How to form strain gage bridges

Gage method Connection system Application Circuit Output Remarks Bridge boxes DB-120P, 350P
No temp. compensation; x1 output; nonlinearity correction needed for large strain

1

1-active-gage 2-wire Nr. of gage: 1 Monoaxial stress (uniform tension or compression)

Gage factor Strain Bridge voltage Output voltage Gage resistor Fixed resistor

2

1-active-gage 3-wire Nr. of gage: 1 Monoaxial stress (uniform tension or compression) Bending 1-active-gage (2 in series) 2-wire (cancelling bending strain) Nr. of gages: 2
Strain Strain

No temp. compensation; thermal effect on leadwires cancelled; x1 output; nonlinearity correction needed for large strain

3

No temperature compensation; bending strain cancelled; x1 output

Monoaxial stress (uniform tension or compression) Bending

Fixed resistor

4

1-active-gage (2 in series) 3-wire (cancelling bending strain) Nr. of gages: 2

Strain Strain

Monoaxial stress (uniform tension or compression)
Active gage

Fixed resistor

No temperature compensation; thermal effect on leadwires cancelled; bending strain cancelled; x1 output

Active-dummy (2-gage method)

5
Nr. of gages: 2

Monoaxial stress (uniform tension or compression) Dummy gage

Gage factor Strain Bridge voltage Output voltage Strain Fixed resistor Strain

Temperature compensation; thermal effect on leadwires cancelled; x1 outpput

6

2-active-gage (at right angles) Nr. of gages: 2 Monoaxial stress (uniform tension or compression)

Poison’s ratio Gage resistor Strain Strain Fixed resistor

Temperature compensation; thermal effect on leadwires cancelled; x (1+v) output

7

2-active-gage (cancelling bending strain) Nr. of gages: 2 Bending stress

Strain Strain Fixed resistor

Temp. compensation; thermal effect on leadwires cancelled; comp.(tension) strain cancelled; x2 output

8

Opposite 2-active-gage 2-wire Nr. of gages: 2 Monoaxial stress (uniform tension or compression)

Strain Strain Fixed resistor

No temp. compensation; bending strain cancelled by gages cemented on front and back; nonlinearity compensation needed for large strain; x2 output

Gage method Connection system

Application

Circuit

Output

Remarks
No temp. compensation; thermal effect on leadwires cancelled; bending strain cancelled by gages cemented on front and back; x2 output; correction of nonlinearity needed

Bridge boxes DB-120P, 350P

9

Opposite 2-activegage Opposite 2-active3-wire gage 2-wire Nr. of gages: 2 Nr. of gage: 2

Monoaxial stress (uniform tension or compression)

Strain Strain Fixed resistor

10

4-active-gage (bending strain measuring) Nr. of gages: 4 Bending stress

Bending strain Bending strain

Temp. compensation; thermal effect on leadwires cancelled; compression (tension) strain cancelled; x4 output

11

4-active-gage (gages at right angles) Nr. of gages: 4 Monoaxial stress (uniform tension or compression)
Active gage

Poison’s ration Strain Strain

Temperature compensation; thermal effect on leadwires cancelled; x2(1+v) output

12

Active-dummy Active-dummy (4-gage method) (4-gage method) Monoaxial stress (uniform tension or compression) Nr. of gages: 4 Nr. of gages: 4
Dummy gage

Strain Strain

Temperature compensation; thermal effect on leadwires cancelled; bending strain cancelled by gages cemented on front and back; x2 output

13

2-active-dummy 2-Active-dummy (twisting (twisting strain strain measuring) measuring) Nr.of ofgagese: gages: 2 Nr. 2

Twisting strain Twisting strain Fixed resistor

Temperature compensation; thermal effect on leadwires cancelled; x2 output

14

4-active-gage (twisting strain measuring) Nr. of gages: 4

Twisting strain Twisting strain

Temperature compensation; thermal effect on leadwires cancelled; bending strain cancelled; x4 output

15

4-active-gage (mean strain measuring)
Rg3 Rg2

Rg2 Rg4 Rg1 Rg3
Fixed resistor R =Rg1=Rg2=Rg3=Rg4

Nr. of gages: 4

No Temp. compensation; mean stress measuring; x1 output; correction of nonlinearity needed for large strain

Rg1 Rg2

Rg3 Rg4

GRelation between strain and voltage The output of a strain gage bridge is expressed by a strain quantity (x10–6 strain) or by an output voltage (mV/V or µV/V) against a bridge voltage. The relation between the two is expressed by the formula below.

e0 = E Ks · 4

Now, suppose that Bridge voltage (E) = 1V and Gage factor (Ks) = 2.00 The following then holds. 2e0 = ε0 This means that strain output is always 2 times larger than a bridge’s output voltage. Example: 3000 x 10–6 strain © 1500µV/V = 1.5mV/V

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