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INTRODUCTION This is a report to validate the 2-phase line sizing spreadsheet used on the MPNU Slot Addition Project. It explains the steps, criteria and standards applied in sizing the 2-phase line. B. CRITERIA FOR SIZING A 2-PHASE LINE (API RP 14E PAGE 23) The 2-phase fluid velocity should not exceed the erosional velocity The minimum velocity should not be less than 10 ft/s to minimize slugging of separation equipment.

C. PROCESS DATA Operating conditions of the 2-phase line will be derived from the Heat and Material Balance prepared from HYSYS simulation. This will also be used for the purpose of validating the calculation procedure described in this report. D. 2-PHASE LINE SIZING: 1. Erosional velocity The erosional velocity is determined using equation 2.14 (API RP 14E, Page 23)

Ve =



Ve = Erosional velocity, ft/sec.

C = Empirical constant m = Gas / liquid mixture density at flowing pressure and temperature, Ib/ft3

2. Mean Density The density of the gas / liquid mixture is calculated using equation 2.15 (API RP 14E Page 23).

m =

12409 S l P + 2.7 S g P 198.7 P + RTZ


m = Mean density, Ib/ft3



= Operating pressure, psia = Liquid specific gravity (water = 1; use average gravity for Hydrocarbon-water mixtures) at standard conditions.

R = Gas / liquid ratio, ft3/bbl T = Operating temperature, R S g = Gas specific gravity at standard conditions Z = Gas compressibility factor, dimensionless

3. Minimum Cross-sectional Area This is the area required to avoid fluid erosion. It is determined from equation 2.16 (API RP 14E, Page 23.)


9.35 +

ZRT 21.25 P ...........................................D.3 Ve


A = Minimum pipe cross-sectional flow area required, in2/1000bbl liquid per day.

4. Pressure Drop Using equation 2.17 (API RP 14E, Page 24), the pressure drop is determined thus;

P =

0.000336 fW 2 di m


Where: P = Pressure drop, psi/100ft d i = Pipe inside diameter, in

f = Moody friction factor, dimensionless m = Mean density, Ib/ft3

W = Total liquid plus vapor rate, Ibs/hr
NOTE: The use of this equation D.4 should be limited to 10% pressure drop due to inaccuracies associated with changes in density.

5. Mean Liquid Specific Gravity Per API RP 14E, Page 47,

Slm =

Ql S l 1 + QW S l 2 ........................................D.5 Ql + QW

Where: Slm = Mean liquid specific gravity Ql = Oil flow rate, bbl/day

S l1 = Specific gravity of oil QW = Produced water flow rate, bbl / day S l 2 = Specific gravity of water / oil mixture

6. GOR The GOR is the ratio of gas flow rate to the oil flow rate (API RP 14E, Page 47)


Qg Ql


Where: Q g = Gas flow rate, ft3 /day

Ql = Liquid flow rate, bbl/day

7. Fluid Velocity Per API RP 14E, Page 48, fluid velocity is determined using the formula:


Vt .............................................D.7 (d i 4 12) 2

where: V= Fluid velocity, ft/sec. Vt = Total volume flow, ft3/sec. di = Inside diameter, in.

8. V 2 Calculation

is the mean density, Ib/ft3

V is the fluid velocity,ft/s.

9. Minimum Required Line Size


4A .....................................D.9

where: A = Minimum pipe cross- sectional area,in2

PART 2 A. VALIDATION OF EXCEL SPREADSHEET This manual calculation is performed to validate the 2-phase line sizing excel spreadsheet shown in attachment 1. The calculation is based on the solved example in API RP 14E (example A1), in which a gas condensate flow line was sized (see attachment 2). This calculation is to validate the selection of a 3 line for the final flow conditions. . B. GENERAL DATA Line pressure, P Temperature, T 1500 psig (1514.7 psia) 120F (580 R)

C. GAS PROCESS DATA Gas flow rate, Qg Specific gravity Dynamic viscosity 10mmscfd 0.65 0.81

D. LIQUID PROCESS DATA Oil flow rate, Ql Specific gravity Dynamic viscosity Water flow rate Water specific gravity 200 bbl/day 0.80 1.28 cP 1500 bbl/day 1.08

E. PIPE DATA Nominal diameter Piping class Size / Schedule Roughness Empirical constant, C Internal diameter 3 in D 3-XXS 0.0019 100 2.3 in

F. CALCULATION 1. Mean Liquid specific gravity. From equation D.5,

S L ( mean ) = Q L S L1 + QW S L 2
Q L + QW

S L ( mean )

(200 0.80) + (1500 1.08) 200 + 1500

160 + 1620 1700 1780 1700

S L ( mean )

S L ( mean )

= 1.0471

2. GOR From equation D.6, GOR =

200bbl / d + 1500bbl / d


= 5882.3529 ft3/bbl

3. Mean Density From equation D.4,

m =

12409 S l P + 2.7 S g P 198.7 P + RTZ


(12409)(1.0407)(1514.7) + (2.7)(5882.3529)(0.65)(1514.7) (198.7)(1514.7) + (5882.3529)(580)(0.81)

m =

19679320.18 + 15637049.89 300970.89 + 2763529.392

m = 11.5243 Ib/ft3

4. Total Mass flow W = 3180Q g S g + 14.6QL S L

W = (3180)(10)(0.65)+14.6(1500+200)(1.0471) 20670+25986.54 W = 46,659.022 Ib/hr

5. Pressure Drop From equation D.4,

P = 0.000336 fW 2

di 5 m
P = 0.000336 0.002 (46,656.54) 2

(2.3)5 (11.5243)
= 14628.31591 741.743

P = 19.7 psi/100ft

6. Erosional Velocity From equation D.1,

Ve =


Ve =

= 29.4573 ft/s

7. Fluid Velocity From equation D.7, V=

Vt / 4 (d i / 12) 2


(3.142 / 4) (2.3 / 12) 2

V = 38.813 ft/s

8. V 2

V 2 = 11.5243 (38.813) 2 V 2 = 17,360.77 Ib/ft/s2

9. Minimum Pipe Cross-sectional Area

A= 9.35 + ZRT / 21.25 P

(from equation D.3)

A = 9.35+ (0.81)(5882.3529)(580)/(21.25)(1514.7) 29.4573 A = 3.2321 in2/1000 bbl/day

A = 3.23 in2/1000 bbl/day (1500 bbl/day + 200 bbl/day) = 5.494 in.

10. Minimum Required Line Size From equation D.9, d= d =

4A / 4 5.49 / 3.142

d = 2.64 in

Friction factor The friction factor used for the purpose of this validation report was taken from API RP 14E sample calculation. There is no basis for establishing the friction factor used in the sample calculation since the viscosity of the fluid is not stated in the example thus making it impossible to establish the Reynolds number to be used on Moody friction factor graph.

For all other cases, the Moody friction factor shall be determined from the iterative solution developed by Colebrook or Olga friction factor correlation which also gives the same answer as Colebrook. (See GPSA-chapter 17 page 4.)


1 fm

= ( )2 log10 (

3 .7 D




f = 0.0055[ 1 + ((

20000 1000000 1 / 3 )+ ) d Re

CONCLUSION The 2-phase line sizing excel spreadsheet and the manual calculation gave the same results as shown in API RP 14E Appendix A sample calculation.

REFERENCES API Recommended practice 14E Offshore Production Platform Piping System GPSA Engineering Data Book.

ATTACHMENTS Attachment 1: Excel spreadsheet for 2-phase line sizing Attachment 2: API RP 14E, Appendix A. Attachment 3: GPSA Section 17.

Cakasa Nig. Company Ltd. Client: Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited Project: Ubit GA & GC Slot Addition Project 2-PHASE LINE SIZING - API 14E Input Description Line Number Hysys Stream Number Line pressure Temp Unit General Data psig o F API 14E Initial 4500 120 Gas Process Data Flow Rate Specific Gravity Compressibility Oil Flowrate Specific Gravity Water Flowrate Water Specific Gravity Nominal Diameter Piping class. Size / Schedule Roughness Empirical Constant; C Absolute Pressure Absolute Temperature Total Stream Mass Flow Total Stream Volume Flow Friction factor Internal Diameter (ID) Mean Liquid SG GOR Mean density Pressure drop Erosional Velocity Fluid Velocity v2 Minimum Pipe Cross Sectional Area Minimum Required Line Size Selected Line Size Comments : mmscfd bbl/day bbl/day inch inch psia

Revision: Date: Issued By: Checked By: Approved By:

0 18-Sep-08 O.I O.O O.O

API 14E Final 1500 120

API 14E Final 4500 120

15 0.65 0.91 750 0.80 0 1 Pipe Data 4 D 4- XXS 0.0019 100 Intermediate 4514.70 580 39,765 0.62 0.0196 3.152 Results 0.80 20,000 17.75 1.9 23.7 11.48 2,340.47 3.77 2.19 4.00

10 0.65 0.81 200 0.80 1500 1.08 3 D 3- XXS 0.0019 100 1514.70 580 46,658.00 1.125 0.02 2.3 1.0471 5,882.35 11.5 19.7 29.5 38.97 17,504 5.49 2.64 3.00

10 0.65 0.81 200 0.80 1500 1.08 4 D 4- XXS 0.0019 100 1514.70 580 46,658.00 1.127 0.0196 3.152 1.0471 5,882.35 11.5 4.0 29.5 20.796 4,973.2 5.49 2.64 4.00

Liquid Process Data

Lb/hr ft3/s inch ft3/bbl lb/ft3 psi/100ft ft/s ft/s Lb/ft/s in2 in in

Pressure Loss Due to Friction

Flow is always accompanied by friction. This friction results in a loss of energy available for work. A general equation for pressure drop due to friction is the Darcy-Weisbach2 (often referred to as simply the Darcy) equation. This equation can be rationally derived by dimensional analysis, with the exception of the friction factor, f m, which must be determined experimentally. Expressed in feet of fluid this equation is: hL =

is the sum of the Pf values calculated for the individual segments. For gas applications the segmental length may be relatively short, as compared to liquid applications, since many gas applications involve compressible gases where gas densities vary with pressure.

Friction Factor and Effect of Pipe Roughness

When the fluid flow is laminar (Re<2000), the friction factor has a direct relationship to the Reynolds number, such that: fm = 64 /Re or ff = 16 /Re Eq 17-8 Pipe roughness has no effect on the friction factor in laminar flow. Substitution of the formula for Reynolds number, Eq 17-4, into Eq 17-8, yields the following: 64 e 64 12 = Eq 17-9 DV V 1488 d This expression can then be substituted for the friction factor in Eq 17-7, resulting in the following formula for pressure loss in pounds per square inch: fm =

fm L V

Eq 17-6

Converting to pounds per square inch, the equation becomes:

Pf =

fm L V2 (144 ) D (2gc)

Eq 17-7

It should be noted that the Moody friction factor3, fm, is used in the equations above. Some equations are shown in terms of the Fanning friction factor, ff, which is one fourth of fm (fm = 4.0 ff). A graph of both Fanning and Moody friction factors as a function of Reynolds number appears in Fig. 17-2. The Darcy-Weisbach equation is valid for both laminar and turbulent flow of any liquid, and may also be used for gases with certain restrictions. When using this equation, changes in elevation, velocity, or density must be accounted for by applying Bernoullis theorem. The Darcy-Weisbach equation must be applied to line segments sufficiently short such that fluid density is essentially constant over that segment. The overall pressure drop

Pf = 0.000668



Eq 17-10

Eq 17-10 is commonly known as Poiseuilles law for laminar flow. When the flow is turbulent, the friction factor depends on the Reynolds number and the relative roughness of the pipe,

FIG. 17-2 Friction Factors5


/D, which is the roughness of the pipe, , over the pipe diameter, D. Fig. 17-2 incorporates the relative roughness of the pipe into the determination of the friction factor. Fig. 17-3 indicates relative roughness and friction factors for various piping materials. These figures are based on the iterative solution of the following equation developed by Colebrook.4 2.51 1 = 2 log10 + fm fm 3.7 D Re Eq 17-11

Examination of the relationships presented by various authors shows that their forms differ primarily in the inherent or specified representation of the transmission factor which defines the energy lost in resistance to flow for various pipe sizes, roughnesses, flow conditions, and gases. To obtain Eq 17-15, which is convenient for general calculations, a number of simplifying assumptions have been made. For other than pipeline sections with a very high pressure gradient, the change in the kinetic energy of the gas is not significant, and is assumed equal to zero. It is also assumed that the gas temperature is constant at an average value for the section considered; the compressibility factor is constant at the value characterized by the average gas temperature and pressure; and in the term giving the effect of elevation change, the pressure is constant at the average value. In the range of conditions to which pipeline flow equations are ordinarily applied, averages are usually sufficiently accurate. Average temperatures are calculated as indicated in Fig. 17-1. The average pressure in the line can be computed by: Pavg = P1 + P2 3 P1 + P2 2 P1 P2 Eq 17-16

Equivalent Length of Valves and Fittings

The pressure drop effects of valves and fittings can be accounted for by addition of the "equivalent lengths" of the fittings to the actual piping lengths. This augmented pipe length is then used in any of the following pressure drop calculation techniques. A table of equivalent lengths for a number of representative valves and fittings appears in Fig. 17-4.

Compressibility of Gases
For more accurate values of Z, refer to Section 23. For more approximate calculations, the value of the average compressibility factor, Zavg, may be calculated from the following equations: Zavg = and Fpv = 1 + 1 (Fpv)2 Eq 17-12

In the absence of field data indicating otherwise, an efficiency factor, E, of 1.0 is usually assumed. The AGA Equations The AGA Equations were developed to approximate partially and fully turbulent flow using two different transmission factors. The fully turbulent flow equation accounts for the relative pipe roughness, /D, based on the rough-pipe law.4 This equation uses the following transmission factor: 3.7 D 1/ff = 4 log10 Eq 17-17 When the transmission factor for fully turbulent flow is substituted in the general energy equation (Eq 17-15), the AGA Equation for fully turbulent flow becomes:
2 2.5 P2 Tb 3.7 D 1 P2 Q = 38.77 E 4 log10 d S L T Z P b m avg avg

(Pavg ) (3.444 ) (105) (10(1.785) (S)) T3.825 avg

Eq 17-13

Fig. 17-5 contains a plot of the deviation factor, Fpv, virtually identical to those calculated by this equation. An estimate for Zavg at pressures below 100 psi is: Zavg = 1 1 + 0.0002 Pavg Eq 17-14

SINGLE PHASE FLOW Transmission Line Gas Flow

Isothermal Flow The steady-state, isothermal flow behavior of gas in pipelines is defined by a general energy equation of the form:
2 2.5 P2 Tb 1 1 P2 Q = 38.77 E d T P S L Z f b f m avg avg

Eq 17-18 The partially turbulent flow equation is based on the smooth-pipe law4 and is modified to account for drag-inducing elements. The transmission factor for this equation is: Re 1/ff = 4 log10 0.6 Eq 17-19 1/ff Substituting 1/ff from Eq 17-19 into Eq 17-15 does not provide an equation which can be solved directly. For partially turbulent flow a frictional drag factor must also be applied to account for the effects of pipe bends and irregularities. These calculations are beyond the scope of this book and the AGA "Steady Flow in Gas Pipelines"6 should be consulted for a detailed treatment of partially turbulent flow. The Weymouth Equation The Weymouth Equation, published in 19127, evaluated the coefficient of friction as a function of the diameter. 0.008 ff = Eq 17-20 d1/3 1/ff = 11.18 d1/6 Eq 17-21

Eq 17-15

This equation is completely general for steady-state flow, and adequately accounts for variations in compressibility factor, kinetic energy, pressure, and temperature for any typical line section. However, the equation as derived involves an unspecified value of the transmission factor, 1/ff . The correct representation of this friction factor is necessary to the validity of the equation. The friction factor is fundamentally related to the energy lost due to friction. In the derivation of the general energy equation, all irreversibilities and non-idealities, except for those covered by the real gas law, have been collected into the friction loss term. Empirical methods historically and currently used to calculate or predict the flow of gas in a pipeline are the result of various correlations of the transmission factor substituted into the general energy equation.

When the friction factor, ff, is substituted in the general energy equation, Weymouths Equation becomes: