 3 A>B ≅ 3 C>" %=h J& Can ou now see that AB 1 C"J .

in general. first let us be clear what is assu+ed in Theore+ 19. and what is proved.. =hat is the converse of this theore+J To write this.C : There is one and onl one circle passing through three given nonMcollinear points Theore+ 19./oin>Aand>B %see $ig. 19. .< : !-ual chords of a circle %or of congruent circles& are e-uidistant fro+ the centre %or centres&.? : The line drawn through the centre of a circle to bisect a chord is perpendicular to the chord. Aou will see that it is true for these cases. Aou have to provethat>6⊥AB. 0s this trueJ Tr it for few cases and see. Given that the perpendicular fro+ the centre of a circle to a chord is drawn and to prove that it bisects the chord. : The perpendicular fro+ the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord.. Thus in the converse.9: %=h J& Theore+ 19. =e will write the stages and ou give the reasons.et AB be a chord of a circle with centre > and > is Hoined to the +idMpoint 6 of AB.Theore+ 19. . See if it is true. 0n triangles >A6 and >B6. 3>A6 ≅ 3>B6 %Now J& This gives ∠>6A 1 ∠>6B 1 . b doing the following e*ercise. what the h pothesis is Kif a line fro+ the centre bisects a chord of a circleL and what is to be proved is Kthe line is perpendicular to the chordL. So the converse is: Theore+ 19.1<&. >A 1 >B %=h J& A6 1 B6 %=h J& >6 1 >6 %Co++on& Therefore.

$ro+ the centre >. .et us begin b Hoining A> and e*tending it to a point B. draw two line seg+ents >. 4roof : Given an arc 45 of a circle subtending angles 4>5 at the centre > and 4A5 at a point A on the re+aining part of the circle. Theore+ 19. Nere ∠4A5 is an angle in the seg+ent.9:. This verifies the converse of the Theore+ 19. : Angles in the sa+e seg+ent of a circle are e-ual.< which is stated as follows: Theore+ 19. and >6 of e-ual length and l ing inside the circle Then draw chords 45 and 2S of the circle perpendicular to >. arc 45 is a se+icircle and in %iii&. =e need to prove that ∠ 4>5 1 ( ∠ 4A5 Consider the three different cases as 0n %i&. draw a circle with centre >. 0n all the cases. ∠ 4A5 1 1O(∠ 4>5 1 1O(P 189: 1 . 2epeat the activit for +ore e-ual line seg+ents and drawing the chords perpendicular to the+. which is a se+icircle.G : Chords e-uidistant fro+ the centre of a circle are e-ual in length. =e now take an e*a+ple to illustrate the use of the above results: Theore+ 19. ou find another propert of the circle as: .. ∠ B>5 1 ∠ >A5 7 ∠ A5> because an e*terior angle of a triangle is e-ual to the su+ of the two interior opposite angles. arc 45 is +aHor. 0f ou take an other point C on the se+icircle. Also. again ou get that ∠ 4C5 1 . it will be seen whether the converse of this theore+ is true or not.9: Therefore.8 separatel . arc 45 is +inorF in %ii&. and >6 respectivel 6easure the lengths of 45 and 2S. Are these differentJ )o.8 : The angle subtended b an arc at the centre is double the angle subtended b it at an point on the re+aining part of the circle.)e*t. $or this. Again let us discuss the case %ii& of Theore+ 19. both are e-ual.

Aou can see the truth of this result as follows: 0n $ig. 0f points A. the four points lie on a circle %i.. 0t can be stated as: Theore+ 19.19 : 0f a line seg+ent Hoining two points subtends e-ual angles at two other points l ing on the sa+e side of the line containing the line seg+ent. sa ! %or !Q&. C. Suppose it does not pass through the point ". This is not possible unless ! coincides with ". B. .. %=h J& Si+ilarl . is also true. the are conc clic&. !Q should also coincide with ".Aou will find a peculiar propert in such -uadrilaterals.e. 11 : T h e s u + o f e i t h e r p a i r o f o p p o s i t e a n g l e s o f a c clic -uadrilateral is 189R. That is∠ ACB 1 ∠ A"B To show that the points A. "raw several c clic -uadrilaterals of different sides and na+e each of these as ABC". 19. The converse of Theore+ 19. C and B. C and " lie on a circle let us draw a circle through the points A. 19. AB is a line seg+ent.9.8 C clic 5uadrilaterals A -uadrilateral ABC" is called c clic if all the four vertices of it lie on a circle . T h e o r e + 1 9 . ∠ A!B 1 ∠ A"B.Angle in a se+icircle is a right angle. which subtends e-ual angles at two points C and ". ∠ ACB 1 ∠ A!B %=h J& But it is given that ∠ ACB 1 ∠ A"B. Then it will intersect A" %or e*tended A"& at a point. ! and B lie on a circle. Therefore.

1( : 0f the su+ of a pair of opposite angles of a -uadrilateral is 189R. To al surface area of a he'is%here = 3πr2 1).e.. *olu'e of a cuboid = l + b + h 11. Theore+ 19. Curved surface area of a cone = πrl 6. Surface area of a cube = 6a2 3. $>2 2!$!2!)C! >$ "0AG2A6S 4. Surface area of a s%here of radius r = 4 π r2 &. which is stated below is also true. *olu'e of a cylinder = πr2h .. Curved surface area of a he'is%here = 2πr2 (.TN. *olu'e of a cube = a3 12..=! NAT! STAT!" AB>UT TN! $0GU2!.0n fact. the converse of this theore+.!AS! 2!$!2 TN! )C!2T B>>S >$ C. Aou can see the truth of this theore+ b following a +ethod si+ilar to the +ethod adopted for Theore+ 19. Surface area of a cuboid = 2 (lb + bh + hl) 2. the -uadrilateral is c clic. To al surface area of a cylinder = 2πr(r + h) !. 1. To al surface area of a cone = πrl + πr"r # i..# πr (l + r) $.ASS . Curved surface area of a cylinder = 2πrh 4.19.

*olu'e of a cone = 1.3π r3 -.1 Theorem 8. *olu'e of a he'is%here = 2.3π r3 1!. *olu'e of a s%here of radius r = 4. . have been used in heir usual 'eanin/# de%endin/ on he con e0 .13.3πr2h 14.ere# le ers l# b# h# a# r# e c.1 : A diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two congruent triangles.

BC . DC and AD . . ∠ DAC !Pair of alternate angles# Also% AB ** DC and AC is a transversal. 0ou have alread& proved that a diagonal divides the parallelogram into two congruent triangles1 so what can &ou sa& a out the corresponding parts sa&% the corresponding sides/ The& are e2ual. CA !Common# +o% ' ABC ≅ ' CDA !A+A rule# or% diagonal AC divides parallelogram ABCD into two congruent triangles ABC and CDA.5 : )f each pair of opposite sides of a 2uadrilateral is e2ual% then it . (e need to prove that these triangles are congruent. )n ' ABC and ' CDA% note that BC ** AD and AC is a transversal.2 : In a parallelogram. (hat do &ou o serve/ 0ou will find that AB . +o% AB . $ serve that the diagonal AC divides parallelogram ABCD into two triangles% namel&% ' ABC and ' CDA. opposite sides are equal. Thus% Theorem 8. BC Theorem 8.ow% measure the opposite sides of parallelogram ABCD. +o% ∠ BCA . DC and AD . ∠ DCA !Pair of alternate angles# and AC .ow what is the converse of this result/ 0ou alread& 3now that whatever is given in a theorem% the same is to e proved in the converse and whatever is proved in the theorem it is given in the converse.4 can e stated as given elow : )f a 2uadrilateral is a parallelogram% then each pair of its opposite sides is e2ual.Proof : Let ABCD e a parallelogram and AC e a diagonal !see "ig. 8. +o its converse is : Theorem 8. +o% ∠ BAC .8#.

BC !see "ig. Can &ou reason out wh&/ Let sides AB and CD of the 2uadrilateral ABCD e e2ual and also AD .is a parallelogram.6#. 8.: : )n a parallelogram% opposite angles are e2ual. 8. +o% we have the following theorem : Theorem 8. ∠ DAC !(h&/# Can &ou now sa& that ABCD is a parallelogram/ (h&/ 0ou have 7ust seen that in a parallelogram each pair of opposite sides is e2ual and conversel& if each pair of opposite sides of a 2uadrilateral is e2ual% then it is a parallelogram. Can we conclude the same result for the pairs of opposite angles/ Draw a parallelogram and measure its angles. Draw diagonal AC. Theorem 8. Draw a parallelogram ABCD and draw oth its diagonals intersecting at the point $ !see "ig. 9epeat this with some more parallelograms. >easure the lengths of $A% $B% $C and $D. .1=#. ∠ DCA and ∠ BCA . There is yet another property of a parallelogram. . .ow% is the converse of this result also true/ 0es. (e arrive at &et another result as given elow. (hat do &ou o serve/ 8ach pair of opposite angles is e2ual.< : )f in a 2uadrilateral% each pair of opposite angles is e2ual% then it is a parallelogram. Clearl&% ' ABC ≅ ' CDA !(h&/# +o% ∠ BAC .sing the angle sum propert& of a 2uadrilateral and the results of parallel lines intersected & a transversal% we can see that the converse is also true. Let us study the same.

$C and $B .@. 8. ∠ CD$ !(h&/# "rom this% we get AB ** CD +imilarl&% BC ** AD Therefore ABCD is a parallelogram. . 1 A i n wh i c h AB . +o% ' A$B ≅ ' C$D !(h&/# Therefore% ∠ AB$ . $D. L o o 3 a t " i g 8 . 0ou can reason out this result as follows: . Theorem 8. 9epeat this activit& with some more parallelograms. or% $ is the mid?point of oth the diagonals. +o% we have the following theorem : Theorem 8. )t is given elow: Theorem 8.ow% what would happen% if in a 2uadrilateral thediagonals i s e c t e a c h o t h e r / (i l l i t ea parallelogram/ )ndeed this is true. $C and $B . This result is the converse of the result of Theorem 8.8 : A 2uadrilateral is a parallelogram if a pair of opposite sides is e2ual and parallel. 0ou can show .(hat do &ou o serve/ 0ou will o serve that $A . Let us draw a diagonal AC. CD a n d AB ** CD.@ : The diagonals of a parallelogram isect each other.11% it is given that $A . $D.A : )f the diagonals of a 2uadrilateral isect each other% then it is a parallelogram.ote that in "ig. 8ach time &ou will find that $ is the mid?point of oth the diagonals.

:ro#e that )& 2 +& %y using the "ongruen"e of ... parallel to another side %ise"ts the third side.94 Is the "on#erse true4 !ou will see that "on#erse of the a%o#e theorem is also true whi"h is stated as %elow: Theorem 8. +o% BC ** AD !(h&/# Let us now ta3e an eBample to appl& this propert& of parallelogram.3hy41 Therefore. *).. Theorem 8. (& 2 D& and *( 2 )( 2 D+ . *). +an you state the "on#erse of Theorem 8. !ou "an pro#e this theorem using the following "lue: $%ser#e &ig 8. .that ' ABC ≅ ' CDA & +A+ congruence rule.57 : The line drawn through the mid point of one side of a triangle. line l is passsing through ( and is parallel to *+ and +9 .)(& and . . .)/) 0ule1 /o.In &ig 8.+D&. *+.28.)(& ≅ .9 : The line segment joining the mid points of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side.2' in whi"h ( and & are mid points of )* and )+ respe"ti#ely and +D . also note that (& 2 562(D 2 562*+. In this "ase.+D& . *+D( is a parallelogram. o%ser#e that ( is the mid point of )*.3hy41 This gi#es (& .