You are on page 1of 44

April 2014 / Vol. 17 / No.

www.aws.org

NDE Training in the Lone Star


State
Using
Using Inspection
Inspection Tools
Tools
Staying
Staying Safe
Safe
School
School Profiles
Profiles

OmniScan MX2

OmniScan SX

OmniScan Solutions
The Easiest and F
Fastest
astest W
Way
ay tto
o Get the Job Done
OmniScan flaw detectors offer intuitive interface, high performance, and exceptional features making
them the most trusted portable phased array instruments on the market. Olympus has devoted con
con-siderable ef
fort toward
toward innovating and deploying
effort
a wide range of complete market solutions aimed at
de
meeting customers needs.

Pressure V
e
esse
Pressure
Vessel
essel and
Pipe Weld
Weld Inspection

Corrosion Mapping
Corrosion
Inspection

Weld Inspection of
Weld
Small-Diameter Pipes

CFRP Composite
Inspection

A complete inspection of
pr
pressure
essure vessel and pipe
welds can be performed
manually
manually,, or in a single scan
using an OmniScan and a
scanner tur
turnkey
nkey solution.

The OmniScan P
PA
A system
with the Hydr
HydroFORM
oFORM
scanner is designed
ned to of
offer
fffer
the best inspection solution
for the detection of walleduction.
thickness rreduction.

When coupled with


the COBRA manual
scanner
scanner,, OmniScan flaw
detectors ar
e capable of
are
inspecting pipes ranging
fr
om 0.84
inch OD to
from
0.84inch
4.5
inchOD.
4.5inchOD.

Olympus of
offers
ffffers
fe complete
fe
solutions for the inspection
of carbon-fiber
carbon-fiber-reinforced
-reinforced
polymer structur
structures.
es.

For Info, go to www.aws.org/ad-index

www
w.olympus-ims.com
.olym
.

AWS MEMBE
MEMBERSHIP
ERSHIP APPLICATION
APPLIC
CATI
AT ON
4 Easy Ways to
o Join or Renew:
Ren
Mail: Form with your payment, to AWS

Call: Membership Department at (800) 443-9353, ext. 480

Fax: Completed form too (305) 443-5647

ww.aws.org/membership
Online: ww

CONTACT
C
ONTA
TACT IINFORMATION
NFORMAT
MATION
 New Member  Renewal
al
 Mr.  Ms.  Mrs.  Dr.
D

Please print Duplicate


e this page as needed

_______________
_ _____
___________
___________
_________
___________
_________
____
_________
___________
_________
___________
_________
_______
Last Name:____________
First Name:___________________________________________________________________ M.I:_______
Birthdate:_____________________________
_____________________________E-Mail:____________________________________________
ail:____________________________________________
Cell Phone
hone (

)__________________________ Secondaryy Phone


hone (

)______________________

AW
WS Member?
Were you ever an A
ember?  YES  NO IfYES,give year________
ear________ and Member #:____________________
____________________
Company (if applicable):___________________________________________________________________
Address:________________________________________________________________________________
:________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Miami, FL 33166 6672


TTe
elephone (800) 443-9353
elephone
4
FFA
AX (305) 443-5647
Visit our website: www.aws.org
Type of Business ((CCheck ONE on
only)
A
 Contract construcction
B
 Chemicals
als & allied products
p
C
 Petroleum & coal
oal industries
D
 Primaryy metal industries
E
 Fabricated
ed metal products
p
F
 Machinery except
ept elect.
ele (incl. gas welding)
G
 Electrical equip.,., supplie
supplies, electrodes
H
 Transportation
tion equip.
equi air,r, aerospace
tion equip.
I
 Transportation
equi automotive
tion equip.
J
 Transportation
equi boats, ships
tion equip.
K
 Transportation
equi railroad
L
 Utilities
M
 Welding distributtors & retail trade
N
 Misc. repair services (incl. welding shops)
vices (univ., libraries, schools)
O
 Educational Servi
P
 Engineering & arrchitectural services (incl. assns.)
(incl. commercial labs)
Q
 Misc.. business services
se
ederal, state, local)
R
 Government (fede
S
 Other

City:_____________________________________________State/Provincce:________________________________________
_________________________
____
Zip/PostalCode:_________________________Country:________________________
______
 Check here if you learned of the Societyy through an AWS Member? Members name:_______________________Members
name:_______________________Membe # (if known):________
wn):________


IN DIVIDUAL MEMBE
BE R SHIP
S
 Please check each box that applies too the Membership or service
se
youd like,, and then add the cost together to get your Total Payment.
 AWS INDIVIDUAL ME
EMBERSHIP (One Y
Ye
ear)..................................................................................................$84

MBERSHI
 AWS INDIVIDUAL MEM

wo Y
Ye
ears

...............................$143
VE $25 New Members Onllyy....................................$143

 New Member Initiation Fee ...........................................................................................................................................$12

OPTIONS AVA
VAILABLE TO AWS
A
INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS ONL
LY
Y:
A.) OPTIONAL Book Sele
election (Choose from 25 titles; up to a $192 value;
alue; includes shipping & handling)
 Individual Members
.S..................................................................................................................................$35
embers in the U.S.............................................................................................................................
 Individual Members
tional shipping)
embers outside the U.S (includes International

............$85

ONLLYY ONE SELECTION PLEASE. For


or mo
more book choices visit www.aws.org/membership
g/membership
  
(CD-ROM only) 
W
Weelding Metallurrggy
 W
Weelding
HHaandbook Selections:  WHH (9th Ed., Vol. 4)  WH (9th Ed., Vol. 3)  WH (9th Ed., Vol. 2)  WHH (9th Ed., Vol. 1)
 Pocke
isual Inspection)
 PHB-4 (GMAW / FCAW)
ket
HHaanddbbook Selections:  PHHBB-1 (Arc Welding Steel)  PHHBB-2 (Visual
Inspe

B.) OPTIONAL W
We
elding Journal
elding
Jo
Hard Copy (fo
for Members
embers outside No
North America)
delivery of WJ is standard)..............................................$50
 Individual Members outside North America (note: digital deli
............$50
INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP
P TOTA
TAL P
PA
AYMENT..................................................................................$_____________
..................................................................................$_____________
NOTE: Dues include $18.70 for Weld
ding Journal subscription
p
and $4.00 for the AWS
WS Foundation.

STUDEN T MEMBE
BE RSHIP
R SHIP
 Please check each box that applies too the Membership or service
se
youd like,, and then add the cost together to get your Total Payment.
 AWS STUDENT MEMBERS
ERSHIP (OneYe
Year)...................................................................................................................$15
 OPTIONAL W
We
elding Journal Hard Copy (Only available to studennts in the U.S., Canada and Mexico)...........................$20
N

STUDENT MEMBERSHIP TOT


TA
AL P
PA
AYMENT......................................................................................$_____________
......................................................................................$_____________

PAY MEN T INFORMATION


INFORMAT
RMATION
N
Payment can be made (in U.S. dollars) by check or money order (international or foreign),
eign), payable
p
to the American Welding Society,
Societyy, or byy cha
charge card.
card
 Check  Money Order  A
AMEX

 Diners Club  MasterCard

 Visa

 Discover

 Other

CC#:____________ / ____________ / ____________ / ____________ Expiration Date (mm/yy)


y) ________ / ________
Signature of Applicant:_________________________________________
t:_________________________________________ Application Date:_______________________
e:_______________________
OFFIC E U SE ON LLY
Y Check
heck #:_______________________________ Accountt #____________________________________
Source Code: IT
Date:_________________________________
e:_________________________________ Amou
mount:_____________________________________
t:_____________________________________
REV.
V. 11/13

01
02
03
04
05
20
21
06
10
12
13
22
07
08
14
09
11
15
17
16
18
19


 Manager, director, superintendent (or assistant)
 Sales
 Purchasing
elding
 Engineer welding
ngineer design
 Engineer
ngineer manufacturing
 Engineer
manufa
ngineer other
 Engineer
 Architectt designer
 Metallurgist
elopment
 Research & developme
 Quality control
 Inspe
Inspector,r, tester
eman
 Supervisor,r, foreman
 Technician
 Welder,r, welding
elding or cutting operator
 Consultant
 Educator
 Librarian
 Student
 Customer Servicee
 Other

that apply)
Technical Interests (Check all th
A
 Ferrous metals
B
 Aluminum
ous metals except aluminum
C
 Nonferrous
erials/Intermetallics
D
 Advanced materials/I
E
 Ceramics
F
 High energy
gy beam processes
p
G
 Arc welding
H
 Brazing
azing and soldering
I
 Resistance welding
elding
J
 Thermal spray
K
 Cutting
L
 NDT
M
 Safetyy and health
N
 Bending
ending and shearing
O
 Roll forming
P
 Stamping
tamping and punching
Q
 Aerospace
R
 Automotive
S
 Machinery
T
 Marine
iping and tubing
U
 Piping
essels and tanks
V
 Pressure vessels
W
 Sheet metal
X
 Structures
Y
 Other
Z
 Automation
1
 Robotics
tion of Welding
2
 Computerization

April 2014 Vol. 17 / No. 2

Features

15

Cover photo: Student Abel Adame


performing magnetic particle
inspection on a pipe saddle weld
with a portable yoke. (Photo
courtesy of Lone Star CollegeNorth
Harris.)
INSPECTION TRENDS (ISSN 1523-7168) is
published quarterly by the American Welding
Society. Editorial and advertising offices are located
at 8669 NW 36th St., Suite 130, Miami, FL 33166;
telephone (305) 443-9353. Printed by R. R.
Donnelley & Sons Co., Senatobia, Miss.
Subscriptions $30.00 per year for noncertified,
nonmembers in the United States and its
possessions; $50.00 per year in foreign countries;
$20.00 per year for noncertified members and
students; $10.00 single issue for nonmembers and
$7.00 single issue for members. American Welding
Society is located at 8669 NW 36th St., Suite 130,
Miami, FL 33166; telephone (305) 443-9353.
Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and
additional mailing offices.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to
Inspection Trends c/o American Welding Society,
8669 NW 36th St., Suite 130, Miami, FL 33166.
Readers of Inspection Trends may make copies of
articles for personal, archival, educational, or
research purposes, and which are not for sale or
resale. Permission is granted to quote from articles,
provided customary acknowledgment of authors
and sources is made. Starred () items excluded
from copyright.

AWS MISSION STATEMENT


The mission of the American Welding Society
is to advance the science, technology, and
application of welding and allied processes,
including joining, brazing, soldering, cutting,
and thermal spray.

19

22

Choosing the Right Tool for the Job


by Albert J. Moore Jr. / These tips will help you select and use a variety of
inspection tools / 15
Make Weld Inspection a Safer Bet
by John Petkovsek / As an inspector working in welding-related areas, you
need to be aware of your surroundings and take steps to keep yourself safer
on the job / 19
NDE Program Prepares Students for Petrochemical Jobs
by Mary Ruth Johnsen / The NDE program at Lone Star College is geared
to get students ready for work right away / 22

Departments
Editors Note................................6

Mark Your Calendar...................36

News Bulletins.............................8

Certification Schedule................38

Print and Product Showcase ......12

Just the Facts ..............................39

Technology Notes ......................14

Classifieds..................................40

NDE School Profiles..................26

Advertiser Index ........................40

The Answer Is ............................34


Inspection Trends / Spring 2014

Editors Note

By Mary Ruth Johnsen


Dear Readers,

You may have been wondering what


has happened to the Just the Facts
column, which has been missing the last
few issues. Unfortunately, Lyndsey
Deckard, who has written the column for
many years, has decided the demands of
his work and the amount of travel he must
do mean he no longer has the time to
write the column.
Id like to thank Lyndsey for his dedication to helping his fellow
CWIs through the pages of this magazine. The authors of feature
articles, as well as The Answer Is and Just the Facts columns, receive
no compensation for their work other than a heartfelt thanks from me
and the occasional recognition from a reader upon meeting them for
the first time. They are all volunteers who are passionate about their
industry and want to share their knowledge with others.
Lyndsey has been a valued contributor to the magazine for many
years. He started writing for Inspection Trends with the Fall 2001
issue. At that time, he wrote the Exam Bank column, which discussed
the workings of the Exam Bank Subcommittee of the AWS
Certification Committee. Then a couple of years later, he took over
Just the Facts, which prior to that time had come from a variety of
sources.
Jim Merrill has agreed to take over Just the Facts. Youll find his
first column on page 39 of this issue. Jim is senior principal engineer
with the San Diego, Calif., office of AMEC E&I, a CWI, a registered
metallurgical engineer, and a member of the AWS D1 Structural
Welding Committee, D1Q Subcommittee on Steel Structures, D1I
Subcommittee on Reinforcing Steel, and D1 Task Group 4 on
Inspection. I think youll benefit from his contributions and find the
column now has a somewhat different focus.
I believe the best magazines continually evolve, and it is hoped,
change for the better. That is my goal for Inspection Trends. I would
like to get some feedback from you, our readers. Is there something
you especially enjoy reading in the magazine, or that you find
especially useful? Is there something you think is a waste of your time
and that you merely flip past as you go through the magazine? Let me
know about it. Space is at a premium and the cost for each printed
page is high, so we dont want to waste your time with anything that
isnt useful.I hope you to will tell me about your likes and dislikes.
You can e-mail me at mjohnsen@aws.org. In the meantime, turn
to page 39 and read Just the Facts. I learned something new there and I
hope you will, too.

Inspection Trends / April 2014

Publisher
Andrew Cullison
cullison@aws.org
Editor
Mary Ruth Johnsen
mjohnsen@aws.org
Associate Editors
Howard Woodward
woodward@aws.org
Kristin Campbell
kcampbell@aws.org
Editorial Assistant
Melissa Gomez
mgomez@aws.org
Production Editor
Zaida Chavez
zaida@aws.org
Senior Production Coordinator
Brenda Flores
bflores@aws.org
National Sales Director
Rob Saltzstein
salty@aws.org
Advertising Sales Representatives
Lea Paneca
lea@aws.org

Sandra Jorgensen
sjorgensen@aws.org
Senior Advertising Production Manager
Frank Wilson
fwilson@aws.org
Subscriptions Representative
Tabetha Moore
tmoore@aws.org
American Welding Society
8669 NW 36th St., #130
Miami, FL 33166-6672
(800/305) 443-9353
Copyright
Copyright 2014 by American Welding Society in both
printed and electronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed herein.
Data and information developed by the authors of specific
articles are for informational purposes only and are not
intended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users.

May
New
Orleans
Maay 28 29,, 2014 / Hotel Monteleone,
Monteleone, N
ew O
rleans

A distinguished panel of aluminum-industr


aluminum-industryy
experts
willl survey
experts wil
sur vey the state of the art
art in aluminum
oggy and practice.
practice.
welding
technology
welding tec
hnolog

The 17th Aluminum Welding


Weelding Conference
Con
nffeerence will
will
also pr
ovide several
several opportunities
opportunities for
foor you
you to
provide
nettwork informally
inffoormally with speakers and other
network
exhibition showcasing
showcasing
participants,
participants,, and to visit an exhibition
products
products and services
ser vices available to the aluminum
ustryy.
welding
welding industry.
industr
Aluminum lends itself to a wide var
ietty of
variety
eight,
industrial
because
weight,
industrial applications
applications bec
ause of its light w
atio, corrosion
corrosion rresistance,
esistance,
high strength-to-weight
strength-to-weight rratio,
attributes. However,
Howeverr, bec
ause its cchemical
hemical
and other attributes.
because
physical pr
operties ar
ffeerent from
from those of
and physical
properties
aree diff
different
welding of aluminum requires
requires special
steel,, welding
processes,, te
tec
hniques and expertise.
expertise.
processes,
techniques

Earn
Ear
n PDHs
PDHs toward
toward your
yoour AWS
AWS recertification
recertification when yyou
oou attend this conference.
conffeerence.
Register
gister Early and Save
Visit
www.aws.org/conferences
Visit www
w..aws.org/conferences
.aws.org/c
or call (800) 443-9353 ext 234.

News Bulletins
New AWS Certification Wallet Cards
Now Available
The AWS
Certification Dept.
has switched to a
new, credit cardstyle photo
identification
certification wallet
card. The switch to
the new cards
began January 1.
Example of the new AWS Certified
All candidates
Welding Inspector credit card-style
applying for
wallet card.
certification or
renewing a
certification must provide one passport-style 2 x 2-in. color
photograph. The photo must meet the requirements found
online at www.aws.org/w/a/certification/photoidreqs.html. If
the photo does not meet the requirements, AWS Certification
Dept. staff may request another photo be submitted, which

would delay processing of the application.


When sending the photo, applicants should print their
name and AWS membership number (if applicable) on the
reverse side of the photograph.
If you have any questions, contact the AWS Certification
Dept. at (800) 443-9353, ext. 273, or visit the website listed
previously.

ASQ Board Appoints CEO

William Troy

The ASQ board of directors has


appointed William Troy as the
societys next CEO. He is expected
to begin his new role at the ASQ
world headquarters in Milwaukee,
Wis., April 21. He is replacing Paul
Borawski, who is retiring in May. In
announcing Troys appointment, the
board cited his passion for quality,
strong diplomatic and global
relationship management skills, and
outstanding leadership credentials.

For info, go to www.aws.org/ad-index


For info, go to www.aws.org/ad-index

Inspection Trends / April 2014

Troy recently retired from the U.S. Army as a lieutenant


general. His most recent post was director of Army staff at
the Pentagon, with oversight of 20,000 military and civilian
personnel, and the Armys Test and Evaluation Command
among other duties. He also served in 2001 as a Senior
Fellow at Harvard Universitys Weatherhead Center for
International Affairs.
ASQ has members in 150 countries. It operates national
service centers in Mexico, India, and China, and last year
opened a regional service center that serves the Middle East
and North Africa. In 2013, it also began a joint venture in
Brazil, QUALI, focused on training and certification.

WTTI Opens Online Store


Welder Training & Testing Institute (WTTI),
Allentown, Pa., recently opened an online store offering,
among other items, plate and pipe coupons for welder
practice, testing, and certifications. The store can be
accessed at www.wtti.com.
In-stock plate and pipe coupons are available in the
sizes listed online; however, additional materials and sizes
can be requested by calling the company at (800) 223-9884.
In other news, WTTI recently received its second
accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025 in the field of
nondestructive Testing. Its full accredited capabilities are
found on its NDT Certificate 3430.02. The following tests

have been added to its scope: visual inspection, liquid


penetrant inspection, magnetic particle inspection,
ultrasonic inspection, and radiographic inspection.
Accreditation to ISO 17025 allows acceptance of test
and calibration data internationally. This will allow WTTI
to conduct PED testing that meets the European standard
and to meet upcoming requirements of ASME and other
industry-related code requirements.

Xiris Expands Sales Staff


Aaron Peterson has been named
to assist Xiris Automation, Inc.,
Burlington, Ont., Canada, with
business development. He will be
responsible for building
relationships with global OEMs
and end customers in the metal
fabrication industry.
Peterson has been a technical
sales executive in Canada and
elsewhere for more than 18 years,
holding positions from
Aaron Peterson
engineering support to senior
sales management.
Xiris Automation specializes in developing optical
equipment used for process and quality control.

For info, go to www.aws.org/ad-index

Inspection Trends / Spring 2014

Federal Railroad
Administration Issues Final
Rule to Improve Rail
Inspections
The U.S. Dept. of Transportations
Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)
recently published a Final Rule that
governs rail inspections. The rule is
designed to help identify rail flaws and
further eliminate the risk of derailments.
The new regulations strengthen
existing Federal Track Safety Standards
by
Requiring the use of performancebased rail inspection methods that
focus on maintaining low rail failure
rates per mile of track and generally
results in more frequent testing.
Providing a four-hour period to verify
that certain less serious suspected
defects exist in a rail section once
track owners learn that the rail
contains an indication of those defects.
Requiring that rail inspectors are
properly qualified to operate rail flaw
detection equipment and interpret test
results.

Establishing an annual maximum


allowable rate of rail defects and rail
failures between inspections for each
designated inspection segment of
track.
The Federal Track Safety Standards
require railroads to regularly inspect
track conditions and to conduct separate
rail inspections with specially equipped
hi-rail motor vehicles that operate over
rail tracks. This equipment uses
ultrasonic technology to identify internal
rail defects that could potentially lead to
an accident. Data are collected in real
time.
Safety is our highest priority, and
this new rule will make rail
transportation even safer for everything
from passengers and rail employees to
crude oil and other freight shipments,
said Anthony Foxx, U.S. Dept. of
Transportation secretary.

RAE Energy Acquires UT


Quality

Houston, Tex. UT Quality develops


and manufactures specialized pipeline
inspection equipment including
automated ultrasonic testing, phased
array ultrasonic testing, and time-offlight diffraction technologies that are
utilized for weld inspection for pipeline
construction projects. It also provides
nondestructive examination services.
UT Quality employs more than 150
full-time employees, including about
80 technicians.
We are excited to have UT
Quality become a part of the RAE
Energy team. We believe that UT
Quality has built a leading brand in the
oil and gas services industry through
innovation and quality service. We will
continue to build on UT Qualitys
position in the market and its
reputation for having the best
technology and employees, said
Phillip Bradney, RAE Capital
executive director. RAE Energy is a
diversified industrial global company
focused on the oil and gas industry.

RAE Energy, London, UK,


recently acquired UT Quality, Inc.,

For info, go to www.aws.org/ad-index


For info, go to www.aws.org/ad-index

10

Inspection Trends / April 2014

The future your future is on full display at FABTECH. From 1,400+ exhibits with end-to-end
solutions in metal forming, fabricating, welding and nishing, to the industrys leading education
and peer-to-peer networking, this is your opportunity to capitalize on the future.
The answers and know-how you need for the challenges of tomorrow can be found at FABTECH.
Visit fabtechexpo.com for complete event details. REGISTER TODAY!

Print and Product Showcase


Portable Stand Aids in
Analysis of Small Samples

Flex Stand, a compact test stand


for the companys DELTA hand-held
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers,
offers a hands-free way to test small
samples, standard-size sample cups,
and bagged samples. In the horizontal
configuration, the sample is positioned
in the chamber with an adjustable
platform and secured with a groove
and/or three-position ramp. In the

12

Inspection Trends / April 2014

vertical configuration, the sample is


positioned in the chamber on top of the
analyzers measurement window and
held by gravity. The XRF analyzer is
secured to the test chamber with a
simple push-and-click motion and is
released with a bar pull. The test
chamber is shielded to hold X-ray
radiation at background levels. The
portable stand is not interlocked and is
recommended for use with 40-kV
DELTA XRF analyzers.
Olympus NDT
www.olympus-ims.com

LED Flashlight Features


Oversized Reflector
The LE-2206-LED explosionproof flashlight features an oversized
reflector for more light output and a
glove-friendly handle. Four standard

D-cell batteries power the light, which


is constructed with a heavy-duty
polypropylene body for durability and
impact resistance. The lens is made of
Tuflexx for resistance to shattering or
breakage. The flashlight is IP67 rated,
is waterproof to 1 m, will float on
water, and is impact resistant to 1 m. It
features a single LED bulb with a life
expectancy of 30,000 h that produces
90 lumens of intense light output.
Larson Electronics
www.larsonelectronics.com

Updated XRF Analyzer Offers


Weatherproof Housing

capabilities by providing on-board


guidance, calculation, and operation
through the total inspection process.
The instruments offers a multitouch
interface, comprehensive connectivity,
and the ability to operate at
temperatures up to 113F (45C). Fast
and easy setup begins with specimen
and weld preparation. All types of plate
and pipe are visually simulated on the
instruments bright screen. For weld
inspection, the software displays the
type of weld to be inspected. The

instrument will then allow the user to


virtually position the probes on the
specimen for optimum volumetric
coverages. The instrument provides
data acquisition in real time. Data can
be displayed in a range of views, from
A, B, or C scans, phased array, and
time-of-flight diffraction, to real-time
corrected, merged views, with no need
to convert or postprocess data.
Zetec
www.zetec.com


The company recently introduced
the second generation of its S1 TITAN
hand-held XRF analyzer. The
instrument now includes a
weatherproof IP54-rated housing and
optional integrated camera and small
spot collimator. In addition, the
companys TITAN Detector Shield
has been made standard for all models.
The instrument comes in four
configurations. The S1 TITAN 600 and
800 models use a thin film window and
FAST SDD detector for analysis of
up to 37 elements, including light
elements such as Mg, Al, and Si,
without the need for a vacuum or
helium gas flush. The 200 and 300
models feature SiPIN detectors. When
equipped with an aluminized Kapton
window, the instruments are also able
to measure in-process samples at
temperatures up to 500C.
Bruker Corp.
www.bruker.com/hhxrf

Phased Array Flaw Detector


Features Software Upgrades

The TOPAZ portable ultrasonic


phased array flaw detector includes
new software upgrades that makes the
instrument more integrated,
consolidating its stand-alone

Models of Borescopes
Borescoopes
80 Models
ye rs of experience
exp
ex
xperri
rie
ience help
lpin
ing
ng you
yo sele
lect the
the ri
rig
igh
ght one!
and 18 years
helping
select
right

Hawkey
Hawk
Ha
wkey
wk
eyyee Rigid,
Rig
Rig
Ri
igid
id,
id,
d, Flexible,
Flex
Fl
lexi
exib
ex
xible,
xi
ible,
ib
e, and
and Video
Vide
Vid
Vi
ideo
id
deo Borescopes
de
Bor
ores
ore
rescop
re
escop
es
opes
Hawkeye
tyy, overnight delivery, and prices one-half to one-thir
World-class image quality,
one-thirdd that of comparable
Hawkeye Precision Borescopes manufactured
manufaactured by Gradient
borescopes thats the innovative Hawkeye
Lens Corporation. We sell more indus
strial borescopes than any other manufa
acturer.
industrial
manufacturer.
cope can be attached
Any Hawkeye Rigid or Flexible Boresc
tt
to our Luxxor Vide
eo Cameras allowing
Borescope
Video
high-quality
ty inspection images to be ddisplayed on portable video monitors, or
or,r, laptop and desktop
ed, documented and e-mailed. Our new
computers. Those images can be sav
w Hawkeye V2 Video
saved,
Video-scopes are fully portable and offer
way articulation. We manufacture over 80 models of rigid and
ff 4-w
4-way
exible video borescopes, and video microscopes. All are in stock and readyy for overnight delivery.

Hawk
wkeye Borescope takes a look
A Hawkeye
at the inside of an orb
rbital weld.
d.
orbital

A Hawkeye
H
Borescope inspection
in
side a dr
drawn
wn and welded tube.
inside

gradientlens.com
gradientlens.com

Heat Eff
EEffect
ffect Zone and orbital
weld in
nside a SS tube, viewed
inside
with a Hawkeye.

800.536.0790

Made in USA

For info, go to www.aws.org/ad-index

Inspection Trends / Spring 2014

13

Technology Notes
Interpretation
D1.5M/D1.5
Bridge Welding Code
Subject: Reinforcing Fillet Welds
Code Edition: D1.5M/D1.5:2002
Code Provision: Subclause 2.8.1.1 and
Figure 2.4, TC-U5-S Joint
AWS Log: D1.5-02-I10
Inquiry: Regarding the reinforcing
filler weld specified by subclause
2.8.1.1 and Figure 2.4 Details of
Welded Joints for CJP Groove Welds on
a TC-U5-S (or any corner joint), which
of the figures (Fig. A or B shown below)
shows the acceptable desired face angle
of a TC-U5-S joint reinforcing fillet
weld (as shown by dotted lines), that is
either welded separately or is an integral
part of the larger weld?
Response: The intent of a reinforcing
fillet weld is to provide a gradual transition of the weld face to the base metal.
Figure A does not accomplish this purpose. Figure B meets this intent. The fillet weld need not be concave as shown
in Fig. B.

Fig. A

Fig. B

Erratum
AWS A5.1/A5.1M:2012
Specification for Carbon Steel
Electrodes for Shielded Metal
Arc Welding
Page 16, Table 7, Chemical Composition Requirements for Weld Metal
Change column header
Weight Percentb to
Weight Percentb,c by adding the footnote c callout.

Erratum
AWS D9.1M/D9.1:2012
Sheet Metal Welding Code
Page 61 Title Correct Guidelines for the Preparation of Technical Inquiries for Structural Welding Committee to read Guidelines for the
Preparation of Technical Inquiries

D14.3 Amendment Notice


View and download this and all AWS
Amendments at this website:
www.aws.org/w/a/technical/amendments

D14.3/D14.3M:2010 AMD1
Specification for Welding Earthmoving,
Construction, and Agricultural
Equipment
This Amendment reflects numerical
changes made to a group of prequalified
weld joints within Annex A as well as
minor AWS document title updates, and
clause and table references within the
body of the document.

Interpretation
C3.7M/C3.7
Specification for Aluminum
Brazing
Subject: Vacuum furnace leak rate test
requirements
Code Edition: C3.7M/C3.7:2011
Code Provision: Subclause 5.4.2 (Vacuum Furnaces)
AWS Log: C3.7-11-I01
Inquiry: Does the procedure below meet
the vacuum furnace leak rate test requirements in AWS C3.7M/C3.7:2011?
Leak-up rate measurement shall be
started after furnace has been continuously operated or baked well. After exhausting the furnace to less than 0.65 Pa,
let HVV (High Vacuum Valve) close condition. 15 minutes later; increasing pressure in the furnace shall be measured.
Control range: less than 0.65 Pa/15 minutes (2.6 Pa/60 minutes).
Response: Yes

Do You Have Some News to Tell Us?


If you have a news item that might interest the readers of Inspection
Trends, send it to the following address:
Publication Services Dept.
Attn: Mary Ruth Johnsen
8669 NW 36th St., #130
Miami, FL 33166.
Items can also be sent via FAX to (305) 443-7404 or by e-mail to
mjohnsen@aws.org.

14

Inspection Trends / April 2014

By Albert J. Moore Jr.

Feature

Choosing the Right Tool for the Job


Here are some tips for selecting tools to help in visual inspection as well as
how to properly use them

Fig. 1 A protractor can be used to check a bevel angle. Just


remember to subtract the protractor reading from 90 deg to get the
correct bevel angle.
Visual examination of welds
involves more than looking at a
completed weld to determine if it meets
the visual acceptance criteria. A
thorough weld inspection ensures the
weld meets the requirements of the
drawings and the welding standard.
Before the first arc is struck, the filler
metal and the base metal need to be
checked to ensure they are the right
stuff. Joint preparation and fit-up must
be verified as well. Among the other
attributes to be checked are the
thickness of the base metal, bevel
angle, root face dimension, root
opening, and whether there is
misalignment between the members
being joined. During the welding
process, the arc voltage, welding
current, and travel speed are just a few
of the items to check. After the weld is
completed, the weld reinforcement of
the groove weld, the size of the fillet
weld legs, the convexity or concavity
of the fillet weld face, the shape of
backgouged excavations, and a host of
other dimensions must be verified. The
human eye is key to performing visual

Fig. 2 Either the end of a hex wrench or the shank


end of a drill bit can be used to check the root opening.

inspection. Unfortunately, the eye


cannot be calibrated, so the inspection
task requires measuring tools to verify
key dimensions.
A tidy sum of money can be spent
purchasing specialized inspection
tools; however, using a little ingenuity,
tools already in your toolbox can be
repurposed. Some ingenuity and
common tools found in many
toolboxes will round out the collection
of thing-a-ma-jigs needed to conduct a
thorough visual inspection of fillet and
groove welds.

Edge Preparation and Fit-up


Bevel Angles. The best tool for
measuring a bevel angle is a protractor.
Remember that a bevel angle is
measured differently than a chamfer. A
chamfer is measured using the horizon
as the reference (0 deg). A bevel angle
is measured from the perpendicular to
the horizon as the reference (0 deg).
The chamfer angle is the complement
of the bevel angle.
Since the protractor measures the

chamfer angle, you must remember to


subtract the protractor reading from 90
deg to get the complement, i.e., the
bevel angle Fig. 1.
Root Opening. The root opening
of a complete-joint-penetration groove
weld in pipe made without backing is
typically between 116 and 18 in. The root
opening for typical structural joints
made with backing may be as large as
9
16 in., and in some cases, larger yet.
The question then becomes: How do I
measure the actual root opening?
You cannot use a ruler to measure
the root opening, so its time to
rummage through the toolbox. There
they are, a set of hex wrenches and a
set of drill bits. Either the end of a hex
wrench or the shank end of a drill bit
can be used to gauge the root opening
Fig. 2. Simply insert the end of the
hex wrench or drill bit into the root
opening to determine if the root
opening is smaller than, equal to, or
larger than the wrench or drill bit.
Drill bits and hex wrenches are
available in sets. You need to purchase
a set with the sizes appropriate for the

Inspection Trends / Spring 2014

15

Fig. 3 A drill bit or a feeler gauge can be used to check


the clearance between the end of a stiffener and the inner
surface of the beam flange.

Fig. 4 The easiest method for measuring the width of the


fillet weld face is to use a divider. This photograph shows a
multipass fillet weld. The distance between the points of the
divider legs are measured using a ruler.

Fig. 5 Use the divider to measure the face of this fillet weld, which measures 316
1
4 in. The distance between the points of the divider is 516 in. when measured using a
ruler.
work that must be checked. The 20piece hex wrench set I use has a small
0.028-in. wrench. The largest wrench is
in. Drill bits are commonly available
in 164-in. increments. The set I use has
drill sizes 116 through in. I also have a
small drill set typically used to clean
cutting tip orifices. The small drill set
is used for root openings smaller than
1
16 in. A 164 in. is accurate enough for
most work performed by a welding
inspector.
The shank of the drill bit or hex
wrench inserted into the root opening
easily determines whether the root
opening is as specified or within
acceptable limits.
The same tools can be used to
16

Inspection Trends / April 2014

determine the separation between the


backing bar and the underside of a
member, the separation between a
stiffener and a flange (Fig. 3), or any
other joint where the size of a root
opening must be checked.
Stiffeners. The clearance between
the end of a bearing stiffener and the
inner surface of the beam flange can be
a challenge. AWS D1.1, Structural
Welding Code Steel, requires at least
75% of the stiffener to be in direct
contact with the flange surface, i.e., no
clearance. The clearance can be checked
with a blade-type feeler gauge. The
smallest blade should not slide in
between the end of the stiffener and the
beam flange. An intermediate stiffener is

permitted to have up to 116-in. clearance


between the end of the stiffener and the
inner surface of the beam flange. Either
the end of a 116-in.-diameter drill bit or a
1
16-in.-thick feeler gauge can be used to
check the clearance.
Fillet Weld Convexity and
Concavity. The convexity of a fillet
weld can be difficult to measure. If the
applicable welding standard is AWS
D1.1, the convexity of a fillet weld is a
function of the width of the weld face.
How do you measure the width of the
fillet face, i.e., the measured distance
from one toe to opposite toe? A ruler is
useless, so use a divider. Set one
divider leg against one toe and adjust
the other divider leg to touch the
opposite toe. Transfer the measurement
to a ruler. Then check the code to
determine the maximum convexity
allowed for the measured width of the
weld face. Now the fun begins. Check
the drawing to determine the specified
fillet weld size. Compare fillet weld
gauges to find the concave gauge that
is larger than the required size by the
amount of convexity the code permits.
While it is a clumsy method at best, it
works if the weld is an equal leg fillet.
The weld in Fig. 4 is an (almost)
equal leg, 716-in. fillet weld with a
measured face width of about 58 in.
Now that you know the face
dimension, determine the permissible
convexity by looking at Table 5.10,
Schedule C, found in AWS
D1.1/D1.1M:2010. The allowable
convexity is 18 in. You must find the
concave fillet weld gauge that has a
throat dimension 18 in. larger than the
7
16-in. fillet weld gauge. The concave
end of the 12-in. gauge is too small and

the 58 gauge is just a smidgen too big,


but if a set of fillet gauges is all you
have in your toolbox, it will have to do.
Lets try something more
challenging. In this example, the leg
dimensions of the fillet weld are
different. The weld is specified as an
unequal leg fillet weld. The legs in the
photograph measure 316 14 in. The
critical dimension is the width of the
fillet weld face. The weld face in Fig. 5
measures 516 in. when checked with the
divider. The permitted convexity is 116
in. based on the criteria found in AWS
D1.1/D.1M:2010, Table 5.10.
Important fact: The fillet weld has
unequal leg dimensions. Which fillet
weld gauge should you use to check
the convex face? A little manipulation
using trigonometric functions and you
can calculate what the weld face should
be, or you can find a graphic solution.
Figure 6 is a scale drawing of the weld
cross section. The dimensions are
rounded to the nearest 132 in. The sketch
shows a 516-in. fillet weld gauge has
about 116-in. space between the flush
face of the 316 516-in. fillet weld and
the tip of the concave end of the gauge.
Using the sketch, you can see the
maximum convexity of the unequal leg
fillet weld is acceptable if the weld
face touches or does not quite touch the
end of the 516-in. gauge. This method is
not perfect, but it as good as it gets
using a standard set of fillet gauges.
More information on the use of
fillet weld gauges can be found in
Inspection Trends, January 2011, Vol.
14, No. 1.

Groove Weld Reinforcement


and Underfill
The D1.1 Structural Welding Code
contains a provision that limits the
weld reinforcement of a groove weld.
The height of the groove welds
reinforcement consisting of a narrow
weld face may be measured with a pit
(undercut) gauge. The reinforcement
can also be gauged with a fillet weld
gauge if the weld isnt too wide.
However, I venture to say most groove
welds are too wide to be measured with
either the pit gauge or fillet weld
gauge. A combination square can be
used for slightly wider welds, but the
width of the weld face is limited to the
size the combination square can
accommodate.
The other drawback to checking
weld reinforcement with a fillet weld

Fig. 6 The sketch depicts how a fillet weld gauge can be used to verify convexity
is within acceptable limits of AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2010.

Fig. 7 Measuring the reinforcement of a groove weld using a combination


square. The width of the groove weld is limited by the size of the combination
square. A surface that is not perfectly flat introduces errors in the measurement.
gauge, pit gauge, or combination
square is that the adjacent surface must
be flat. As can be seen in Fig. 7, the
adjacent surface is not always flat and
true. The reinforcement measurement
can be challenged if the adjacent
surface is not flat and true.
The Ka-Vex Gauge
For the last several years, I have
used a gauge that can measure the
width of a fillet weld face, convexity of
a fillet weld, reinforcement or underfill
of a groove weld, and can also be used
to check intermittent fillet welds. This
gauge is best described as a threelegged divider. You place the two
exterior legs at the toes of the weld,
and slide the third leg up or down to
measure the convexity of the fillet, the
height of the reinforcement, or the
amount of underfill. I developed the
Ka-Vex gauge and am currently
seeking a patent for it Figs. 8 and 9.
It will be on the market soon.

Intermittent Fillet Welds. You


can check intermittent fillet welds to
verify they conform to the drawing
using a flexible tape or rigid ruler. The
welding symbol for an intermittent
fillet weld specifies the size of the fillet
weld increments, the length of each
weld segment, and the distance from
the center of one weld to the center of
the next.
About twenty years ago, I
encountered an inspector on a project
who was improperly interpreting the
intermittent fillet weld symbol and was
insisting on reworking every
intermittent fillet weld on the project.
The rework involved thousands of
hours of labor.
Since the inspector would not listen
to reason, I had no recourse other than to
write to the AWS A2.4 subcommittee to
get an official interpretation regarding
the welding symbol. To paraphrase, the
subcommittees response was that the
weld size specified is the smallest
acceptable size, the weld length
Inspection Trends / Spring 2014

17

Fig. 8 An early prototype (2009 version) of the Ka-Vex gauge. As you can see, the
gauge is similar to a divider, but it includes a third leg that is slotted so it can be
moved up or down and is free to move left or right to gauge the high or low point of a
weld face. The Ka-Vex in its present form includes a scale that makes measuring the
convexity of a fillet weld or the reinforcement of a groove weld simple.

divider legs to the maximum length of


the unwelded space between adjacent
weld segments. I simply check the
distance between each (full-sized) weld
segment to verify the unwelded
spacing is not excessive.
Three separate steps are required
to check an intermittent weld: check
the size, check the length, and check
the unwelded spaces between the
increments.
You must consider any provisions
the welding standard or the contractors
in-house acceptance standards invoke.
For example, AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2010
has a provision that, with the exception
of undercut, exempts intermittent fillet
welds from the profile requirements of
Clause 5 that are beyond the required
weld length. In other words, profile
discontinuities such as size, overlap,
unfilled craters, etc., that are at either
end of a weld segment are exempt and
are simply discounted when measuring
the length of the weld segment. Only
the full-sized, defect-free length is
considered.

Conclusion

Fig. 9 Shown is a later Ka-Vex gauge prototype. The gauge can be used to measure
groove weld reinforcement or underfill. The Ka-Vex makes it easy to measure
reinforcement or underfill of a groove weld. The two outside legs are positioned at the
toes of the weld and the center leg is used to measure the reinforcement or the
underfill. The Ka-Vex is accurate even when the adjacent surfaces are not on the same
plane. Measuring reinforcement or underfill is not affected by misalignment.
specified is the minimum acceptable
length, and the maximum unwelded
space between the weld increment is
equal to the pitch distance minus the
increment length. That interpretation has
served me well for the last 30-plus years.
Back to how to measure
intermittent fillet welds. The first step
is to check the weld size using a
standard fillet weld gauge. As
18

Inspection Trends / April 2014

permitted by the Code, the cold start


and unfilled craters are excluded. Only
consider the full-sized and completely
fused portion of each segment. Next,
set the divider legs to the minimum
weld length specified. Check the length
of each full-sized fillet weld increment
to ensure the length is at least as long
as that specified by the welding
symbol. The last step is to reset the

Craftspeople use many different


types of tools while plying their trade.
As important as the tools are, the
person must know how to use each tool
to leverage his or her skill. Likewise, a
thorough visual inspection requires a
collection of tools that enables you to
perform the measurements needed to
verify fit-up dimensions and a host of
other measurements. As impressive as
the human eye is and as instrumental as
it is in performing visual inspection,
the human eye cannot perform precise
measurements without the aid of
measuring devices. With a few
specialized gauges and some
commonly used tools, visual inspection
can be performed efficiently and
effectively.

ALBERT J. MOORE JR.


(AMoore999@comcast.net) is vice president, Marion Testing & Inspection, Canton, Conn. He is an AWS Senior Certified
Welding Inspector and an ASNT ACCP
NDT Level III in RT, UT, MT, and PT. He
is also a member of the AWS Certification
Committee and the Committee on Methods of Inspection of Welds.

By John Petkovsek

Feature

Make Weld Inspection a Safer Bet


Bring a safety first attitude to the inspection process by following these tips

Fig. 1 Personal protective equipment should be comfortable and allow freedom


of movement while still offering protection from welding hazards.
As a Certified Welding Inspector,
you may not be welding, but youre
near welding and other metalworking
processes all the time. To stay safer on
the job, you need to be aware of
welding hazards, which include burns,
exposure to arc rays and radiation,
fumes and gases, electric shock, fire
and explosions, noise, and others.
These hazards can be minimized for

both inspectors and welders by staying


alert and incorporating some simple
safety musts. Following are some
good reminders on how to stay safe on
the job.

Wear Proper PPE


To protect from burns and
exposure to arc rays, the proper

personal protective equipment (PPE)


provides enormous help. The PPE
should be comfortable and allow
freedom of movement while still
offering protection from safety risks
posed by welding Fig. 1. Keep the
following in mind when selecting PPE:
Leather and flame-resistant
cotton clothing are recommended.
Synthetic materials such as polyester
and rayon melt when exposed to
extreme heat. Leather also offers
increased protection in unique
situations, such as during overhead or
vertical welding.
Wear clothing properly. Do not
roll up shirt sleeves and make sure that
pants fall over the top of work boots
also avoid pant cuffs. Folds and cuffs
can trap hot metal and sparks.
Wear a helmet at all times.
Helmets with side shields are a must
for protecting eyes and skin from
exposure to arc rays. Choose the right
shade lens for the given welding
process the helmets instructions
will help here. Begin with a darker
filter lens and gradually change to a
lighter shade until it provides good
visibility of the weld pool and weld
joint but still offers shading that is
comfortable and does not irritate the
eyes. Exposure to welders flash due to
improper eye protection may cause
extreme discomfort, swelling, or
temporary blindness, so dont take any
risks Fig. 2. Helmets also protect
from sparks, heat, and electric shock.
Wear safety glasses with side
shields or goggles even when
wearing a helmet. This deters debris
from hitting the eyes.
Wear leather boots with 6- to 8in. ankle coverage for ideal foot
protection. Also, metatarsal guards
over shoelaces protect feet from falling
objects and sparks that otherwise may
Inspection Trends / Spring 2014

19

Fig. 2 Exposure to welders flash because of improper


eye protection may cause extreme discomfort, swelling, or
temporary blindness, so dont take any risks. Helmets also
protect from sparks, heat, and electric shock.

find their way into shoes.


Heavy, flame-resistant gloves
leather is an ideal choice help
prevent burns, cuts, and scratches.
Keeping gloves dry also helps protect
from electric shock.
Wear hearing protection ear
plugs or ear muffs when working
in areas of high noise level. Not only
will this protect against hearing damage,
but will prevent metal and other debris
from entering the ear canal.

Block Fumes and Gases


Welding fumes contain potentially
harmful complex metal-oxide
compounds, by-products from
consumables, the base metal, and the
base-metal coatings. Given those byproducts, overexposure to welding
fumes and gases can pose significant
health risks.
As a result, threshold limit values
from the American Conference of
Industrial Hygienists and OSHA
permissible exposure limits provide a
safety check against the substances in
welding fumes. These limits specify
the amount of a substance to which
welding operators can be exposed to
in their breathing zone every day they
work over the course of their career.
To prevent hazards from fumes and
gases, its important that welding areas
have proper ventilation and local exhaust
Fig. 3. Typically, employers provide a
ventilation system to dispel harmful
fumes and gases, and ensure that the
breathing zone and work area remain
20

Inspection Trends / April 2014

Fig. 3 To prevent hazards from fumes and gases, its important


that welding areas have proper ventilation and local exhaust.
Ventilation systems may be composed of a fan and an exhaust
system, or fixed or movable exhaust hoods.

safe and comfortable. Ventilation


systems may be composed of a fan and
an exhaust system, or fixed or movable
exhaust hoods.
In general, keep your head clear
of the fumes and use enough
ventilation and/or exhaust to minimize
your exposure to by-products of the
fumes, keeping in mind the type of
rod and base metal being used. For
consumables, specific potential health
effects can be found in the Health
Hazard Data section of the Safety
Data Sheet available from the
welders employer or the consumable
manufacturer. Here are other measures
you can take to protect against the
adverse effects of welding fumes and
gases:
Wear an approved respirator unless
exposure assessments are below
applicable exposure limits, as
determined by an industrial
hygienist.
If the air in your breathing zone is
not clear, or if breathing is
uncomfortable, make sure that
ventilation equipment is working.
Base metals should be cleaned before
welding to prevent exposure from
paint, galvanized coating, or plating.

Prevent Fires
While the welding arc may reach
temperatures of 10,000F, its actually
the intense heat near the arc and the
heat, sparks, and spatter the arc creates
that comprises the greatest fire and

explosion hazard. Explosions or fires


may be caused by arc spatter, which can
reach as far as 35 ft from the welding
space, as well as high concentrations of
fine dust particles. In the event of a fire,
dont panic, but call the fire department
immediately. These tips assist in
preventing fires:
Work areas should be inspected, and
any flammable materials removed
before welding. Flammable materials
include liquids, such as gasoline, oil,
and paint; solids, such as wood,
cardboard, and paper; and gases,
including acetylene, propane, and
hydrogen.
Know where fire alarms, and nearby
fire exits and extinguishers are located.
Check extinguisher gauges
periodically to make sure they are full.
Use fire hoses, sand buckets, or other
fire-dousing equipment if an
extinguisher is not accessible.
For those welding within 35 ft of
flammable materials, a fire watcher
should be stationed nearby to watch
for arc spatter and any fires it may
create. Someone should stay in the
work area for at least 30 min after
welding is completed to be sure there
are no smoldering fires. If flammable
materials need to remain in the work
area after welding, cover them with a
fire-resistant material, such as a piece
of sheet metal or fire-resistant blanket,
as a precaution.
In elevated locations, make sure that no
flammable materials or workers are
located below in order to protect
against failing sparks or spatter.

Insulate against Electric Shock


When a welder touches two metal
objects that have a voltage difference
between them, he or she becomes
inserted into the electrical circuit,
causing an electric shock. Electric
shock is one of the most serious and
immediate risks in a welding operation,
with the potential to cause severe
injury or death. The level of risk
depends on the voltage, and, therefore
current used the higher it is, the
higher the risk of electric shock.
Secondary voltage shock, which ranges
from 20 to 100 V, is the most common
type of electric shock. Because its
polarity is constantly changing,
alternating current (AC) voltage is
more likely to stop the heart than direct
current (DC) welding machines and
more likely to make the person holding
the wire unable to let go. Even a shock
of 50 V or less can be enough to injure
or kill.
Potentially causing a shock of 230
or 460 V, primary voltage shock is
much more serious than secondary
voltage shock. It occurs when a welder

touches electrically hot parts inside


the welding machines case or the
electric distribution system to which
the welding machine is connected.
When turned on, even when not in use,
most welding equipment has a voltage
that ranges from 20 to 100 V at the
welding circuit. Voltages inside the
welding equipment may vary from 120
to more than 575 V. All of these
conditions create the threat of electric
shock. These tips can help prevent
electric shock:
To prevent secondary voltage shock,
do not touch the electrode or metal
parts of the electrode holder with
skin or wet clothing always wear
dry gloves that are in good condition.
Insulate yourself from the work and
ground by placing dry insulation
between the body and the metal
being welded or ground (such as a
metal floor or wet surface).
Inspect the electrode holder and
welding cable for damage prior to
welding. Electrode-holder insulation
should be maintained in good
condition, as plastic or fiber
insulation on the electrode holder

prevents contact with the electrically


hot metal parts inside. Damaged
insulation always should be repaired
or replaced before use. Keep in mind,
shielded metal arc welding electrodes
are always electrically hot, even
when welding is not occurring and
voltage is at its highest.
To avoid primary voltage shock, only
qualified repair technicians should
attempt to service or repair welding
equipment.
To keep up with the most recent
safety practices, welding inspectors
should utilize resources from the
American Welding Society, OSHA, and
welding-equipment manufacturers,
such as Lincoln Electrics online
Interactive Safety Guide.

JOHN PETKOVSEK
(john_petkovsek@
lincolnelectric.com) is director,
environment, health and safety, The
Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland,
Ohio.

ASNT,
Bringing Thousands of Minds
To NDT Matters, Including Yours.
Join the Professional Society
That Brings the NDT Community &
Its Resources To You.

The American Society for Nondestructive Testing


Serving the Profession,
Creating a Safer World.

www.asnt.org

For info, go to www.aws.org/ad-index

Inspection Trends / Spring 2014

21

By Mary Ruth Johnsen

Feature

NDE Program Prepares Students for


Petrochemical Jobs
Workers retooling for a new career, students just out of high school, and inspectors
upgrading their skills all have a place in Lone Star Colleges NDE program

Student Abel Adame performs a tensile test on a dog bone tensile


specimen.
Theres a mutual admiration society
meeting in Houston, Tex., in the
Inspection Technology program at the
North Harris campus of Lone Star
College. The instructors measure the
effectiveness of the program through the
successes of their students, and students
say its the dedication of the instructors
that enables them to perform.
I feel that our program is different
in that we are dedicated to student
success, explained Albert Urbina,
director of Applied Technology, Lone
Star College-North Harris. We
measure the quality of our program by
the success of our students and
feedback from industry partners. If
changes are recommended by our
advisory board, we do everything
possible to make the changes as
quickly as possible.
Student Abel Adame summed up the
sentiments of several students when he
said, The main thing I like about the
22

Inspection Trends / April 2014

program is the instructors. They are not


just there for a paycheck but to see
their students succeed and they have a
love of the industry. The instructors
always seem to find time to answer that
last question and make sure you
understand the answer.

The Program
The inspection program has been
active since the late 1990s, and
currently has an enrollment of about
100 students. Both certificates and an
associate degree in Applied Science
(AAS) are offered. Students working
on their AAS fulfill all the
requirements for the certificates plus
take additional general education
classes. The AAS in Inspection
Technology requires 6971 credit
hours for completion.
While the classes cover the basics of

nondestructive examination that could


be used in any industry, the program is
geared to the petrochemical industry
because thats where most students will
end up working. Due to the large
concentration of oil and gas jobs in
southeast Texas, most inspection
companies concentrate specifically in
that area, Urbina said. Local industry
partners are part of our advisory
committee and regularly hold
specialized training (at the college) for
their employees.
According to the schools website:
The nondestructive testing certificate
is intended to provide training to meet
the challenges of the 21st century.
Testing methods covered include codes
(AWS, ASME), metallurgy, liquid
penetrant, magnetic particle, and
ultrasonics. Courses meet the
requirements of American Society of
Nondestructive Testing recommended
practice SNT-TC-1A.
The nondestructive inspection
certificate includes film (radiography)
interpretation and other means of
inspecting a material, weldment, or
product while maintaining structural
integrity. This certificate program
provides an in-depth coverage of the
American Welding Society and
American Society of Mechanical
Engineering (ASME) codes for
structural welding and pressure vessel
fabrication. This program adequately
prepares students for the AWS
Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)
examination.
The school employs three full-time
instructors. Urbina came to Lone Star
two years ago after having worked part
time at other area community colleges
and as a full-time welding instructor
for the Houston School District. Before
becoming an educator, he worked in

the petrochemical industry as a welder


and pipefitter. An AWS Certified
Welding Educator, Urbina holds a
bachelor of science degree in Structural
Engineering from the University of
Houston and is working on a graduate
degree in Welding Engineering from
The Ohio State University, Columbus,
Ohio.
Greg Hartwig is an AWS CWI and
an ASNT Level III who has worked
extensively as an NDE technician for
various local companies. Steve
Johnson, an ASNT Level III in liquid
penetrant (LP), magnetic particle
testing (MT), radiographic testing
(RT), and ultrasonic testing (UT), also
has an extensive background as an
NDE technician working for a variety
of companies.
Hartwig and Johnson handle
instruction in all the testing disciplines,
while Urbina teaches the CWI prep
class and the standards-related classes.
A local metallurgist comes in on a parttime basis to teach the metallurgy class.
The metallurgy class has been part
of the program for many years, Urbina
said, but came about as a direct
recommendation of the programs
industry advisory group, which felt all
students needed a basic understanding
of metallurgy. They felt that anytime
you apply heat you change the atomic
structure of the metal and students
needed to understand that, he said.
Another of the advisory
committees recommendations was the
standards class, which covers AWS
D1.1, Structural Welding Code
Steel, Section IX of the ASME Boiler
and Pressure Vessel Code, and API
1104, Welding of Pipelines and Related
Facilities.
We want students to be able to hit
the ground running when they get to
the job site, Urbina said. While a
version of the class has been part of the
program since its beginnings, it was
part of the CWI prep course and
originally only covered one code. The
advisory committee wanted all the
codes covered that are used in the local
industry, he explained.

The Students
Approximately half the students
already work as welders, welding
inspectors, or hold other jobs in the oil
and gas industry, Urbina said. About
25% are students who are retooling;

theyve been working in


other careers and want to
enter a new field. The
remaining 25% are students
just out of high school who
want training in order to
enter the workforce.
Because so many
students are already working
fulltime, the program is
geared to make it easy for
them to attend. Most NDE
classes are held in the
evenings. We also offer
Saturday classes and have
even started some odd-timed
classes to accommodate
students working second or
third shifts, Urbina
explained. Those classes run
from 10 PM to 1 AM.
Most students initially
just plan on earning a
certificate, he said, and going
to work. However, hes
Student Steven Kohler vertifies correct setup of
found they slowly begin
the test specimen in the magnetic particle
taking classes again and end
testing equipment.
up getting their AAS a year
or two later. Quite a few
want to further their
education even more.
LeTourneau University in
Longview, Tex., is the nearest
place where students can get
a welding engineering-related
degree. Urbina encourages
students to go there or to
consider working toward a
degree in other engineering
disciplines at local
universities.
Theres a shortage of
welding engineers, Urbina
said. Theres a void. The
local training institutions
should see that and address it.
Student Teresa Garza
admits shes bounced around
education and careerwise.
She is a full-time student and
a full-time working mother of
three boys. She already holds
an associate degree in
Steven Kohler performs magnetic particle
psychology and is only a few
inspection on a pipe weld sample.
credits shy of a bachelors
degree in business. Shes been
really clicked with me. This program is
taking classes off and on at Lone Star
very organized and very structured. I
for nearly three years, including some
like structure.
nursing-related classes. She expects to
Garza works for GE Oil & Gas,
get her associates degree in inspection
where she is a QA/QC inspector.
techology later this year.
There, her work mostly involves visual
Like I said, Ive tried
inspection of parts entering the facility
everything, Garza said. Inspection
and checking the documentation for
Inspection Trends / Spring 2014

23

You can go anywhere you


want with this. She said
shes felt some resistance to
women at the workplace, but
never at the college. Thats
why I want a degree and to
become a CWI.
She has been most
impressed with the
willingness of the
instructors. They really want
to help you. Youll have a
three-hour class and they
keep you the entire three
hours so you get the benefit
of all the time. In other
fields of study, theyll let
you go early because they
dont care. These instructors
will stay late and make sure
you understand what was
covered.
Unfortunately, she wont
get the opportunity to use
her favorite class film
interpretion on the job
because GE uses third-party
Abel Adame performs magnetic particle inspection
personnel to interpret
on a pipe saddle weld with a portable yoke.
radiographs.
Abel Adame expects to
receive his associates
degree this fall. The reason
various aspects of the plant. She
he
entered
the program was my
became interested in nondestructive
grandpa
was
a welder and other family
examination after seeing magnetic
members
are
welders. Also, I worked
particle inspection taking place at her
in
a
refinery
and
saw welding and
job site. She started questioning the
inspection
and
became
interested. He
inspectors about the process, and after
enrolled
at
Lone
Star
and
fell in love
seeing her interest they suggested she
with
welding
and
fell
in
love
with
take some classes at Lone Star. Her
inspection.
Hes
also
taken
some
plan is to remain with GE, where she
welding classes at the school and has
has been promised an NDE-related job.
passed qualification tests in gas
She hopes to eventually become a CWI
tungsten arc welding.
and work offshore because thats where
Beside the quality of the
she could earn the highest income. Her
instructors,
the other thing that has
husband, who works for a Marathon
impressed
him
about the program is the
petroleum plant in Texas City, Tex., has
equipment
students
have available for
been very supportive of this career
use.
choice.
For hands-on training with
For some reason, I feel theres no
students,
Urbina said, they use the
boundaries (in inspection), she said.
following:
Fluorescent penetrant inspection
equipment (stationary)
To Get More Information
Magnetic particle inspection
equipment (stationary and mobile)
For additional information about
Canon Panametrics-NDE ultrasonic
the Inspection Technology program
equipment
at Lone Star College-North Harris,
In addition, for radiography, students
visit the schools website at
are trained to interpret both film- and
digital-based radiographs.
www.lonestar.edu or contact
Adames career aspirations are to
Albert Urbina at
work
in the offshore industry. He is
Alberto.M.Urbina@lonestar.edu.
especially interested in ultrasonic

24

Inspection Trends / April 2014

testing. I like working with the


machine and I like the mathematics
involved, he said.
Michelle Gardner, new to the NDE
program, is currently enrolled in her
first class. She works at National
Oilwell Varco as a receiving
coordinator and is training to become a
QC inspector. In that position, she will
perform visual inspection of parts
coming into the plant as well as
magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, and
hardness testing.
The opportunities at her workplace
are what interested her initially. I
talked with one of the third-party
inspectors and he encouraged me and
answered my questions over a period
of two to three months.
While she is getting on-the-job
training, she wants a formal NDE
education because it will provide
credentials she can carry with her.
What has surprised her about the
class she is taking is how friendly
everyone is and how ready to answer
questions. Im a visual person and the
instructor helps relate what I read to
what I see. She said that friendliness
isnt just from the instructor. She has
no welding background, but has gotten
help from the welders in her class.
She worried that she had begun the
program with the wrong class. The
only one open when she enrolled was
the CWI prep class, which is usually
taken later on in the program, but the
college counselor suggested she go
ahead and get started.
I talked with Albert (Urbina) and
said I dont think Im in the right
class, but he told me he would help me
and he has. Watching inspection and
welding videos online and reviewing
all Urbinas PowerPoint presentations,
which are also posted online, has
helped and, so far, she is doing well in
the class.
Gardner has worked in the oil and
gas industry for two years, having been
a security guard prior to that. However,
she said, I think this is my career. I
see myself retiring from this.

MARY RUTH JOHNSEN


(mjohnsen@aws.org) is editor of
Inspection Trends.

Tools for schools


from AWS
American Welding Academic Access for schools and colleges

Access virtually all AWS


publications campus-wide

This is an affordable subscription that contains all of AWSs publications in a


digital format. All students of participating educational institutions can access
more than 300 standards digitally. The AWS standards library features content
on everything from structural welding to auto and locomotive welding
techniques.
Categorized search engine to maximize productivity.
Full preview descriptions of publications to ensure correct information.
Automatic updates of new publications, errata, and amendments.
Academic pricing in an academic format at a fraction of the cost.
View a demonstration video at academicaccess.aws.org

On-campus AWS Certification for welding students


Your institution can be accredited by AWS to issue industryrecognized AWS welder certifications. Your students and
other members of your community can be certified at your
schools labs, which will enhance your job placements as well
as your relationships with local industries. We have a streamlined, economical program to get your school up and running
as an AWS Accredited Test Facility, and we will publicize your
ATF status on our website and in the Welding Journal. Call
AWS at (800) 443-9353 ext. 448 to get started.

Certified
Certified Weld
Welder
er
Welders,
W
elders,
eld
Brazers
B
and
dO
Oper
Operators

# Test Date Sup

Code

Process(
Process(es)
e

Gass
G

Filler
ller Metal

Base Metal
Ba

Po
os

Thickness,
Thick
kness Ba
Backing
king
n or
Th kness, Pipe O
Thickness,
OD & Backing

Issue job-ready AWS credentials

Free online listing in the Welding School Locator


Your institution should be among the thousands of welding
schools that appear on the AWS worldwide searchable
Welding School Locator. Potential students can find you by
zip code, map, or city. Its free to be listed and you can
quickly set up your contact information by visiting the locator
at www.aws.org/w/e
Get visible todayits free

Learn about these opportunities and even more at the


AWS Welding Education, Skills, and Certifications Conference
JULY 2325 INDIANAPOLIS WWW.AWS.ORG/CONFERENCES
The American Welding Society has created a conference program that answers questions on the essential
requirements to become an Accredited Test Facility that can issue industry-recognized credentials.
Conference topics include skill training, curriculum strategies, advanced e-learning strategies, and many
other topics. Educational institutions, corporate trainers, and educators are all encouraged to attend.

Expires

NDE School Profiles


Attention
Schools, Training, and Testing
Facilities for Materials
Evaluation, Weld Inspection,
and Quality Assurance
Included in this section are welding schools
across the country that have taken this
advertising opportunity to promote their
resources both to industry in need of
welders and to those searching for a solid
career path to employment and growth.
Reach more than 36,000 readers whose
livelihoods depend on quality assurance,
materials testing, or weld inspection with
your school profile
The National Center for Welding
Education and Training (dba Weld-Ed) is a
partnership of community colleges, universities,
business and industry, and the American Welding
Society and is funded by the National Science
Foundation. The Centers primary mission is to
increase the quantity and quality of welding
and materials joining technicians to meet industry
demand through curriculum reform and
educator professional development. Additional
information is available at www.weld-ed.org.

Butte-Glenn Comm. College


The Welding Technology program is
designed to produce qualified personnel
for certified welding jobs. Butte has modern and well-equipped welding facilities.
Program standards are in accordance with
the AWS SENSE program and follows
NCCER curriculum, ASME, and API
codes. Produces entry-level welding technicians qualified in the 6-G pipe position.
Large emphasis on SMAW, FCAW,
GMAW, GTAW, OAW, OFC, PAC and
AAC processes, in all positions using
various metals and alloys. Qualifications
earned in AWS, ASME, and API according to personal skill. PG&E Power
Pathway Gas Pipeline Welding Capstone Program: The Pathway specifically
trains welders for potential careers within the
petrochemical/natural gas pipeline industry.

3536 Butte Campus Drive


Oroville, CA 95965
Don Robinson, robinsondo@butte.edu
(530) 895-2469 Fax: (530) 895-2302
Chris Armitage, armitagech@butte.edu
(530) 895-2911 Fax: (530) 895-2302
Miles Peacock, peacockmi@butte.edu
(530) 879-6162 Fax: (530) 895-2302
Trevor Robinson, robinsontr@butte.edu
(530) 895-2360 Fax: (530) 895-2302

26

Inspection Trends / January 2014

Ademinsa
Centroamericana S.A.
Ademinsa - Group of Companies
Latin-America, is a reliable training
source for CWI, CWS, SCWI, and
CWSR Seminars. Training and certification according to SNT-TC-1A on
NDT and PdM (8 methods), Preparatory seminars are offered for certified
inspectors on API 653, 570, 510 and
580. As well as technical services on all
NDT methods. Events in more than 15
Countries. English and Spanish classes
available.

Ademinsa Centroamericana S.A.


Calle Cerro Azl N 479, Urb.
San Ignacio de Monterrico, Surco
Lima 33, Per
Telfs.:+51(1) 275-1588 / 275-1589
areyna@ademinsa.com

Calumet Welding Center


Calumet Welding Center provides
welder education and certification
for Northwest Indiana and the
Chicagoland area. Welding classes
offered include SMAW, GMAW,
GTAW, FCAW, and blueprint reading.
Our customized training programs can
focus on a companys specific needs
and accommodate diverse skill levels.
Welder certifications and procedure
qualification are offered year round.
In partnership with an AWS accredited
testing facility, we provide welding procedures, materials, and qualification
paperwork to all code requirements.

Central Texas College


The Central Texas College (CTC)
welding program provides entry-level,
industry-validated, hands-on instruction to prepare students for a career in
welding. Students can choose an associate degree program or one of four
certificates of completion programs in
a self-paced, open-delivery format and
will use the most current equipment
and technologies. The instructional
clock-hour format in which classes are
offered provides flexibility to accommodate the special needs of the student. Contact a CTC vocational skills
counselor at 254-526-1549.

(254) 526-1549
helen.clements@ctcd.edu.
www.ctcd.edu/skillscenter/index.html

China Certification &


Inspection Group
SHAANXI Co., Ltd.
CCIC Shaanxi, an AWS international
agent, provides CWI training, exam
and certification service in China.
We are also a professional solution
provider of third party inspection service for oil and gas, power transmission,
transportation equipment, machinery,
bridge construction, and boiler during
production process. Types of inspection performed include: resident,
frequent, test witness, and final.
We focus on assisting our clients with
product quality improvement and
assurance.

1947 N Griffith Blvd


Griffith, IN 46319
(219) 923-9353
info@calumetwelding.com
www.calumetwelding.com
XIAN, CHINA
+86-29-85407368
wpeace@126.com
www.ccic-csn.com

NDE School Profiles


Cutech Group
Cutech Group is a diversified and rapidly
expanding engineering company. We offer
wide range of services and products to
different sectors worldwide. Cutech is an
authorized international agent of American Welding Society to conduct AWS-CWI
training and certification exams. We also
provide other services as follows:
Technical training and certification.
Inspection and expediting.
NDT and advanced NDT.
Technical manpower supply.
Welding consultancy and testing.
Asset integrity management.
EPC projects.
Software solutions.
Underwater and diving.

Cutech Group of Companies


#04-32E, IMM Building, 2 Jurong East
Street 21, Singapore 609601
+65 66650187 Fax: +65 65605892
enquiry@cutechgroup.com
www.cutechgroup.com
Global Offices : Malaysia, Indonesia,
India, Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Oman

Dalus, S.A. De C.V.


Welder Training &
AWS Certification Center
In Mexico
DALUS was founded in 2000 for the
purpose of training and testing people
in certifiable skills and knowledge that
will help to integrate them into a
world class workforce. DALUS is an
AWS accredited test facility (ATF)
and a member of the S.E.N.S.E.
(Schools Excelling through National
Skills Education) program and administers SCWI, CWI and CWE prep
course and exams three times a year.
DALUS also offers courses designed
to meet employers specific needs.

Parque Industrial Kalos


Monterrey, NL - MEXICO
+52 (81) 8386-1717
info@dalus.com
www.dalus.com

Earlbeck Gases
& Technologies

Forsyth Technical
Community College

Earlbeck Gases & Technologies is


an AWS Accredited Test Facility and
offers procedure and welder testing
and welding training in the Baltimore/DC and York, Pa. areas. Our
Welding engineering and SCWI/CWI
staff has over 40 years of experience
working with military and commercial
codes. Welding consulting, document
review, procedure and welder
qualification, and inspection classes for
various codes are available. Send in
and mobile testing are available as
well.

Forsyth Tech offers comprehensive


one-year diploma and certificate
curriculum programs in welding
technology as well as one-semester
noncurriculum programs in SMA
(ARC), GMA (MIG) and GTA (TIG)
welding. The college also offers
program participants AWS welder
certification testing as part of the National Association of Manufacturers
(NAM)-endorsed Skills Certification
System. Classes are taught at our main
campus location.

Don Hodges
8204 Pulaski Highway
Baltimore, MD 21237
(410) 687-8400
Dhodges@earlbeck.com
www.earlbeck.com

2100 Silas Creek Parkway


Winston-Salem, NC 27103
(336) 723-0371
info@forsythtech.edu
www.ForsythTech.edu

Egyptian Welding Academy

Georgia Trade School

Egyptian Welding Academy qualifies


welders and engineers according
to (AWS-SENSE No.111007PO and
AWS-ATF No.120505). Qualify and
certify welding inspectors NDT (VT,
UT, RT, PT, MT) according to ASNT.
Qualify and prepare engineers in welding technology, metallurgy, material
selection, electrode selection, and
international codes and standards.
Provide industrial services (fabrication, reverse engineering, repair and
maintenance, project documents), is
Certified to ISO 9001: 2008 Certificate
No.QS-5771HH (GL), and is a
approved supplier for USAID in
Basra, Iraq.

Founded 2012

7of 6th October St.


Shoubra El-Khaima, Qalubeia,
EgyptCairo
(020) 44745555
Fax: (020) 44745555 Ext.:266
ewa@ewa.org.eg
www.ewa.org.eg
Facebook.com/EWA.Cairo

A training center for the Army Corps of


Engineers and Huntington Ingalls
Industries, Georgia Trade School has an
onsite CWI to conduct welding certifications at our facility or your companies
location. We offer destructive bend tests
for plate welding to include any
position-flat, horizontal, vertical and
overhead. Process testing includes
GMAW, FCAW, GTAW and SMAW. We
also offer plate and pipe testing for
various metals including aluminum,
stainless or mild steel. Tests are
conducted to AWS and ASME standard. In addition to testing we offer an
open welding lab where companies can
purchase bulk hours for their employees
with an instructor present.

Ryan Blythe, Executive Director


2260 Moon Station Court Suite 110
Kennesaw, GA 30144
(770) 590-9353
rblythe@georgiatradeschool.com
www.georgiatradeschool.com
Inspection Trends / Spring 2014

27

NDE School Profiles


The Greater Altoona Career
& Technology Center
The Greater Altoona Career & Technology Centers Welding program is a
diploma program for adult students
designed to provide graduates with the
skill-set to perform the SMAW,
GMAW, GTAW, FCAW, oxyacetylene
cutting, plasma arc cutting, air carbon
arc cutting, and brazing. Integral
subjects included in the program are
blueprint reading, weld testing,
metallurgy, and math. The GACTC
Welding program is an accredited 900
hour course that begins annually in
August. Financial Aid is available.

1500 4th Avenue


Altoona, PA 16602
(814) 941-TECH
www.gactc.edu

Institute for Materials


Joining and Testing (IMJAT)
Chattanooga State
Community College
IMJAT includes two core AAS degree
concentrations: Materials Joining (welding
engineering technology) and nondestructive evaluation (nondestructive testing
technology). Students learn foundation
concepts such as welding principles, visual
inspection, electrical fundamentals, and
metallurgy. Welding students can earn
certificates in SMAW, GMAW/FCAW,
GTAW or welding automation. NDT
students receive Level I/II training in six
methods: visual, liquid penetrant, magnetic
particle, ultrasonic, radiographic, and eddy
current testing. The NDT program is
accredited by the Engineering Technology
Accreditation Commission of ABET.

Catherine Bovell
4501 Amnicola Highway
Chattanooga, TN 37406-1097
(423) 697-4434

Integrity Welding, LLC


Integrity Welding, LLC is located in
Corona, California (suburb of Los Angeles). We offer customized training to
both individuals and organizations.
Our friendly staff consists of welding
professors and welding inspectors that
will tailor instructions to your training
needs and learning style. Integrity
Welding, LLC welding facility is an
AWS accredited test facility (ATF)
and conducts welders performance
qualifications for the city of Los
Angeles Dept. of Building and Safety
(LADBS). Our hours of operations
include nights and weekends at your
facility or ours.

Corona, California
(800) 897-WELD
chancy@integritywelds.com

catherine.bovell@chattanoogastate.edu.

Inspection Specialist, Inc.


Mechanical and Destructive Testing
Laboratory test a wide range of materials including metals, reinforced plastics,
rubber, and most types of rope, cable, or
wire. Our testing facility is fully
equipped with a complete line of
destructive testing machines, and our
skilled technicians are proficient in all
pertinent codes and standards. Our
laboratory testing capabilities include:
Nationally accredited welder test
facility (AWS), Welder test booths for
SMAW, GMAW, GTAW, FCAW, Weld
procedure development and qualification, Tensile testers, impact testers for
high or low energy, Applied stress
testers and hardness testers in full and
micro scale. PMI- analysis of pipe, plate,
tube, welds, welding electrodes and wire
throughout the manufacturing process,
and stress relieving.

5201 Taravella Rd
Marrero LA, 70072
1.888.837.8522 (504) 347-5600
Tmoore@inspectionspecialists.com
28

Inspection Trends / January 2014

Institute Of Nondestructive
Testing & Training
For those seeking the best in Welding and
NDT Technology INDTT is a premier
institute that offers training in welding,
metallurgy, NDT, pressure vessels, stoage
tanks and quality control. We offer training for the following certifications. AWS
CWI, AWS CWE and C-SWIP welding certification courses. NDT Level
II certifications in all eleven NDT
disciplines. ASNT NDT Level III examination preparatory courses. API 510,
API 653 and API 570 Certification
Examination Courses. Other specialized
courses include metallurgy, painting
and more! INDTT is referred by most
companies in India and abroad.

Mr. Prashant V. Wagh, Managing Director


401 / 402, B Wing, Pacific Towers,
Sagar City, V.P.Road, Andheri ( West )
Mumbai 400058 INDIA
0091-22-26714543,
Fax: 0091-22-26714543,
Mob: 0091- 9867059990
info@indtt.org training@indtt.org
www.indtt.org

ISTUC
Founded 2001

ISTUC, S.C. was founded in 2001 with


the objective of helping Mexico
become more competitive and create
reliability in the industry. The institute
is an AWS acredited facility and a
IIW/EWF authorized training body.
ISTUC offers training, qualification
and certification of international programs (welder, inspector, practitioner,
specialist, technologist and engineer),
and AWS programs (entry, expert, entry
welder, inspector, and supervisor).

Calle Begonias N 112


Col. Insurgentes
76117 Quertaro, Qro.
Mexico
442-2201486
Fax: 442-2201699
www.istuc.com

NDE School Profiles


Mitchell Technical Institute
Mitchell Technical Institute offers
a highly technical industry-driven
Welding and Manufacturing Technology program. The program provides
the proper skills for graduates to
excel in welding, machining, robotics
and lean manufacturing techniques.
Instruction is American Welding Society code-based. During the second
year, students learn clearly defined
and communicated welding quality
standards and learn to test welds
by various methods including die
penetrant, radiographic, visual, and
bend-and-break testing conducted by
a CWI within an ATF facility.

Nondestructive Testing
Institute
The Nondestructive Testing Institute
offers training in the following methods: MT/PT/UT/VT/RT/ET, as well
as, the CWI/CWE prep course and
CWI endorsement training. Classes
occur monthly at our Allentown,
Pennsylvania facility, or can be
conducted at customer sites. NDT
courses are led by ASNT Level III
personnel. Our facilitys lab is accredited to ISO 17025 for destructive and
nondestructive test methods. Visit
our website for more information on
Inspection courses and schedules:
www.ndtinstitute.com

The Ocean Corporation


The Ocean Corporation, located in
Houston, Texas, has trained men
and women for exciting careers in
nondestructive testing and underwater welding since 1969. Students are
trained to Level I and II academics in
MT, PT, UT, ET, VT and RT and
receive 40 hours of radiation Safety
training. Job placement assistance is
available upon graduation. New
classes begin every five weeks and
financial aid is available for those
who qualify.

10840 Rockley Road


Houston, Texas 77099
(800) 321-0298
Fax: (281) 530-9143
oceancorp.com
admissions@oceancorp.com
1800 E. Spruce St.
Mitchell, SD 57301
(800) 684-1969
www.mitchelltech.edu

1144 N. Graham Street


Allentown, PA 18109
(610) 820-4196
Fax: (610) 820-0271
www.ndtinstitute.com

National Polytechnic
Institute

Northern Industrial Training

Quality Control Co.

Established in 2003

The underwater welding course is


four weeks long and designed to
prepare students to obtain high
quality shielded metal arc welding
(SMAW) skills both above and below
the water. The course follows the
guidelines of AWS D3.6M 2010
standards. Emphasis is on the
performance of high quality, defectfree, wet welds while preparing the
student to obtain (3F) vertical welder
certification for underwater welding,
class B fillet welds. Call 1-800-4323483 for more information.

Northern Industrial Training trains


structural and pipe welding disciplines
with the SMAW, FCAW, GMAW, and
GTAW processes. Programs are structured to challenge students in both the
classroom and the shop, providing
extensive time in the welding booth as
well as providing practical training in
basic structural fabrication, oxyfuel
cutting, plasma cutting, CAC-A, and
I-beam coping. Those who obtain,
maintain, and embrace the ideologies
of quality trade craftsmanship have
the opportunity to certify under
AWS code.

QCCO is a leader in nondestructive testing


training and certification services and is
respected in this field since established in
1984. Our training provides both the
knowledge and qualifications that NDT
and QC/QA personnel need to succeed.
QCCO is an agent of the American Welding Society, an authorized examination
center of the American Society for Non
destructive Testing, offers American Petroleum Institute training and certification
programs and NACE Painting/Coating
Training and certification programs.
QCCO offers local and remote training
and certifications programs to its clients in
the Middle East, Africa, Europe and Asia
as Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, South
Africa, Italy, Romania, Saudi Arabia,
Bahrain, Kuwait, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Sudan, Congo, Thailand, Lebanon,
Hong Kong, and other countries. All of our
instructors are qualified, experienced,
recognized NDT consultants, and well known
for expertise in the methods they teach.

3570 Aero Court


San Diego, CA 92123
(800) 432-3483

1740 N. Terrilou Court


Palmer, AK 99645
(907) 357-6400
Fax: (907) 357-6430
info@nitalaska.com

3 Nablos St.,
Cairo, Egypt, Postal Code: 12411
www.qualitycontrol-egypt.com
Inspection Trends / Spring 2014

29

NDE School Profiles


SLV Mnchen
Ihr Partner fr
Schweitechnik
AWS training in Munich, Germany.
The SLV Munich is a branch of the GSI
mbH. Our services are education, material engineering, quality management
as well as research and development.
Within the bounds of the cooperation
with AWS our future aim is to provide
training following the AWS system.
Furthermore advanced training courses
are intended that prepare the trainees
for the CWI exam. The exam is
executed by AWS. We also offer
education for the IWE and for the field
of NDT according to ISO 9712 up
to level 2. GSI - Gesellschaft fr
Schweitechnik International mbH

Schachenmeierstrae. 37
80636 Mnchen, Germany
www.slv-muenchen.de

Sol y Sol
Sol y Sol offers a comprehensive range of
products and services to cover most welding
needs, representing only top quality welding
brands. It offers education and certification
for welding engineers, welding inspectors,
and welders. Equipment sales and rental for
welding, cutting, induction heating, and
positioning, as well as consumable supplies
of welding and brazing products. Sol y Sol
also offers technical assistance on material
selection, weld quality, and productivity
improvement, along with welder safety gear
and accessories. Quality inspection products
are offered for VT, MT, and PT testing
methods. Sol y Sols team of internationally
qualified and experienced professionals is
ready to help with your most demanding
welding challenges.

C/ Ro Tajo, Nave 1
45530 Santa Olalla Toledo - SPAIN
+34 925 797 688 / +34 672 063 303
info@solysol.com.es
www.solysol.com.es
30

Inspection Trends / January 2014

Southeast Community College


Welding Technology Program
Southeast Community College offers
associate degree, diploma, and certificate
programs using a comprehensive curriculum and modern equipment. Students
enjoy extensive hands-on training from experienced and knowledgeable instructors
in all major welding processes. Students
also will gain valuable experiences with
CNC plasma, fabrication, blueprints, and
related equipment. The program also is an
American Welding Society-accredited test
facility and offers welder qualification/
certification and training services to
business and industry. Contact us for more
information.

Lincoln Campus
Mark Hawkins, Program Co-Chair
(402) 437-2694
mhawkins@southeast.edu
Dan Zabel, Program Co-Chair
(402) 437-2692
dzabel@southeast.edu
College Admissions Office
Lincoln (402) 437-2600

Southern Arkansas
University Tech Welding
Academy
The Southern Arkansas University
Tech Welding Academy is located in
Magnolia, Arkansas in the Harvey
Couch Business Park. The program is
nine months long and is a certified
welding program. Applicants must
complete a regular college application
to SAU Tech and a Welding Academy
application both of which are
available online at www.sautech.edu.
Applicants are required to pass a
welding test before being considered
for the program.

For more information call


(870) 574-4712
(870) 390-0353

United Technical, LLC


United Technical, LLC provides laboratory services and NDT inspection
services. Performing: Tensile, Bend,
Fracture Toughness, Fillet Breaks, Peel
Tests, Resistance Spot Weld Evaluations,
Macro & Micro Cross-Sections, Metallurgical Preparation, Macro/Micro Hardness,
Stereoscopic & Metallographic Measurements-Evaluations, Microstructure Evaluations and Analysis, Proof Loading,
Scanning Electron Microscopy and
Failure Analysis. We develop written
procedures, conduct welding, test and
qualify your company PQR/WPS, various
materials.
ANST Level II & III
(Ultrasonic Phase Array, PT, MT, VT).
AWS CWI Services.

21001 Pontiac Trail


South Lyon, MI 48178
(248) 667-9185
Sales Mobile: (248) 302-6496
sales@unitedtechllc.com
www.unitedtechllc.com

United Technical
Welding Academy
United Technical Welding Academy, an
advanced training institution, offering
occupational training and certifications in
accordance with AWS SENSE program.
AWS CWE and welding engineers
develop custom training courses to create
experienced skilled trades personnel
for your company in such areas as
structural assemblies, robotics, aerospace,
automotive, die repair and pipe. Our
metallurgical/weld laboratory develops
written procedures, welds, tests and
qualifies your company PQR/WPS
(steel, stainless, aluminum, etc.). Welding
simulator, welder qualifications, ASNT
NDT inspection services, and training.
CWI services are also provided.

21001 Pontiac Trail


South Lyon, MI 48178
(248) 667-9185
Sales Mobile: (248) 302-6496
sales@unitedtechllc.com
www.unitedtechllc.com

NDE School Profiles


Vatterott
Educational Centers
Combination Welding
Taught by professionals experienced
in the field, the welding program
provides courses in blueprint reading,
project management, welding techniques, and gas metal arc welding.
The program introduces welding
theories, safety requirements, cutting
techniques, and welding terminology.
Training progresses to include gas
tungsten arc welding, project management, and advanced blueprint reading.
Welding is offered at Fairview Heights,
Illinois as well as Missouri locations
including Northpark (St. Louis),
Joplin and Kansas City. Learn more at
Vatterott.edu.

P.O. Box 28269


Olivette, MO 63132
(877) 206-5844
Vatterott.edu

Welder Skill
WELDER SKILL is a training and
qualification school in the field of
welding manufacturing. Our personnel
have 12 years of experience and our
facilities are equipped to provide the practice of welding processes. WELDER
SKILL offers the following services:
Welder qualification in the SMAW, GTAW,
GMAW, and FCAW processes, consulting
for companies in the field of welding
manufacturing, and free conferences to
schools, universities and companies in the
welding manufacturing field. WELDER
SKILL has the following recognitions: An
AWS Educational Institution Membership
and the Colombian Association of
Welding and NonDestructive Testing.

Nos encontramos ubicados


en Bogot Colombia
tel: 7815235
cel: 3115562767
welderskill@hotmail.com
ferney.ayala@hotmail.com

The Welding Expert


The Welding Expert is an ATF, a
NYC DOT approved testing location
for API1104, ASME IX, AWS, and a
NYC DOB approved testing facility.
Specialized training and testing in
AWS D1.1 used for NYCDOB and
NYSDOT structural license. Training
for beginner to advanced in
SMAW, GMAW, FCAW, and GTAW.
Materials include carbon steel,
stainless steel, and aluminum. All test
results within 24 Hours. We are
involved with several state funded
programs

Joe leonard
(347) 668-5396
101 Rome Street
Farmingdale, NY 11735
info@theweldingexpert.com
www.theweldingexpert.com

Welding Skills Workshops,


Test & Training Center
Personalized, hands-on FAST TRACK
welder training and qualifications in
GMAW, FCAW, SMAW, and GTAW,
with a maximum class size of 8. Shop
math, blueprint reading and code
book clinics. Flexible schedule, weekdays, night and weekends. Minutes
from Ontario International Airport,
hotels, and restaurants.

Welding Skills Workshops,


Test & Training Center
9216 Center Avenue
Rancho Cucamonga, Calif. 91730
USA
(909) 476-4149
weldingclassinfo@gmail.com
www.weldingclass.org

WESCO Gas & Welding


Supply, Inc.
In todays welding market staying
competitive requires skill and
knowledge. With four AWS Certified
Welding Inspectors (CWIs), and one
registered professional engineer
WESCO offers just that. Whether you
need welder certification, nondestructive testing, or help writing and
qualifying weld procedures, our team
can help. WESCO is an AWS
accredited test facility (ATF) , one of
the few in the region. Ronald Phillips,
CWI, is the director of the department. Please feel free to contact him
with any questions.

940 North M. L. King Dr.


Prichard, AL 36610
(251) 457-8681 (800) 477-9353
ronaldp@wescoweld.com
www.wescoweld.com

White Staffing
Management, LLC.
Weld Testing:
Plate testing only Welding training:
One and two week welding courses
Customized for your application
Plate fillet or groove
GMAW or FCAW processes
Weld qualification on the last day.
Print Reading for Welders:
One week course includes:
Symbols Lines
Basic shop math Measuring
Visual weld inspection
Print Reading for Machinist:
Three day course Basic shop math
Linear precision measuring tools.

Contact: Mark Starks


Technical Manager/Facility Rep.
3303 Pembroke Road
Hopkinsville, KY 42240
(270) 887-2121 ext. 177
Fax: (270) 889-2020
www.whitestaffing.com

Inspection Trends / Spring 2014

31

NDE School Profiles


Welding and NonDestructive
Testing Laboratory in Bolivia
The Department of Mechanical and
Electromechanical Engineering, has
a welding and nondestructive testing
laboratory (LENDSOL), created in
2013. Its core activities are teaching
and training students. Training courses
include SMAW, GMAW, GTAW; visual
inspection; dye penetrant inspection,
ultrasonic inspection, and certified
welding inspectors. Services are offered
to the industry in quality control and
inspection of welds using international
standards: ASME, AWS, API, and
others.

Ing. Julio Cesar Medina Gamboa


LENDSOL Laboratorio de
Ensayos No Destructivos y Soldadura
Calle Sucre y Parque la Torre
lendsol@fcyt.umss.edu.bo
591-4-4231765
P.O. Box 992
Web: umss.edu.bo

Merrill Institute
The Merrill Institute is a manufacturing, welding training, and testing
(ATF) facility in Alma, Michigan.
Courses are facilitated by AWS
CWI/CWEs utilizing state-of-the art
equipment. Our instructors provide
real world application and expertise
while promoting a safe work environment. 85% of the training will be
hands-on within a live manufacturing
environment, learning the most
common welding processes such
as GMAW (MIG), GTAW (TIG),
FCAW (Flux-Core), and SMAW
(Stick). Upon successful completion
of the course, students will receive an
AWS SENSE Certification.

520 Republic Ave.


Alma, MI 48801
(989) 462-0322
Info-min@merrillinst.com
www.merrillinstitute.com
32

Inspection Trends / January 2014

Odessa College
The Odessa College Welding
Technology Department offers a full
range of certificate and associate
degree options. This AWS Educational
Institution member is a SENSE
affiliated program and follows the
WELD-ED national curriculum to
offer training in OFW, PAC, CAC-A,
SMAW plate and pipe, GMAW, FCAW,
GTAW, and SAW processes along with
specialized courses in metallurgy, NDE,
layout and fabrication. The training
facilities are designed around 75 welding stations and an advanced process
area in four newly renovated and
specialized lab areas with three classrooms. Odessa College sponsors a
newly formed AWS Student Chapter.

Quality Testing Services,


Inc.
QTS offers Level I, II and III NDT
courses in: VT, PT, MT, UT, RT, ET
and Radiation Safety. We are certified
to operate as a proprietary school
by the State of Missouri. We can
train your personnel at your
facilities or ours to SNT-TC-1A or
NAS-410, offer Responsible Level 3
Services and qualification examination
administration. QTS is an ASNT
Authorized Exam Center. Ask about
our internship program to gain valuable real world experience.

201 W. University
Odessa, TX 79764
(432) 335-6474
James Mosman CWI
http://www.odessa.edu/dept/welding

2305 Millpark Drive


Maryland Heights, MO 63043
(888) 770-0607
(314) 770-0607
Fax: (314) 770-0103
training@qualitytesting.com
www.qualitytesting.net

NDT Training and


Testing Center

White Mountains
Community College

NDT Training and Testing Center


provides classroom and online
training in Non-Destructive Testing
methods, including VT Visual
Inspection, MT Magnetic Particle
Testing, PT Liquid Penetrant Testing, and UT both Wall Thickness
techniques and Shear Wave for weld
inspection. Our classes include all
training material, and all tests
required for qualification according to
ASNT SNT-TC-1a. Quality education
for welders and Quality Managers.
Give us a call today or visit our
website for more information.

7303 Windfern Rd.


Houston, TX 77040
(713) 849-4006
teddy.levron@ndt-training.org
www.ndt-training.org

Its pretty simple here at WMCC. We


teach hands-on welding skills. We use
cutting edge equipment. We create
professionals. Spend your time on new
equipment learning new processes in
our new 24-booth lab (or connected
virtual welding lab). Have regular
demos and recruiting visits from
industry. Get a certificate in welding
technology or pipe welding or an
Associates Degree (fall of 2014). Get
a great job. Keep on welding.

2020 Riverside Drive


Berlin, NH 03570
(603)752-1113
www.wmcc.edu
www.Facebook.com/WeldatWMCC

This conference will help welding engineers and


others avoid mistakes and turn out high quality
products. Topics range from impact tests and how they
relate to potential weld cracking as well as the control of
moisture in welding consumables.
Earn PDHs toward your AWS recertification
when you attend this conference.


Impact Testing



Advanced Creep Strength Enhanced and Ferritic Steel



Designing Crack-Free Weld Procedures for High Strength Steels



Hydrogen Sulfide in Stainless Steels



The Control of Moisture in Welding Consumables



X-Ray Diffraction



Hydrogen Cracking



Titanium Alloy Welds



The Benefits of Preheating Weldments



Passivation & Other Post-Weld Cleaning



Crack-Free Welding of Nickel-Base Alloys




Root Pass Welding: May the Force(s) Be With You!




How to Avoid Cracking When Welding Aluminum Alloys

Register Early and Save


Visit www.aws.org/conferences or call (800) 443-9353 ext 234.

By K. Erickson and A. Moore

The Answer Is

The Society is not responsible for any statements made or opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors are for specific
informational purposes only and are not intended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users.

Q: AWS D1.1:2010, Structural


Welding Code Steel, paragraph
6.5.2 Scope of Examination, says to
observe at suitable intervals joint
preparation, welding techniques,
and performance of the welder. Is it
the intent of the Code to observe
every fitup? The reason for the
question is to comply with
Paragraph 5.22 Tolerance of Joint
Dimensions.

A: (from K. Erickson) It is not the


intent that each and every fitup be
observed for compliance with AWS,
although it is necessary to ensure that
the AWS D1.1 requirements are being
fulfilled. Companies can accomplish
this in various manners by adding this
information to each Welding Procedure
Specification, by establishing training
for all welders prior to performing
work to AWS, and/or by documenting
this type of information in a general
welding procedure as a few examples
that are applicable to both shop and
field practices.
The main intention here is that the
inspector is knowledgeable of the
ongoing activities that pertain to his
involvement and these situations along
with the welding/fabrication
department also being aware of the
requirements. It is suggested that all
new welding and fabrication personnel
be instructed to inform the inspector
and/or responsible welding supervisor
when separation of joining parts
exceeds 116 in.
Also be aware that project contract
specifications may require a CWI to
visually inspect every joint fitup
regardless of the joint type. In these
cases, the CWI must then inspect and
pass the fitup before welding is
initiated.

Q: Today, one of our customers


audited our quality control system.
One of their findings was that we do
34

Inspection Trends / April 2014

not calibrate our fillet weld gauges.


I do not know how to respond. How
does one calibrate a fillet weld
gauge?

A: (from A. Moore) I feel your pain.


Sometimes you have to ask yourself if
the auditor left his common sense
hanging on the bedpost. In order to
calibrate an instrument, there has to be
something to adjust. You can calibrate
a micrometer. You can calibrate a dial
caliper, but there is nothing to adjust on
a fillet weld gauge.
Now would be a good time to
define a few terms: accuracy, precision,
and reproducibility.
Here are the formal definitions
from the United Nations Industrial
Development Organization (UNIDO)
for each of the terms:
Accuracy: The closeness of the
agreement between the results of a
measurement and a true value of the
measurand.
Precision: The closeness of the
agreement of the results of successive
measurements of the same measurand
carried out under the same conditions
of measurement. Also called
repeatability.
Reproducibility: The closeness of
the agreement between the results of
measurements of the same measurand
carried out under changed conditions
of measurement.
You can have accuracy without
precision; in other words, you take
three measurements, each is larger or
smaller than the actual reading, but the
error is within acceptable limits.
You can have precision without
accuracy. For instance, you can take
three measurements and get the same
reading, but if the measuring tool is an
inch short, the error is repeated each
time.
The goal is to have accuracy and
precision. You would like each
measurement to be accurate, i.e., as

close as possible to the true value. The


measurement should be precise, i.e.,
each measurement should be within an
acceptable (small) range. Lastly, the
measurements should be reproducible.
Maybe it would be better if the
auditors finding was that your
employer does not have a program to
verify the gauges are accurate. Now
comes an interesting quandary, what
degree of precision is required? I know
of no industry standard for fillet weld
gauges. Does the gauge have to be
accurate to the nearest 116 in., the
nearest 132 in., to the nearest 1100 in., or
to the nearest 11000 in.?
When developing a program to
verify your tools are accurate, you need
to consider what degree of accuracy is
required. The answer is dependent on
what is being fabricated and what
fabrication standard is the governing
document. It makes sense that if you
are building fixtures used to hold parts
for proper assembly, the degree of
precision is greater than if you are
cutting a structural member to length.
Calibration is comparing the
measured value recorded by a
measuring instrument to a standard.
Calibration is simply verifying the
measuring tool is accurate with the
degree of precision that has been
agreed upon and the standard used for
comparison is traceable to a known
standard.
Therefore, my opening comment
that there is nothing to adjust, so how
can a fillet gauge be calibrated is
simply incorrect. While there is
nothing to adjust, you can compare the
fillet gauge to a standard to ensure the
measured value is within acceptable
limits, i.e., it is precise and accurate.
If the governing standard is AWS
D1.1/D1.1M:2010, the acceptance
criteria is a sliding scale where a
smaller fillet weld is held to a tighter
tolerance than a larger fillet weld. To
go further, the weld can be larger than
the specified size with no penalty, but
the amount of underrun (undersize)
permitted is limited in both size and
length. The goal is that the fillet weld

should be at least as large as that


specified by the drawing. The question
is, How precise must the fillet gauge
be?
Based on the criteria of the
UNIDO, I would be forced to say the
parameter is ill defined by AWS D1.1.
One could make the argument that a
gauge that has a tolerance of
+infinity/132 in. is good enough. Im
not sure your customer or the auditor
would agree with that position. If a
fillet weld is 164-in. undersized for the
full length of the joint, is the weld
accepted or rejected? If the fillet weld
is 132-in. undersized for the full length
of the joint, is the weld accepted or
rejected?
I look at the question this way; the
goal is to ensure the weld is at least as
large as that specified by the drawing,
but I accept a fillet weld that is
undersized provided the length of the
undersized weld does not exceed the
allowances permitted by Table 6.1.
That does not mean the entire weld can
be 132 in. undersized, it means that only
10% of the total weld length can be 132
in. undersized. The weld is rejected if
the weld is undersized by more than
the amount permitted by Table 6.1
regardless of length. Any weld that is
undersized by an amount less than that
permitted by the table must represent
less than 10% of the total joint length.
The weld is rejected if any portion of
the weld is undersized and if the
undersized portion of the weld exceeds
10% of the joint length.
Is that position reasonable
considering the root opening can be 116
in. without penalty or correction? If the
weld is specified as a 18-in. fillet weld,
the theoretical throat is 0.707 0.125 =
0.088 in. when the root opening is 0 in.
Introduce a 116-in. root opening as
permitted by AWS D1.1/D1/1M:2010
and the theoretical throat is reduced to
0.044 in. On paper, the load capacity is
reduced by 50%, but the Structural
Welding Code requires no reduction in
load capacity. Even if the weld is
undersized and there is a 116-in. root
opening, the load capacity is not
reduced as long as the undersized weld
is within acceptable limits of Table 6.1.
My point is that the strength of a
small fillet weld is affected by a root
opening, but no correction is required.
Increase the fillet weld size to 14 in. and
the influence of the 116-in. root opening
is reduced. The theoretical throat of the
1
4-in. fillet weld is 0.176 in. The 116-in.

root opening reduces the theoretical


throat to 0.1326 in. On paper, the 116-in.
root opening reduces the load capacity
by 25%, but no reduction in load
capacity is required. The larger the
weld, the less influence the 116-in. root
opening has on the capacity of the fillet
weld.
What is my point? Simply this, the
safety factor for a fillet weld is robust
to say the least.
Where do we go from here? Your
employer has to make a decision. What
accuracy is required to provide your
customers with fillet welds that are safe
and provide the precision needed to meet
the code? At some point, your employer
has to consider their customers. The
accuracy and precision must satisfy the
customers requirements. If the customer
specifies a tolerance, i.e., accuracy, you
have a goal. Otherwise, your employer is
in the drivers seat and can dictate the
accuracy requirements. For instance,
pick 0/+164 in. as the tolerance. The
weld gauge can be 164 in. larger than
specified to allow for future wear. For a
weld in. and larger, that degree of
accuracy is probably fine. Consider
using 0/+1100 in. as the tolerance for
fillet welds less than in. Use gauge
blocks to verify each fillet weld gauge is
within the tolerance using the values
your employer selects. That will ensure
the fillet welds will be at least as large as
that specified by the drawing.
In the calibration system, a serial
number must identify each set of fillet
weld gauges and a record maintained to
indicate when the set of gauges was
last checked against a standard (gauge
blocks) that is traceable to a national
standard. The tolerance should be
noted for each fillet gauge in the set. If

the customer views the tolerance as too


liberal, a correction can be made to
tighten up the tolerances. However, the
AWS Structural Welding Codes do not
insist on a high degree of accuracy, so
why lock yourself into a system where
the gauges are more accurate than
necessary? We do not measure fillet
welds to the nearest 11000 in., so there is
no need to use fillet gauges that can
measure to the nearest 11000 in.
An alternate route is to purchase
serialized fillet gauges that have a
certificate of calibration. You would
still have to periodically verify the
gauges are within the published
tolerance. Your employer must specify
the frequency of calibration because
there is no requirement for calibration
specified by AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2010.

Inspection Trends encourages


question and answer submissions. Please
mail to the editor (mjohnsen@aws.org).
KENNETH ERICKSONis manager of quality at National Inspection & Consultants,
Inc., Ft. Myers, Fla. He is an AWS Senior
Certified Welding Inspector, an ASNT National NDT Level III Inspector in four methods, and provides expert witness review
and analysis for legal considerations.
ALBERT J. MOORE JR. is vice president,
Marion Testing & Inspection, Canton,
Conn. He is an AWS Senior Certified
Welding Inspector and an ASNT ACCP
NDT Level III. He is also a member of the
AWS Certification Committee and the
Committee on Methods of Inspection of
Welds.

AWS 2014 Media Kit Features the Welding Journals


Editorial Calendar, Advertising Rates, and Much More
Did you know the AWS Media Kit for 2014 is conveniently located online at
www.aws.org/wj for free download as a PDF?
The comprehensive material contains the following information:
Editorial calendar, profile, and other features of the Welding Journal along with
the magazines display and digital advertising rates
A quick look at Welding Journal readers
Highlights, display advertising rates, and editorial calendar for the Welding Journal en Espaol
Display advertising rates for the Welding Journal em Portugus
Details on Inspection Trends, including the magazines editorial focus, audience,
circulation, what interests its readers, and display advertising rates
Magazine mechanical requirements as well as advertising policies
Guides to Welding Marketplace, the AWS Publications Catalogs, and AWS website/FABTECH Show advertising.
Dont miss out on discovering everything this resourceful kit has to offer.

Inspection Trends / Spring 2014

35

Mark Your Calendar


Note: A diamond () denotes an AWS-sponsored event.

AWS Weld Cracking Conference. April 1516. Hilton


Garden Inn Denver Downtown, Denver, Colo. Contact
American Welding Society, (800) 443-9353, ext. 455, or email Belkys Riveron-Raimundez, braimundez@aws.org,
www.aws.org.

Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative


Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE). July 2025. Boise
Centre, Boise, Idaho. Contact Sarah Kallsen,
kallsen@iastate.edu, (515) 294-9749,
www.qndeprograms.org/qnde.html.

The Fifth U.S.-Japan NDT Symposium, Emerging NDE


Capabilities for a Safer World. June 1620. Makena Beach
& Golf Resort, Maui, Hawaii. Cosponsored by American
Society for Nondestructive Testing and The Japanese Society
for Non-Destructive Inspection. Contact American Society
for Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or www.asnt.org.

NDE/NDT for Highways and Bridges: Structural


Materials Technology (SMT) 2014. August 2527. Grand
Hyatt Washington, Washington, DC. Contact American
Society for Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or
www.asnt.org.

12th International Conference on Quantitative InfraRed


Thermography (QIRT 2014). July 711. Ecole Nationale
des Arts et Mtiers, Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, France.
Contact QIRT2014.scientificevent.com or e-mail
QIRT2014@scientific-event.com.

ASNT Annual Conference 2014. October 2730. Charleston


Convention Center, Charleston, S.C. Contact American
Society for Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or
www.asnt.org.
FABTECH 2014. November 1113. Georgia World
Congress Center, Atlanta, Ga. Contact American Welding
Society, (800) 443-9353, or www.fabtechexpo.com.
19th World Conference on Non-Destructive Testing. June
1317, 2016, International Congress Centre, Munich,
Germany. Contact German Society for Non-Destructive
Testing, 49 30 67807-120; e-mail:
conference@wcndt2016.com, or www.wcndt2016.com.

Www.FlawTech.com

Educational Opportunities

Manufacturer of Flawed Specimens


OFFERING THE:

AWS / CWI VISUAL


SPECIMEN KIT

Preparatory and Visual Weld Inspection Courses. Oneand two-week courses presented in Pascagoula, Miss.,
Houston, Tex., and Houma and Sulphur, La. Contact Real
Educational Services, Inc., (800) 489-2890;
info@realeducational.com.
CWI/CWE Course and Exam. A ten-day program
presented in Troy, Ohio. Contact Hobart Institute of
Welding Technology, (800) 332-9448; www.welding.org;
hiwt@welding.org.

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS BASED ON AWS D1.1


10 SPECIMENS - 2 FLAWS EACH
CARBON STEEL SPECIMENS
USE FOR TRAINING & TESTING CWIs

T 704-795-4401
F 704-795-4403

ww

.FlawTech.co

FlawTech
EST. 1982

CONTACT FLAWTECH FOR MORE DETAILS

Concord
North Carolina
USA

For info, go to www.aws.org/ad-index

36

Inspection Trends / April 2014

T.E.S.T. NDT, Inc., Courses. CWI preparation, NDE


courses, including ultrasonic thickness testing and advanced
phased array. On-site training available. T.E.S.T. NDT, Inc.,
193 Viking Ave., Brea, CA 92821; (714) 255-1500; FAX
(714) 255-1580; ndtguru@aol.com; www.testndt.com.
NDE Training. NDE training at the companys St. Louisarea facility or on-site. Level III services available. For a
schedule of upcoming courses, contact Quality Testing
Services, Inc., 2305 Millpark Dr., Maryland Heights, MO
63043; (888) 770-0103; training@qualitytesting.net;
www.qualitytesting.net.
CWI/CWE Prep Course and Exam and NDT Inspector
Training Courses. An AWS Accredited Testing Facility.

Courses held year-round in Allentown, Pa., and at


customers facilities. Contact: Welder Training & Testing
Institute (WTTI). Call (800) 223-9884, info@wtti.edu, or visit
www.wtti.edu.
GE Inspection Academy Courses. Online e-courses, on-site
classes, and week-long classroom programs in the major
industrial evaluation techniques. For information, visit
www.geinspectionacademy.com.
NDE Classes. Moraine Valley Community College, Palos
Hills, Ill., offers NDE classes in PT, MT, UT, RT, Radiation
Safety, and Eddy Current, as well as API 510 exam prep and
weld inspection. For more information, contact (708) 9745735; wdcs@morainevalley.edu; morainevalley.edu/NDE.
EPRI NDE Training Seminars. EPRI offers NDE technical
skills training in visual examination, ultrasonic examination,
ASME Section XI, UT operator training, etc. Contact Sherryl
Stogner, (704) 547-6174, e-mail: sstogner@epri.com.
Nondestructive Examination Courses. A course schedule is
available from Hellier, 277 W. Main St., Ste. 2, Niantic, CT
06357, (860) 739-8950, FAX (860) 739-6732.

FERITSCOPE FMP30 Measurement


of the Ferrite Content in Austenitic
and Duplex Steel

Fischers Feritscope FMP30


is the ideal solution for fast,
precise measurement of ferrite
content of constructional steels,
welded claddings, austenitic
stainless steels and duplex steels.
Non-destructive measurement
in the range of 80% Fe or 0-120
WRC number.
Battery or AC powered
Large, backlit display
Automatic probe recognition
Statistical evaluation
USB interface
Multiple application memories
Bluetooth wireless technology

1-800-243-8417 1-860-683-0781 Fax: 1-860-688-8496


www.Fischer-Technology.com info@fischer-technology.com
For info, go to www.aws.org/ad-index

Inspection Trends / Spring 2014

37

Certification Schedule
Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)
LOCATION
SEMINAR DATES
Fresno, CA
May 49
Miami, FL
May 49
Albuquerque, NM
May 49
Oklahoma City, OK
May 49
Corpus Christi, TX
Exam only
Birmingham, AL
June 16
Hutchinson, KS
June 16
Spokane, WA
June 16
Bakersfield, CA
June 813
Pittsburgh, PA
June 813
Beaumont, TX
June 813
Miami, FL
Exam only
Hartford, CT
June 2227
Orlando, FL
June 2227
Memphis, TN
June 2227
Miami, FL
Exam only
Los Angeles, CA
July 1318
Jacksonville, FL
July 1318
Omaha, NE
July 1318
Cleveland, OH
July 1318
Phoenix, AZ
July 2025
Louisville, KY
July 2025
Kansas City, MO
July 2025
Waco, TX
July 2025
Sacramento, CA
July 27Aug. 1
Denver, CO
July 27Aug. 1
Miami, FL
July 27Aug. 1
Milwaukee, WI
July 27Aug. 1
Corpus Christi, TX
Exam only
Chicago, IL
Aug. 38
Baton Rouge, LA
Aug. 38
Portland, ME
Aug. 38
Las Vegas, NV
Aug. 38
Philadelphia, PA
Aug. 38
Charlotte, NC
Aug. 1015
Mobile, AL
Aug. 1015
Rochester, NY
Exam only
Seattle, WA
Aug. 1015
San Diego, CA
Aug. 1722
Minneapolis, MN
Aug. 1722
San Antonio, TX
Aug. 1722
Salt Lake City, UT
Aug. 1722
Miami, FL
Sept. 712
Idaho Falls, ID
Sept. 712
St. Louis, MO
Sept. 712
Houston, TX
Sept. 712
New Orleans, LA
Sept. 1419
Fargo, ND
Sept. 1419
Corpus Christi, TX
Exam only
Pittsburgh, PA
Sept. 28Oct. 3
Long Beach, CA
Oct. 510
Indianapolis, IN
Oct. 510
Tulsa, OK
Oct. 510
Nashville, TN
Oct. 510
Miami, FL
Exam only
Beaumont, TX
Oct. 1217

EXAM DATE
May 10
May 10
May 10
May 10
May 31
June 7
June 7
June 7
June 14
June 14
June 14
June 19
June 28
June 28
June 28
July 10
July 19
July 19
July 19
July 19
July 26
July 26
July 26
July 26
Aug. 2
Aug. 2
Aug. 2
Aug. 2
Aug. 2
Aug. 9
Aug. 9
Aug. 9
Aug. 9
Aug. 9
Aug. 16
Aug. 16
Aug. 16
Aug. 16
Aug. 23
Aug. 23
Aug. 23
Aug. 23
Sept. 13
Sept. 13
Sept. 13
Sept. 13
Sept. 20
Sept. 20
Sept. 27
Oct. 4
Oct. 11
Oct. 11
Oct. 11
Oct. 11
Oct. 16
Oct. 18

Certified Welding Educator (CWE)


Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code Clinic
portion of the seminar (usually the first two days).
Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR)
CWSR exams will be given at CWI exam sites.
Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)
SEMINAR DATES
LOCATION
Minneapolis, MN
July 1418
CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites.

EXAM DATE
July 19

9-Year Recertification Seminar for CWI/SCWI


(No exams given.)
For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet education requirements without taking the exam. The exam can be taken at any site
listed under Certified Welding Inspector.
LOCATION
SEMINAR DATES
Sacramento, CA
Apr. 27May 2
Boston, MA
Apr. 27May 2
Charlotte, NC
May 49
Pittsburgh, PA
June 16
San Diego, CA
July 1318
Miami, FL
July 27Aug. 1
Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI)
LOCATION
SEMINAR DATES

EXAM DATE

Las Vegas, NV
May 59
May 10
Miami, FL
June 26
June 7
The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can exempt
you from your next 9-Year Recertification.
Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW)
The seminar dates (S:) are followed by the exam dates (E:)
S: July 2831, E: Aug. 1; S: Dec. 811, E: Dec. 12; at
ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 3918421
S: Apr. 2123, E: Apr. 24, 25; S: Oct. 2022, E: Oct. 23, 24; at
OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800
S: Oct. 2022, E: Oct. 23; at
Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542
S: Apr. 710, E: Apr. 11; S: Aug. 1114, E: Aug. 15;
S: Oct. 1316, E: Oct. 17; at
Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688
S: May 1921, E: May 22, 23; S: July 2123, E: July 24, 25
S: Sept. 2224, E: Sept. 25, 26; S: Nov. 1719, E: Nov. 20, 21; at
Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736
On request at
MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 297-6996

IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change without notice. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the seminar/exam or exam. Applications received after that time will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. Please verify application deadline dates by visiting our website www.aws.org/certification/docs/schedules.html. Verify your event dates with the Certification Dept. to confirm your course
status before making travel plans. For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or to register online, visit www.aws.org/certification or call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars. Apply early to avoid paying the $250 Fast Track fee.

38

Inspection Trends / April 2014

Just the Facts

By Jim Merrill

Why Is There Moisture on Steel?


So, as we can see, the by product
of the combustion of a hydrocarbon is
both water and carbon dioxide; the
nitrogen does not combine. Once the
steel has warmed up just a little, the
vapor no longer condenses on the
surface of the steel and the moisture no
longer appears.
In conclusion, the water is not
coming from the steel. Rather, it is, in
fact, condensing on the steel as a by
product of the combustion process. I
hope this has removed some of the
mystery as to where that water is
coming from and maybe workers wont
believe they need to sweat the water or
moisture out of the steel in the future.

Application of preheat with a hydrocarbon gas.


Certified Welding Inspectors are
often thought of as the technical expert
when it comes to all things related to
welding. While most CWIs recognize
there is much to learn about welding
and there will be occasions when they
will be asked a question they dont
know the answer to, there are times
when I hear an answer from a CWI that
may not be technically correct. One
example that I have heard over the
years from both CWIs and NDE
technicians goes something like this:
Ive got to sweat the water or
moisture out of the steel and this is the
reason for preheat.
This article is not going to be a
dissertation on the reasons for preheat;
we can save that for later. But I do
want to discuss the misconception that
the moisture seen on steel at the
beginning of preheating is somehow
coming from the steel.
First of all, steel is not a porous
material and it does not contain water,
nor will water be absorbed by steel
over time. I understand that it seems
logical that when you put a flame on
the steel and water appears that it
couldnt be coming from anywhere
else; therefore, it must be coming from
the steel. After all, theres a flame,
water cant be coming from fire;
however, the flame is exactly the
source. The water is a by product of the

combustion process when a


hydrocarbon is burned. The
combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel
produces both carbon dioxide and
water vapor, thus as the carbon dioxide
is released so is water vapor, which
will thereafter condense if the steel
plate is cold.
The simple equation for this
reaction is

JIM MERRILL, PE
(Jim.Merrill@amec.com), is senior principal engineer with AMEC E&I, San
Diego, Calif. He is an AWS Certified
Welding Inspector, a registered metallurgical engineer, and a member of the AWS
D1 Structural Welding Committee, D1Q
Subcommittee on Steel Structures, D1I
Subcommittee on Reinforcing Steel, and
D1 Task Group 4 on Inspection.

fuel + oxygen + nitrogen water


+ carbon dioxide + nitrogen


$6450.3&13*/54

T R E N D S

6
6TFSFQSJOUTUPNBYJNJ[FZPVSNBSLFUJOHJOJUJBUJWFTBOE
TFSFQSJOUTUPNBYJNJ[FZPVSNBSLFUJOHJOJUJBUJWFTBOE
TTUSFOHUIFOZPVSCSBOETWBMVF
USFOHUIFOZPVSCSBOETWBMVF






 
 












 










 
 
 


















$
BMMPSTBMFT!GPTUFSQSJOUJOHDPN
$BMMPSTBMFT!GPTUFSQSJOUJOHDPN

Inspection Trends / Spring 2014

39

Advertiser Index
American Society for Nondestructive Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
www.asnt.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 222-2768

J.P. Nissen, Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBC


www.nissenmarkers.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(215) 886-2025

AWS Education Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7, 25, 33


www.aws.org/education/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 455

NDT Seals, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10


www.ndtseals.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 261-6261

AWS Member Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12, 37


www.aws.org/membership/ . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 480

Olympus NDT, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IFC


www.olympus-ims.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(781) 419-3900

FABTECH 2014 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11


www.fabtechexpo.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353, ext. 297

Quality Testing Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10


www.qualitytesting.net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(314) 770-0607

Fischer Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37


www.Fischer-Technology.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 243-8417

SciAps, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC


www.sciaps.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(339) 927-9455

FlawTech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
www.FlawTech.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(704) 795-4401

United Technical, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9


www.unitedtechllc.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(249) 667-9185

G.A.L. Gage Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8


www.galgage.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(269) 465-5750

NDE School Profiles ................................2632

Gradient Lens Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13


www.gradientlens.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 536-0790

IFC = Inside Front Cover


IBC = Inside Back Cover
OBC = Outside Back Cover

Hobart Institute of Welding Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8


www.welding.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 332-9448

Visit Our Interactive Ad Index: www.aws.org/ad-index

Classified Ads

Place Your Classified Ad Here!


Call the AWS sales team at:
(800) 443-9353
Rob Saltzstein at ext. 243, salty@aws.org
Lea Paneca at ext. 220, lea@aws.org
Sandra Jorgensen at ext. 254
sjorgensen@aws.org

40

Inspection Trends / April 2014

AWS MEMBE
MEMBERSHIP
ERSHIP APPLICATION
APPLIC
CATI
AT ON
4 Easy Ways to
o Join or Renew:
Ren
Mail: Form with your payment, to AWS

Call: Membership Department at (800) 443-9353, ext. 480

Fax: Completed form too (305) 443-5647

ww.aws.org/membership
Online: ww

CONTACT
C
ONTA
TACT IINFORMATION
NFORMAT
MATION
 New Member  Renewal
al
 Mr.  Ms.  Mrs.  Dr.
D

Please print Duplicate


e this page as needed

_______________
_ _____
___________
___________
_________
___________
_________
____
_________
___________
_________
___________
_________
_______
Last Name:____________
First Name:___________________________________________________________________ M.I:_______
Birthdate:_____________________________
_____________________________E-Mail:____________________________________________
ail:____________________________________________
Cell Phone
hone (

)__________________________ Secondaryy Phone


hone (

)______________________

AW
WS Member?
Were you ever an A
ember?  YES  NO IfYES,give year________
ear________ and Member #:____________________
____________________
Company (if applicable):___________________________________________________________________
Address:________________________________________________________________________________
:________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Miami, FL 33166 6672


TTe
elephone (800) 443-9353
elephone
4
FFA
AX (305) 443-5647
Visit our website: www.aws.org
Type of Business ((CCheck ONE on
only)
A
 Contract construcction
B
 Chemicals
als & allied products
p
C
 Petroleum & coal
oal industries
D
 Primaryy metal industries
E
 Fabricated
ed metal products
p
F
 Machinery except
ept elect.
ele (incl. gas welding)
G
 Electrical equip.,., supplie
supplies, electrodes
H
 Transportation
tion equip.
equi air,r, aerospace
tion equip.
I
 Transportation
equi automotive
tion equip.
J
 Transportation
equi boats, ships
tion equip.
K
 Transportation
equi railroad
L
 Utilities
M
 Welding distributtors & retail trade
N
 Misc. repair services (incl. welding shops)
vices (univ., libraries, schools)
O
 Educational Servi
P
 Engineering & arrchitectural services (incl. assns.)
(incl. commercial labs)
Q
 Misc.. business services
se
ederal, state, local)
R
 Government (fede
S
 Other

City:_____________________________________________State/Provincce:________________________________________
_________________________
____
Zip/PostalCode:_________________________Country:________________________
______
 Check here if you learned of the Societyy through an AWS Member? Members name:_______________________Members
name:_______________________Membe # (if known):________
wn):________


IN DIVIDUAL MEMBE
BE R SHIP
S
 Please check each box that applies too the Membership or service
se
youd like,, and then add the cost together to get your Total Payment.
 AWS INDIVIDUAL ME
EMBERSHIP (One Y
Ye
ear)..................................................................................................$84

MBERSHI
 AWS INDIVIDUAL MEM

wo Y
Ye
ears

...............................$143
VE $25 New Members Onllyy....................................$143

 New Member Initiation Fee ...........................................................................................................................................$12

OPTIONS AVA
VAILABLE TO AWS
A
INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS ONL
LY
Y:
A.) OPTIONAL Book Sele
election (Choose from 25 titles; up to a $192 value;
alue; includes shipping & handling)
 Individual Members
.S..................................................................................................................................$35
embers in the U.S.............................................................................................................................
 Individual Members
tional shipping)
embers outside the U.S (includes International

............$85

ONLLYY ONE SELECTION PLEASE. For


or mo
more book choices visit www.aws.org/membership
g/membership
  
(CD-ROM only) 
W
Weelding Metallurrggy
 W
Weelding
HHaandbook Selections:  WHH (9th Ed., Vol. 4)  WH (9th Ed., Vol. 3)  WH (9th Ed., Vol. 2)  WHH (9th Ed., Vol. 1)
 Pocke
isual Inspection)
 PHB-4 (GMAW / FCAW)
ket
HHaanddbbook Selections:  PHHBB-1 (Arc Welding Steel)  PHHBB-2 (Visual
Inspe

B.) OPTIONAL W
We
elding Journal
elding
Jo
Hard Copy (fo
for Members
embers outside No
North America)
delivery of WJ is standard)..............................................$50
 Individual Members outside North America (note: digital deli
............$50
INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP
P TOTA
TAL P
PA
AYMENT..................................................................................$_____________
..................................................................................$_____________
NOTE: Dues include $18.70 for Weld
ding Journal subscription
p
and $4.00 for the AWS
WS Foundation.

STUDEN T MEMBE
BE RSHIP
R SHIP
 Please check each box that applies too the Membership or service
se
youd like,, and then add the cost together to get your Total Payment.
 AWS STUDENT MEMBERS
ERSHIP (OneYe
Year)...................................................................................................................$15
 OPTIONAL W
We
elding Journal Hard Copy (Only available to studennts in the U.S., Canada and Mexico)...........................$20
N

STUDENT MEMBERSHIP TOT


TA
AL P
PA
AYMENT......................................................................................$_____________
......................................................................................$_____________

PAY MEN T INFORMATION


INFORMAT
RMATION
N
Payment can be made (in U.S. dollars) by check or money order (international or foreign),
eign), payable
p
to the American Welding Society,
Societyy, or byy cha
charge card.
card
 Check  Money Order  A
AMEX

 Diners Club  MasterCard

 Visa

 Discover

 Other

CC#:____________ / ____________ / ____________ / ____________ Expiration Date (mm/yy)


y) ________ / ________
Signature of Applicant:_________________________________________
t:_________________________________________ Application Date:_______________________
e:_______________________
OFFIC E U SE ON LLY
Y Check
heck #:_______________________________ Accountt #____________________________________
Source Code: IT
Date:_________________________________
e:_________________________________ Amou
mount:_____________________________________
t:_____________________________________
REV.
V. 11/13

01
02
03
04
05
20
21
06
10
12
13
22
07
08
14
09
11
15
17
16
18
19


 Manager, director, superintendent (or assistant)
 Sales
 Purchasing
elding
 Engineer welding
ngineer design
 Engineer
ngineer manufacturing
 Engineer
manufa
ngineer other
 Engineer
 Architectt designer
 Metallurgist
elopment
 Research & developme
 Quality control
 Inspe
Inspector,r, tester
eman
 Supervisor,r, foreman
 Technician
 Welder,r, welding
elding or cutting operator
 Consultant
 Educator
 Librarian
 Student
 Customer Servicee
 Other

that apply)
Technical Interests (Check all th
A
 Ferrous metals
B
 Aluminum
ous metals except aluminum
C
 Nonferrous
erials/Intermetallics
D
 Advanced materials/I
E
 Ceramics
F
 High energy
gy beam processes
p
G
 Arc welding
H
 Brazing
azing and soldering
I
 Resistance welding
elding
J
 Thermal spray
K
 Cutting
L
 NDT
M
 Safetyy and health
N
 Bending
ending and shearing
O
 Roll forming
P
 Stamping
tamping and punching
Q
 Aerospace
R
 Automotive
S
 Machinery
T
 Marine
iping and tubing
U
 Piping
essels and tanks
V
 Pressure vessels
W
 Sheet metal
X
 Structures
Y
 Other
Z
 Automation
1
 Robotics
tion of Welding
2
 Computerization

The only handheld for positive


material identification of carbon
steels, L-grades, high temp alloys
and virtually every other alloy.

What youve
been missing.
Introducing SciAps

Technology

From hydrogen to uranium


and everything between...
Even carbon!

SCIAPS.COM
SALES@SCIAPS.COM
WOBURN, MA USA

339.927.9455

+1
For Info, go to www.aws.org/ad-index

For Info, go to www.aws.org/ad-index