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EDUSAT PROGRAMME

LECTURE NOTES
ON
POWER ELECTRONICS
BY
PROF. M. MADHUSUDHAN RAO
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS &
COMMUNICATION ENGG.
M.S. RAMAIAH INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
BANGALORE – 560 054
1
AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER CIRCUITS
(RMS VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS)
AC voltage controllers (ac line voltage controllers) are employed to vary the RMS
value of the alternating voltage applied to a load circuit by introducing Thyristors
between the load and a constant voltage ac source The RMS value of alternating voltage
applied to a load circuit is controlled by controlling the triggering angle of the Thyristors
in the ac voltage controller circuits
!n brief" an ac voltage controller is a type of thyristor power converter which is
used to convert a fi#ed voltage" fi#ed fre$uency ac input supply to obtain a variable
voltage ac output The RMS value of the ac output voltage and the ac power flow to the
load is controlled by varying (ad%usting) the trigger angle &α'
A C
V o l t a g e
C o n t r o l l e r
V
0 ( R M S )
f
S
V a r i a b l e A C
R M S O / P V o l t a g e
A C
I n p u t
V o l t a g e
f
s
V
s
f
s
There are two different types of thyristor control used in practice to control the ac
power flow
• (n)(ff control
• *hase control
These are the two ac output voltage control techni$ues
!n (n)(ff control techni$ue Thyristors are used as switches to connect the load circuit
to the ac supply (source) for a few cycles of the input ac supply and then to disconnect it
for few input cycles The Thyristors thus act as a high speed contactor (or high speed ac
switch)
PHASE CONTROL
!n phase control the Thyristors are used as switches to connect the load circuit to
the input ac supply" for a part of every input cycle That is the ac supply voltage is
chopped using Thyristors during a part of each input cycle
The thyristor switch is turned on for a part of every half cycle" so that input supply
voltage appears across the load and then turned off during the remaining part of input half
cycle to disconnect the ac supply from the load
+y controlling the phase angle or the trigger angle &α' (delay angle)" the output
RMS voltage across the load can be controlled
The trigger delay angle &α' is defined as the phase angle (the value of ωt) at which
the thyristor turns on and the load current begins to flow
Thyristor ac voltage controllers use ac line commutation or ac phase commutation
Thyristors in ac voltage controllers are line commutated (phase commutated) since the
input supply is ac ,hen the input ac voltage reverses and becomes negative during the
negative half cycle the current flowing through the conducting thyristor decreases and
-
falls to .ero Thus the (/ thyristor naturally turns off" when the device current falls to
.ero
*hase control Thyristors which are relatively ine#pensive" converter grade
Thyristors which are slower than fast switching inverter grade Thyristors are normally
used
0or applications upto 1223." if Triacs are available to meet the voltage and
current ratings of a particular application" Triacs are more commonly used
4ue to ac line commutation or natural commutation" there is no need of e#tra
commutation circuitry or components and the circuits for ac voltage controllers are very
simple
4ue to the nature of the output waveforms" the analysis" derivations of e#pressions
for performance parameters are not simple" especially for the phase controlled ac voltage
controllers with R5 load +ut however most of the practical loads are of the R5 type and
hence R5 load should be considered in the analysis and design of ac voltage controller
circuits
TYPE OF AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS
The ac voltage controllers are classified into two types based on the type of input
ac supply applied to the circuit
• Single *hase AC Controllers
• Three *hase AC Controllers
Single phase ac controllers operate with single phase ac supply voltage of -627
RMS at 823. in our country Three phase ac controllers operate with 6 phase ac supply of
1227 RMS at 823. supply fre$uency
9ach type of controller may be sub divided into
• :ni)directional or half wave ac controller
• +i)directional or full wave ac controller
!n brief different types of ac voltage controllers are
• Single phase half wave ac voltage controller (uni)directional controller)
• Single phase full wave ac voltage controller (bi)directional controller)
• Three phase half wave ac voltage controller (uni)directional controller)
• Three phase full wave ac voltage controller (bi)directional controller)
APPLICATIONS OF AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS
• 5ighting ; !llumination control in ac power circuits
• !nduction heating
• !ndustrial heating < 4omestic heating
• Transformer tap changing (on load transformer tap changing)
• Speed control of induction motors (single phase and poly phase ac induction
motor control)
• AC magnet controls
PRINCIPLE OF ON-OFF CONTROL TECHNIQUE (INTEGRAL CYCLE
CONTROL)
The basic principle of on)off control techni$ue is e#plained with reference to a
single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit shown below The thyristor switches
1
T
and
-
T
are turned on by applying appropriate gate trigger pulses to connect the input
6
ac supply to the load for &n' number of input cycles during the time interval
ON
t
The
thyristor switches
1
T
and
-
T
are turned off by bloc=ing the gate trigger pulses for &m'
number of input cycles during the time interval
OFF
t
The ac controller (/ time
ON
t

usually consists of an integral number of input cycles
L
R R ·
= Load Resistane
Fi!"# Sin!$e %&ase '($$ )a*e AC *o$ta!e ont+o$$e+ i+(it
7
s
7
o
i
o
i
g 1
i
g -
w t
w t
w t
w t
> a t e p u l s e o f T
1
> a t e p u l s e o f T
-
n m
Fi!"# ,a*e'o+-s
E.a-%$e
Referring to the waveforms of (/)(00 control techni$ue in the above diagram"
1
n ·
Two input cycles Thyristors are turned (/ during
ON
t
for two input cycles
m ·
(ne input cycle Thyristors are turned (00 during
OFF
t
for one input cycle
Fi!"# Po)e+ Fato+
Thyristors are turned (/ precisely at the .ero voltage crossings of the input
supply The thyristor
1
T
is turned on at the beginning of each positive half cycle by
applying the gate trigger pulses to
1
T
as shown" during the (/ time
ON
t
The load current
flows in the positive direction" which is the downward direction as shown in the circuit
diagram when
1
T
conducts The thyristor
-
T
is turned on at the beginning of each
negative half cycle" by applying gating signal to the gate of
-
T
" during
ON
t
The load
current flows in the reverse direction" which is the upward direction when
-
T
conducts
Thus we obtain a bi)directional load current flow (alternating load current flow) in a ac
voltage controller circuit" by triggering the thyristors alternately
This type of control is used in applications which have high mechanical inertia
and high thermal time constant (!ndustrial heating and speed control of ac motors) 4ue to
.ero voltage and .ero current switching of Thyristors" the harmonics generated by
switching actions are reduced
0or a sine wave input supply voltage"
sin - sin
s m S
v V t V t ω ω · ·
S
V ·
RMS value of input ac supply ?
-
m
V
? RMS phase supply voltage
!f the input ac supply is connected to load for &n' number of input cycles and
disconnected for &m' number of input cycles" then
"
ON OFF
t n T t m T · × · ×
,here
1
T
f
·
? input cycle time (time period) and
f
? input supply fre$uency
ON
t
? controller on time ? n T ×
OFF
t
? controller off time ? m T ×
O
T
? (utput time period ? ( ) ( )
ON OFF
t t nT mT + · +

8
@
,e can show that"
(utput RMS voltage
( ) ( )
ON ON
S O RMS i RMS
O O
t t
V V V
T T
· ·
,here
( ) i RMS
V
is the RMS input supply voltage ?
S
V

TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE R1S VALUE OF OUTPUT
VOLTAGE2 FOR ON-OFF CONTROL 1ETHO/"
(utput RMS voltage
( )
( )
- -
2
1

ON
t
m O RMS
O t
V V Sin t d t
T
ω
ω
ω ω
ω
·
·

( )
( )
-
-
2

ON
t
m
O RMS
O
V
V Sin t d t
T
ω
ω ω
ω
·

Substituting for
-
1 -
-
Cos
Sin
θ
θ

·
( )
( )
-
2
1 -
-
ON
t
m
O RMS
O
V Cos t
V d t
T
ω
ω
ω
ω

1
·
1
¸ ]

( )
( ) ( )
-
2 2
-
-
ON ON
t t
m
O RMS
O
V
V d t Cos t d t
T
ω ω
ω ω ω
ω
1
· −
1
1
¸ ]
∫ ∫
( )
( )
-
2 2
-
- -
ON ON
t t
m
O RMS
O
V Sin t
V t
T
ω ω
ω
ω
ω
1
· −
1
¸ ]
( )
( )
-
sin - sin 2
2
- -
m ON
ON O RMS
O
V t
V t
T
ω
ω
ω

1
· − −
1
¸ ]
/ow
ON
t
? An integral number of input cyclesA 3ence
" - " 6 " 1 " 8 "
ON
t T T T T T ·
<
- " 1 " @ "B "12 "
ON
t ω π π π π π ·
,here T is the input supply time period (T ? input cycle time period) Thus we note that
sin - 2
ON
t ω ·
( )
-
- -
m ON m ON
O RMS
O O
V t V t
V
T T
ω
ω
· ·
C
( ) ( )
ON ON
S O RMS i RMS
O O
t t
V V V
T T
· ·
,here
( )
-
m
S i RMS
V
V V · ·
? RMS value of input supply voltageA

( )
ON ON
O ON OFF
t t nT n
k
T t t nT mT n m
· · · ·
+ + +
? duty cycle (d)
( )
( )
S S O RMS
n
V V V k
m n
· ·
+
PERFOR1ANCE PARA1ETERS OF AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS
• R1S O(t%(t (Load) Vo$ta!e
( )
( )
( )
1
- -
- -
2
sin
-
m O RMS
n
V V t d t
n m
π
ω ω
π
1
·
1
+
¸ ]

( )
( )
( )
-
m
S O RMS i RMS
V n
V V k V k
m n
· · ·
+
( ) ( )
S O RMS i RMS
V V k V k · ·
,here
( )
S i RMS
V V ·
? RMS value of input supply voltage
• /(t3 C3$e
( ) ( )
ON ON
O ON OFF
t t nT
k
T t t m n T
· · ·
+ +
,here"
( )
n
k
m n
·
+
? duty cycle (d)
• R1S Load C(++ent
( )
( ) ( ) O RMS O RMS
O RMS
L
V V
I
Z R
· · A for a resistive load
L
Z R ·

• O(t%(t AC (Load) Po)e+
( )
-
O L O RMS
P I R · ×
B
• In%(t Po)e+ Fato+
output load power
input supply volt amperes
O O
S S
P P
PF
VA V I
· · ·
( )
( ) ( )
-
L O RMS
i RMS in RMS
I R
PF
V I
×
·
×
A
( )
S in RMS
I I · ·
RMS input supply current
The input supply current is same as the load current
in O L
I I I · ·
3ence" RMS supply current ? RMS load currentA
( ) ( ) in RMS O RMS
I I ·

( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
-
L O RMS O RMS i RMS
i RMS in RMS i RMS i RMS
I R V V k
PF k
V I V V
×
· · · ·
×
n
PF k
m n
· ·
+
• T&e A*e+a!e C(++ent o' T&3+isto+
( ) T Avg
I
0 π
2 π 3 π ω t
I
m
n
m
i
T
W a v e f o r m o f T h y r i s t o r C u r r e n t
( )
( )
( )
2
sin
-
m T Avg
n
I I t d t
m n
π
ω ω
π
·
+

( )
( )
( )
2
sin
-
m
T Avg
nI
I t d t
m n
π
ω ω
π
·
+

( )
( )
2
cos
-
m
T Avg
nI
I t
m n
π
ω
π
1
· −
1
+
¸ ]
( )
( )
[ ]
cos cos 2
-
m
T Avg
nI
I
m n
π
π
· − +
+
D
( )
( )
( ) 1 1
-
m
T Avg
nI
I
m n π
· − − + 1
¸ ]
+
( )
( )
[ ]
-
-
m T Avg
n
I I
m n π
·
+
( )
( )

m m
T Avg
I n k I
I
m n π π
· ·
+
( ) ( )
duty cycle
ON
ON OFF
t n
k
t t n m
· · ·
+ +
( )
( )

m m
T Avg
I n k I
I
m n π π
· ·
+
"
,here
m
m
L
V
I
R
·
? ma#imum or pea= thyristor current
• R1S C(++ent o' T&3+isto+
( ) T RMS
I
( )
( )
( )
1
-
- -
2
sin
-
m T RMS
n
I I t d t
n m
π
ω ω
π
1
·
1
+
¸ ]

( )
( )
( )
1
- -
-
2
sin
-
m
T RMS
nI
I t d t
n m
π
ω ω
π
1
·
1
+
¸ ]

( )
( )
( )
( )
1
- -
2
1 cos -
- -
m
T RMS
t nI
I d t
n m
π
ω
ω
π
1 −
·
1
+
¸ ]

( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
-
-
2 2
cos -
1
m
T RMS
nI
I d t t d t
n m
π π
ω ω ω
π
1 ¹ ¹
· −
1 ' ;
+
1
¹ ¹
¸ ]
∫ ∫
( )
( )
( )
1
-
-
2 2
sin -
- 1
m
T RMS
nI t
I t
n m
π π
ω
ω
π
1 ¹ ¹
¸ _
· −
1 ' ; ÷
+
¸ ,
1
¹ ¹
¸ ]
( )
( )
( )
1
- -
sin - sin 2
2
1 -
m
T RMS
nI
I
n m
π
π
π
1
¹ − ¹
¸ _
· − −
' ; 1
÷
+
¸ ,
¹ ¹
¸ ]
12
( )
( )
{ }
1
- -
2 2
1
m
T RMS
nI
I
n m
π
π
1
· − −
1
+
¸ ]
( )
( ) ( )
1 1
- - - -
1 1
m m
T RMS
nI nI
I
n m n m
π
π
1 1
· ·
1 1
+ +
¸ ] ¸ ]
( )
( ) - -
m m
T RMS
I I n
I k
m n
· ·
+
( )
-
m
T RMS
I
I k ·
PRO4LE1
1. A single p!se f"ll #!ve !$ volt!ge $ont%olle% #o%king on ON&OFF $ont%ol
te$ni'"e !s s"ppl( volt!ge of )*+V, RMS -+./, lo!d 0 -+Ω. Te $ont%olle% is
ON fo% *+ $($les !nd off fo% 1+ $($les. C!l$"l!te
• ON 2 OFF time inte%v!ls.
• RMS o"tp"t volt!ge.
• Inp"t P.F.
• Ave%!ge !nd RMS t(%isto% $"%%ents.
( )
-62
in RMS
V V ·
" - -62 6-8-@D
m
V V · × · 7"
6-8-@D
m
V V ·
"

1 1
22-sec
82
T
f ./
· · ·
" -2 T ms ·
n
? number of input cycles during which controller is (/A 62 n ·
m ·
number of input cycles during which controller is (00A 12 m ·
62 -2 @22 2@sec
ON
t n T ms ms · × · × · ·
2@sec
ON
t n T · × ·
? controller (/ time
12 -2 B22 2Bsec
OFF
t m T ms ms · × · × · ·
2Bsec
OFF
t m T · × ·
? controller (00 time
4uty cycle
( ) ( )
62
21-B8
12 62
n
k
m n
· · ·
+ +
RMS output voltage
( ) ( )
( )
O RMS i RMS
n
V V
m n
· ×
+
11
( )
( )
62 6
-62 -62
62 12 C
O RMS
V V · × ·
+
( )
-62 21-B8C -62 2@81@8
O RMS
V V · · ×
( )
1828C2
O RMS
V V ·
( )
( ) ( )
1828C2
62111
82
O RMS O RMS
O RMS
L
V V
V
I A
Z R
· · · ·

( )
- -
62111 82 1861-@1DB
O L O RMS
P I R 3 · × · × ·
Input Power Factor P F k ·
( )
62
21-B8
C2
n
PF
m n
· · ·
+
2@81@86 PF ·
Average Thyristor Current Rating
( )
m m
T Avg
I k I n
I
m n π π
×
¸ _
· × ·
÷
+
¸ ,
where
- -62 6-8-@D
82 82
m
m
L
V
I
R
×
· · ·
@8286B-
m
I A ·
? *ea= (ma#imum) thyristor current
( )
@8286B- 6
C
T Avg
I
π
¸ _
· ×
÷
¸ ,
( )
2BBC18
T Avg
I A ·
RMS Current Rating of Thyristor
( )
( )
@8286B- 6
- - - C
m m
T RMS
I I n
I k
m n
· · · ×
+
( )
-1-D6B@
T RMS
I A ·
1-
PRINCIPLE OF AC PHASE CONTROL
The basic principle of ac phase control techni$ue is e#plained with reference to a
single phase half wave ac voltage controller (unidirectional controller) circuit shown in
the below figure
The half wave ac controller uses one thyristor and one diode connected in parallel
across each other in opposite direction that is anode of thyristor
1
T
is connected to the
cathode of diode
1
4
and the cathode of
1
T
is connected to the anode of
1
4
The output
voltage across the load resistor &R' and hence the ac power flow to the load is controlled
by varying the trigger angle &α'
The trigger angle or the delay angle &α' refers to the value of
t ω
or the instant at
which the thyristor
1
T
is triggered to turn it (/" by applying a suitable gate trigger pulse
between the gate and cathode lead
The thyristor
1
T
is forward biased during the positive half cycle of input ac supply
!t can be triggered and made to conduct by applying a suitable gate trigger pulse only
during the positive half cycle of input supply ,hen
1
T
is triggered it conducts and the
load current flows through the thyristor
1
T
" the load and through the transformer
secondary winding
+y assuming
1
T
as an ideal thyristor switch it can be considered as a closed switch
when it is (/ during the period
t ω α ·
to
π
radians The output voltage across the load
follows the input supply voltage when the thyristor
1
T
is turned)on and when it conducts
from
t ω α ·
to
π
radians ,hen the input supply voltage decreases to .ero at
t ω π ·
" for
a resistive load the load current also falls to .ero at
t ω π ·
and hence the thyristor
1
T

turns off at
t ω π ·
+etween the time period
t ω π ·
to -π " when the supply voltage
reverses and becomes negative the diode
1
4
becomes forward biased and hence turns (/
and conducts The load current flows in the opposite direction during
t ω π ·
to -π
radians when
1
4
is (/ and the output voltage follows the negative half cycle of input
supply
Fi!"# Ha$')a*e AC %&ase ont+o$$e+ (Unidi+etiona$ Cont+o$$e+)
16
E5(ations
In%(t AC S(%%$3 Vo$ta!e a+oss t&e T+ans'o+-e+ Seonda+3 ,indin!"
sin
s m
v V t ω ·
( )
-
m
S in RMS
V
V V · ·
? RMS value of secondary supply voltage
O(t%(t Load Vo$ta!e
2
o L
v v · ·
A for 2 t ω · to
α
sin
o L m
v v V t ω · ·
A for
t ω α ·
to -π
O(t%(t Load C(++ent
sin
o m
o L
L L
v V t
i i
R R
ω
· · ·
A for
t ω α ·
to -π
2
o L
i i · ·
A for 2 t ω · to
α

TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR R1S OUTPUT VOLTAGE
( ) O RMS
V
( )
( )
-
- -
1
sin
-
m O RMS
V V t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
1
·
1
¸ ]

( )
( )
- -
1 cos -

- -
m
O RMS
V t
V d t
π
α
ω
ω
π
1

¸ _
·
1 ÷
¸ ,
¸ ]

11
( )
( ) ( )
- -
1 cos -
1
m
O RMS
V
V t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
1
· −
1
¸ ]

( )
( )
- -
cos -
-
m
O RMS
V
V d t t d t
π π
α α
ω ω ω
π
1
· −
1
¸ ]
∫ ∫
( )
( )
- -
sin -
-
-
m
O RMS
V t
V t
π π
α α
ω
ω
π
1
¸ _
· −
1 ÷
¸ ,
¸ ]
( )
( )
-
sin -
-
-
-
m
O RMS
V t
V
π
α
ω
π α
π
¸ _
· − −
÷
¸ ,
( )
( )
sin 1 sin -
- Asin 1 2
- - -
m
O RMS
V
V
π α
π α π
π
¹ ¹
· − − − ·
' ;
¹ ¹
( )
( )
sin -
-
- -
m
O RMS
V
V
α
π α
π
· − +
( )
( )
sin -
-
- - -
m
O RMS
V
V
α
π α
π
· − +
( )
( )
1 sin -
-
- - -
m
O RMS
V
V
α
π α
π
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
( ) ( )
( )
1 sin -
-
- -
O RMS i RMS
V V
α
π α
π
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
( )
( )
1 sin -
-
- -
S O RMS
V V
α
π α
π
1
· − +
1
¸ ]

,here"
( )
-
m
S i RMS
V
V V · ·
? RMS value of input supply voltage (across the
transformer secondary winding)
Note# (utput RMS voltage across the load is controlled by changing E E α as indicated by
the e#pression for
( ) O RMS
V
18
PLOT OF
( ) O RMS
V
VERSUS TRIGGER ANGLE
α
FOR A SINGLE PHASE HALF-
,AVE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER (UNI/IRECTIONAL CONTROLLER)
( )
( )
1 sin -
-
- - -
m
O RMS
V
V
α
π α
π
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
( )
( )
1 sin -
-
- -
S O RMS
V V
α
π α
π
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
+y using the e#pression for
( ) O RMS
V
we can obtain the control characteristics"
which is the plot of RMS output voltage
( ) O RMS
V
versus the trigger angle
α
A typical
control characteristic of single phase half)wave phase controlled ac voltage controller is
as shown below
T+i!!e+ an!$e
α

in de!+ees
T+i!!e+ an!$e
α
in +adians
( ) O RMS
V
2 2
-
m
S
V
V ·
2
62
@
π
( )
1
A
@
π
2DD-C@8
S
V
2
@2
6
π

( )
-
A
@
π
2D1DB@B
S
V
2
D2
-
π
( )
6
A
@
π
2B@@2-8
S
V
2
1-2
-
6
π
( )
1
A
@
π
2CC611
S
V
2
182
8
@
π
( )
8
A
@
π
2C1C--B
S
V
2
1B2
π
( )
@
A
@
π
2C2C12@
S
V
V
O ( R M S )
T r i g g e r a n g l e i n e g r e e s α
0 ! 0 " 2 0 " # 0
" 0 0 $ V
S
2 0 $ V
S
! 0 $ V
S
% 0 & % $ V
S
Fi!"# Cont+o$ &a+ate+istis o' sin!$e %&ase &a$'-)a*e %&ase ont+o$$ed a *o$ta!e
ont+o$$e+
1@
Note# ,e can observe from the control characteristics and the table given above that the
range of RMS output voltage control is from 122F of
S
V
to C2CF of
S
V
when we vary
the trigger angle
α
from .ero to 1B2 degrees Thus the half wave ac controller has the
draw bac= of limited range RMS output voltage control
TO CALCULATE THE AVERAGE VALUE (/C VALUE) OF OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
( )
( )
-
1
sin
-
m O d$
V V t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
·

( )
( )
-
sin
-
m
O d$
V
V t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
·

( )
-
cos
-
m
O d$
V
V t
π
α
ω
π
1
· −
1
¸ ]
( )
[ ]
cos - cos
-
m
O d$
V
V π α
π
· − + 6 cos - 1 π ·
[ ]
cos 1
-
m
d$
V
V α
π
· − 6 -
m S
V V ·
3ence
( )
-
cos 1
-
S
d$
V
V α
π
· −
,hen E E α is varied from 2 to
π

d$
V
varies from 2 to
m
V
π

/ISA/VANTAGES OF SINGLE PHASE HALF ,AVE AC VOLTAGE
CONTROLLER"
• The output load voltage has a 4C component because the two halves of the output
voltage waveform are not symmetrical with respect to &2' level The input supply
current waveform also has a 4C component (average value) which can result in
the problem of core saturation of the input supply transformer
• The half wave ac voltage controller using a single thyristor and a single diode
provides control on the thyristor only in one half cycle of the input supply 3ence
ac power flow to the load can be controlled only in one half cycle
• 3alf wave ac voltage controller gives limited range of RMS output voltage
control +ecause the RMS value of ac output voltage can be varied from a
ma#imum of 122F of
S
V
at a trigger angle 2 α · to a low of C2CF of
S
V
at
Radians α π ·
These drawbac=s of single phase half wave ac voltage controller can be over come
by using a single phase full wave ac voltage controller
1C
APPLICATIONS OF R1S VOLTAGE CONTROLLER
• Speed control of induction motor (polyphase ac induction motor)
• 3eater control circuits (industrial heating)
• ,elding power control
• !nduction heating
• (n load transformer tap changing
• 5ighting control in ac circuits
• Ac magnet controls
P+o7$e-
1. A single p!se !lf&#!ve !$ volt!ge $ont%olle% !s ! lo!d %esist!n$e 82 R · Ω,
inp"t !$ s"ppl( volt!ge is )*+V RMS !t -+./. Te inp"t s"ppl( t%!nsfo%me% !s !
t"%ns %!tio of 151. If te t(%isto%
1
T
is t%igge%ed !t
2
@2 α · . C!l$"l!te
• RMS o"tp"t volt!ge.
• O"tp"t po#e%.
• RMS lo!d $"%%ent !nd !ve%!ge lo!d $"%%ent.
• Inp"t po#e% f!$to%.
• Ave%!ge !nd RMS t(%isto% $"%%ent.
>iven"
2
S
-62 " primary supply voltage
!nput supply fre$uency ? 823.
82
@2 radians
6
7 RMS secondary voltage
p
L
V V RMS
f
R
π
α
·
·
· Ω
· ·
·
1
1
1
p p
S S
V N
V N
· · ·
Therefore
-62
p S
V V V · ·
,here"
p
N
? /umber of turns in the primary winding
1B
S
N
? /umber of turns in the secondary winding
• R1S Va$(e o' O(t%(t (Load) Vo$ta!e
( ) O RMS
V
( )
( )
-
- -
1
sin
-
m O RMS
V V t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
·

,e have obtained the e#pression for
( ) O RMS
V
as
( )
( )
1 sin -
-
- -
S O RMS
V V
α
π α
π
· − + 1
¸ ]
( )
2
1 sin1-2
-62 -
- 6 -
O RMS
V
π
π
π
1
¸ _
· − +
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
( )
[ ]
1
-62 8@@D -62 2D1DB@
-
O RMS
V
π
· · ×
( )
-1B1@D@ -1B1C
O RMS
V V V · ≈
• R1S Load C(++ent
( ) O RMS
I
( )
( )
-1B1@D@@
16@D6D
82
O RMS
O RMS
L
V
I Amps
R
· · ·
• O(t%(t Load Po)e+
O
P
( )
( )
-
-
16@D6D 82 D818CDD
O L O RMS
P I R 3!tts · × · × ·
2D818CDD
O
P 63 ·
• In%(t Po)e+ Fato+
O
S S
P
PF
V I
·
×
S
V
? RMS secondary supply voltage ? -627
S
I
? RMS secondary supply current ? RMS load current
( )
16@D6D
S O RMS
I I Amps ∴ · ·
1D
( )
D818CDD ,
2D1DB
-62 16@D6D ,
PF ∴ · ·
×
• A*e+a!e O(t%(t (Load) Vo$ta!e
( )
( )
-
1
sin
-
m O d$
V V t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
1
·
1
¸ ]


,e have obtained the e#pression for the average ; 4C output voltage as"
( )
[ ]
cos 1
-
m
O d$
V
V α
π
· −
( )
( ) [ ]
2
- -62 6-8-@D11D6
cos @2 1 28 1
- -
O d$
V
π π
×
1
· − · −
¸ ]
( )
[ ]
6-8-@D11D6
28 -8BB12D 7olts
-
O d$
V
π
· − · −
• A*e+a!e /C Load C(++ent
( )
( )
-8BB12D1
281C@B Amps
82
O d$
O d$
L
V
I
R

· · · −
• A*e+a!e 8 R1S T&3+isto+ C(++ents
I
m
i
T "
π 2 π
α
( 2 ' ) π α
3 π
α
α
ω t
Fi!"# T&3+isto+ C(++ent ,a*e'o+-
Referring to the thyristor current waveform of a single phase half)wave ac voltage
controller circuit" we can calculate the average thyristor current
( ) T Avg
I
as
( )
( )
1
sin
-
m T Avg
I I t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
1
·
1
¸ ]

( )
( ) sin
-
m
T Avg
I
I t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
1
·
1
¸ ]

-2
( )
( ) cos
-
m
T Avg
I
I t
π
α
ω
π
1
· −
1
¸ ]
( )
( ) cos cos
-
m
T Avg
I
I π α
π
· − + 1
¸ ]
( )
[ ]
1 cos
-
m
T Avg
I
I α
π
· +
,here"
m
m
L
V
I
R
·
? *ea= thyristor current ? *ea= load current
- -62
82
m
I
×
·
@8286B- Amps
m
I ·
( )
[ ]
1 cos
-
m
T Avg
L
V
I
R
α
π
· +
( )
( )
2
- -62
1 cos @2
- 82
T Avg
I
π
×
1
· +
¸ ]
×
( )
[ ]
- -62
1 28
122
T Avg
I
π
×
· +
( )
18862 Amps
T Avg
I ·
• RMS thyristor current
( ) T RMS
I
can be calculated by using the e#pression
( )
( )
- -
1
sin
-
m T RMS
I I t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
1
·
1
¸ ]

( )
( )
( )
-
1 cos -

- -
m
T RMS
t I
I d t
π
α
ω
ω
π
1 −
·
1
¸ ]

( )
( ) ( )
-
cos -
1
m
T RMS
I
I d t t d t
π π
α α
ω ω ω
π
1
· −
1
¸ ]
∫ ∫
( )
( )
1 sin -
- 1
m T RMS
t
I I t
π π
α α
ω
ω
π
1
¸ _
· −
1 ÷
¸ ,
¸ ]
-1
( )
( )
1 sin - sin -
1 -
m T RMS
I I
π α
π α
π
− 1
¹ ¹
· − −
' ;
1
¹ ¹ ¸ ]
( )
( )
1 sin -
1 -
m T RMS
I I
α
π α
π
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
( )
( )
1 sin -
- - -
m
T RMS
I
I
α
π α
π
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
( )
( )
2
sin 1-2
@8286B 1
- 6 - -
T RMS
I
π
π
π
1
¸ _
1 · − +
÷
¸ , 1
¸ ]
( )
1 - 2B@@2-81
1@
- 6 -
T RMS
I
π
π
1
¸ _
· +
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
( )
1@ 2@61- -D1C1@
T RMS
I A · × ·
( )
-D1C1@ Amps
T RMS
I ·
SINGLE PHASE FULL ,AVE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER (AC
REGULATOR) OR R1S VOLTAGE CONTROLLER ,ITH RESISTIVE LOA/
Single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit using two SCRs or a single
triac is generally used in most of the ac control applications The ac power flow to the
load can be controlled in both the half cycles by varying the trigger angle E E α "
The RMS value of load voltage can be varied by varying the trigger angle E E α "
The input supply current is alternating in the case of a full wave ac voltage controller and
due to the symmetrical nature of the input supply current waveform there is no dc
component of input supply current ie" the average value of the input supply current is
.ero
A single phase full wave ac voltage controller with a resistive load is shown in the
figure below !t is possible to control the ac power flow to the load in both the half cycles
by ad%usting the trigger angle E E α 3ence the full wave ac voltage controller is also
referred to as to a bi)directional controller
--
Fi!"# Sin!$e %&ase '($$ )a*e a *o$ta!e ont+o$$e+ (4i-di+etiona$ Cont+o$$e+) (sin!
SCRs
The thyristor
1
T
is forward biased during the positive half cycle of the input
supply voltage The thyristor
1
T
is triggered at a delay angle of E E α ( ) 2 radians α π ≤ ≤

Considering the (/ thyristor
1
T
as an ideal closed switch the input supply voltage
appears across the load resistor
L
R
and the output voltage
O S
v v ·
during
t ω α ·
to
π
radians The load current flows through the (/ thyristor
1
T
and through the load resistor
L
R
in the downward direction during the conduction time of
1
T
from
t ω α ·
to
π
radians
At
t ω π ·
" when the input voltage falls to .ero the thyristor current (which is
flowing through the load resistor
L
R
) falls to .ero and hence
1
T
naturally turns off /o
current flows in the circuit during
t ω π ·
to ( ) π α +

The thyristor
-
T
is forward biased during the negative cycle of input supply and
when thyristor
-
T
is triggered at a delay angle ( ) π α +
" the output voltage follows the
negative halfcycle of input from ( ) t ω π α · +
to -π ,hen
-
T
is (/" the load current
flows in the reverse direction (upward direction) through
-
T
during ( ) t ω π α · +
to -π
radians The time interval (spacing) between the gate trigger pulses of
1
T
and
-
T
is =ept at
π
radians or 1B2
2
At - t ω π · the input supply voltage falls to .ero and hence the load
current also falls to .ero and thyristor
-
T
turn off naturally
Instead of using two SCR’s in parallel, a Triac can e used for full wave ac voltage
control!
Fi!"# Sin!$e %&ase '($$ )a*e a *o$ta!e ont+o$$e+ (4i-di+etiona$ Cont+o$$e+) (sin!
TRIAC
-6
Fi!# ,a*e'o+-s o' sin!$e %&ase '($$ )a*e a *o$ta!e ont+o$$e+
EQUATIONS
In%(t s(%%$3 *o$ta!e
sin - sin
S m S
v V t V t ω ω · · A
O(t%(t *o$ta!e a+oss t&e $oad +esisto+
L
R
6
sin
O L m
v v V t ω · ·
A
for to t ω α π · and ( ) to - t ω π α π · +
O(t%(t $oad (++ent
sin
sin
O m
O m
L L
v V t
i I t
R R
ω
ω · · ·
A
for to t ω α π · and ( ) to - t ω π α π · +
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE R1S VALUE OF OUTPUT (LOA/)
VOLTAGE
The RMS value of output voltage (load voltage) can be found using the e#pression
( ) ( )
( )
-
- - -
2
1
-
L O RMS L RMS
V V v d t
π
ω
π
· ·

6
-1
0or a full wave ac voltage controller" we can see that the two half cycles of output
voltage waveforms are symmetrical and the output pulse time period (or output pulse
repetition time) is
π
radians 3ence we can also calculate the RMS output voltage by
using the e#pression given below
( )
- - -
2
1
sin
m L RMS
V V t d t
π
ω ω
π
·

( )
( )
-
- -
2
1

-
L L RMS
V v d t
π
ω
π
·

A
sin
L O m
v v V t ω · ·
A 0or to t ω α π · and ( ) to - t ω π α π · +
3ence"
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
-
- -
-
1
sin sin
-
m m L RMS
V V t d t V t d t
π π
α π α
ω ω ω ω
π
+
1
· +
1
¸ ]
∫ ∫
( ) ( )
-
- - - -
1
sin sin
-
m m
V t d t V t d t
π π
α π α
ω ω ω ω
π
+
1
· +
1
¸ ]
∫ ∫
( ) ( )
- -
1 cos - 1 cos -
- - -
m
V t t
d t d t
π π
α π α
ω ω
ω ω
π
+
1
− −
· +
1
¸ ]
∫ ∫
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
- - -
cos - cos -
- -
m
V
d t t d t d t t d t
π π π π
α α π α π α
ω ω ω ω ω ω
π
+ +
1
· − + −
1
×
¸ ]
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
( ) ( )
- - -
sin - sin -
1 - -
m
V t t
t t
π π π π
α π α α π α
ω ω
ω ω
π
+ +
1
1 1
· + − −
1
1 1
¸ ] ¸ ]
¸ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
-
1 1
sin - sin - sin 1 sin -
1 - -
m
V
π α π α π α π π α
π
1
· − + − − − − − +
1
¸ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
-
1 1
- 2 sin - 2 sin -
1 - -
m
V
π α α π α
π
1
· − − − − − +
1
¸ ]
( )
( )
-
sin -
sin -
-
1 - -
m
V π α
α
π α
π
+ 1
· − + +
1
¸ ]
( )
( )
-
sin - -
sin -
-
1 - -
m
V π α
α
π α
π
+ 1
· − + +
1
¸ ]
-8
( ) ( )
-
sin - 1
- sin - cos - cos - sin -
1 - -
m
V α
π α π α π α
π
1
· − + + +
1
¸ ]
sin - 2 < cos - 1 π π · ·
Therefore"
( )
( )
-
-
sin - sin -
-
1 - -
m
L RMS
V
V
α α
π α
π
1
· − + +
1
¸ ]
( )
-
- sin -
1
m
V
π α α
π
· − + 1
¸ ]
( )
( )
-
-
- - sin -
1
m
L RMS
V
V π α α
π
· − + 1
¸ ]
Ta=ing the s$uare root" we get
( )
( ) - - sin -
-
m
L RMS
V
V π α α
π
· − + 1
¸ ]
( )
( ) - - sin -
- -
m
L RMS
V
V π α α
π
· − + 1
¸ ]
( )
( )
1
- - sin -
- -
m
L RMS
V
V π α α
π
· − + 1
¸ ]
( )
( )
1 sin -
-
- - -
m
L RMS
V
V
α
π α
π
1
¹ ¹
· − +
' ;
1
¹ ¹ ¸ ]
( )
( )
1 sin -
- -
m
L RMS
V
V
α
π α
π
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
( ) ( )
( )
1 sin -
-
L RMS i RMS
V V
α
π α
π
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
( )
( )
1 sin -
-
S L RMS
V V
α
π α
π
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
Ma#imum RMS voltage will be applied to the load when 2 α · " in that case the
full sine wave appears across the load RMS load voltage will be the same as the RMS
supply voltage
-
m
V
·
,hen
α
is increased the RMS load voltage decreases
-@
( )
( )
2
1 sin - 2
2
- -
m
L RMS
V
V
α
π
π
·
×
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
( )
( )
2
1 2
- -
m
L RMS
V
V
α
π
π
·
1
· +
1
¸ ]
( ) ( )
2
-
m
S L RMS i RMS
V
V V V
α·
· · ·
The output control characteristic for a single phase full wave ac voltage controller
with resistive load can be obtained by plotting the e$uation for
( ) O RMS
V
CONTROL CHARACTERISTIC OF SINGLE PHASE FULL-,AVE AC
VOLTAGE CONTROLLER ,ITH RESISTIVE LOA/
The control characteristic is the plot of RMS output voltage
( ) O RMS
V
versus the
trigger angle
α
A which can be obtained by using the e#pression for the RMS output
voltage of a full)wave ac controller with resistive load
( )
( )
1 sin -
-
S O RMS
V V
α
π α
π
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
A
,here
-
m
S
V
V · ·
RMS value of input supply voltage
T+i!!e+ an!$e
α
in de!+ees
T+i!!e+ an!$e
α
in +adians
( ) O RMS
V
9
2 2
S
V
122F
S
V
2
62
@
π
( )
1
A
@
π 2DB81CC
S
V
DB81F
S
V
2
@2
6
π

( )
-
A
@
π 2BD@D6B
S
V
BD@DF
S
V
2
D2
-
π
( )
6
A
@
π 2C2C1
S
V
C2CF
S
V
2
1-2
-
6
π
( )
1
A
@
π 211-18
S
V
11-1F
S
V
2
182
8
@
π
( )
8
A
@
π 21@DB
S
V
1@DBF
S
V
2
1B2
π
( )
@
A
@
π 2
S
V
2
S
V
-C
V
O ( R M S )
T r i g g e r a n g l e i n e g r e e s α
0 ! 0 " 2 0 " # 0
V
S
0 & 2 V
S
0 & ! V
S
,e can notice from the figure" that we obtain a much better output control
characteristic by using a single phase full wave ac voltage controller The RMS output
voltage can be varied from a ma#imum of 122F
S
V
at 2 α · to a minimum of &2' at
2
1B2 α · Thus we get a full range output voltage control by using a single phase full
wave ac voltage controller
Need Fo+ Iso$ation
!n the single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit using two SCRs or
Thyristors
1
T
and
-
T
in parallel" the gating circuits (gate trigger pulse generating circuits)
of Thyristors
1
T
and
-
T
must be isolated 0igure shows a pulse transformer with two
separate windings to provide isolation between the gating signals of
1
T
and
-
T

(
"
)
"
(
2
)
2
( a t e
T r i g g e r
* u l s e
( e n e r a t o r
Fi!"# P($se T+ans'o+-e+
SINGLE PHASE FULL-,AVE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER ,ITH
CO11ON CATHO/E
!t is possible to design a single phase full wave ac controller with a common
cathode configuration by having a common cathode point for
1
T
and
-
T
< by adding two
diodes in a full wave ac controller circuit as shown in the figure below
-B
Fi!"# Sin!$e %&ase '($$ )a*e a ont+o$$e+ )it& o--on at&ode
(4idi+etiona$ ont+o$$e+ in o--on at&ode on'i!(+ation)
Thyristor
1
T
and diode
1
4
are forward biased during the positive half cycle of
input supply ,hen thyristor
1
T
is triggered at a delay angle
α
" Thyristor
1
T
and diode
1
4
conduct together from
t ω α ·
to
π
during the positive half cycle
The thyristor
-
T
and diode
-
4
are forward biased during the negative half cycle
of input supply" when trigged at a delay angle
α
" thyristor
-
T
and diode
-
4
conduct
together during the negative half cycle from ( ) t ω π α · +
to -π
!n this circuit as there is one single common cathode point" routing of the gate
trigger pulses to the thyristor gates of
1
T
and
-
T
is simpler and only one isolation circuit
is re$uired
+ut due to the need of two power diodes the costs of the devices increase As
there are two power devices conducting at the same time the voltage drop across the (/
devices increases and the (/ state conducting losses of devices increase and hence the
efficiency decreases
SINGLE PHASE FULL ,AVE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER USING A
SINGLE THYRISTOR
R
+
T
"
, C
S u - - l y
.
/
"
/
0
/
3
/
2
'
-D
A single phase full wave ac controller can also be implemented with one thyristor
and four diodes connected in a full wave bridge configuration as shown in the above
figure The four diodes act as a bridge full wave rectifier The voltage across the thyristor
1
T
and current through thyristor
1
T
are always unidirectional ,hen
1
T
is triggered at
t ω α ·
" during the positive half cycle ( ) 2 α π ≤ ≤
" the load current flows through
1
4
"
1
T
"
diode
-
4
and through the load ,ith a resistive load" the thyristor current (flowing
through the (/ thyristor
1
T
) " the load current falls to .ero at
t ω π ·
" when the input
supply voltage decreases to .ero at
t ω π ·
" the thyristor naturally turns (00
!n the negative half cycle" diodes
6 1
< 4 4
are forward biased during
to - t ω π π · radians ,hen
1
T
is triggered at ( ) t ω π α · +
" the load current flows in the
opposite direction (upward direction) through the load" through
6
4
"
1
T
and
1
4
Thus
6
4
"
1
4
and
1
T
conduct together during the negative half cycle to supply the load power ,hen
the input supply voltage becomes .ero at - t ω π · " the thyristor current (load current)
falls to .ero at - t ω π · and the thyristor
1
T
naturally turns (00 The waveforms and the
e#pression for the RMS output voltage are the same as discussed earlier for the single
phase full wave ac controller
+ut however if there is a large inductance in the load circuit" thyristor
1
T
may not
be turned (00 at the .ero crossing points" in every half cycle of input voltage and this
may result in a loss of output control This would re$uire detection of the .ero crossing of
the load current waveform in order to ensure guaranteed turn off of the conducting
thyristor before triggering the thyristor in the ne#t half cycle" so that we gain control on
the output voltage
!n this full wave ac controller circuit using a single thyristor" as there are three
power devices conducting together at the same time there is more conduction voltage
drop and an increase in the (/ state conduction losses and hence efficiency is also
reduced
The diode bridge rectifier and thyristor (or a power transistor) act together as a
bidirectional switch which is commercially available as a single device module and it has
relatively low (/ state conduction loss !t can be used for bidirectional load current
control and for controlling the RMS output voltage
SINGLE PHASE FULL ,AVE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER
(4I/IRECTIONAL CONTROLLER) ,ITH RL LOA/
!n this section we will discuss the operation and performance of a single phase full
wave ac voltage controller with R5 load !n practice most of the loads are of R5 type 0or
e#ample if we consider a single phase full wave ac voltage controller controlling the
speed of a single phase ac induction motor" the load which is the induction motor winding
is an R5 type of load" where R represents the motor winding resistance and 5 represents
the motor winding inductance
62
A single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit (bidirectional controller)
with an R5 load using two thyristors
1
T
and
-
T
(
1
T
and
-
T
are two SCRs) connected in
parallel is shown in the figure below !n place of two thyristors a single Triac can be used
to implement a full wave ac controller" if a suitable Traic is available for the desired RMS
load current and the RMS output voltage ratings
Fi!# Sin!$e %&ase '($$ )a*e a *o$ta!e ont+o$$e+ )it& RL $oad
The thyristor
1
T
is forward biased during the positive half cycle of input supply
5et us assume that
1
T
is triggered at
t ω α ·
" by applying a suitable gate trigger pulse to
1
T
during the positive half cycle of input supply The output voltage across the load
follows the input supply voltage when
1
T
is (/ The load current
O
i
flows through the
thyristor
1
T
and through the load in the downward direction This load current pulse
flowing through
1
T
can be considered as the positive current pulse 4ue to the inductance
in the load" the load current
O
i
flowing through
1
T
would not fall to .ero at
t ω π ·
" when
the input supply voltage starts to become negative
The thyristor
1
T
will continue to conduct the load current until all the inductive
energy stored in the load inductor 5 is completely utili.ed and the load current through
1
T

falls to .ero at
t ω β ·
" where
β
is referred to as the 9#tinction angle" (the value of
t ω
)
at which the load current falls to .ero The e#tinction angle
β
is measured from the point
of the beginning of the positive half cycle of input supply to the point where the load
current falls to .ero
61
The thyristor
1
T
conducts from
t ω α ·
to
β
The conduction angle of
1
T
is
( ) δ β α · −
" which depends on the delay angle
α
and the load impedance angle
φ
The
waveforms of the input supply voltage" the gate trigger pulses of
1
T
and
-
T
" the thyristor
current" the load current and the load voltage waveforms appear as shown in the figure
below
Fi!"# In%(t s(%%$3 *o$ta!e 8 T&3+isto+ (++ent )a*e'o+-s
β
is the e#tinction angle which depends upon the load inductance value
Fi!"# Gatin! Si!na$s
6-
,a*e'o+-s o' sin!$e %&ase '($$ )a*e a *o$ta!e ont+o$$e+ )it& RL $oad 'o+
α φ >
"
/isontin(o(s $oad (++ent o%e+ation o(+s 'o+
α φ >
and ( ) β π α < +
6
i"e"2 ( ) β α π − <
2 ond(tion an!$e
π <
"
Fi!"# ,a*e'o+-s o' In%(t s(%%$3 *o$ta!e2 Load C(++ent2 Load Vo$ta!e and
T&3+isto+ Vo$ta!e a+oss
1
T

Note
• The RMS value of the output voltage and the load current may be varied by
varying the trigger angle
α

• This circuit" AC RMS voltage controller can be used to regulate the RMS voltage
across the terminals of an ac motor (induction motor) !t can be used to control the
temperature of a furnace by varying the RMS output voltage
66
• 0or very large load inductance &5' the SCR may fail to commutate" after it is
triggered and the load voltage will be a full sine wave (similar to the applied input
supply voltage and the output control will be lost) as long as the gating signals are
applied to the thyristors
1
T
and
-
T
The load current waveform will appear as a
full continuous sine wave and the load current waveform lags behind the output
sine wave by the load power factor angle φ
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE OUTPUT (IN/UCTIVE LOA/)
CURRENT2 /URING
to t ω α β ·
,HEN THYRISTOR
1
T
CON/UCTS
Considering sinusoidal input supply voltage we can write the e#pression for the
supply voltage as
sin
S m
v V t ω ·
? instantaneous value of the input supply voltage
5et us assume that the thyristor
1
T
is triggered by applying the gating signal to
1
T

at
t ω α ·
The load current which flows through the thyristor
1
T
during
t ω α ·
to
β
can
be found from the e$uation
sin
O
O m
di
L Ri V t
dt
ω
¸ _
+ ·
÷
¸ ,
A
The solution of the above differential e$uation gives the general e#pression for the
output load current which is of the form
( )
1
sin
t
m
O
V
i t Ae
Z
τ
ω φ

· − + A
,here -
m S
V V · ? ma#imum or pea= value of input supply voltage
( )
-
-
Z R L ω · + ? 5oad impedance
1
tan
L
R
ω
φ

¸ _
·
÷
¸ ,
? 5oad impedance angle (power factor angle of load)
L
R
τ · ? 5oad circuit time constant
Therefore the general e#pression for the output load current is given by the
e$uation
( )

1
sin
R
t
m L
O
V
i t Ae
Z
ω φ

· − + A
61
The value of the constant
1
A
can be determined from the initial condition ie
initial value of load current
2
O
i ·
" at
t ω α ·
3ence from the e$uation for
O
i
e$uating
O
i
to .ero and substituting
t ω α ·
" we get
( )

1
2 sin
R
t
m L
O
V
i Ae
Z
α φ

· · − +
Therefore
( )
1
sin
R
t
m L
V
Ae
Z
α φ


· −
( )
1
1
sin
m
R
t
L
V
A
Z
e
α φ

− 1
· −
1
¸ ]
( )
1
sin
R
t
m L
V
A e
Z
α φ
+

1
· −
1
¸ ]
( )
( )
1
sin
R t
m L
V
A e
Z
ω
ω
α φ

1
· −
1
¸ ]
+y substituting
t ω α ·
" we get the value of constant
1
A
as
( )
( )
1
sin
R
m L
V
A e
Z
α
ω
α φ

1
· −
1
¸ ]
Substituting the value of constant
1
A
from the above e$uation into the e#pression for
O
i
"
we obtain
( )
( )
( ) sin sin
R R
t
m m L L
O
V V
i t e e
Z Z
α
ω
ω φ α φ


1
· − + −
1
¸ ]
A
( )
( ) ( )
( ) sin sin
R t R
m m L L
O
V V
i t e e
Z Z
ω α
ω ω
ω φ α φ


1
· − + −
1
¸ ]
( )
( )
( ) sin sin
R
t
m m L
O
V V
i t e
Z Z
ω α
ω
ω φ α φ



1
· − + −
1
¸ ]
Therefore we obtain the final e#pression for the inductive load current of a single
phase full wave ac voltage controller with R5 load as
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
t
m L
O
V
i t e
Z
ω α
ω
ω φ α φ

− 1
· − − −
1
¸ ]
A ,here
t α ω β ≤ ≤

68
The above e#pression also represents the thyristor current
1 T
i
" during the
conduction time interval of thyristor
1
T
from
to t ω α β ·

To Ca$($ate E.tintion An!$e
β
The e#tinction angle
β
" which is the value of
t ω
at which the load current
O
i
falls to .ero and
1
T
is turned off can be estimated by using the condition that
2
O
i ·
" at
t ω β ·
+y using the above e#pression for the output load current" we can write
( ) ( )
( )
2 sin sin
R
m L
O
V
i e
Z
β α
ω
β φ α φ

− 1
· · − − −
1
¸ ]
As 2
m
V
Z
≠ we can write
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin 2
R
L
e
β α
ω
β φ α φ

− 1
− − − ·
1
¸ ]
Therefore we obtain the e#pression
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
L
e
β α
ω
β φ α φ


− · −
The e#tinction angle
β
can be determined from this transcendental e$uation by
using the iterative method of solution (trial and error method) After
β
is calculated" we
can determine the thyristor conduction angle ( ) δ β α · −

β
is the e#tinction angle which depends upon the load inductance value
Conduction angle δ increases as
α
is decreased for a =nown value of
β

0or δ π < radians" ie" for ( ) β α π − <
radians" for ( ) π α β + >
the load current
waveform appears as a discontinuous current waveform as shown in the figure The
output load current remains at .ero during
t ω β ·
to ( ) π α +
This is referred to as
discontinuous load current operation which occurs for ( ) β π α < +

,hen the trigger angle
α
is decreased and made e$ual to the load impedance
angle
φ
ie" when
α φ ·
we obtain from the e#pression for ( ) sin β φ −
"
( ) sin 2 β φ − ·
A Therefore ( ) β φ π − ·
radians
"#tinction angle ( ) ( ) β π φ π α · + · +
A for the case when
α φ ·
Conduction angle ( )
2
radians 1B2 δ β α π · − · ·
A for the case when
α φ ·
9ach thyristor conducts for 1B2
2
( radians π )
1
T
conducts from
t ω φ ·
to ( ) π φ +

and provides a positive load current
-
T
conducts from ( ) π φ +
to ( ) -π φ +
and provides
a negative load current 3ence we obtain a continuous load current and the output voltage
6@
waveform appears as a continuous sine wave identical to the input supply voltage
waveform for trigger angle
α φ ≤
and the control on the output is lost
v
O
π 2 π
φ
3 π
φ
ω t
V
m
0
φ φ
I
m
ω t φ
v 1 v
O S
i
O
Fi!"# O(t%(t *o$ta!e and o(t%(t (++ent )a*e'o+-s 'o+ a sin!$e %&ase '($$ )a*e a
*o$ta!e ont+o$$e+ )it& RL $oad 'o+
α φ ≤
Thus we observe that for trigger angle
α φ ≤
" the load current tends to flow
continuously and we have continuous load current operation" without any brea= in the
load current waveform and we obtain output voltage waveform which is a continuous
sinusoidal waveform identical to the input supply voltage waveform ,e loose the control
on the output voltage for
α φ ≤
as the output voltage becomes e$ual to the input supply
voltage and thus we obtain
( )
-
m
S O RMS
V
V V · ·
A for
α φ ≤
3ence"
RMS output voltage ? RMS input supply voltage for
α φ ≤
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR R1S OUTPUT VOLTAGE
( ) O RMS
V
OF A
SINGLE PHASE FULL-,AVE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER ,ITH RL
LOA/"
6C
,hen O α > " the load current and load voltage waveforms become discontinuous
as shown in the figure above
( )
( )
1
-
- -
1
sin
m O RMS
V V t d t
β
α
ω ω
π
1
·
1
¸ ]

(utput
sin
o m
v V t ω ·
" for
to t ω α β ·
" when
1
T
is (/
( )
( )
( )
1
- -
1 cos -
-
m
O RMS
t V
V d t
β
α
ω
ω
π
1 −
·
1
¸ ]

( )
( ) ( )
1
-
-
cos -
-
m
O RMS
V
V d t t d t
β β
α α
ω ω ω
π
1 ¹ ¹
¹ ¹
· −
1 ' ;
¹ ¹ 1
¹ ¹
¸ ]
∫ ∫
( )
( )
1
-
-
sin -
- -
m
O RMS
V t
V t
β β
α α
ω
ω
π
1 ¹ ¹
¸ _
· −
1 ' ; ÷
¸ ,
1
¹ ¹
¸ ]
( )
( )
1
- -
sin - sin -
- - -
m
O RMS
V
V
β α
β α
π
1
¹ ¹
· − − +
' ;
1
¹ ¹
¸ ]
( )
( )
1
-
1 sin - sin -
- - -
m O RMS
V V
α β
β α
π
1
¹ ¹
· − + −
' ;
1
¹ ¹ ¸ ]
( )
( )
1
-
1 sin - sin -
- - -
m
O RMS
V
V
α β
β α
π
1
¹ ¹
· − + −
' ;
1
¹ ¹ ¸ ]
The RMS output voltage across the load can be varied by changing the trigger
angle
α

0or a purely resistive load 2 L · " therefore load power factor angle
2 φ ·

1
tan 2
L
R
ω
φ

¸ _
· ·
÷
¸ ,
A
9#tinction angle
2
radians 1B2 β π · ·
6B
PERFOR1ANCE PARA1ETERS OF A SINGLE PHASE FULL ,AVE AC
VOLTAGE CONTROLLER ,ITH RESISTIVE LOA/
• R1S O(t%(t Vo$ta!e
( )
( )
1 sin -
- -
m
O RMS
V
V
α
π α
π
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
A
-
m
S
V
V ·
? RMS
input supply voltage

( )
( ) O RMS
O RMS
L
V
I
R
· ? RMS value of load current

( )
S O RMS
I I ·
? RMS value of input supply current
• O(t%(t $oad %o)e+
( )
-
O L O RMS
P I R · ×
• In%(t Po)e+ Fato+
( )
( )
( )
-
L L O RMS O RMS
O
S S S S O RMS
I R I R
P
PF
V I V I V
× ×
· · ·
× ×
( )
( )
1 sin -
-
O RMS
S
V
PF
V
α
π α
π
1
· · − +
1
¸ ]
• A*e+a!e T&3+isto+ C(++ent2
I
m
i
T "
π 2 π
α
( 2 ' ) π α
3 π
α
α
ω t
Fi!"# T&3+isto+ C(++ent ,a*e'o+-
( )
( ) ( )
1 1
sin
- -
T m T Avg
I i d t I t d t
π π
α α
ω ω ω
π π
· ·
∫ ∫
( )
( ) sin cos
- -
m m
T Avg
I I
I t d t t
π π
α α
ω ω ω
π π
1
· · −
1
¸ ]

( )
[ ] [ ]
cos cos 1 cos
- -
m m
T Avg
I I
I π α α
π π
· − + · +
6D
• 1a.i-(- A*e+a!e T&3+isto+ C(++ent2 'o+ 2 α · "
( )
m
T Avg
I
I
π
·
• R1S T&3+isto+ C(++ent
( )
( )
- -
1
sin
-
m T RMS
I I t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
1
·
1
¸ ]

( )
( )
1 sin -
- - -
m
T RMS
I
I
α
π α
π
1
· − +
1
¸ ]
• 1a.i-(- R1S T&3+isto+ C(++ent2 'o+ 2 α · "
( )
-
m
T RMS
I
I ·
!n the case of a single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit using a Triac
with resistive load" the average thyristor current
( )
2
T Avg
I ·
+ecause the Triac conducts in
both the half cycles and the thyristor current is alternating and we obtain a symmetrical
thyristor current waveform which gives an average value of .ero on integration
PERFOR1ANCE PARA1ETERS OF A SINGLE PHASE FULL ,AVE AC
VOLTAGE CONTROLLER ,ITH R-L LOA/
T&e E.%+ession 'o+ t&e O(t%(t (Load) C(++ent
The e#pression for the output (load) current which flows through the thyristor"
during
to t ω α β ·
is given by
( ) ( )
( )
1
sin sin
R
t
m L
O T
V
i i t e
Z
ω α
ω
ω φ α φ

− 1
· · − − −
1
¸ ]
A for
t α ω β ≤ ≤
,here"
-
m S
V V · ? Ma#imum or pea= value of input ac supply voltage
( )
-
-
Z R L ω · + ? 5oad impedance
1
tan
L
R
ω
φ

¸ _
·
÷
¸ ,
? 5oad impedance angle (load power factor angle)
α
? Thyristor trigger angle ? 4elay angle
β
? 9#tinction angle of thyristor" (value of
t ω
) at which the thyristor (load)
current falls to .ero
β
is calculated by solving the e$uation
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
L
e
β α
ω
β φ α φ


− · −
12
T&3+isto+ Cond(tion An!$e ( ) δ β α · −
Ma#imum thyristor conduction angle ( ) δ β α π · − ·
radians ? 1B2
2
for
α φ ≤

R1S O(t%(t Vo$ta!e
( )
( )
1 sin - sin -
- - -
m
O RMS
V
V
α β
β α
π
1
· − + −
1
¸ ]
T&e A*e+a!e T&3+isto+ C(++ent
( )
( )
1
1
-
T T Avg
I i d t
β
α
ω
π
1
·
1
¸ ]

( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1
sin sin
-
R
t
m L
T Avg
V
I t e d t
Z
β
ω α
ω
α
ω φ α φ ω
π

− 1
1
· − − −
1
1
1
¸ ] ¸ ]

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) sin sin
-
R
t
m L
T Avg
V
I t d t e d t
Z
β β
ω α
ω
α α
ω φ ω α φ ω
π

− 1
· − − −
1
¸ ]
∫ ∫
Ma#imum value of
( ) T Avg
I
occur at 2 α · The thyristors should be rated for
ma#imum
( )
m
T Avg
I
I
π
¸ _
·
÷
¸ ,
" where
m
m
V
I
Z
·
R1S T&3+isto+ C(++ent
( ) T RMS
I
( )
( )
1
-
1
-
T T RMS
I i d t
β
α
ω
π
1
·
1
¸ ]

Ma#imum value of
( ) T RMS
I
occurs at 2 α · Thyristors should be rated for
ma#imum
( )
-
m
T RMS
I
I
¸ _
·
÷
¸ ,
,hen a Triac is used in a single phase full wave ac voltage controller with R5
type of load" then
( )
2
T Avg
I ·
and ma#imum
( )
-
m
T RMS
I
I ·
11
PRO4LE1S
1. A single p!se f"ll #!ve !$ volt!ge $ont%olle% s"pplies !n RL lo!d. Te inp"t
s"ppl( volt!ge is )*+V, RMS !t -+./. Te lo!d !s L 0 1+m., R 0 1+Ω, te
del!( !ngle of t(%isto%s
1
T
!nd
-
T
!%e e'"!l, #e%e
1 -
6
π
α α · · . 4ete%mine
!. Cond"$tion !ngle of te t(%isto%
1
T
.
7. RMS o"tp"t volt!ge.
$. Te inp"t po#e% f!$to%.
Comment on te t(pe of ope%!tion.
>iven
-62
s
V V ·
"
82 f ./ ·
" 12 L m. · " 12 R · Ω"
2
@2 α · "
1 -
6
π
α α α · · · radians"
- - -62 6-8-@D11D6
m S
V V V · · × ·
( ) ( ) ( )
- - -
-
5oad !mpedance 12 Z R L L ω ω · · + · +
( ) ( )
6
- - 82 12 12 61118D L fL ω π π π

· · × × × · · Ω
( ) ( )
- -
12 61118D 12DB@D@ 121B1B Z · + · · Ω
- -62
61261CD
121B1B
m
m
V
I A
Z
×
· · ·
Load I-%edane An!$e
1
tan
L
R
ω
φ

¸ _
·
÷
¸ ,
( )
1 1 2
tan tan 261118D 1C1128D
12
π
φ
− −
¸ _
· · ·
÷
¸ ,
T+i!!e+ An!$e
α φ >
3ence the type of operation will be discontinuous load
current operation" we get
( ) β π α < +
( ) 1B2 @2 β < +
A
2
-12 β <
Therefore the range of
β
is from 1B2 degrees to -12 degrees
( )
2 2
1B2 -12 β < <
1-
E.tintion An!$e
β
is calculated by using the e$uation
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
L
e
β α
ω
β φ α φ


− · −
!n the e#ponential term the value of
α
and
β
should be substituted in
radians 3ence
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R!d R!d
R
L
e
β α
ω
β φ α φ


− · −
A
6
R!d
π
α
¸ _
·
÷
¸ ,
( ) ( )
2
@2 1C1128D 1-88D1 α φ − · − ·
( ) ( )
( )
12
2
2
sin 1C11 sin 1-88D1 e
β α
π
β


− ·
( )
( )
2
61B6
sin 1C11 2@C@681e
β α
β
− −
− ·
2
1B2 radians" π →
2
2
1B2
R!d
β π
β
×
·
Ass"ming
2
1D2 β · 6
2 2
2
1D2
661@1
1B2 1B2
R!d
β π π
β
× ×
· · ·
53SG ( ) ( )
2
sin 1D2 1C11 sin 1C-8@ 21-D1BC − · ·
R3SG
61B6 661@1
1 6
2@C@681 1D1 12 e
π ¸ _
− −
÷

¸ ,
× · ×
Ass"ming
2
1B6 β · A
2 2
2
1B6
61D6D8
1B2 1B2
R!d
β π π
β
× ×
· · ·
( ) 61D6D8 -11@C8
6
π
β α
¸ _
− · − ·
÷
¸ ,
53SG ( ) ( )
2
sin sin 1B6 1C11 sin1@88@ 2-1D6@ β φ − · − · ·
R3SG
( ) 61B6 -11@C8 1
2@C@681 C-BC@ 12 e
− −
· ×
Ass"ming
2
1B2 β ≈
2 2
2
1B2
1B2 1B2
R!d
β π π
β π
× ×
· · ·
( )
-
6 6
π π
β α π
¸ _ ¸ _
− · − ·
÷ ÷
¸ , ¸ ,
16
53SG ( ) ( ) sin sin 1B2 1C11 2-DDC β φ − · − ·
R3SG
61B6
1 6
2@C@681 B@2D- 12 e
π
π
¸ _
− −
÷

¸ ,
· ×
Ass"ming
2
1D@ β ·
2 2
2
1D@
61-2B18
1B2 1B2
R!d
β π π
β
× ×
· · ·
53SG ( ) ( ) sin sin 1D@ 1C11 22-816 β φ − · − ·
R3SG
61B6 61-2B18
1 6
2@C@681 686D1 12 e
π ¸ _
− −
÷

¸ ,
· ×
Ass"ming
2
1DC β ·
2 2
2
1DC
616B-D
1B2 1B2
R!d
β π π
β
× ×
· · ·
53SG ( ) ( )
6
sin sin 1DC 1C11 C@D C@CD6C 12 β φ

− · − · · ×
R3SG
61B6 616B-D
1 6
2@C@681 1D826B@1C@ 12 e
π ¸ _
− −
÷

¸ ,
· ×
Ass"ming
2
1DC1- β ·
2
2
1DC1-
6118@
1B2 1B2
R!d
β π π
β
× ×
· · ·
53SG ( ) ( )
1
sin sin 1DC1- 1C11 61D2@ 12 β φ

− · − · ×
R3SG
61B6 6118@
1 6
2@C@681 6-C2D 12 e
π ¸ _
− −
÷

¸ ,
· ×
Cond(tion An!$e ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1DC1- @2 16C1- δ β α · − · − ·
R1S O(t%(t Vo$ta!e
( )
( )
1 sin - sin -
- -
S O RMS
V V
α β
β α
π
1
· − + −
1
¸ ]
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
sin - @2 sin - 1DC1-
1
-62 6118@
6 - -
O RMS
V
π
π
1
¸ _
1 · − + −
÷
¸ , 1
¸ ]
( )
( )
1
-62 -6DB16 21662 2-B8@12
O RMS
V
π
· + − 1
¸ ]
( )
-62 2D -2C2118 7
O RMS
V · × ·
11
In%(t Po)e+ Fato+
O
S S
P
PF
V I
·
×
( )
( )
-2C2118
1DC8-C A
121B1B
O RMS
O RMS
V
I
Z
· · ·
( )
( )
-
-
1DC8-C 12 6D21C1@ ,
O L O RMS
P I R · × · × ·
( )
-62 " 1DC8-C
S S O RMS
V V I I · · ·
6D21C1@
2B8BB
-62 1DC8-C
O
S S
P
PF
V I
· · ·
× ×
- A single p!se f"ll #!ve $ont%olle% !s !n inp"t volt!ge of 1)+ V 8RMS9 !nd !
lo!d %esist!n$e of : om. Te fi%ing !ngle of t(%isto% is - π . Find
!. RMS o"tp"t volt!ge
7. Po#e% o"tp"t
$. Inp"t po#e% f!$to%
d. Ave%!ge !nd RMS t(%isto% $"%%ent.
So$(tion
2
D2 " 1-2 7" @
-
S
V R
π
α · · · · Ω
R1S Va$(e o' O(t%(t Vo$ta!e
1
-
1 sin -
-
O S
V V
α
π α
π
1
¸ _
· − +
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
1
-
1 sin1B2
1-2
- -
O
V
π
π
π
1 ¸ _
· − +
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
B1B8 7olts
O
V ·
R1S O(t%(t C(++ent
B1B8
1111 A
@
O
O
V
I
R
· · ·
Load Po)e+

-
O O
P I R · ×
( )
-
1111 @ 1-22 watts
O
P · × ·
18
In%(t C(++ent is sa-e as Load C(++ent
Therefore
1111 Amps
S O
I I · ·
!nput Supply 7olt)Amp
1-2 1111 1@D@B
S S
V I VA · · × ·
Therefore
!nput *ower 0actor ? ( )
5oad *ower 1-22
2C2C
!nput 7olt)Amp 1@D@B
l!g · ·
Ea& T&3+isto+ Cond(ts on$3 'o+ &a$' a 3$e
Average thyristor current
( ) T Avg
I
( )
( )
1
sin
-
m T Avg
I V t d t
R
π
α
ω ω
π
·

( )
m
1 cos A 7 -
-
m
S
V
V
R
α
π
· + ·
[ ]
- 1-2
1 cosD2 18 A
- @ π
×
· + ·
×
RMS thyristor current
( ) T RMS
I
( )
( )
- -
-
sin 1
-
m
T RMS
V t
I d t
R
π
α
ω
ω
π
·

( )
( )
-
-
1 cos -
- -
m
t V
d t
R
π
α
ω
ω
π

·

1
-
1 sin -
- -
m
V
R
α
π α
π
1
¸ _
· − +
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
1
-
- 1 sin -
- -
S
V
R
α
π α
π
1 ¸ _
· − +
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
1
-
- 1-2 1 sin1B2
12 Amps
- @ - -
π
π
π
× 1
¸ _
· − + ·
÷ 1
×
¸ , ¸ ]
1@
*. A single p!se !lf #!ve !$ %eg"l!to% "sing one SCR in !nti&p!%!llel #it ! diode
feeds 1 k3, )*+ V e!te%. Find lo!d po#e% fo% ! fi%ing !ngle of 1-
+
.
So$(tion
2
18 " -62 7
1
S
V
π
α · · · A
1 1222
O
P 63 3 · ·
At standard rms supply voltage of -627" the heater dissipates 1H, of output
power
Therefore
-
O O O
O O O
V V V
P V I
R R
×
· × · ·
Resistance of heater
( )
-
-
-62
8-D
1222
O
O
V
R
P
· · · Ω
RMS value of output voltage
1
-
1 sin -
-
- -
O S
V V
α
π α
π
1
¸ _
· − +
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
A for firing angle
2
18 α ·
1
-
1 sinD2
-62 - --1C18C 7olts
- 1 -
O
V
π
π
π
1 ¸ _
· − + ·
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
RMS value of output current
--1D
1-1CD Amps
8-D
O
O
V
I
R
· · ·
5oad *ower
( )
-
-
1-8 8-D D818@ ,atts
O O
P I R · × · × ·
1. Find te RMS !nd !ve%!ge $"%%ent flo#ing t%o"g te e!te% so#n in fig"%e.
Te del!( !ngle of 7ot te SCRs is 1-
+
.
S C R -
S C R 1
i
o
I
1 = , " - - 2 7
h e a t e r
1 )
- - 2 7
a c
φ
1C
So$(tion
2
18 " --2 7
1
S
V
π
α · · ·
Resistance of heater
( )
-
-
--2
1B1
1222
V
R
R
· · · Ω
Resistance value of output voltage
1 sin -
-
O S
V V
α
π α
π
1
¸ _
· − +
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
1 sinD2
--2
1 -
O
V
π
π
π
1
¸ _
· − +
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
1 1
--2 -2DC@D 7olts
1 -
O
V
π
π
π
1
¸ _
· − + ·
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
RMS current flowing through heater
-2DC@D
1661 Amps
1B1
O
V
R
· · ·
Average current flowing through the heater
2
Avg
I ·
-. A single p!se volt!ge $ont%olle% is emplo(ed fo% $ont%olling te po#e% flo# f%om
))+ V, -+ ./ so"%$e into ! lo!d $i%$"it $onsisting of R 0 1 Ω !nd ωL 0 : Ω.
C!l$"l!te te follo#ing
!. Cont%ol %!nge of fi%ing !ngle
7. M!;im"m v!l"e of RMS lo!d $"%%ent
$. M!;im"m po#e% !nd po#e% f!$to%
d. M!;im"m v!l"e of !ve%!ge !nd RMS t(%isto% $"%%ent.
So$(tion
For control of output power, $ini$u$ angle of firing angle α is e%ual to the
load i$pedance angle θ
" load angle α θ ·
1 1 2
@
tan tan 8@6
1
L
R
ω
θ
− −
¸ _ ¸ _
· · ·
÷ ÷
¸ , ¸ ,
Ma#imum possible value of
α
is
2
1B2
Therefore control range of firing angle is
2 2
8@6 1B2 α < <
1B
Ma#i$u$ value of RMS load current o$$"%s #en
2
8@6 α θ · · At this value
of
α
the Ma#imum value of RMS load current
- -
--2
6282B8 Amps
1 @
S
O
V
I
Z
· · ·
+
Ma#i$u$ Power ( )
-
-
6282B8 1 6C-62CC ,
O O
P I R · · × ·
In%(t Vo$t-A-%
--2 6282B8 @C11BC ,
S O
V I · · × ·
*ower 0actor
6C-62CC
2881C
@C11BC
O
P
Inp"t VA
· · ·
Average thyristor current #ill 7e m!;im"m #en α θ · and conduction angle
2
1B2 γ ·
Therefore ma#imum value of average thyristor current
( )
( ) ( )
1
sin
-
m
T Avg
V
I t d t
Z
π α
α
ω θ ω
π
+
· −

Note# ( ) ( )
( )
1
sin sin
R
t
m L
O T
V
i i t e
Z
ω α
ω
ω θ α θ

− 1
· · − − −
1
¸ ]
At 2 α · "
( )
1
sin
m
T O
V
i i t
Z
ω θ · · −
( )
( ) cos
-
m
T Avg
V
I t
Z
π α
α
ω θ
π
+
· − − 1
¸ ]
( )
( ) ( ) cos cos
-
m
T Avg
V
I
Z
π α θ α θ
π
· − + − + − 1
¸ ]
+ut α θ · "
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
cos cos 2 -
- -
m m m
T Avg
V V V
I
Z Z Z
π
π π π
· − + · · 1
¸ ]
( )
- -
- --2
16C66@ Amps
1 @
m
T Avg
V
I
Z π
π
×
∴ · · ·
+
Similarly" ma#imum RMS value occurs when 2 α · and
γ π ·

Therefore ma#imum value of RMS thyristor current
( ) ( )
-
1
sin
-
m
TM
V
I t d t
Z
π α
α
ω θ ω
π
+
¹ ¹
· −
' ;
¹ ¹

1D
( )
( )
-
-
1 cos - -
- -
m
TM
t V
I d t
Z
π α
α
ω θ
ω
π
+
− − 1
·
1
¸ ]

( )
-
-
sin - -
1 -
m
TM
t V
I t
Z
π α
α
ω θ
ω
π
+
− 1
· −
1
¸ ]
[ ]
-
-
2
1
m
TM
V
I
Z
π α α
π
· + − −
- -
- --2
-18C-CC Amps
-
- 1 @
m
TM
V
I
Z
×
· · ·
+
82
CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS
(Line Commutated AC to DC converters)
INTRO/UCTION TO CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIERS
Controlled rectifiers are line commutated ac to dc power converters which are
used to convert a fi#ed voltage" fi#ed fre$uency ac power supply into variable dc output
voltage
L i n e
C o m m u t a t e
C o n ! e r t e r
"
#
$ C O u t p u t
V
0 ( % )
A C
I n p u t
V o l t a g e
Type of inputG 0i#ed voltage" fi#ed fre$uency ac power supply
Type of outputG 7ariable dc output voltage
The input supply fed to a controlled rectifier is ac supply at a fi#ed rms voltage
and at a fi#ed fre$uency ,e can obtain variable dc output voltage by using controlled
rectifiers +y employing phase controlled thyristors in the controlled rectifier circuits we
can obtain variable dc output voltage and variable dc (average) output current by varying
the trigger angle (phase angle) at which the thyristors are triggered ,e obtain a uni)
directional and pulsating load current waveform" which has a specific average value
The thyristors are forward biased during the positive half cycle of input supply
and can be turned (/ by applying suitable gate trigger pulses at the thyristor gate leads
The thyristor current and the load current begin to flow once the thyristors are triggered
(turned (/) say at
t ω α ·
The load current flows when the thyristors conduct from
t ω α ·
to
β
The output voltage across the load follows the input supply voltage through
the conducting thyristor At
t ω β ·
" when the load current falls to .ero" the thyristors
turn off due to AC line (natural) commutation
!n some bridge controlled rectifier circuits the conducting thyristor turns off" when
the other thyristor is (other group of thyristors are) turned (/
The thyristor remains reverse biased during the negative half cycle of input
supply The type of commutation used in controlled rectifier circuits is referred to AC line
commutation or /atural commutation or AC phase commutation
,hen the input ac supply voltage reverses and becomes negative during the
negative half cycle" the thyristor becomes reverse biased and hence turns off There are
several types of power converters which use ac line commutation These are referred to as
line commutated converters
4ifferent types of line commutated converters are
• *hase controlled rectifiers which are AC to 4C converters
• AC to AC converters
 AC voltage controllers" which convert input ac voltage into
variable ac output voltage at the same fre$uency
 Cyclo converters" which give low output fre$uencies
81
All these power converters operate from ac power supply at a fi#ed rms input
supply voltage and at a fi#ed input supply fre$uency 3ence they use ac line commutation
for turning off the thyristors after they have been triggered (/ by the gating signals
/IFFERENCES 4ET,EEN /IO/E RECTIFIERS AN/ PHASE CONTROLLE/
RECTIFIERS
The diode rectifiers are referred to as uncontrolled rectifiers which ma=e use of
power semiconductor diodes to carry the load current The diode rectifiers give a fi#ed dc
output voltage (fi#ed average output voltage) and each diode rectifying element conducts
for one half cycle duration (T;- seconds)" that is the diode conduction angle ? 1B2
2
or π
radians
A single phase half wave diode rectifier gives (under ideal conditions) an average
dc output voltage
( )
m
O d$
V
V
π
· and single phase full wave diode rectifier gives (under ideal
conditions) an average dc output voltage
( )
-
m
O d$
V
V
π
· " where
m
V
is ma#imum value of
the available ac supply voltage
Thus we note that we can not control (we can not vary) the dc output voltage or
the average dc load current in a diode rectifier circuit
!n a phase controlled rectifier circuit we use a high current and a high power
thyristor device (silicon controlled rectifierA SCR) for conversion of ac input power into
dc output power
*hase controlled rectifier circuits are used to provide a variable voltage output dc
and a variable dc (average) load current
,e can control (we can vary) the average value (dc value) of the output load
voltage (and hence the average dc load current) by varying the thyristor trigger angle
,e can control the thyristor conduction angle δ from 1B2
2
to 2
2
by varying the
trigger angle α from 2
2
to 1B2
2
" where thyristor conduction angle ( ) δ π α · −
APPLICATIONS OF PHASE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIERS
• 4C motor control in steel mills" paper and te#tile mills employing dc motor
drives
• AC fed traction system using dc traction motor
• 9lectro)chemical and electro)metallurgical processes
• Magnet power supplies
• Reactor controls
• *ortable hand tool drives
• 7ariable speed industrial drives
• +attery charges
• 3igh voltage 4C transmission
• :ninterruptible power supply systems (:*S)
Some years bac= ac to dc power conversion was achieved using motor generator
sets" mercury arc rectifiers" and thyratorn tubes The modern ac to dc power converters
are designed using high power" high current thyristors and presently most of the ac)dc
power converters are thyristorised power converters The thyristor devices are phase
controlled to obtain a variable dc output voltage across the output load terminals The
8-
phase controlled thyristor converter uses ac line commutation (natural commutation) for
commutating (turning off) the thyristors that have been turned (/
The phase controlled converters are simple and less e#pensive and are widely used
in industrial applications for industrial dc drives These converters are classified as two
$uadrant converters if the output voltage can be made either positive or negative for a
given polarity of output load current There are also single $uadrant ac)dc converters
where the output voltage is only positive and cannot be made negative for a given polarity
of output current (f course single $uadrant converters can also be designed to provide
only negative dc output voltage
The two $uadrant converter operation can be achieved by using fully controlled
bridge converter circuit and for single $uadrant operation we use a half controlled bridge
converter
CLASSIFICATION OF PHASE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIERS
The phase controlled rectifiers can be classified based on the type of input power
supply as
• Single *hase Controlled Rectifiers which operate from single phase ac input
power supply
• Three *hase Controlled Rectifiers which operate from three phase ac input power
supply
/IFFERENT TYPES OF SINGLE PHASE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIERS
Single P!se Cont%olled Re$tifie%s are further subdivided into different types
• .!lf #!ve $ont%olled %e$tifie% which uses a single thyristor device (which
provides output control only in one half cycle of input ac supply" and it provides
low dc output)
• F"ll #!ve $ont%olled %e$tifie%s (which provide higher dc output)
o 0ull wave controlled rectifier using a center tapped transformer (which
re$uires two thyristors)
o 0ull wave bridge controlled rectifiers (which do not re$uire a center tapped
transformer)
 Single p!se semi&$onve%te% (half controlled bridge converter"
using two SCR's and two diodes" to provide single $uadrant
operation)
 Single p!se f"ll $onve%te% (fully controlled bridge converter which
re$uires four SCR's" to provide two $uadrant operation)
T%ee P!se Cont%olled Re$tifie%s are of different types
• Three phase half wave controlled rectifiers
• Three phase full wave controlled rectiriers
o Semi converter (half controlled bridge converter)
o 0ull converter (fully controlled bridge converter)
PRINCIPLE OF PHASE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIER OPERATION
The basic principle of operation of a phase controlled rectifier circuit is e#plained
with reference to a single phase half wave phase controlled rectifier circuit with a
resistive load shown in the figure
86
5oad Resistance
L
R R · ·
Fi!"# Sin!$e P&ase Ha$'-,a*e T&3+isto+ Con*e+te+ )it& a Resisti*e Load
A single phase half wave thyristor converter which is used for ac)dc power
conversion is shown in the above figure The input ac supply is obtained from a main
supply transformer to provide the desired ac supply voltage to the thyristor converter
depending on the output dc voltage re$uired
P
v
represents the primary input ac supply
voltage
S
v
represents the secondary ac supply voltage which is the output of the
transformer secondary
4uring the positive half cycle of input supply when the upper end of the
transformer secondary is at a positive potential with respect to the lower end" the
thyristor anode is positive with respect to its cathode and the thyristor is in a forward
biased state The thyristor is triggered at a delay angle of
t ω α ·
" by applying a suitable
gate trigger pulse to the gate lead of thyristor ,hen the thyristor is triggered at a delay
angle of
t ω α ·
" the thyristor conducts and assuming an ideal thyristor" the thyristor
behaves as a closed switch and the input supply voltage appears across the load when the
thyristor conducts from
t ω α ·
to
π
radians (utput voltage
O S
v v ·
" when the thyristor
conducts from to t ω α π ·
0or a purely resistive load" the load current
O
i
(output current) that flows when
the thyristor
1
T
is on" is given by the e#pression
" for
O
O
L
v
i t
R
α ω π · ≤ ≤
The output load current waveform is similar to the output load voltage waveform
during the thyristor conduction time from to α π The output current and the output
voltage waveform are in phase for a resistive load The load current increases as the input
supply voltage increases and the ma#imum load current flows at
-
t
π
ω · " when the input
supply voltage is at its ma#imum value
The ma#imum value (pea= value) of the load current is calculated as
( ) ma#
m
m O
L
V
i I
R
· ·

81
/ote that when the thyristor conducts (
1
T
is on) during to t ω α π · " the thyristor
current
1 T
i
" the load current
O
i
through
L
R
and the source current
S
i
flowing through the
transformer secondary winding are all one and the same
3ence we can write
1
sin
A for
O m
S T O
v V t
i i i t
R R
ω
α ω π · · · · ≤ ≤
m
I
is the ma#imum (pea=) value of the load current that flows through the
transformer secondary winding" through
1
T
and through the load resistor
L
R
at the instant
-
t
π
ω · " when the input supply voltage reaches its ma#imum value
,hen the input supply voltage decreases the load current decreases ,hen the
supply voltage falls to .ero at
t ω π ·
" the thyristor and the load current also falls to .ero
at
t ω π ·
Thus the thyristor naturally turns off when the current flowing through it falls
to .ero at
t ω π ·

4uring the negative half cycle of input supply when the supply voltage reverses
and becomes negative during to - t ω π π · radians" the anode of thyristor is at a negative
potential with respect to its cathode and as a result the thyristor is reverse biased and
hence it remains cut)off (in the reverse bloc=ing mode) The thyristor cannot conduct
during its reverse biased state between to - t ω π π · An ideal thyristor under reverse
biased condition behaves as an open switch and hence the load current and load voltage
are .ero during to - t ω π π · The ma#imum or pea= reverse voltage that appears across
the thyristor anode and cathode terminals is
m
V

The trigger angle
α
(delay angle or the phase angle
α
) is measured from the
beginning of each positive half cycle to the time instant when the gate trigger pulse is
applied The thyristor conduction angle is from to α π " hence the conduction angle
( ) δ π α · −
The ma#imum conduction angle is
π
radians (1B2
2
) when the trigger angle
2 α ·
Fi!# Q(ad+ant /ia!+a-
The waveforms shows the input ac supply voltage across the secondary winding
of the transformer which is represented as
S
v
" the output voltage across the load" the
output (load) current" and the thyristor voltage waveform that appears across the anode
and cathode terminals
88
Fi!# ,a*e'o+-s o' sin!$e %&ase &a$'-)a*e ont+o$$ed +eti'ie+ )it& +esisti*e $oad
EQUATIONS
sin
s m
v V t ω · ·
the ac supply voltage across the transformer secondary
m
V ·
ma# (pea=) value of input ac supply voltage across transformer secondary
-
m
S
V
V · ·
RMS value of input ac supply voltage across transformer secondary
O L
v v · ·
the output voltage across the load A
O L
i i · ·
output (load) current
8@
,hen the thyristor is triggered at
t ω α ·
(an ideal thyristor behaves as a closed
switch) and hence the output voltage follows the input supply voltage
sin
O L m
v v V t ω · ·
A for to t ω α π · " when the thyristor is on
O
O L
v
i i
R
· · ? 5oad current for to t ω α π · " when the thyristor is on
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE (/C) OUTPUT VOLTAGE
ACROSS THE LOA/
!f
m
V
is the pea= input supply voltage" the average output voltage
d$
V
can be
found from
( )
( )
1

-
d$ O O d$
V V v d t
π
α
ω
π
· ·

( )
( )
1
sin
-
d$ m O d$
V V V t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
· ·

( )
( )
1
sin
-
m O d$
V V t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
·

( )
( ) sin
-
m
O d$
V
V t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
·

( )
cos
-
m
O d$
V
V t
π
α
ω
π
1
· −
1
¸ ]
( )
[ ]
cos cos
-
m
O d$
V
V π α
π
· − + 6 cos 1 π · −
( )
[ ]
1 cos
-
m
O d$
V
V α
π
· + 6 -
m S
V V ·
The ma#imum average (dc) output voltage is obtained when 2 α · and the
ma#imum dc output voltage
( ) ma#
m
dm d$
V
V V
π
· ·
The average dc output voltage can be varied by varying the trigger angle
α
from
2 to a ma#imum of ( )
2
1B2 radians π

,e can plot the control characteristic" which is a plot of dc output voltage versus
the trigger angle
α
by using the e$uation for
( ) O d$
V

8C
CONTROL CHARACTERISTIC OF SINGLE PHASE HALF ,AVE PHASE
CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIER ,ITH RESISTIVE LOA/
The average dc output voltage is given by the e#pression
( )
[ ]
1 cos
-
m
O d$
V
V α
π
· +
,e can obtain the control characteristic by plotting the e#pression for the dc
output voltage as a function of trigger angle
α
T+i!!e+ an!$e
α
in de!+ees
( ) O d$
V
9
( ) ma#
m
dm d$
V
V V
π
· ·
2
m
dm
V
V
π
· 122F
dm
V
2
62 2D66
dm
V
D66 F
dm
V

2
@2 2C8
dm
V
C8 F
dm
V

2
D2 28
dm
V
82 F
dm
V

2
1-2 2-8
dm
V
-8 F
dm
V

2
182 22@@DB
dm
V
@@D F
dm
V

2
1B2
2
2
V
O ( 2 )
T r i g g e r a n g l e i n e g r e e s α
0 ! 0 " 2 0 " # 0
V
m
0 & 2 V
m
0 & ! V
m
Fi!"# Cont+o$ &a+ate+isti
/ormali.ing the dc output voltage with respect to
dm
V
" the normali.ed output
voltage
( )
( )
ma#
O d$
d$
d$n
dm d$
V
V
V
V V
· ·
8B
( ) 1 cos
-
m
d$
d$n n
m
dm
V
V
V V
V
V
α
π
π
+
· · ·
( )
1
1 cos
-
d$
n d$n
dm
V
V V
V
α · · + ·
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE R1S VALUE OF OUTPUT
VOLTAGE OF A SINGLE PHASE HALF ,AVE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIER
,ITH RESISTIVE LOA/
The rms output voltage is given by
( )
( )
-
-
2
1

-
O O RMS
V v d t
π
ω
π
1
·
1
¸ ]

(utput voltage
sin A for to
O m
v V t t ω ω α π · ·
( )
( )
1
-
- -
1
sin
-
m O RMS
V V t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
1
·
1
¸ ]


+y substituting
-
1 cos -
sin
-
t
t
ω
ω

· " we get
( )
( )
( )
1
-
-
1 cos -
1

- -
m O RMS
t
V V d t
π
α
ω
ω
π
1 −
·
1
¸ ]

( )
( ) ( )
1
-
-
1 cos -
1
m
O RMS
V
V t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
1
· −
1
¸ ]

( )
( ) ( )
1
- -
cos -
1
m
O RMS
V
V d t t d t
π π
α α
ω ω ω
π
1 ¹ ¹
· −
1 ' ;
1
¹ ¹
¸ ]
∫ ∫
( )
( )
1
-
1 sin -
- -
m
O RMS
V t
V t
π π
α α
ω
ω
π
1 ¹ ¹
¸ _
· −
1 ' ; ÷
¸ ,
1
¹ ¹
¸ ]
( )
( )
( )
1
-
sin - sin -
1
- -
m
O RMS
V
V
π α
π α
π
1 − ¸ _
· − −
1 ÷
1
¸ , ¸ ]
A sin - 2 π ·
8D
3ence we get"
( )
( )
1
-
1 sin -
- -
m
O RMS
V
V
α
π α
π
1
¸ _
· − +
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
( )
( )
1
-
sin -
- -
m
O RMS
V
V
α
π α
π
¸ _
· − +
÷
¸ ,
PERFOR1ANCE PARA1ETERS OF PHASE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIERS
&utput dc power 'average or dc output power delivered to the load(
( ) ( ) ( ) O d$ O d$ O d$
P V I · ×
A ie"
d$ d$ d$
P V I · ×
,here

( )
d$ O d$
V V · ·
average or dc value of output (load) voltage
( )
d$ O d$
I I · ·
average or dc value of output (load) current
&utput ac power
( ) ( ) ( ) O !$ O RMS O RMS
P V I · ×
"fficiency of Rectification 'Rectification Ratio(
( )
( )
9fficiency
O d$
O !$
P
P
η ·
A
( )
( )
F 9fficiency 122
O d$
O !$
P
P
η · ×
The output voltage can be considered as being composed of two components
• The dc component
( ) O d$
V
? 4C or average value of output voltage
• The ac component or the ripple component
( )
!$ % %ms
V V · ·
RMS value of all
the ac ripple components
The total RMS value of output voltage is given by
( ) ( ) ( )
- -
O RMS O d$ % %ms
V V V · +
Therefore
( ) ( ) ( )
- -
!$ % %ms O RMS O d$
V V V V · · −
@2
For$ Factor 'FF( which is a measure of the shape of the output voltage is given by
( )
( )
( )
( )
RMS output load voltage
4C output load voltage
O RMS
O d$
V
FF
V
· ·
The Ripple Factor 'RF( which is a measure of the ac ripple content in the output
voltage waveform The output voltage ripple factor defined for the output voltage
waveform is given by
( )
( )
% %ms
!$
v
d$ O d$
V
V
% RF
V V
· · ·
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
-
- -
1
O RMS O d$
O RMS
v
O d$ O d$
V V V
%
V V
− 1
· · − 1
1
¸ ]
Therefore
-
1
v
% FF · −
Current Ripple Factor defined for the output (load) current waveform is given by
( )
( )
% %ms
!$
i
d$ O d$
I
I
%
I I
· ·
,here
( ) ( ) ( )
- -
!$ % %ms O RMS O d$
I I I I · · −
Some times the pea= to pea= output ripple voltage is also considered to e#press
the pea= to pea= output ripple voltage as
( )
pea= to pea= ac ripple output voltage
% pp
V ·
The pea= to pea= ac ripple load current is the difference between the ma#imum
and the minimum values of the output load current
( ) ( ) ( ) ma# min % pp O O
I I I · −
Transfor$er )tili*ation Factor 'T)F(
( ) O d$
S S
P
T<F
V I
·
×
,here
S
V ·
RMS value of transformer secondary output voltage (RMS supply
voltage at the secondary)
@1
S
I ·
RMS value of transformer secondary current (RMS line or supply
current)
Supply voltage at the transformer secondary side
S
v ·

!nput supply current (transformer secondary winding current)
S
i ·

1
0undamental component of the input supply current
S
i ·

*ea= value of the input supply current
P
I ·

φ ·
*hase angle difference between (sine wave components) the fundamental
components of input supply current and the input supply voltage
φ ·
4isplacement angle (phase angle)
Fo% !n RL lo!d
4isplacement angle ? 5oad impedance angle φ ·
1
tan for an R5 load
L
R
ω
φ

¸ _
∴ ·
÷
¸ ,
+isplace$ent Factor '+F( o% Funda$ental Power Factor
4F Cosφ ·
,ar$onic Factor ',F( or Total ,ar$onic +istortion Factor 'T,+(
The harmonic factor is a measure of the distortion in the output waveform and is
also referred to as the total harmonic distortion (T34)
1
1
-
-
- -
-
1
-
1 1
1
S S S
S S
I I I
.F
I I
1
1 ¸ _ −
1 · · −
÷ 1
1
¸ ] ¸ ,
¸ ]
,here
S
I ·
RMS value of input supply current
1 S
I ·
RMS value of fundamental component of the input supply current
@-
φ
Input Power Factor 'PF(
1 1
cos cos
S S S
S S S
V I I
PF
V I I
φ φ · ·
The Crest Factor 'CF(
( )
*ea= input supply current
RMS input supply current
S pe!k
S
I
CF
I
· ·
For an Ideal Controlled Rectifier
1 FF · A which means that
( ) ( ) O RMS O d$
V V ·

9fficiency
122F η ·
A which means that
( ) ( ) O d$ O !$
P P ·

( )
2
!$ % %ms
V V · ·
A so that
2
v
RF % · ·
A Ripple factor ? 2 (ripple free converter)
1 T<F · A which means that
( )
S S O d$
P V I · ×
2 .F T.4 · · A which means that
1 S S
I I ·
1 PF 4PF · · A which means that
2 φ ·
SINGLE PHASE HALF ,AVE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIER ,ITH AN RL
LOA/
!n this section we will discuss the operation and performance of a single phase
half wave controlled rectifier with R5 load !n practice most of the loads are of R5 type
0or e#ample if we consider a single phase controlled rectifier controlling the speed of a
dc motor" the load which is the dc motor winding is an R5 type of load" where R
represents the motor winding resistance and 5 represents the motor winding inductance
A single phase half wave controlled rectifier circuit with an R5 load using a
thyristor
1
T
(
1
T
is an SCR) is shown in the figure below
@6
The thyristor
1
T
is forward biased during the positive half cycle of input supply
5et us assume that
1
T
is triggered at
t ω α ·
" by applying a suitable gate trigger pulse to
1
T
during the positive half cycle of input supply The output voltage across the load
follows the input supply voltage when
1
T
is (/ The load current
O
i
flows through the
thyristor
1
T
and through the load in the downward direction This load current pulse
flowing through
1
T
can be considered as the positive current pulse 4ue to the inductance
in the load" the load current
O
i
flowing through
1
T
would not fall to .ero at
t ω π ·
" when
the input supply voltage starts to become negative A phase shift appears between the
load voltage and the load current waveforms" due to the load inductance
The thyristor
1
T
will continue to conduct the load current until all the inductive
energy stored in the load inductor 5 is completely utili.ed and the load current through
1
T

falls to .ero at
t ω β ·
" where
β
is referred to as the 9#tinction angle" (the value of
t ω
)
at which the load current falls to .ero The e#tinction angle
β
is measured from the point
of the beginning of the positive half cycle of input supply to the point where the load
current falls to .ero
The thyristor
1
T
conducts from
t ω α ·
to
β
The conduction angle of
1
T
is
( ) δ β α · −
" which depends on the delay angle
α
and the load impedance angle
φ
The
waveforms of the input supply voltage" the gate trigger pulse of
1
T
" the thyristor current"
the load current and the load voltage waveforms appear as shown in the figure below
@1
1 O S
i i i · ·
Fi!"# In%(t s(%%$3 *o$ta!e 8 T&3+isto+ (++ent )a*e'o+-s
β
is the e#tinction angle which depends upon the load inductance value
Fi!"# O(t%(t ($oad) *o$ta!e )a*e'o+- o' a sin!$e %&ase &a$' )a*e ont+o$$ed
+eti'ie+ )it& RL $oad
0rom
β
to -π " the thyristor remains cut)off as it is reverse biased and behaves as
an open switch The thyristor current and the load current are .ero and the output voltage
also remains at .ero during the non conduction time interval between
β
to -π !n the
ne#t cycle the thyristor is triggered again at a phase angle of ( ) -π α +
" and the same
operation repeats
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE OUTPUT (IN/UCTIVE LOA/)
CURRENT2 /URING
to t ω α β ·
,HEN THYRISTOR
1
T
CON/UCTS
Considering sinusoidal input supply voltage we can write the e#pression for the
supply voltage as
sin
S m
v V t ω ·
? instantaneous value of the input supply voltage
5et us assume that the thyristor
1
T
is triggered by applying the gating signal to
1
T

at
t ω α ·
The load current which flows through the thyristor
1
T
during
t ω α ·
to
β
can
be found from the e$uation
sin
O
O m
di
L Ri V t
dt
ω
¸ _
+ ·
÷
¸ ,
A
The solution of the above differential e$uation gives the general e#pression for the
output load current which is of the form
( )
1
sin
t
m
O
V
i t Ae
Z
τ
ω φ

· − + A
,here -
m S
V V · ? ma#imum or pea= value of input supply voltage
( )
-
-
Z R L ω · + ? 5oad impedance
@8
1
tan
L
R
ω
φ

¸ _
·
÷
¸ ,
? 5oad impedance angle (power factor angle of load)
L
R
τ · ? 5oad circuit time constant
Therefore the general e#pression for the output load current is given by the
e$uation
( )

1
sin
R
t
m L
O
V
i t Ae
Z
ω φ

· − + A
The value of the constant
1
A
can be determined from the initial condition ie
initial value of load current
2
O
i ·
" at
t ω α ·
3ence from the e$uation for
O
i
e$uating
O
i
to .ero and substituting
t ω α ·
" we get
( )

1
2 sin
R
t
m L
O
V
i Ae
Z
α φ

· · − +
Therefore
( )
1
sin
R
t
m L
V
Ae
Z
α φ


· −
( )
1
1
sin
m
R
t
L
V
A
Z
e
α φ

− 1
· −
1
¸ ]
( )
1
sin
R
t
m L
V
A e
Z
α φ
+

1
· −
1
¸ ]
( )
( )
1
sin
R t
m L
V
A e
Z
ω
ω
α φ

1
· −
1
¸ ]
+y substituting
t ω α ·
" we get the value of constant
1
A
as
( )
( )
1
sin
R
m L
V
A e
Z
α
ω
α φ

1
· −
1
¸ ]
Substituting the value of constant
1
A
from the above e$uation into the e#pression for
O
i
"
we obtain
( )
( )
( ) sin sin
R R
t
m m L L
O
V V
i t e e
Z Z
α
ω
ω φ α φ


1
· − + −
1
¸ ]
A
( )
( ) ( )
( ) sin sin
R t R
m m L L
O
V V
i t e e
Z Z
ω α
ω ω
ω φ α φ


1
· − + −
1
¸ ]
@@
( )
( )
( ) sin sin
R
t
m m L
O
V V
i t e
Z Z
ω α
ω
ω φ α φ



1
· − + −
1
¸ ]
Therefore we obtain the final e#pression for the inductive load current of a single
phase half wave controlled rectifier with R5 load as
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
t
m L
O
V
i t e
Z
ω α
ω
ω φ α φ

− 1
· − − −
1
¸ ]
A ,here
t α ω β ≤ ≤

The above e#pression also represents the thyristor current
1 T
i
" during the
conduction time interval of thyristor
1
T
from
to t ω α β ·

TO CALCULATE E0TINCTION ANGLE
β
The e#tinction angle
β
" which is the value of
t ω
at which the load current
O
i
falls to .ero and
1
T
is turned off can be estimated by using the condition that
2
O
i ·
" at
t ω β ·
+y using the above e#pression for the output load current" we can write
( ) ( )
( )
2 sin sin
R
m L
O
V
i e
Z
β α
ω
β φ α φ

− 1
· · − − −
1
¸ ]
As 2
m
V
Z
≠ 2 we can write
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin 2
R
L
e
β α
ω
β φ α φ

− 1
− − − ·
1
¸ ]
Therefore we obtain the e#pression
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
L
e
β α
ω
β φ α φ


− · −
The e#tinction angle
β
can be determined from this transcendental e$uation by
using the iterative method of solution (trial and error method) After
β
is calculated" we
can determine the thyristor conduction angle ( ) δ β α · −

β
is the e#tinction angle which depends upon the load inductance value
Conduction angle δ increases as
α
is decreased for a specific value of
β

Cond(tion an!$e ( ) δ β α · −
A for a purely resistive load or for an R5 load
when the load inductance 5 is negligible the e#tinction angle
β π ·
and the conduction
angle ( ) δ π α · −
@C
E5(ations
sin !nput supply voltage
s m
v V t ω · ·
sin (utput load voltage for to
O L m
v v V t t ω ω α β · · · ·
"
when the thyristor
1
T
conducts (
1
T
is on)
E.%+ession 'o+ t&e $oad (++ent (t&3+isto+ (++ent)# for
to t ω α β ·
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
t
m L
O
V
i t e
Z
ω α
ω
ω φ α φ

− 1
· − − −
1
¸ ]
A ,here
t α ω β ≤ ≤

E.tintion an!$e
β
can be calculated using the e$uation
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
L
e
β α
ω
β φ α φ


− · −
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR AVERAGE (/C) LOA/ VOLTAGE
( )
( )
-
2
1

-
L O O d$
V V v d t
π
ω
π
· ·

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
-
2
1

-
L O O O O d$
V V v d t v d t v d t
β α π
α β
ω ω ω
π
1
· · + +
1
1
¸ ]
∫ ∫ ∫
A
2 for 2 to < for to -
O
v t t ω α ω β π · · ·
A
( )
( )
1
A sin for to
-
L O O m O d$
V V v d t v V t t
β
α
ω ω ω α β
π
1
∴ · · · ·
1
¸ ]

( )
( )
1
sin
-
L m O d$
V V V t d t
β
α
ω ω
π
1
· ·
1
¸ ]

( )
( ) cos cos cos
- -
m m
L O d$
V V
V V t
β
α
ω α β
π π
1
· · − · −
1
¸ ]
( )
( ) cos cos
-
m
L O d$
V
V V α β
π
∴ · · −
Note# 4uring the period
to t ω π β ·
" we can see from the output load voltage waveform
that the instantaneous output voltage is negative and this reduces the average or the dc
output voltage when compared to a purely resistive load
@B
A*e+a!e /C Load C(++ent
( ) ( )
( )
( ) cos cos
-
O d$
m
O d$ L Avg
L L
V
V
I I
R R
α β
π
· · · −
SINGLE PHASE HALF ,AVE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIER ,ITH RL LOA/
AN/ FREE ,HEELING /IO/E
7
2
i
2
T
R
5
7
s J
I
I


0 , 4
Fi!" # Sin!$e P&ase Ha$' ,a*e Cont+o$$ed Reti'ie+ )it& RL Load and F+ee
,&ee$in! /iode (F,/)
,ith a R5 load it was observed that the average output voltage reduces This
disadvantage can be overcome by connecting a diode across the load as shown in figure
The diode is called as a F%ee 3eeling 4iode 8F349 The waveforms are shown below
2 π
2 π
3 π
3 π
π
π
α
α
α
α
2
2
2
2
7
s
i
>
7
(
ω t
ω t
ω t
ω t
S u p p l y v o l t a g e
5 o a d c u r r e n t
5 o a d v o l t a g e
ω t ? β
- π + α
> a t e p u l s e s
7
m
) 7
m
α
π β
β 2 π
i
(
@D
At
t ω π ·
" the source voltage
S
v
falls to .ero and as
S
v
becomes negative" the
free wheeling diode is forward biased The stored energy in the inductance maintains the
load current flow through R" 5" and the 0,4 Also" as soon as the 0,4 is forward
biased" at
t ω π ·
" the SCR becomes reverse biased" the current through it becomes .ero
and the SCR turns off 4uring the period
to t ω π β ·
" the load current flows through
0,4 (free wheeling load current) and decreases e#ponentially towards .ero at
t ω β ·

Also during this free wheeling time period the load is shorted by the conducting
0,4 and the load voltage is almost .ero" if the forward voltage drop across the
conducting 0,4 is neglected Thus there is no negative region in the load voltage wave
form This improves the average output voltage
The average output voltage [ ]
1 cos
-
m
d$
V
V α
π
· + " which is the same as that of a
purely resistive load The output voltage across the load appears similar to the output
voltage of a purely resistive load
The following points are to be noted
• !f the inductance value is not very large" the energy stored in the
inductance is able to maintain the load current only upto
t ω β ·
" where
- π β π < < " well before the ne#t gate pulse and the load current tends to
become discontinuous
• 4uring the conduction period to α π " the load current is carried by the
SCR and during the free wheeling period
to π β
" the load current is
carried by the free wheeling diode
• The value of β depends on the value of R and 5 and the forward
resistance of the 0,4 >enerally
- π β π < <

!f the value of the inductance is very large" the load current does not decrease to
.ero during the free wheeling time interval and the load current waveform appears as
shown in the figure
2 π
3 π
π α
2
ω t
- π + α
t
1
i
2
S C R S C R 0 , 4 0 , 4
t
6
t
-
t
1
Fi!" # ,a*e'o+- o' Load C(++ent in Sin!$e P&ase Ha$' ,a*e Cont+o$$ed Reti'ie+
)it& a La+!e Ind(tane and F,/
C2
4uring the periods
1 6
" " t t
the SCR carries the load current and during the periods
- 1
" " t t
the 0,4 carries the load current
!t is to be noted that
• The load current becomes continuous and the load current does not fall to
.ero for large value of load inductance
• The ripple in the load current waveform (the amount of variation in the
output load current) decreases
SINGLE PHASE HALF ,AVE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIER ,ITH A
GENERAL LOA/
A general load consists of R" 5 and a 4C source &9' in the load circuit
R
v
S
J
I

5
9
I

v
(
i
(
!n the half wave controlled rectifier circuit shown in the figure" the load circuit
consists of a dc source &9' in addition to resistance and inductance ,hen the thyristor is
in the cut)off state" the current in the circuit is .ero and the cathode will be at a voltage
e$ual to the dc voltage in the load circuit ie the cathode potential will be e$ual to &9'
The thyristor will be forward biased for anode supply voltage greater than the load dc
voltage
,hen the supply voltage is less than the dc voltage &9' in the circuit the thyristor
is reverse biased and hence the thyristor cannot conduct for supply voltage less than the
load circuit dc voltage
The value of
t ω
at which the supply voltage increases and becomes e$ual to the
load circuit dc voltage can be calculated by using the e$uation
sin
m
V t = ω ·
!f we
assume the value of
t ω
is e$ual to
γ
then we can write
sin
m
V = γ ·
Therefore
γ
is
calculated as
1
sin
m
=
V
γ

¸ _
·
÷
¸ ,

0or trigger angle
α γ <
" the thyristor conducts only from
to t ω γ β ·

0or trigger angle
α γ >
" the thyristor conducts from
to t ω α β ·

The waveforms appear as shown in the figure
C1
2
2
i
O
ω t
ω t
5 o a d c u r r e n t
9
v
(
5 o a d v o l t a g e
γ
α
π 2 π
2 π + α
7
m
!
m
α
β
2 π + α
2 π + β
α
β
δ
E5(ations
sin !nput supply voltage
S m
v V t ω · ·

sin (utput load voltage for to
O m
v V t t ω ω α β · · ·
for 2 to < for to -
O
v = t t ω α ω β π · · ·
E.%+ession 'o+ t&e Load C(++ent
,hen the thyristor is triggered at a delay angle of
α
" the e$uation for the circuit
can be written as
sin I9 A
O
m O
di
V t i R L t
dt
ω α ω β
¸ _
· × + ≤ ≤
÷
¸ ,
The general e#pression for the output load current can be written as
( ) sin
t
m
O
V =
i t Ae
Z R
τ
ω φ

· − − +
,here
( )
-
-
? 5oad !mpedance Z R L ω · +
1
tan 5oad impedance angle
L
R
ω
φ

¸ _
· ·
÷
¸ ,
5oad circuit time constant
L
R
τ · ·
The general e#pression for the output load current can be written as
C-
( ) sin
R
t
m L
O
V =
i t Ae
Z R
ω φ

· − − +
To find the value of the constant &A' apply the initial condition at
t ω α ·
" load
current
2
O
i ·
9$uating the general e#pression for the load current to .ero at
t ω α ·
" we
get
( ) 2 sin
R
m L
O
V =
i Ae
Z R
α
ω
α φ

×
· · − − +
,e obtain the value of constant &A' as
( ) sin
R
m L
V =
A e
R Z
α
ω
α φ
1
· − −
1
¸ ]
Substituting the value of the constant &A' in the e#pression for the load current"
we get the complete e#pression for the output load current as
( ) ( )
( )
sin sin
R
t
m m L
O
V V = =
i t e
Z R R Z
ω α
ω
ω φ α φ


1
· − − + − −
1
¸ ]
The 9#tinction angle
β
can be calculated from the final condition that the output
current
2
O
i ·
at
t ω β ·
+y using the above e#pression we get"
( ) ( )
( )
2 sin sin
R
m m L
O
V V = =
i e
Z R R Z
β α
ω
β φ α φ


1
· · − − + − −
1
¸ ]
To de+i*e an e.%+ession 'o+ t&e a*e+a!e o+ d $oad *o$ta!e
( )
( )
-
2
1

-
O O d$
V v d t
π
ω
π
·

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
-
2
1

-
O O O O d$
V v d t v d t v d t
β α π
α β
ω ω ω
π
1
· + +
1
1
¸ ]
∫ ∫ ∫
sin (utput load voltage for to
O m
v V t t ω ω α β · · ·
for 2 to < for to -
O
v = t t ω α ω β π · · ·
( )
( ) ( )
-
2
1
sin
-
m O d$
V = d t V t = d t
β α π
α β
ω ω ω
π
1
· + +
1
1
¸ ]
∫ ∫ ∫
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
-
2
1
cos
-
m O d$
V = t V t = t
π α β
β α
ω ω ω
π
1
· + − +
1
1
¸ ]
C6
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1
2 cos cos -
-
m O d$
V = V = α β α π β
π
· − − − + − 1
¸ ]
( )
( ) ( ) cos cos -
- -
m
O d$
V =
V α β π β α
π π
· − + − + 1
¸ ]
( )
( )
( ) -
cos cos
- -
m
O d$
V
V =
π β α
α β
π π
− − 1
· − +
1
¸ ]
Cond(tion an!$e o' t&3+isto+ ( ) δ β α · −
R1S O(t%(t Vo$ta!e can be calculated by using the e#pression
( )
( )
-
-
2
1

-
O O RMS
V v d t
π
ω
π
1
·
1
¸ ]

/ISA/VANTAGES OF SINGLE PHASE HALF ,AVE CONTROLLE/
RECTIFIERS
Single phase half wave controlled rectifier gives
• 5ow dc output voltage
• 5ow dc output power and lower efficiency
• 3igher ripple voltage < ripple current
• 3igher ripple factor
• 5ow transformer utili.ation factor
• The input supply current waveform has a dc component which can result in dc
saturation of the transformer core
Single phase half wave controlled rectifiers are rarely used in practice as they give
low dc output and low dc output power They are only of theoretical interest
The above disadvantages of a single phase half wave controlled rectifier can be
over come by using a full wave controlled rectifier circuit Most of the practical converter
circuits use full wave controlled rectifiers
SINGLE PHASE FULL ,AVE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIERS
Single phase full wave controlled rectifier circuit combines two half wave
controlled rectifiers in one single circuit so as to provide two pulse output across the load
+oth the half cycles of the input supply are utili.ed and converted into a uni)directional
output current through the load so as to produce a two pulse output waveform 3ence a
full wave controlled rectifier circuit is also referred to as a two pulse converter
Single phase full wave controlled rectifiers are of various types
• Single phase full wave controlled rectifier using a center tapped
transformer (two pulse converter with mid point configuration)
• Single phase full wave bridge controlled rectifier
 3alf controlled bridge converter (semi converter)
 0ully controlled bridge converter (full converter)
C1
C8
SINGLE PHASE FULL ,AVE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIER USING A CENTER
TAPPE/ TRANSFOR1ER
A C
S u p p l y
O
A
B
T
1
T
2
R L
v
O
+
F W D
i
O
i
S
v
S

S
v
? Supply 7oltage across the upper half of the transformer secondary winding
sin
S AO m
v v V t ω · ·
sin
>O AO m
v v V t ω · − · − ·
supply voltage across the lower half of the transformer
secondary winding
This type of full wave controlled rectifier re$uires a center tapped transformer and
two thyristors
1
T
and
-
T
The input supply is fed through the mains supply transformer"
the primary side of the transformer is connected to the ac line voltage which is available
(normally the primary supply voltage is -627 RMS ac supply voltage at 823. supply
fre$uency in !ndia) The secondary side of the transformer has three lines and the center
point of the transformer (center line) is used as the reference point to measure the input
and output voltages
The upper half of the secondary winding and the thyristor
1
T
along with the load
act as a half wave controlled rectifier" the lower half of the secondary winding and the
thyristor
-
T
with the common load act as the second half wave controlled rectifier so as to
produce a full wave load voltage waveform
There are two types of operations possible
 4iscontinuous load current operation" which occurs for a purely resistive
load or an R5 load with low inductance value
 Continuous load current operation which occurs for an R5 type of load
with large load inductance
/isontin(o(s Load C(++ent O%e+ation ('o+ $o) *a$(e o' $oad ind(tane)
>enerally the load current is discontinuous when the load is purely resistive or
when the R5 load has a low value of inductance
4uring the positive half cycle of input supply" when the upper line of the
secondary winding is at a positive potential with respect to the center point &(' the
C@
thyristor
1
T
is forward biased and it is triggered at a delay angle of α The load current
flows through the thyristor
1
T
" through the load and through the upper part of the
secondary winding" during the period
to α β
" when the thyristor
1
T
conducts
The output voltage across the load follows the input supply voltage that appears
across the upper part of the secondary winding from
to t ω α β ·
The load current
through the thyristor
1
T
decreases and drops to .ero at
t ω β ·
" where
β π >
for R5 type
of load and the thyristor
1
T
naturally turns off at
t ω β ·

v
O
V
m
0
α
2 π 3 π
α
π
β
( ) π + α ( ) π + β
α
β
i
O
ω t
ω t
0
Fi!"# ,a*e'o+- 'o+ /isontin(o(s Load C(++ent O%e+ation )it&o(t F,/
4uring the negative half cycle of the input supply the voltage at the supply line
&A' becomes negative whereas the voltage at line &+' (at the lower side of the secondary
winding) becomes positive with respect to the center point &(' The thyristor
-
T
is
forward biased during the negative half cycle and it is triggered at a delay angle of
( ) π α +
The current flows through the thyristor
-
T
" through the load" and through the
lower part of the secondary winding when
-
T
conducts during the negative half cycle the
load is connected to the lower half of the secondary winding when
-
T
conducts
0or purely resistive loads when 5 ? 2" the e#tinction angle
β π ·
The load
current falls to .ero at
t ω β π · ·
" when the input supply voltage falls to .ero at
t ω π ·

The load current and the load voltage waveforms are in phase and there is no phase shift
between the load voltage and the load current waveform in the case of a purely resistive
load
0or low values of load inductance the load current would be discontinuous and the
e#tinction angle
β π >
but ( ) β π α < +

0or large values of load inductance the load current would be continuous and does
not fall to .ero The thyristor
1
T
conducts from ( ) to α π α +
" until the ne#t thyristor
-
T

is triggered ,hen
-
T
is triggered at ( ) t ω π α · +
" the thyristor
1
T
will be reverse biased
and hence
1
T
turns off
CC
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE /C OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF A
SINGLE PHASE FULL ,AVE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIER ,ITH RL LOA/
(,ITHOUT FREE ,HEELING /IO/E (F,/))
The average or dc output voltage of a full)wave controlled rectifier can be
calculated by finding the average value of the output voltage waveform over one output
cycle (ie" π radians) and note that the output pulse repetition time is
-
T
seconds where T
represents the input supply time period and
1
T
f
·
A where f ? input supply fre$uency
Assuming the load inductance to be small so that
β π >
" ( ) β π α < +
we obtain
discontinuous load current operation The load current flows through
1
T
form
to t ω α β ·
" where
α
is the trigger angle of thyristor
1
T
and
β
is the e#tinction angle
where the load current through
1
T
falls to .ero at
t ω β ·
Therefore the average or dc
output voltage can be obtained by using the e#pression
( )
( )
-

-
d$ O O d$
t
V V v d t
β
ω α
ω
π
·
· ·

( )
( )
1

d$ O O d$
t
V V v d t
β
ω α
ω
π
·
· ·

( )
( )
1
sin
d$ m O d$
V V V t d t
β
α
ω ω
π
1
· ·
1
¸ ]

( )
cos
m
d$ O d$
V
V V t
β
α
ω
π
1
· · −
1
¸ ]
( )
( ) cos cos
m
d$ O d$
V
V V α β
π
· · −
T&e+e'o+e
( )
( ) cos cos
m
O d$
V
V α β
π
· − 2 'o+ disontin(o(s $oad (++ent o%e+ation2
( ) π β π α < < +
"
,hen the load inductance is small and negligible that is 2 L ≈ " the e#tinction
angle
radians β π ·
3ence the average or dc output voltage for resistive load is
obtained as
( )
( ) cos cos
m
O d$
V
V α π
π
· − A cos 1 π · −
( )
( ) ( )
cos 1
m
O d$
V
V α
π
· − −
CB
( )
( ) 1 cos
m
O d$
V
V α
π
· + A for resistive load" when 2 L ≈
THE EFFECT OF LOA/ IN/UCTANCE
4ue to the presence of load inductance the output voltage reverses and becomes
negative during the time period
to t ω π β ·
This reduces the dc output voltage To
prevent this reduction of dc output voltage due to the negative region in the output load
voltage waveform" we can connect a free wheeling diode across the load The output
voltage waveform and the dc output voltage obtained would be the same as that for a full
wave controlled rectifier with resistive load
3en te F%ee #eeling diode 8F349 is $onne$ted !$%oss te lo!d
,hen
1
T
is triggered at
t ω α ·
" during the positive half cycle of the input supply
the 0,4 is reverse biased during the time period to t ω α π · 0,4 remains reverse
biased and cut)off from to t ω α π · The load current flows through the conducting
thyristor
1
T
" through the R5 load and through upper half of the transformer secondary
winding during the time period to α π
At
t ω π ·
" when the input supply voltage across the upper half of the secondary
winding reverses and becomes negative the 0,4 turns)on The load current continues to
flow through the 0,4 from
to t ω π β ·

v
O
V
m
0
α
2 π
3 π
α
π
β
( ) π + α ( ) π + β
α
β
i
O
ω t
ω t
0
Fi!"# ,a*e'o+- 'o+ /isontin(o(s Load C(++ent O%e+ation )it& F,/
E0PRESSION FOR THE /C OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF A SINGLE PHASE FULL
,AVE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIER ,ITH RL LOA/ AN/ F,/
( )
( )
2
1

d$ O O d$
t
V V v d t
π
ω
ω
π
·
· ·

Thyristor
1
T
is triggered at
t ω α ·

1
T
conducts from to t ω α π ·
CD
(utput voltage
sin A for
O m
v V t t to ω ω α π · ·
0,4 conducts from
to t ω π β ·
and
2
O
v ≈
during discontinuous load current
Therefore
( )
( )
1
sin
d$ m O d$
V V V t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
· ·

( )
cos
m
d$ O d$
V
V V t
π
α
ω
π
1
· · −
1
¸ ]
( )
[ ]
cos cos A cos 1
m
d$ O d$
V
V V π α π
π
· · − + · −
Therefore
( )
( ) 1 cos
m
d$ O d$
V
V V α
π
· · +
The 4C output voltage
d$
V
is same as the 4C output voltage of a single phase full
wave controlled rectifier with resistive load /ote that the dc output voltage of a single
phase full wave controlled rectifier is two times the dc output voltage of a half wave
controlled rectifier
CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS OF A SINGLE PHASE FULL ,AVE
CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIER ,ITH R LOA/ OR RL LOA/ ,ITH F,/
The control characteristic can be obtained by plotting the dc output voltage
d$
V

versus the trigger angle
α

The average or dc output voltage of a single phase full wave controlled rectifier
circuit with R load or R5 load with 0,4 is calculated by using the e$uation
( )
( ) 1 cos
m
d$ O d$
V
V V α
π
· · +
d$
V
can be varied by varying the trigger angle
α
from
2
2 to 1B2 (ie" the range
of trigger angle
α
is from 2 to π radians)
Ma#imum dc output voltage is obtained when 2 α ·
( )
( )
ma#
-
1 cos 2
m m
d$ d$
V V
V V
π π
· · + ·
Therefore
( ) ma#
-
m
d$ d$
V
V V
π
· · for a single phase full wave controlled rectifier
/ormali.ing the dc output voltage with respect to its ma#imum value" we can
write the normali.ed dc output voltage as
B2
( ) ma#
d$ d$
d$n n
dm d$
V V
V V
V V
· · ·
( )
( )
1 cos
1
1 cos
- -
m
d$n n
m
V
V V
V
α
π
α
π
+
· · · +
¸ _
÷
¸ ,
Therefore
( )
1
1 cos
-
d$
d$n n
dm
V
V V
V
α · · + ·
( )
1
1 cos
-
d$ dm
V V α · +
T+i!!e+ an!$e
α
in de!+ees
( ) O d$
V
No+-a$i:ed
d o(t%(t *o$ta!e -
n
2
-
2@6@@1D
m
dm m
V
V V
π
· · 1
2
62 28D6DC1
m
V
2D662
2
@2 21CC1@
m
V
2C8
2
D2 261B62DB
m
V
28
2
1-2 21D181D
m
V
2-8
2
182 221-@1
m
V
22@@DB
2
1B2
2
2
V
O ( 2 )
T r i g g e r a n g l e i n e g r e e s α
0 ! 0 " 2 0 " # 0
V
m
0 & 2 V
m
0 & ! V
m
Fi!"# Cont+o$ &a+ate+isti o' a sin!$e %&ase '($$ )a*e ont+o$$ed +eti'ie+ )it& R
$oad o+ RL $oad )it& F,/
B1
CONTINUOUS LOA/ CURRENT OPERATION (,ITHOUT F,/)
0or large values of load inductance the load current flows continuously without
decreasing and falling to .ero and there is always a load current flowing at any point of
time This type of operation is referred to as continuous current operation
>enerally the load current is continuous for large load inductance and for low
trigger angles
The load current is discontinuous for low values of load inductance and for large
values of trigger angles
The waveforms for continuous current operation are as shown
v
O
V
m
0
2 π
3 π
α
π
( ) π + α
α
i
O
ω t
ω t
0
α α α
( ) 2 π + α
T O N
1

T O N
2
T O N
1

Fi!"# Load *o$ta!e and $oad (++ent )a*e'o+- o' a sin!$e %&ase '($$ )a*e ont+o$$ed
+eti'ie+ )it& RL $oad 8 )it&o(t F,/ 'o+ ontin(o(s $oad (++ent o%e+ation
!n the case of continuous current operation the thyristor
1
T
which is triggered at a
delay angle of
α
" conducts from ( ) to t ω α π α · +
(utput voltage follows the input
supply voltage across the upper half of the transformer secondary winding
sin
O AO m
v v V t ω · ·

The ne#t thyristor
-
T
is triggered at ( ) t ω π α · +
" during the negative half cycle
input supply As soon as
-
T
is triggered at ( ) t ω π α · +
" the thyristor
1
T
will be reverse
biased and
1
T
turns off due to natural commutation (ac line commutation) The load
current flows through the thyristor
-
T
from ( ) ( ) to - t ω π α π α · + +
(utput voltage
across the load follows the input supply voltage across the lower half of the transformer
secondary winding
sin
O >O m
v v V t ω · · −

9ach thyristor conducts for ( )
2
radians 1B2 π
in the case of continuous current
operation
B-
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE OR /C OUTPUT
VOLTAGE OF SINGLE PHASE FULL ,AVE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIER
,ITH LARGE LOA/ IN/UCTANCE ASSU1ING CONTINUOUS LOA/
CURRENT OPERATION"
( )
( )
( )
1

d$ O O d$
t
V V v d t
π α
ω α
ω
π
+
·
· ·

( )
( )
( )
1
sin
d$ m O d$
V V V t d t
π α
α
ω ω
π
+
1
· · 1
1
¸ ]

( )
( )
cos
m
d$ O d$
V
V V t
π α
α
ω
π
+
1
· · −
1
¸ ]
( )
( ) cos cos
m
d$ O d$
V
V V α π α
π
· · − + 1
¸ ]
A ( ) cos cos π α α + · −
( )
[ ]
cos cos
m
d$ O d$
V
V V α α
π
· · +
( )
-
cos
m
d$ O d$
V
V V α
π
∴ · ·
The above e$uation can be plotted to obtain the control characteristic of a single
phase full wave controlled rectifier with R5 load assuming continuous load current
operation
/ormali.ing the dc output voltage with respect to its ma#imum value" the
normali.ed dc output voltage is given by
( )
( )
ma#
-
cos
cos
-
m
d$
d$n n
m
d$
V
V
V V
V
V
α
π
α
π
· · · ·
Therefore
cos
d$n n
V V α · ·
B6
T+i!!e+ an!$e
α
in de!+ees
( ) O d$
V
Re-a+;s
2
-
m
dm
V
V
π
¸ _
·
÷
¸ ,
Ma#imum dc output voltage
( ) ma#
-
m
dm d$
V
V V
π
¸ _
· ·
÷
¸ ,
2
62 2B@@
dm
V
2
@2 28
dm
V
2
D2 2
dm
V
2
1-2 )28
dm
V
2
182 )2B@@
dm
V
2
1B2
-
m
dm
V
V
π
¸ _
− · −
÷
¸ ,
V
O ( 2 )
T r i g g e r a n g l e i n e g r e e s α
0
3 0 ! 0
3 0
V
m
0 & 2 V
m
0 & ! V
m
. 0 & ! V
m
. 0 & 2 V
m
. V
m
α
" 2 0 " 4 0 " # 0
Fi!"# Cont+o$ C&a+ate+isti
,e notice from the control characteristic that by varying the trigger angle
α
we
can vary the output dc voltage across the load Thus it is possible to control the dc output
voltage by changing the trigger angle
α
0or trigger angle
α
in the range of 2 to D2
degrees ( )
2
" 2 D2 i e α ≤ ≤
"
d$
V
is positive and the circuit operates as a controlled
rectifier to convert ac supply voltage into dc output power which is fed to the load
0or trigger angle
2
D2 " cos α α > becomes negative and as a result the average dc
output voltage
d$
V
becomes negative" but the load current flows in the same positive
direction 3ence the output power becomes negative This means that the power flows
from the load circuit to the input ac source This is referred to as line $omm"t!ted
inve%te% ope%!tion 4uring the inverter mode operation for
2
D2 α > the load energy can
be fed bac= from the load circuit to the input ac source
B1
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR R1S OUTPUT VOLTAGE
The rms value of the output voltage is calculated by using the e$uation
( )
( )
( )
1
-
-
-

-
O O RMS
V v d t
π α
α
ω
π
+
1
· 1
1
¸ ]

( )
( )
( )
1
-
- -
1
sin
m O RMS
V V t d t
π α
α
ω ω
π
+
1
· 1
1
¸ ]

( )
( )
( )
1
- -
-
sin
m
O RMS
V
V t d t
π α
α
ω ω
π
+
1
· 1
1
¸ ]

( )
( )
( )
( )
1
- -
1 cos -

-
m
O RMS
t V
V d t
π α
α
ω
ω
π
+
1

· 1
1
¸ ]

( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
-
1
cos -
-
m O RMS
V V d t t d t
π α π α
α α
ω ω ω
π
+ +
1 ¹ ¹
¹ ¹
1 · −
' ;
1
¹ ¹
¹ ¹ ¸ ]
∫ ∫
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
-
1 sin -
- -
m O RMS
t
V V t
π α π α
α α
ω
ω
π
+ +
1 ¹ ¹
¹ ¹ ¸ _
· −
1 ' ; ÷
¸ ,
¹ ¹ 1
¹ ¹ ¸ ]
( )
( )
( )
1
-
sin - sin -
1
- -
m O RMS
V V
π α α
π α α
π
1 ¹ ¹ + − ¸ _
¹ ¹
· + − −
1
' ; ÷
¹ ¹ 1 ¸ , ¹ ¹
¸ ]
( )
( )
1
-
1 sin - cos - cos - sin - sin -
- -
m O RMS
V V
π α π α α
π
π
1 ¹ × + × − ¹
¸ _
· −
' ; 1 ÷
¸ , ¹ ¹ ¸ ]
( )
( )
1
-
1 2 sin - sin -
- -
m O RMS
V V
α α
π
π
1 ¹ + − ¹
¸ _
· −
' ; 1 ÷
¸ , ¹ ¹ ¸ ]
( )
( )
1
-
1
- -
m
m O RMS
V
V V π
π
1
· ·
1
¸ ]
Therefore
( )
-
m
O RMS
V
V ·
A The rms output voltage is same as the input rms supply voltage
B8
SINGLE PHASE SE1ICONVERTERS
E++ata# Consider diode
-
4
as
1
4
in the figure and diode
1
4
as
-
4
Single phase semi)converter circuit is a full wave half controlled bridge converter
which uses two thyristors and two diodes connected in the form of a full wave bridge
configuration
The two thyristors are controlled power switches which are turned on one after the
other by applying suitable gating signals (gate trigger pulses) The two diodes are
uncontrolled power switches which turn)on and conduct one after the other as and when
they are forward biased
The circuit diagram of a single phase semi)converter (half controlled bridge
converter) is shown in the above figure with highly inductive load and a dc source in the
load circuit ,hen the load inductance is large the load current flows continuously and
we can consider the continuous load current operation assuming constant load current"
with negligible current ripple (ie" constant and ripple free load current operation)
The ac supply to the semiconverter is normally fed through a mains supply
transformer having suitable turns ratio The transformer is suitably designed to supply the
re$uired ac supply voltage (secondary output voltage) to the converter
4uring the positive half cycle of input ac supply voltage" when the transformer
secondary output line &A' is positive with respect to the line &+' the thyristor
1
T
and the
diode
1
4
are both forward biased The thyristor
1
T
is triggered at
t ω α ·
A ( ) 2 α π ≤ ≤

by applying an appropriate gate trigger signal to the gate of
1
T
The current in the circuit
flows through the secondary line &A'" through
1
T
" through the load in the downward
direction" through diode
1
4
bac= to the secondary line &+'
1
T
and
1
4
conduct together from to t ω α π · and the load is connected to the
input ac supply The output load voltage follows the input supply voltage (the secondary
output voltage of the transformer) during the period to t ω α π ·
At
t ω π ·
" the input supply voltage decreases to .ero and becomes negative
during the period ( ) to t ω π π α · +
The free wheeling diode
m
4
across the load
becomes forward biased and conducts during the period ( ) to t ω π π α · +

B@
Fi!#" ,a*e'o+-s o' sin!$e %&ase se-i-on*e+te+ 'o+ RLE $oad and onstant $oad
(++ent 'o+ α < =>
>
BC
The load current is transferred from
1
T
and
1
4
to the 0,4
m
4

1
T
and
1
4
are
turned off The load current continues to flow through the 0,4
m
4
The load current
free wheels (flows continuously) through the 0,4 during the free wheeling time period
( ) to π π α +

4uring the negative half cycle of input supply voltage the secondary line &A'
becomes negative with respect to line &+' The thyristor
-
T
and the diode
-
4
are both
forward biased
-
T
is triggered at ( ) t ω π α · +
" during the negative half cycle The 0,4
is reverse biased and turns)off as soon as
-
T
is triggered The load current continues to
flow through
-
T
and
-
4
during the period ( ) to - t ω π α π · +
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE OR /C OUTPUT
VOLTAGE OF A SINGLE PHASE SE1I-CONVERTER
The average output voltage can be found from
( )
-
sin
-
d$ m
V V t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
·

[ ]
-
cos
-
m
d$
V
V t
π
α
ω
π
· −
[ ]
cos cos A cos 1
m
d$
V
V π α π
π
· − + · −
Therefore [ ]
1 cos
m
d$
V
V α
π
· +
d$
V
can be varied from
-
m
V
π
to 2 by varying
α
from 2 to
π

The ma#imum average output voltage is
( ) ma#
-
m
dm d$
V
V V
π
· ·
/ormali.ing the average output voltage with respect to its ma#imum value
( ) 28 1 cos
d$
d$n n
dm
V
V V
V
α · · · +
The output control characteristic can be plotted by using the e#pression for
d$
V
BB
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE R1S OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF A
SINGLE PHASE SE1I-CONVERTER
The rms output voltage is found from
( )
( )
1
-
- -
-
sin
-
m O RMS
V V t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
1
·
1
¸ ]

( )
( ) ( )
1
-
-
1 cos -
-
m
O RMS
V
V t d t
π
α
ω ω
π
1
· −
1
¸ ]

( )
1
-
1 sin -
- -
m
O RMS
V
V
α
π α
π
1
¸ _
· − +
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
SINGLE PHASE FULL CONVERTER (FULLY CONTROLLE/ 4RI/GE
CONVERTER)
The circuit diagram of a single phase fully controlled bridge converter is shown in
the figure with a highly inductive load and a dc source in the load circuit so that the load
current is continuous and ripple free (constant load current operation)
The fully controlled bridge converter consists of four thyristors
1
T
"
-
T
"
6
T
and
1
T

connected in the form of full wave bridge configuration as shown in the figure 9ach
thyristor is controlled and turned on by its gating signal and naturally turns off when a
reverse voltage appears across it 4uring the positive half cycle when the upper line of the
transformer secondary winding is at a positive potential with respect to the lower end the
thyristors
1
T
and
-
T
are forward biased during the time interval 2 to t ω π · The
thyristors
1
T
and
-
T
are triggered simultaneously ( ) A 2 t ω α α π · ≤ ≤
" the load is
connected to the input supply through the conducting thyristors
1
T
and
-
T
The output
voltage across the load follows the input supply voltage and hence output voltage
sin
O m
v V t ω ·
4ue to the inductive load
1
T
and
-
T
will continue to conduct beyond
t ω π ·
" even though the input voltage becomes negative
1
T
and
-
T
conduct together
BD
during the time period ( ) to α π α +
" for a time duration of
π
radians (conduction angle
of each thyristor ?
2
1B2 )
4uring the negative half cycle of input supply voltage for to - t ω π π · the
thyristors
6
T
and
1
T
are forward biased
6
T
and
1
T
are triggered at ( ) t ω π α · +
As
soon as the thyristors
6
T
and
1
T
are triggered a reverse voltage appears across the
thyristors
1
T
and
-
T
and they naturally turn)off and the load current is transferred from
1
T
and
-
T
to the thyristors
6
T
and
1
T
The output voltage across the load follows the
supply voltage and
sin
O m
v V t ω · −
during the time period ( ) ( ) to - t ω π α π α · + +
!n
the ne#t positive half cycle when
1
T
and
-
T
are triggered"
6
T
and
1
T
are reverse biased
and they turn)off The figure shows the waveforms of the input supply voltage" the output
load voltage" the constant load current with negligible ripple and the input supply current

D2
4uring the time period to t ω α π · " the input supply voltage
S
v
and the input
supply current
S
i
are both positive and the power flows from the supply to the load The
converter operates in the rectification mode during to t ω α π ·
4uring the time period ( ) to t ω π π α · +
" the input supply voltage
S
v
is negative
and the input supply current
S
i
is positive and there will be reverse power flow from the
load circuit to the input supply The converter operates in the inversion mode during the
time period ( ) to t ω π π α · +
and the load energy is fed bac= to the input source
The single phase full converter is e#tensively used in industrial applications up to
about 18=, of output power 4epending on the value of trigger angle
α
" the average
output voltage may be either positive or negative and two $uadrant operation is possible
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE (/C) OUTPUT VOLTAGE
The average (dc) output voltage can be determined by using the e#pression
( )
( )
-
2
1
A
-
d$ O O d$
V V v d t
π
ω
π
1
· ·
1
¸ ]

The output voltage waveform consists of two output pulses during the input
supply time period between 2 < - radians π !n the continuous load current operation of
a single phase full converter (assuming constant load current) each thyristor conduct for
π
radians (1B2
2
) after it is triggered ,hen thyristors
1
T
and
-
T
are triggered at
t ω α ·

1
T
and
-
T
conduct from ( ) to α π α +
and the output voltage follows the input supply
voltage Therefore output voltage
sin
O m
v V t ω ·
A for ( ) to t ω α π α · +
3ence the average or dc output voltage can be calculated as
( )
( )
-
sin
-
d$ m O d$
V V V t d t
π α
α
ω ω
π
+
1
· ·
1
¸ ]

( )
( )
1
sin
d$ m O d$
V V V t d t
π α
α
ω ω
π
+
1
· ·
1
¸ ]

( )
( ) sin
m
d$ O d$
V
V V t d t
π α
α
ω ω
π
+
1
· ·
1
¸ ]

( )
[ ]
cos
m
d$ O d$
V
V V t
π α
α
ω
π
+
· · −
( )
( ) cos cos
m
d$ O d$
V
V V π α α
π
· · − + + 1
¸ ]
A ( ) cos cos π α α + · −
Therefore
( )
-
cos
m
d$ O d$
V
V V α
π
· ·
D1
The dc output voltage
d$
V
can be varied from a ma#imum value of
2
-
for 2 to
m
V
α
π
· a
minimum value of
2
-
for radians 1B2
m
V
α π
π

· ·
The ma#imum average dc output voltage is calculated for a trigger angle
2
2 α ·
and is obtained as
( )
( )
ma#
- -
cos 2
m m
dm d$
V V
V V
π π
· · × ·
Therefore
( ) ma#
-
m
dm d$
V
V V
π
· ·
The normali.ed average output voltage is given by
( )
( ) ma#
O d$
d$
d$n n
dm d$
V
V
V V
V V
· · ·
-
cos
cos
-
m
d$n n
m
V
V V
V
α
π
α
π
· · ·
Therefore
cos
d$n n
V V α · ·
A for a single phase full converter assuming continuous
and constant load current operation
CONTROL CHARACTERISTIC OF SINGLE PHASE FULL CONVERTER
The dc output control characteristic can be obtained by plotting the average or dc
output voltage
d$
V
versus the trigger angle
α

0or a single phase full converter the average dc output voltage is given by the
e$uation
( )
-
cos
m
d$ O d$
V
V V α
π
· ·
T+i!!e+ an!$e
α
in de!+ees
( ) O d$
V
Re-a+;s
2
-
m
dm
V
V
π
¸ _
·
÷
¸ ,
Ma#imum dc output voltage
( ) ma#
-
m
dm d$
V
V V
π
¸ _
· ·
÷
¸ ,
2
62 2B@@
dm
V
2
@2 28
dm
V
2
D2 2
dm
V
2
1-2 )28
dm
V
2
182 )2B@@
dm
V
2
1B2
-
m
dm
V
V
π
¸ _
− · −
÷
¸ ,
D-
V
O ( 2 )
T r i g g e r a n g l e i n e g r e e s α
0
3 0 ! 0
3 0
V
m
0 & 2 V
m
0 & ! V
m
. 0 & ! V
m
. 0 & 2 V
m
. V
m
α
" 2 0 " 4 0 " # 0
Fi!"# Cont+o$ C&a+ate+isti
,e notice from the control characteristic that by varying the trigger angle
α
we
can vary the output dc voltage across the load Thus it is possible to control the dc output
voltage by changing the trigger angle
α
0or trigger angle
α
in the range of 2 to D2
degrees ( )
2
" 2 D2 i e α ≤ ≤
"
d$
V
is positive and the average dc load current
d$
I
is also
positive The average or dc output power
d$
P
is positive" hence the circuit operates as a
controlled rectifier to convert ac supply voltage into dc output power which is fed to the
load
0or trigger angle
2
D2 " cos α α > becomes negative and as a result the average dc
output voltage
d$
V
becomes negative" but the load current flows in the same positive
direction ie"
d$
I
is positive 3ence the output power becomes negative This means that
the power flows from the load circuit to the input ac source This is referred to as line
$omm"t!ted inve%te% ope%!tion 4uring the inverter mode operation for
2
D2 α > the load
energy can be fed bac= from the load circuit to the input ac source
T,O QUA/RANT OPERATION OF A SINGLE PHASE FULL CONVERTER
D6
The above figure shows the two regions of single phase full converter operation in
the
d$
V
versus
d$
I
plane !n the first $uadrant when the trigger angle
α
is less than D2
2
"
and
d$ d$
V I
are both positive and the converter operates as a controlled rectifier and
converts the ac input power into dc output power The power flows from the input source
to the load circuit This is the normal controlled rectifier operation where
d$
P
is positive
,hen the trigger angle is increased above D2
2
"
d$
V
becomes negative but
d$
I
is
positive and the average output power (dc output power)
d$
P
becomes negative and the
power flows from the load circuit to the input source The operation occurs in the fourth
$uadrant where
d$
V
is negative and
d$
I
is positive The converter operates as a line
commutated inverter
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE R1S VALUE OF THE OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
The rms value of the output voltage is calculated as
( )
( )
-
-
2
1

-
O O RMS
V v d t
π
ω
π
1
·
1
¸ ]

The single phase full converter gives two output voltage pulses during the input
supply time period and hence the single phase full converter is referred to as a two pulse
converter The rms output voltage can be calculated as
( )
( )
-
-

-
O O RMS
V v d t
π α
α
ω
π
+
1
·
1
¸ ]

( )
( )
- -
1
sin
m O RMS
V V t d t
π α
α
ω ω
π
+
1
·
1
¸ ]

( )
( )
-
-
sin
m
O RMS
V
V t d t
π α
α
ω ω
π
+
1
·
1
¸ ]

( )
( )
( )
-
1 cos -

-
m
O RMS
t V
V d t
π α
α
ω
ω
π
+
1 −
·
1
¸ ]

( )
( ) ( )
-
cos -
-
m
O RMS
V
V d t t d t
π α π α
α α
ω ω ω
π
+ +
1
· −
1
¸ ]
∫ ∫
( )
( )
-
sin -
- -
m
O RMS
V t
V t
π α π α
α α
ω
ω
π
+ +
1
¸ _
· −
1 ÷
¸ ,
¸ ]
D1
( )
( )
( )
-
sin - sin -
- -
m
O RMS
V
V
π α α
π α α
π
1 + − ¸ _
· + − −
1 ÷
1
¸ , ¸ ]
( )
( )
( )
( )
-
sin - - sin -
A sin - - sin -
- -
m
O RMS
V
V
π α α
π π α α
π
1 + − ¸ _
· − + ·
1 ÷
1
¸ , ¸ ]
( )
( )
-
sin - sin -
- -
m
O RMS
V
V
α α
π
π
− 1
¸ _
· −
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
( )
( )
- -
2
- - -
m m m
O RMS
V V V
V π
π
· − · ·
Therefore
( )
-
m
S O RMS
V
V V · ·
3ence the rms output voltage is same as the rms input supply voltage
T&e +-s t&3+isto+ (++ent an 7e a$($ated as
9ach thyristor conducts for
π
radians or
2
1B2 in a single phase full converter
operating at continuous and constant load current
Therefore rms value of the thyristor current is calculated as
( ) ( ) ( )
1
- -
T RMS O RMS O RMS
I I I
π
π
· ·
( )
( )
-
O RMS
T RMS
I
I ·
T&e a*e+a!e t&3+isto+ (++ent an 7e a$($ated as
( ) ( ) ( )
1
- -
T Avg O d$ O d$
I I I
π
π
¸ _ ¸ _
· × · ×
÷ ÷
¸ , ¸ ,
( )
( )
-
O d$
T Avg
I
I ·
D8
SINGLE PHASE /UAL CONVERTER
D@
,e have seen in the case of a single phase full converter with inductive loads the
converter can operate in two different $uadrants in the
versus
d$ d$
V I
operating diagram
!f two single phase full converters are connected in parallel and in opposite direction
(connected in bac= to bac=) across a common load four $uadrant operation is possible
Such a converter is called as a dual converter which is shown in the figure
The dual converter system will provide four $uadrant operation and is normally
used in high power industrial variable speed drives The converter number 1 provides a
positive dc output voltage and a positive dc load current" when operated in the
rectification mode
The converter number - provides a negative dc output voltage and a negative dc
load current when operated in the rectification mode ,e can thus have bi)directional
load current and bi)directional dc output voltage The magnitude of output dc load voltage
and the dc load current can be controlled by varying the trigger angles
1 -
< α α
of the
converters 1 and - respectively
Fi!"# Fo(+ 5(ad+ant o%e+ation o' a d(a$ on*e+te+
There are two modes of operations possible for a dual converter system
• /on circulating current mode of operation (circulating current free mode
of operation)
• Circulating current mode of operation
NON CIRCULATING CURRENT 1O/E OF OPERATION (CIRCULATING
CURRENT FREE 1O/E OF OPERATION)
!n this mode of operation only one converter is switched on at a time while the
second converter is switched off ,hen the converter 1 is switched on and the gate trigger
signals are released to the gates of thyristors in converter 1" we get an average output
voltage across the load" which can be varied by ad%usting the trigger angle
1
α
of the
converter 1 !f
1
α
is less than D2
2
" the converter 1 operates as a controlled rectifier and
converts the input ac power into dc output power to feed the load
d$
V
and
d$
I
are both
positive and the operation occurs in the first $uadrant The average output power
d$ d$ d$
P V I · ×
is positive The power flows from the input ac supply to the load ,hen
1
α

is increased above D2
2
converter 1 operates as a line commutated inverter and
d$
V

becomes negative while
d$
I
is positive and the output power
d$
P
becomes negative The
power is fed bac= from the load circuit to the input ac source through the converter 1 The
load current falls to .ero when the load energy is utili.ed completely
The second converter - is switched on after a small delay of about 12 to -2 mill
seconds to allow all the thyristors of converter 1 to turn off completely The gate signals
DC
are released to the thyristor gates of converter - and the trigger angle
-
α
is ad%usted such
that
2
-
2 D2 α ≤ ≤ so that converter - operates as a controlled rectifier The dc output
voltage
d$
V
and
d$
I
are both negative and the load current flows in the reverse direction
The magnitude of
d$
V
and
d$
I
are controlled by the trigger angle
-
α
The operation
occurs in the third $uadrant where
d$
V
and
d$
I
are both negative and output power
d$
P
is
positive and the converter - operates as a controlled rectifier and converts the ac supply
power into dc output power which is fed to the load
,hen we want to reverse the load current flow so that
d$
I
is positive we have to
operate converter - in the inverter mode by increasing the trigger angle
-
α
above
2
D2
,hen
-
α
is made greater than
2
D2 " the converter - operates as a line commutated
inverter and the load power (load energy) is fed bac= to ac mains The current falls to .ero
when all the load energy is utili.ed and the converter 1 can be switched on after a short
delay of 12 to -2 milli seconds to ensure that the converter - thyristors are completely
turned off
The advantage of non circulating current mode of operation is that there is no
circulating current flowing between the two converters as only one converter operates and
conducts at a time while the other converter is switched off 3ence there is no need of the
series current limiting inductors between the outputs of the two converters The current
rating of thyristors is low in this mode
+ut the disadvantage is that the load current tends to become discontinuous and
the transfer characteristic becomes non linear The control circuit becomes comple# and
the output response is sluggish as the load current reversal ta=es some time due to the
time delay between the switching off of one converter and the switching on of the other
converter 3ence the output dynamic response is poor ,henever a fast and fre$uent
reversal of the load current is re$uired" the dual converter is operated in the circulating
current mode
CIRCULATING CURRENT 1O/E OF OPERATION
!n this mode of operation both the converters 1 and - are switched on and
operated simultaneously and both the converters are in a state of conduction !f converter
1 is operated as a controlled rectifier by ad%usting the trigger angle
1
α
between 2 to D2
2
the second converter - is operated as a line commutated inverter by increasing its trigger
angle
-
α
above D2
2
The trigger angles
1
α
and
-
α
are ad%usted such that they produce the
same average dc output voltage across the load terminals
The average dc output voltage of converter 1 is
1 1
-
cos
m
d$
V
V α
π
·
The average dc output voltage of converter - is
- -
-
cos
m
d$
V
V α
π
·
DB
!n the dual converter operation one converter is operated as a controlled rectifier
with
2
1
D2 α < and the second converter is operated as a line commutated inverter in the
inversion mode with
2
-
D2 α >
1 - d$ d$
V V · −
( )
1 - -
- - -
cos cos cos
m m m
V V V
α α α
π π π

· · −
Therefore ( )
1 - - 1 1
cos cos or cos cos cos α α α α π α · − · − · −
Therefore ( )
- 1
α π α · −
or ( )
1 -
radians α α π + ·
,hich gives ( )
- 1
α π α · −
,hen the trigger angle
1
α
of converter 1 is set to some value the trigger angle
-
α

of the second converter is ad%usted such that ( )
2
- 1
1B2 α α · −
3ence for circulating
current mode of operation where both converters are conducting at the same time
( )
2
1 -
1B2 α α + ·
so that they produce the same dc output voltage across the load
,hen
2
1
D2 α < (say
2
1
62 α · ) the converter 1 operates as a controlled rectifier
and converts the ac supply into dc output power and the average load current
d$
I
is
positive At the same time the converter - is switched on and operated as a line
commutated inverter" by ad%usting the trigger angle
-
α
such that ( )
2
- 1
1B2 α α · −
" which
is e$ual to 182
2
" when
2
1
62 α · The converter - will operate in the inversion mode and
feeds the load energy bac= to the ac supply ,hen we want to reverse the load current
flow we have to switch the roles of the two converters
,hen converter - is operated as a controlled rectifier by ad%usting the trigger
angle
-
α
such that
2
-
D2 α < " the first converter1 is operated as a line commutated
inverter" by ad%usting the trigger angle
1
α
such that
2
1
D2 α > The trigger angle
1
α
is
ad%usted such that ( )
2
1 -
1B2 α α · −
for a set value of
-
α

!n the circulating current mode a current builds up between the two converters
even when the load current falls to .ero !n order to limit the circulating current flowing
between the two converters" we have to include current limiting reactors in series between
the output terminals of the two converters
The advantage of the circulating current mode of operation is that we can have
faster reversal of load current as the two converters are in a state of conduction
simultaneously This greatly improves the dynamic response of the output giving a faster
dynamic response The output voltage and the load current can be linearly varied by
ad%usting the trigger angles
1 -
< α α
to obtain a smooth and linear output control The
control circuit becomes relatively simple The transfer characteristic between the output
voltage and the trigger angle is linear and hence the output response is very fast The load
current is free to flow in either direction at any time The reversal of the load current can
be done in a faster and smoother way
DD
The disadvantage of the circulating current mode of operation is that a current
flows continuously in the dual converter circuit even at times when the load current is
.ero 3ence we should connect current limiting inductors (reactors) in order to limit the
pea= circulating current within specified value The circulating current flowing through
the series inductors gives rise to increased power losses" due to dc voltage drop across the
series inductors which decreases the efficiency Also the power factor of operation is low
The current limiting series inductors are heavier and bul=ier which increases the cost and
weight of the dual converter system
The current flowing through the converter thyristors is much greater than the dc
load current 3ence the thyristors should be rated for a pea= thyristor current of
( ) ( ) ( ) ma# ma# ma# T d$ %
I I i · +
" where
( ) ma# d$
I
is the ma#imum dc load current and
( ) ma# %
i
is the
ma#imum value of the circulating current
TO CALCULATE THE CIRCULATING CURRENT
Fi!"# ,a*e'o+-s o' d(a$ on*e+te+
122
As the instantaneous output voltages of the two converters are out of phase" there
will be an instantaneous voltage difference and this will result in circulating current
between the two converters !n order to limit the circulating current" current limiting
reactors are connected in series between the outputs of the two converters This
circulating current will not flow through the load and is normally limited by the current
reactor L
%

!f v
O1
and v
O)
are the instantaneous output voltages of the converters 1 and -"
respectively the circulating current can be determined by integrating the instantaneous
voltage difference (which is the voltage drop across the circulating current reactor L
%
)"
starting from ωt 0 8)π & α
1
9. As the two average output voltages during the interval ωt 0
8π?α
1
9 to 8)π & α
1
9 are e$ual and opposite their contribution to the instantaneous
circulating current i
%
is .ero
( )
( )
( )
1
1 -
-
1
A
t
% % % O O
%
i v d t v v v
L
ω
π α
ω
ω

1
· · − 1
1
¸ ]

As the output voltage
- O
v
is negative
( )
1 - % O O
v v v · +
Therefore ( ) ( )
( )
1
1 -
-
1
A
t
% O O
%
i v v d t
L
ω
π α
ω
ω

1
· + 1
1
¸ ]

( )
1 1
sin for - to
O m
v V t t ω π α ω · − −
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1
- -
sin sin
t t
m
%
%
V
i t d t t d t
L
ω ω
π α π α
ω ω ω ω
ω
− −
1
· − − 1
1
¸ ]
∫ ∫
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1
- -
cos cos
t t
m
%
%
V
i t t
L
ω ω
π α π α
ω ω
ω
− −
1
· +
1
1
¸ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
cos cos - cos cos -
m
%
%
V
i t t
L
ω π α ω π α
ω
· − − + − − 1
¸ ]
( )
1
-cos -cos -
m
%
%
V
i t
L
ω π α
ω
· − − 1
¸ ]
( )
1
-
cos cos
m
%
%
V
i t
L
ω α
ω
· −
The instantaneous value of the circulating current depends on the delay angle
121
0or trigger angle (delay angle) α
1
? 2" its magnitude becomes minimum when
" 2" -" 1" t n n ω π · ·
and magnitude becomes ma#imum when
" 1" 6" 8" t n n ω π · ·
!f the pea= load current is
p
I
" one of the converters that controls the power flow
may carry a pea= current of
1
m
p
%
V
I
L ω
+
"
,here
( ) ( ) ma# ma#
1
" <
m m
p L %
L %
V V
I I i
R L ω
· · ·
P+o7$e-s
1 ,hat will be the average power in the load for the circuit shown" when
1
π
α ·
Assume SCR to be ideal Supply voltage is 662 sin611t Also calculate the RMS
power and the rectification efficiency
T
1 2 2 Ω R
6 6 2
S i n 6 1 1 t
J
I

The circuit is that of a single phase half wave controlled rectifier with a resistive load
( ) 1 cos A
- 1
m
d$
V
V %!di!ns
π
α α
π
· + ·
662
1 cos
- 1
d$
V
π
π
¸ _
¸ _
· +
÷ ÷
¸ , ¸ ,
BD@@ 7olts
d$
V ·
Average *ower
- -
BD@@
B26B ,atts
122
d$
V
R
· · ·
BD@@
2BD@@ Amps
122
d$
d$
V
I
R
· · ·
1
-
1 sin -
- -
m
RMS
V
V
α
π α
π
1 ¸ _
· − +
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
12-
1
-
sin -
662 1
1
- 1 -
RMS
V
π
π
π
π
1
¸ _
×
1 ÷
· − +
1 ÷
1 ÷
1
¸ , ¸ ]
18C6-
RMS
V V ·
RMS *ower (AC power)
- -
18C6-
-1C82 ,atts
122
RMS
V
R
· · ·
Rectification 9fficiency
Average power
RMS power
·

B26B
26-1B
-1C1C
· ·
- !n the circuit shown find out the average voltage across the load assuming that the
conduction drop across the SCR is 1 volt Ta=e α ? 18
2

1 2 2 Ω R
6 6 2
S i n 6 1 1 t
J
I

7
A H
The wave form of the load voltage is shown below (not to scale)
2 π 3 π
π
α
β
γ
2
7
m
7
A H
ω t
7 o l t a g e a c r o s s
r e s i s t a n c e
5
o
a
d
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
!t is observed that the SCR turns off when
t ω β ·
" where ( ) β π γ · −
because the
SCR turns)off for anode supply voltage below 1 7olt
sin 1 volt (given)
A6 m
V V γ · ·
126
Therefore ( )
1 1 2
1
sin sin 21C 2226 radians
662
A6
m
V
V
γ
− −
¸ _
¸ _
· · ·
÷ ÷
¸ ,
¸ ,
( )
2
1B2 β γ · −
A +y symmetry of the curve
2
1CDB6 β · A 616B radians
( ) ( )
1
sin
-
d$ m A6
V V t V d t
β
α
ω ω
π
· −

( ) ( )
1
sin
-
d$ m A6
V V t d t V d t
β β
α α
ω ω ω
π
1
· −
1
¸ ]
∫ ∫
( ) ( )
1
cos
-
d$ m A6
V V t V t
β β
α α
ω ω
π
1
· − −
1
¸ ]
( ) ( )
1
cos cos
-
d$ m A6
V V V α β β α
π
· − − − 1
¸ ]
( ) ( )
2 2
1
662 cos 18 cos1CDB6 1 616B 2226
-
d$
V
π
1
· − − −
¸ ]
BD18 7olts
d$
V ·
Note#
β
and
α
values should be in radians
6 !n the figure find out the battery charging current when
1
π
α · Assume ideal
SCR
- 1 7
( 7 )
+
- 2 2 7
8 2 3 .
J
I

1 2 Ω
R
So$(tion
!t is obvious that the SCR cannot conduct when the instantaneous value of the
supply voltage is less than -1 7" the battery voltage The load voltage waveform is as
shown (voltage across ion)
121
2 π 3 π
π
α
β
γ
2
7
m
7
+
ω t
7 o l t a g e a c r o s s
r e s i s t a n c e
sin
> m
V V γ ·
-1 -22 - sinγ ·
1 2
-1
sin 1B@C8 22B8 radians
-22 -
γ

¸ _
· · ·
÷
× ¸ ,
628@ radians β π γ · − ·
Average value of voltage across 12Ω
( ) ( )
1
sin
-
m >
V t V d t
β
α
ω ω
π
1
· −
1
¸ ]

(The integral gives the shaded area)
( )
( )
628@
1
1
-22 - sin -1
-
t d t
π
ω ω
π
1
1
· × −
1
1
¸ ]

1
-22 - cos cos628@ -1 628@
- 1 1
π π
π
1
¸ _ ¸ _
· − − −
÷ ÷ 1
¸ , ¸ , ¸ ]
@B 7ots ·
Therefore charging current
Average voltage across R
R
·
@B
@B Amps
12
· ·
/oteG !f value of
γ
is more than
α
" then the SCR will trigger only at
t ω γ ·
"
(assuming that the gate signal persists till then)" when it becomes forward biased
128
Therefore ( ) ( )
1
sin
-
d$ m >
V V t V d t
β
γ
ω ω
π
1
· −
1
1
¸ ]

1 !n a single phase full wave rectifier supply is -22 7 AC The load resistance is
12Ω"
2
@2 α · 0ind the average voltage across the load and the power consumed
in the load
So$(tion
!n a single phase full wave rectifier
( ) 1 cos
m
d$
V
V α
π
· +
( )
2
-22 -
1 cos @2
d$
V
π
×
· +
168 7olts
d$
V ·
Average *ower
- -
168
1B-6
12
d$
V
k3
R
· · ·
8 !n the circuit shown find the charging current if the trigger angle
2
D2 α ·
R ? 1 2 Ω
I

- 2 2 7
8 2 3 .
J
I

1 2 7
( 7 )
+
So$(tion
,ith the usual notation
sin
> m
V V γ ·
12 -22 - sinγ ·
Therefore
1
12
sin 2268 radians
-22 -
γ

¸ _
· ·
÷
×
¸ ,
12@
2
D2 radians
-
π
α · · A ( ) 612@8D β π γ · − ·
Average voltage across ( ) ( )
-
12 sin
-
m >
V t V d t
β
α
ω ω
π
1
Ω · −
1
¸ ]

( )
1
cos
m >
V t V t
β
α
ω ω
π
· − − 1
¸ ]
( ) ( )
1
cos cos
m >
V V α β β α
π
· − − − 1
¸ ]
1
-22 - cos cos612@ 12 612@
- -
π π
π
1
¸ _ ¸ _
· × − − −
÷ ÷ 1
¸ , ¸ , ¸ ]
B8 7 ·
/ote that the values of
< α β
are in radians
Charging current
dc voltage across resistance
resistance
·
B8
B8 Amps
12
· ·
@ A single phase full wave controlled rectifier is used to supply a resistive load of
12 Ω from a -62 7" 82 3." supply and firing angle of D2
2
,hat is its mean load
voltageK !f a large inductance is added in series with the load resistance" what will
be the new output load voltageK
So$(tion
0or a single phase full wave controlled rectifier with resistive load"
( ) 1 cos
m
d$
V
V α
π
· +
-62 -
1 cos
-
d$
V
π
π
×
¸ _
· +
÷
¸ ,
1268 7olts
d$
V ·
,hen a large inductance is added in series with the load" the output voltage wave
form will be as shown below" for trigger angle
2
D2 α ·
12C
2 π
3 π
π
2
7
2
ω t
α
-
cos
m
d$
V
V α
π
·
Since
-
π
α · A
cos 2
-
$os
π
α
¸ _
· ·
÷
¸ ,
Therefore
2
d$
V ·
and this is evident from the waveform also
C The figure shows a battery charging circuit using SCRs The input voltage to the
circuit is -62 7 RMS 0ind the charging current for a firing angle of 18
2
!f any
one of the SCR is open circuited" what is the charging currentK
So$(tion
1 2 Ω
I

7
s
7
5
J
I

1 2 2 7
,ith the usual notations
sin
S m
V V t ω ·
- -62sin
S
V t ω · ×
sin
m >
V V γ ·
" the battery voltage
- -62sin 122 γ × ·
12B
Therefore
1
122
sin
- -62
γ

¸ _
·
÷
×
¸ ,
2
1CD or 261- radians γ ·
( ) ( ) 261- β π γ π · − · −
-B-D radians β ·
Average value of voltage across load resistance
( ) ( )
-
sin
-
m >
V t V d t
β
α
ω ω
π
1
· −
1
¸ ]

( )
1
cos
m >
V t V t
β
α
ω ω
π
· − − 1
¸ ]
( ) ( )
1
cos cos
m >
V V α β β α
π
· − − − 1
¸ ]
1
-62 - cos cos -B-D 122 -B-D
1 1
π π
π
1
¸ _ ¸ _
· × − − −
÷ ÷ 1
¸ , ¸ , ¸ ]
( )
1
-62 - 2C2C 2D81C -216@
π
1
· × + −
¸ ]
12@@B 7olts ·
Charging current
7oltage across resistance
R
·
12@@B
12@@B Amps
12
· ·
!f one of the SCRs is open circuited" the circuit behaves li=e a half wave rectifier
The average voltage across the resistance and the charging current will be half of that of a
full wave rectifier
Therefore Charging Current
12@@B
8661 Amps
-
· ·
12D
THREE PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS
INTRO/UCTION TO ?-PHASE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIERS
Single phase half controlled bridge converters < fully controlled bridge converters
are used e#tensively in industrial applications up to about 18=, of output power The
single phase controlled rectifiers provide a ma#imum dc output of
( ) ma#
-
m
d$
V
V
π
· .
The output ripple fre$uency is e$ual to the twice the ac supply fre$uency The
single phase full wave controlled rectifiers provide two output pulses during every input
supply cycle and hence are referred to as two pulse converters
Three phase converters are 6)phase controlled rectifiers which are used to convert
ac input power supply into dc output power across the load
Feat(+es o' ?-%&ase ont+o$$ed +eti'ie+s a+e
• (perate from 6 phase ac supply voltage
• They provide higher dc output voltage and higher dc output power
• 3igher output voltage ripple fre$uency
• 0iltering re$uirements are simplified for smoothing out load voltage and load
current
Three phase controlled rectifiers are e#tensively used in high power variable
speed industrial dc drives
!PHASE HALF WAVE CONVERTER
Three single phase half)wave converters are connected together to form a three
phase half)wave converter as shown in the figure
112
THEE PHASE SUPPLY VOLTAGE EQUATIONS
,e define three line neutral voltages (6 phase voltages) as follows
sin A
RN !n m
v v V t ω · · Ma# *hase 7oltage
m
V ·
-
sin
6
@N 7n m
v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · −
÷
¸ ,
( )
2
sin 1-2
@N 7n m
v v V t ω · · −
-
sin
6
>N $n m
v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · +
÷
¸ ,
( )
2
sin 1-2
>N $n m
v v V t ω · · +
( )
2
sin -12
>N $n m
v v V t ω · · −
111
Veto+ dia!+a- o' ?-%&ase s(%%$3 *o$ta!es
The 6)phase half wave converter combines three single phase half wave controlled
rectifiers in one single circuit feeding a common load The thyristor
1
T
in series with one
of the supply phase windings E E ! n − acts as one half wave controlled rectifier The
second thyristor
-
T
in series with the supply phase winding E E 7 n − acts as the second half
wave controlled rectifier The third thyristor
6
T
in series with the supply phase winding
E E $ n − acts as the third half wave controlled rectifier
The 6)phase input supply is applied through the star connected supply transformer
as shown in the figure The common neutral point of the supply is connected to one end
of the load while the other end of the load connected to the common cathode point
,hen the thyristor
1
T
is triggered at ( )
2
62
@
t
π
ω α α
¸ _
· + · +
÷
¸ ,
" the phase voltage
!n
v
appears across the load when
1
T
conducts The load current flows through the supply
phase winding E E ! n − and through thyristor
1
T
as long as
1
T
conducts
,hen thyristor
-
T
is triggered at ( )
2
8
182
@
t
π
ω α α
¸ _
· + · +
÷
¸ ,
"
1
T
becomes reverse
biased and turns)off The load current flows through the thyristor
-
T
and through the
supply phase winding E E 7 n − ,hen
-
T
conducts the phase voltage
7n
v
appears across the
load until the thyristor
6
T
is triggered
,hen the thyristor
6
T
is triggered at ( )
2
6
-C2
-
t
π
ω α α
¸ _
· + · +
÷
¸ ,
"
-
T
is reversed
biased and hence
-
T
turns)off The phase voltage
$n
v
appears across the load when
6
T

conducts
,hen
1
T
is triggered again at the beginning of the ne#t input cycle the thyristor
6
T

turns off as it is reverse biased naturally as soon as
1
T
is triggered The figure shows the
6)phase input supply voltages" the output voltage which appears across the load" and the
load current assuming a constant and ripple free load current for a highly inductive load
and the current through the thyristor
1
T

0or a purely resistive load where the load inductance &5 ? 2' and the trigger angle
@
π
α
¸ _
>
÷
¸ ,
" the load current appears as discontinuous load current and each thyristor is
naturally commutated when the polarity of the corresponding phase supply voltage
reverses The fre$uency of output ripple fre$uency for a 6)phase half wave converter is
6
S
f
" where
S
f
is the input supply fre$uency
The 6)phase half wave converter is not normally used in practical converter
systems because of the disadvantage that the supply current waveforms contain dc
components (ie" the supply current waveforms have an average or dc value)
11-
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF
A ?-PHASE HALF ,AVE CONVERTER FOR CONTINUOUS LOA/ CURRENT
The reference phase voltage is
sin
RN !n m
v v V t ω · ·
The trigger angle
α
is
measured from the cross over points of the 6)phase supply voltage waveforms ,hen the
phase supply voltage
!n
v
begins its positive half cycle at 2 t ω · " the first cross over point
appears at
2
62
@
t %!di!ns
π
ω
¸ _
· ·
÷
¸ ,

The trigger angle
α
for the thyristor
1
T
is measured from the cross over point at
2
62 t ω · The thyristor
1
T
is forward biased during the period
2 2
62 to 182 t ω · " when the
phase supply voltage
!n
v
has a higher amplitude than the other phase supply voltages
3ence
1
T
can be triggered between
2 2
62 to 182 ,hen the thyristor
1
T
is triggered at a
trigger angle
α
" the average or dc output voltage for continuous load current is calculated
using the e$uation
( )
8
@
@
6

-
d$ O
V v d t
π
α
π
α
ω
π
+
+
1
1
·
1
1
¸ ]


(utput voltage ( ) ( )
2 2
sin for 62 to 182
O !n m
v v V t t ω ω α α · · · + +
( )
8
@
@
6
sin
-
d$ m
V V t d t
π
α
π
α
ω ω
π
+
+
1
1
·
1
1
¸ ]

As the output load voltage waveform has three output pulses during the input
cycle of -π radians
( )
8
@
@
6
sin
-
m
d$
V
V t d t
π
α
π
α
ω ω
π
+
+
1
1
·
1
1
¸ ]

( )
8
@
@
6
cos
-
m
d$
V
V t
π
α
π
α
ω
π
+
+
1
1
· −
1
1
¸ ]
116
6 8
cos cos
- @ @
m
d$
V
V
π π
α α
π
1
¸ _ ¸ _
· − + + +
÷ ÷ 1
¸ , ¸ , ¸ ]
/ote from the trigonometric relationship
( ) ( ) cos cos cos sin sin A > A > A > + · −
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
6 8 8
cos cos sin sin cos cos sin sin
- @ @ @ @
m
d$
V
V
π π π π
α α α α
π
1
¸ _ ¸ _ ¸ _ ¸ _
· − + + −
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ 1
¸ , ¸ , ¸ , ¸ , ¸ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
6
cos 182 cos sin 182 sin cos 62 cos sin 62 sin
-
m
d$
V
V α α α α
π
1
· − + + −
¸ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
6
cos 1B2 62 cos sin 1B2 62 sin cos 62 cos sin 62 sin
-
m
d$
V
V α α α α
π
1
· − − + − + −
¸ ]
/oteG ( ) ( )
2 2 2
cos 1B2 62 cos 62 − · −
( ) ( )
2 2 2
sin 1B2 62 sin 62 − ·
Therefore
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
6
cos 62 cos sin 62 sin cos 62 cos sin 62 sin
-
m
d$
V
V α α α α
π
1
· + + + −
¸ ]
( ) ( )
2
6
-cos 62 cos
-
m
d$
V
V α
π
1
·
¸ ]
( )
6 6
- cos
- -
m
d$
V
V α
π
1
· ×
1
¸ ]
( ) ( )
6 6 6
6 cos cos
- -
m m
d$
V V
V α α
π π
1
· ·
¸ ]
( )
6
cos
-
Lm
d$
V
V α
π
·
111
,here
6 Ma# line to line supply voltage
Lm m
V V · · for a 6)phase star connected transformer
The ma#imum average or dc output voltage is obtained at a delay angle α 0 + and
is given by
( ) ma#
6 6
-
m
dm d$
V
V V
π
· ·
,here
m
V
is the pea= phase voltage
And the normali.ed average output voltage is
cos
d$
d$n n
dm
V
V V
V
α · · ·
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE R1S VALUE OF THE OUTPUT
VOLTAGE OF A ?-PHASE HALF ,AVE CONVERTER FOR CONTINUOUS
LOA/ CURRENT
The rms value of output voltage is found by using the e$uation
( )
( )
1
8
-
@
- -
@
6
sin
-
m O RMS
V V t d t
π
α
π
α
ω ω
π
+
+
1
1
·
1
1
¸ ]

and we obtain
( )
1
-
1 6
6 cos -
@ B
m O RMS
V V α
π
1
· +
1
¸ ]
118
? PHASE HALF ,AVE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIER OUTPUT VOLTAGE
,AVEFOR1S FOR /IFFERENT TRIGGER ANGLES ,ITH RL LOA/
2
2
2
6 2
2
6 2
2
6 2
2
@ 2
2
@ 2
2
@ 2
2
D 2
2
D 2
2
D 2
2
1 - 2
2
1 - 2
2
1 - 2
2
1 8 2
2
1 8 2
2
1 8 2
2
1 B 2
2
1 B 2
2
1 B 2
2
- 1 2
2
- 1 2
2
- 1 2
2
- 1 2
2
- 1 2
2
- 1 2
2
- C 2
2
- C 2
2
- C 2
2
6 2 2
2
6 2 2
2
6 2 2
2
6 6 2
2
6 6 2
2
6 6 2
2
6 @ 2
2
6 @ 2
2
6 @ 2
2
6 D 2
2
6 D 2
2
6 D 2
2
1 - 2
2
1 - 2
2
1 - 2
2
7
a n

7
2

7
2

7
2
7
a n
7
a n
α
α
α
α ? 6 2
2
α ? @ 2
2
α ? D 2
2
7
b n
7
b n
7
b n
7
c n
7
c n
7
c n
ω t
ω t
ω t
11@
? PHASE HALF ,AVE CONTROLLE/ RECTIFIER OUTPUT VOLTAGE
,AVEFOR1S FOR /IFFERENT TRIGGER ANGLES ,ITH R LOA/
2
2
2
2
6 2
2
6 2
2
6 2
2
6 2
2
@ 2
2
@ 2
2
@ 2
2
@ 2
2
D 2
2
D 2
2
D 2
2
D 2
2
1 - 2
2
1 - 2
2
1 - 2
2
1 - 2
2
1 8 2
2
1 8 2
2
1 8 2
2
1 8 2
2
1 B 2
2
1 B 2
2
1 B 2
2
1 B 2
2
- 1 2
2
- 1 2
2
- 1 2
2
- 1 2
2
- 1 2
2
- 1 2
2
- 1 2
2
- 1 2
2
- C 2
2
- C 2
2
- C 2
2
- C 2
2
6 2 2
2
6 2 2
2
6 2 2
2
6 2 2
2
6 6 2
2
6 6 2
2
6 6 2
2
6 6 2
2
6 @ 2
2
6 @ 2
2
6 @ 2
2
6 @ 2
2
6 D 2
2
6 D 2
2
6 D 2
2
6 D 2
2
1 - 2
2
1 - 2
2
1 - 2
2
1 - 2
2
7
s
7
2
7
a n
α
α
α
α ? 2
α ? 1 8
2
7
b n
7
c n
ω t
7
a n
7
b n
7
c n
ω t
7
2
α ? 6 2
2
7
a n
7
b n
7
c n
ω t
7
2
α ? @ 2
2
7
a n
7
b n
7
c n
ω t
11C
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE OR /C OUTPUT
VOLTAGE OF A ? PHASE HALF ,AVE CONVERTER ,ITH RESISTIVE
LOA/ OR RL LOA/ ,ITH F,/"
!n the case of a three)phase half wave controlled rectifier with resistive load" the
thyristor
1
T
is triggered at ( )
2
62 t ω α · +
and
1
T
conducts up to
2
1B2 t ω π · · radians
,hen the phase supply voltage
!n
v
decreases to .ero at
t ω π ·
" the load current falls to
.ero and the thyristor
1
T
turns off Thus
1
T
conducts from ( ) ( )
2 2
62 to 1B2 t ω α · +

3ence the average dc output voltage for a 6)pulse converter (6)phase half wave
controlled rectifier) is calculated by using the e$uation
( )
2
2
1B2
62
6

-
d$ O
V v d t
α
ω
π
+
1
·
1
1
¸ ]

( ) ( )
2 2
sin A for 62 to 1B2
O !n m
v v V t t ω ω α · · · +
( )
2
2
1B2
62
6
sin
-
d$ m
V V t d t
α
ω ω
π
+
1
·
1
1
¸ ]

( )
2
2
1B2
62
6
sin
-
m
d$
V
V t d t
α
ω ω
π
+
1
·
1
1
¸ ]

2
2
1B2
62
6
cos
-
m
d$
V
V t
α
ω
π
+
1
· −
1
1
¸ ]
( )
2 2
6
cos1B2 cos 62
-
m
d$
V
V α
π
1
· − + +
¸ ]
Since
2
cos1B2 1" · −
,e get ( )
2
6
1 cos 62
-
m
d$
V
V α
π
1
· + +
¸ ]
11B
THREE PHASE SEMICONVERTERS
6)phase semi)converters are three phase half controlled bridge controlled rectifiers
which employ three thyristors and three diodes connected in the form of a bridge
configuration Three thyristors are controlled switches which are turned on at appropriate
times by applying appropriate gating signals The three diodes conduct when they are
forward biased by the corresponding phase supply voltages
6)phase semi)converters are used in industrial power applications up to about
1-2=, output power level" where single $uadrant operation is re$uired The power factor
of 6)phase semi)converter decreases as the trigger angle
α
increases The power factor of
a 6)phase semi)converter is better than three phase half wave converter
The figure shows a 6)phase semi)converter with a highly inductive load and the
load current is assumed to be a constant and continuous load current with negligible
ripple
Thyristor
1
T
is forward biased when the phase supply voltage
!n
v
is positive and
greater than the other phase voltages
7n
v
and
$n
v
The diode
1
4
is forward biased when
the phase supply voltage
$n
v
is more negative than the other phase supply voltages
Thyristor
-
T
is forward biased when the phase supply voltage
7n
v
is positive and
greater than the other phase voltages 4iode
-
4
is forward biased when the phase supply
voltage
!n
v
is more negative than the other phase supply voltages
Thyristor
6
T
is forward biased when the phase supply voltage
$n
v
is positive and
greater than the other phase voltages 4iode
6
4
is forward biased when the phase supply
voltage
7n
v
is more negative than the other phase supply voltages
The figure shows the waveforms for the three phase input supply voltages" the
output voltage" the thyristor and diode current waveforms" the current through the free
wheeling diode
m
4
and the supply current
!
i
The fre$uency of the output supply
waveform is
6
S
f
" where
S
f
is the input ac supply fre$uency The trigger angle
α
can be
varied from
2 2
2 to 1B2
4uring the time period
C
@ @
t
π π
ω
¸ _ ¸ _
≤ ≤
÷ ÷
¸ , ¸ ,
ie" for
2 2
62 -12 t ω ≤ ≤ " thyristor
1
T
is
forward biased !f
1
T
is triggered at
@
t
π
ω α
¸ _
· +
÷
¸ ,
"
1
T
and
1
4
conduct together and the
11D
line to line supply voltage
!$
v
appears across the load At
C
@
t
π
ω
¸ _
·
÷
¸ ,
"
!$
v
starts to
become negative and the free wheeling diode
m
4
turns on and conducts The load current
continues to flow through the free wheeling diode
m
4
and thyristor
1
T
and diode
1
4
are
turned off
!f the free wheeling diode
m
4
is not connected across the load" then
1
T
would
continue to conduct until the thyristor
-
T
is triggered at
8
@
t
π
ω α
¸ _
· +
÷
¸ ,
and the free
wheeling action is accomplished through
1
T
and
-
4
" when
-
4
turns on as soon as
!n
v

becomes more negative at
C
@
t
π
ω
¸ _
·
÷
¸ ,
!f the trigger angle
6
π
α
¸ _

÷
¸ ,
each thyristor
conducts for
-
6
π
radians ( )
2
1-2
and the free wheeling diode
m
4
does not conduct The
waveforms for a 6)phase semi)converter with
6
π
α
¸ _

÷
¸ ,
is shown in figure
1-2
1-1
,e define three line neutral voltages (6 phase voltages) as follows
sin A
RN !n m
v v V t ω · · Ma# *hase 7oltage
m
V ·
-
sin
6
@N 7n m
v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · −
÷
¸ ,
( )
2
sin 1-2
@N 7n m
v v V t ω · · −
-
sin
6
>N $n m
v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · +
÷
¸ ,
( )
2
sin 1-2
>N $n m
v v V t ω · · +
( )
2
sin -12
>N $n m
v v V t ω · · −
The corresponding line)to)line voltages are
( ) 6 sin
@
R> !$ !n $n m
v v v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · − · −
÷
¸ ,
( )
8
6 sin
@
@R 7! 7n !n m
v v v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · − · −
÷
¸ ,
( ) 6 sin
-
>@ $7 $n 7n m
v v v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · − · +
÷
¸ ,
( ) 6 sin
@
R@ !7 !n 7n m
v v v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · − · +
÷
¸ ,
,here
m
V
is the pea= phase voltage of a star (L) connected source
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF
THREE PHASE SE1ICONVERTER FOR
6
π
α
¸ _
>
÷
¸ ,
AN/ /ISCONTINUOUS
OUTPUT VOLTAGE
0or
6
π
α ≥ and discontinuous output voltageG the average output voltage is found
from
( )
C
@
@
6

-
d$ !$
V v d t
π
π
α
ω
π
+
·

1--
( )
C
@
@
6
6 sin
- @
d$ m
V V t d t
π
π
α
π
ω ω
π
+
¸ _
· −
÷
¸ ,

( )
6 6
1 cos
-
m
d$
V
V α
π
· +
( )
6
1 cos
-
mL
d$
V
V α
π
· +
The ma#imum average output voltage that occurs at a delay angle of 2 α · is
6 6
m
dm
V
V
π
·
The normali.ed average output voltage is
( ) 28 1 cos
d$
n
dm
V
V
V
α · · +
The rms output voltage is found from
( )
( )
1
C
-
@
- -
@
6
6 sin
- @
m O RMS
V V t d t
π
π
α
π
ω ω
π
+
1
¸ _
1
· −
÷
1
¸ ,
¸ ]

( )
1
-
6 1
6 sin -
1 -
m O RMS
V V π α α
π
1 ¸ _
· − +
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
Fo+
6
π
α ≤ 2 and ontin(o(s o(t%(t *o$ta!e
(utput voltage
6 sin
@
O !7 m
v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · +
÷
¸ ,
A for
to
@ -
t
π π
ω α
¸ _ ¸ _
· +
÷ ÷
¸ , ¸ ,
(utput voltage
6 sin
@
O !$ m
v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · −
÷
¸ ,
A for
8
to
- @
t
π π
ω α
¸ _ ¸ _
· +
÷ ÷
¸ , ¸ ,
The average or dc output voltage is calculated by using the e$uation
( ) ( )
8
@ -
@ -
6

-
d$ !7 !$
V v d t v d t
π π
α
π π
α
ω ω
π
+
+
1
1
· +
1
¸ ]
∫ ∫
1-6
( )
6 6
1 cos
-
m
d$
V
V α
π
· +
( ) 28 1 cos
d$
n
dm
V
V
V
α · · +
The RMS value of the output voltage is calculated by using the e$uation
( )
( ) ( )
1
8
-
@ -
- -
@ -
6

-
!7 !$ O RMS
V v d t v d t
π π
α
π π
α
ω ω
π
+
+
1
1
· +
1
¸ ]
∫ ∫
( )
1
-
-
6 -
6 6 cos
1 6
m O RMS
V V
π
α
π
1
¸ _
· +
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
THREE PHASE FULL CONVERTER
Three phase full converter is a fully controlled bridge controlled rectifier using si#
thyristors connected in the form of a full wave bridge configuration All the si# thyristors
are controlled switches which are turned on at a appropriate times by applying suitable
gate trigger signals
The three phase full converter is e#tensively used in industrial power applications
upto about 1-2=, output power level" where two $uadrant operation is re$uired The
figure shows a three phase full converter with highly inductive load This circuit is also
=nown as three phase full wave bridge or as a si# pulse converter
The thyristors are triggered at an interval of
6
π
¸ _
÷
¸ ,
radians (ie at an interval of
2
@2 ) The fre$uency of output ripple voltage is
@
S
f
and the filtering re$uirement is less
than that of three phase semi and half wave converters
1-1
At
@
t
π
ω α
¸ _
· +
÷
¸ ,
" thyristor
@
T
is already conducting when the thyristor
1
T
is
turned on by applying the gating signal to the gate of
1
T
4uring the time period
to
@ -
t
π π
ω α α
¸ _ ¸ _
· + +
÷ ÷
¸ , ¸ ,
" thyristors
1
T
and
@
T
conduct together and the line to line
supply voltage
!7
v
appears across the load
At
-
t
π
ω α
¸ _
· +
÷
¸ ,
" the thyristor
-
T
is triggered and
@
T
is reverse biased
immediately and
@
T
turns off due to natural commutation 4uring the time period
8
to
- @
t
π π
ω α α
¸ _ ¸ _
· + +
÷ ÷
¸ , ¸ ,
" thyristor
1
T
and
-
T
conduct together and the line to line
supply voltage
!$
v
appears across the load
The thyristors are numbered in the circuit diagram corresponding to the order in
which they are triggered The trigger se$uence (firing se$uence) of the thyristors is 1-"
-6" 61" 18" 8@" @1" 1-" -6" and so on The figure shows the waveforms of three phase input
supply voltages" output voltage" the thyristor current through
1
T
and
1
T
" the supply
current through the line &a'
,e define three line neutral voltages (6 phase voltages) as follows
sin A Ma# *hase 7oltage
RN !n m m
v v V t V ω · · ·
( )
2
-
sin sin 1-2
6
@N 7n m m
v v V t V t
π
ω ω
¸ _
· · − · −
÷
¸ ,
( ) ( )
2 2
-
sin sin 1-2 sin -12
6
>N $n m m m
v v V t V t V t
π
ω ω ω
¸ _
· · + · + ·· −
÷
¸ ,
,here
m
V
is the pea= phase voltage of a star (L) connected source
The corresponding line)to)line voltages are
( ) 6 sin
@
R@ !7 !n 7n m
v v v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · − · +
÷
¸ ,
( ) 6 sin
-
@> 7$ 7n $n m
v v v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · − · −
÷
¸ ,
( ) 6 sin
-
>R $! $n !n m
v v v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · − · +
÷
¸ ,
1-8
i
> 1
i
> -
i
> 6
i
> 1
i
> 8
i
> @
( 6 2 I )
2
α
@ 2
2
@ 2
2
@ 2
2
@ 2
2
@ 2
2
( 6 @ 2 I 6 2 I )
2 2
α
T
1
T
-
T
6
T
1
T
8
T
@
T
1
T
-
T
@
t
t
t
t
t
t
Gatin! (Cont+o$) Si!na$s o' ?-%&ase '($$ on*e+te+
1-@
TO /ERIVE AN E0PRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF
THREE PHASE FULL CONVERTER ,ITH HIGHLY IN/UCTIVE LOA/
ASSU1ING CONTINUOUS AN/ CONSTANT LOA/ CURRENT
The output load voltage consists of @ voltage pulses over a period of -π radians"
hence the average output voltage is calculated as
( )
-
@
@
A
-
d$ O O d$
V V v d t
π
α
π
α
ω
π
+
+
· ·

6 sin
@
O !7 m
v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · +
÷
¸ ,
-
@
6
6 sin
@
d$ m
V V t d t
π
α
π
α
π
ω ω
π
+
+
¸ _
· +
÷
¸ ,

6 6 6
cos cos
m mL
d$
V V
V α α
π π
· ·
,here
m5
7 6 Ma# line)to)line supply voltage
m
V · ·
The ma#imum average dc output voltage is obtained for a delay angle α ? 2"
( ) ma#
6 6 6
m mL
dm d$
V V
V V
π π
· · ·
The normali.ed average dc output voltage is
cos
d$
d$n n
dm
V
V V
V
α · · ·
The rms value of the output voltage is found from
( )
( )
1
-
-
-
@
@

-
O O %ms
V v d t
π
α
π
α
ω
π
+
+
1
1
·
1
1
¸ ]

1-C
( )
( )
1
-
-
-
@
@

-
!7 O %ms
V v d t
π
α
π
α
ω
π
+
+
1
1
·
1
1
¸ ]

( )
( )
1
-
-
- -
@
6
6 sin
- @
m O %ms
V V t d t
π
α
π
α
π
ω ω
π
+
+
1
¸ _ 1
· +
÷
1
¸ ,
1
¸ ]

( )
1
-
1 6 6
6 cos -
- 1
m O %ms
V V α
π
¸ _
· +
÷
÷
¸ ,
1-B
THREE PHASE DUAL CONVERTERS
!n many variable speed drives" the four $uadrant operation is generally re$uired
and three phase dual converters are e#tensively used in applications up to the -222 =,
level 0igure shows three phase dual converters where two three phase full converters are
connected bac= to bac= across a common load ,e have seen that due to the
instantaneous voltage differences between the output voltages of converters" a circulating
current flows through the converters The circulating current is normally limited by
circulating reactor"
%
L
The two converters are controlled in such a way that if
1
α
is the
delay angle of converter 1" the delay angle of converter - is ( )
- 1
α π α · −

The operation of a three phase dual converter is similar that of a single phase dual
converter system The main difference being that a three phase dual converter gives much
higher dc output voltage and higher dc output power than a single phase dual converter
system +ut the drawbac= is that the three phase dual converter is more e#pensive and the
design of control circuit is more comple#
The figure below shows the waveforms for the input supply voltages" output
voltages of converter1 and conveter- " and the voltage across current limiting reactor
(inductor)
%
L
The operation of each converter is identical to that of a three phase full
converter
4uring the interval
1
@
π
α
¸ _
+
÷
¸ ,
to
1
-
π
α
¸ _
+
÷
¸ ,
" the line to line voltage
!7
v
appears
across the output of converter 1 and
7$
v
appears across the output of converter -
,e define three line neutral voltages (6 phase voltages) as follows
sin A
RN !n m
v v V t ω · ·

Ma# *hase 7oltage
m
V ·
( )
2
-
sin sin 1-2
6
@N 7n m m
v v V t V t
π
ω ω
¸ _
· · − · −
÷
¸ ,
( )
2
-
sin sin 1-2
6
>N $n m m
v v V t V t
π
ω ω
¸ _
· · + · +
÷
¸ ,
( )
2
sin -12
m
V t ω · −
1-D
The corresponding line)to)line supply voltages are
( ) 6 sin
@
R@ !7 !n 7n m
v v v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · − · +
÷
¸ ,
( ) 6 sin
-
@> 7$ 7n $n m
v v v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · − · −
÷
¸ ,
( ) 6 sin
-
>R $! $n !n m
v v v v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· · − · +
÷
¸ ,
162
TO O4TAIN AN E0PRESSION FOR THE CIRCULATING CURRENT
!f
1 O
v
and
- O
v
are the output voltages of converters 1 and - respectively" the
instantaneous voltage across the current limiting inductor during the interval
1 1
@ -
t
π π
α ω α
¸ _ ¸ _
+ ≤ ≤ +
÷ ÷
¸ , ¸ ,
is
( ) ( )
1 - % O O !7 7$
v v v v v · + · −
6 sin sin
@ -
% m
v V t t
π π
ω ω
1
¸ _ ¸ _
· + − −
÷ ÷ 1
¸ , ¸ , ¸ ]
6 cos
@
% m
v V t
π
ω
¸ _
· −
÷
¸ ,
The circulating current can be calculated by using the e$uation
( ) ( )
1
@
1

t
% %
%
i t v d t
L
ω
π
α
ω
ω
+
·

( ) ( )
1
@
1
6 cos
@
t
% m
%
i t V t d t
L
ω
π
α
π
ω ω
ω
+
¸ _
· −
÷
¸ ,

( )
1
6
sin sin
@
m
%
%
V
i t t
L
π
ω α
ω
1
¸ _
· − −
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]
( ) ma#
6
m
%
%
V
i
L ω
·
? ma#imum value of the circulating current
There are two different modes of operation of a three phase dual converter system
• Circulating current free (non circulating) mode of operation
• Circulating current mode of operation
CIRCULATING CURRENT FREE (NON-CIRCULATING) 1O/E OF
OPERATION
!n this mode of operation only one converter is switched on at a time when the
converter number 1 is switched on and the gate signals are applied to the thyristors the
average output voltage and the average load current are controlled by ad%usting the trigger
angle α
1
and the gating signals of converter 1 thyristors
The load current flows in the downward direction giving a positive average load
current when the converter 1 is switched on 0or
2
1
D2 α < the converter 1 operates in the
rectification mode
d$
V
is positive"
d$
I
is positive and hence the average load power
d$
P
is
positive
161
The converter 1 converts the input ac supply and feeds a dc power to the load
*ower flows from the ac supply to the load during the rectification mode ,hen the
trigger angle
1
α
is increased above
2
D2 "
d$
V
becomes negative where as
d$
I
is positive
because the thyristors of converter 1 conduct in only one direction and reversal of load
current through thyristors of converter 1 is not possible
0or
2
1
D2 α > converter 1 operates in the inversion mode < the load energy is
supplied bac= to the ac supply The thyristors are switched)off when the load current
decreases to .ero < after a short delay time of about 12 to -2 milliseconds" the
converter - can be switched on by releasing the gate control signals to the thyristors of
converter -
,e obtain a reverse or negative load current when the converter - is switched (/
The average or dc output voltage and the average load current are controlled by ad%usting
the trigger angle
-
α
of the gate trigger pulses supplied to the thyristors of converter -
,hen
-
α

is less than
2
D2 2 converter - operates in the rectification mode and converts
the input ac supply in to dc output power which is fed to the load
,hen
-
α

is less than
2
D2 for converter -"
d$
V
is negative <
d$
I
is negative"
converter - operates as a controlled rectifier < power flows from the ac source to the load
circuit ,hen
-
α

is increased above D2
2
" the converter - operates in the inversion mode
with
d$
V

positive and
d$
I
negative and hence
d$
P
is negative" which means that power
flows from the load circuit to the input ac supply
The power flow from the load circuit to the input ac source is possible if the load
circuit has a dc source of appropriate polarity
,hen the load current falls to .ero the thyristors of converter - turn)off and the
converter - can be turned off
CIRCULATING CURRENT 1O/E OF OPERATION
+oth the converters are switched on at the same time in the mode of operation
(ne converter operates in the rectification mode while the other operates in the inversion
mode Trigger angles
1
α
<
-
α
are ad%usted such that ( )
2
1 -
1B2 α α + ·

,hen
2
1
D2 α < " converter 1 operates as a controlled rectifier ,hen
-
α
is made
greater than
2
D2 " converter - operates in the inversion mode
d$
V
"
d$
I
"
d$
P
are positive
,hen
2
-
D2 α < " converter - operates as a controlled rectifier ,hen
1
α
is made
greater than
2
D2 " converter 1 operates as an !nverter
d$
V
and
d$
I
are negative while
d$
P

is positive
16-
P+o7$e-s
1 A 6 phase fully controlled bridge rectifier is operating from a 122 7" 82 3.
supply The thyristors are fired at
1
π
α · There is a 0,4 across the load 0ind
the average output voltage for
2
18 α · and
2
C8 α ·
So$(tion
0or
2
18 α · "
6
cos
m
d$
V
V α
π
·
2
6 - 122
cos 18 6B- 7olts
d$
V
π
× ×
· ·
0or
2
C8 α · " ( )
2
@
1 cos @2
-
m
d$
V
V α
π
1
· + +
¸ ]
( )
2 2
@ - 122
1 cos @2 C8
-
d$
V
π
× ×
1
· + +
¸ ]
18B1 7olts
d$
V ·
- A @ pulse converter connected to 118 7 ac supply is controlling a 112 7 dc motor
0ind the angle at which the converter must be triggered so that the voltage drop in
the circuit is 12F of the motor rated voltage
So$(tion
I
I


1 1 2 7
1 1 7
R
a
5
a
6 p h a s e
0 u l l , a v e
R e c t i f i e r
A
+
C
1 B 1
7 ? 7
2
!
R
) Armature resistance of motor
!
L
) Armature !nductance
!f the voltage across the armature has to be the rated voltage ie" 112 7" then the
output voltage of the rectifier should be 112 I drop in the motor
That is 112 21 112 1B1 7olts + × ·
166
Therefore
6 cos
1B1
m
O
V
V
α
π
· ·
That is
6 - 118 cos
1B1
α
π
× × ×
·
Therefore
2
62-C α ·
6 A 6 phase half controlled bridge rectifier is feeding a R5 load !f input voltage is
122 sin611t and SCR is fired at
1
π
α · . 0ind average load voltage !f any one
supply line is disconnected what is the average load voltage
So$(tion
1
π
α · radians which is less than
6
π
Therefore [ ]
6
1 cos
-
m
d$
V
V α
π
· +
2
6 122
1 cos 18
-
d$
V
π
×
1 · +
¸ ]
6-@1B 7olts
d$
V ·
!f any one supply line is disconnected" the circuit behaves li=e a single phase half
controlled rectifies with R5 load
[ ]
1 cos
m
d$
V
V α
π
· +
2
122
1 cos 18
d$
V
π
1 · +
¸ ]
-1C18 7olts
d$
V ·
161
EDUSAT PROGRAMME
LECTURE NOTES
ON
POWER ELECTRONICS
BY
PROF. T.". ANANTHA "UMAR
DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG.
M.S. RAMAIAH INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
BANGALORE – 560 054
168
THYRISTOR COMMUTATION TECHNI#UES
INTRO/UCTION
!n practice it becomes necessary to turn off a conducting thyristor ((ften
thyristors are used as switches to turn on and off power to the load) The process of
turning off a conducting thyristor is called commutation The principle involved is that
either the anode should be made negative with respect to cathode (voltage commutation)
or the anode current should be reduced below the holding current value (current
commutation)
The reverse voltage must be maintained for a time at least e$ual to the turn)off
time of SCR otherwise a reapplication of a positive voltage will cause the thyristor to
conduct even without a gate signal (n similar lines the anode current should be held at a
value less than the holding current at least for a time e$ual to turn)off time otherwise the
SCR will start conducting if the current in the circuit increases beyond the holding current
level even without a gate signal Commutation circuits have been developed to hasten the
turn)off process of Thyristors The study of commutation techni$ues helps in
understanding the transient phenomena under switching conditions
The reverse voltage or the small anode current condition must be maintained for a
time at least e$ual to the T:R/ (00 time of SCRA (therwise the SCR may again start
conducting The techni$ues to turn off a SCR can be broadly classified as
• /atural Commutation
• 0orced Commutation
NATURAL CO11UTATION (CLASS F)
This type of commutation ta=es place when supply voltage is AC" because a
negative voltage will appear across the SCR in the negative half cycle of the supply
voltage and the SCR turns off by itself 3ence no special circuits are re$uired to turn off
the SCR That is the reason that this type of commutation is called /atural or 5ine
Commutation 0igure 11 shows the circuit where natural commutation ta=es place and
figure 1- shows the related waveforms
$
t
is the time offered by the circuit within which
the SCR should turn off completely Thus
$
t
should be greater than
'
t
" the turn off time
of the SCR (therwise" the SCR will become forward biased before it has turned off
completely and will start conducting even without a gate signal
J
T
I

v
o
v
s
R
↑ ↑
Fi!" @"@# Ci+(it 'o+ Nat(+a$ Co--(tation
16@
Fi!" @"A# Nat(+a$ Co--(tation B ,a*e'o+-s o' S(%%$3 and Load Vo$ta!es
(Resisti*e Load)
This type of commutation is applied in ac voltage controllers" phase controlled
rectifiers and cyclo converters
FORCE/ CO11UTATION
,hen supply is 4C" natural commutation is not possible because the polarity of
the supply remains unchanged 3ence special methods must be used to reduce the SCR
current below the holding value or to apply a negative voltage across the SCR for a time
interval greater than the turn off time of the SCR This techni$ue is called 0(RC94
C(MM:TAT!(/ and is applied in all circuits where the supply voltage is 4C ) namely"
Choppers (fi#ed 4C to variable 4C)" inverters (4C to AC) 0orced commutation
techni$ues are as followsG
• Self Commutation
• Resonant *ulse Commutation
• Complementary Commutation
• !mpulse Commutation
• 9#ternal *ulse Commutation
• 5oad Side Commutation
16C
ω t
ω t
ω t
ω t
S u p p l y v o l t a g e v
s
S i n u s o i d a l
7 o l t a g e a c r o s s S C R
5 o a d v o l t a g e v
o
T u r n o f f
o c c u r s h e r e
2
2
π
π
- π
- π
6 π
6 π
α
t
c
• 5ine Side Commutation
SELF CO11UTATION OR LOA/ CO11UTATION OR CLASS A
CO11UTATION# (CO11UTATION 4Y RESONATING THE LOA/)
!n this type of commutation the current through the SCR is reduced below the
holding current value by resonating the load ie" the load circuit is so designed that even
though the supply voltage is positive" an oscillating current tends to flow and when the
current through the SCR reaches .ero" the device turns off This is done by including an
inductance and a capacitor in series with the load and =eeping the circuit under)damped
0igure 16 shows the circuit
This type of commutation is used in Se%ies Inve%te% Ci%$"it.
7
R
5
7 ( 2 )
c
C
T
i
5 o a d
I #
Fi!" @"?# Ci+(it 'o+ Se$' Co--(tation
E0PRESSION FOR CURRENT
At 2 t · " when the SCR turns (/ on the application of gate pulse assume the
current in the circuit is .ero and the capacitor voltage is ( ) 2
C
V

,riting the 5aplace Transformation circuit of figure 16 the following circuit is
obtained when the SCR is conducting
7
S
R
s 5
1
C S
7 ( 2 )
S
C
C
T
! ( S )
I I # #
Fi!"# @"C"
16B
( )
( ) 2
1
C
S
V V
S
I S
R sL
C
− 1
¸ ]
·
+ +
( )
-
2
1
S C
C V V
S
RCs s LC
− 1
¸ ]
·
+ +
( )
-
2
1
C
C V V
R
LC s s
L LC
− 1
¸ ]
·
1
+ +
1
¸ ]
( )
-
2
1
C
V V
L
R
s s
L LC

·
+ +
( ) ( )
- -
-
2
1
- -
C
V V
L
R R R
s s
L LC L L

·
¸ _ ¸ _
+ + + −
÷ ÷
¸ , ¸ ,
( ) ( )
-
- -
2
1
- -
C
V V
L
R R
s
L LC L

·
1
¸ _ ¸ _
1 + + −
÷ ÷
¸ , ¸ , 1
¸ ]
( )
-
-
A
s δ ω
·
+ +
"
,here
( ) ( )
-
2
1
" "
- -
C
V V
R R
A
L L LC L
δ ω

¸ _
· · · −
÷
¸ ,
ω is called the natural fre$uency
( )
( )
-
-
A
I S
s
ω
ω
δ ω
·
+ +
16D
Ta=ing inverse 5aplace transforms
( ) sin
t
A
i t e t
δ
ω
ω

·
Therefore e#pression for current

( )
( )
-
2
sin
R
t
C
L
V V
i t e t
L
ω
ω


·
*ea= value of current
( ) ( )
2
C
V V
L ω

·
"#pression for voltage across capacitor at the ti$e of turn off
Applying H75 to figure 16
$ R L
v V v V · − −
$
di
v V iR L
dt
· − −
Substituting for i"
sin sin
t t
$
A d A
v V R e t L e t
dt
δ δ
ω ω
ω ω
− −
¸ _
· − −
÷
¸ ,
( )
sin cos sin
t t t
$
A A
v V R e t L e t e t
δ δ δ
ω ω ω δ ω
ω ω
− − −
· − − −
[ ]
sin cos sin
t
$
A
v V e R t L t L t
δ
ω ω ω δ ω
ω

· − + −
sin cos sin
-
t
$
A R
v V e R t L t L t
L
δ
ω ω ω ω
ω

1
· − + −
1
¸ ]
sin cos
-
t
$
A R
v V e t L t
δ
ω ω ω
ω

1
· − +
1
¸ ]
Substituting for A"
( )
( ) ( )
2
sin cos
-
C
t
$
V V
R
v t V e t L t
L
δ
ω ω ω
ω


1
· − +
1
¸ ]
( )
( ) ( )
2
sin cos
-
C
t
$
V V
R
v t V e t t
L
δ
ω ω ω
ω


1
· − +
1
¸ ]
112
SCR turns off when current goes to .ero ie" at
t ω π ·

Therefore at turn off
( ) ( )
( )
2
2 cos
C
$
V V
v V e
δπ
ω
ω π
ω


· − +
( ) 2
$ C
v V V V e
δπ
ω

· + − 1
¸ ]
Therefore
( )
-
2
R
L
$ C
v V V V e
π
ω

· + − 1
¸ ]
Note# 0or effective commutation the circuit should be under damped
That is
-
1
-
R
L LC
¸ _
<
÷
¸ ,
• ,ith R ? 2" and the capacitor initially uncharged that is ( ) 2 2
C
V ·
sin
V t
i
L LC ω
·

+ut
1
LC
ω ·
Therefore sin sin
V t C t
i LC V
L L LC LC
· ·
and capacitor voltage at turn off is e$ual to -7
• 0igure 18 shows the waveforms for the above conditions (nce the SCR turns off
voltage across it is negative voltage
• Conduction time of SCR
π
ω
·
111
C u r r e n t i
C a p a c i t o r v o l t a g e
> a t e p u l s e
7 o l t a g e a c r o s s S C R
2
π π ; -
ω t
ω t
ω t
ω t
7
− 7
- 7
C
V
L
Fi!" @"D# Se$' Co--(tation B ,a*e 'o+-s o' C(++ent and Ca%aito+s Vo$ta!e
Prole$ .!. / C!l$"l!te te $ond"$tion time of SCR !nd te pe!k SCR $"%%ent t!t flo#s
in te $i%$"it emplo(ing se%ies %eson!nt $omm"t!tion 8self $omm"t!tion o% $l!ss A
$omm"t!tion9, if te s"ppl( volt!ge is *++ V, C 0 1µF, L 0 - m. !nd R
L
0 1++ Ω.
Ass"me t!t te $i%$"it is initi!ll( %el!;ed.
7
? 6 2 2 7
R
5
5
1 0 µ 1 2 2 Ω
8 m 3
C
T
I −
Fi!" @"E"
11-
So$(tion#
-
1
-
L
R
LC L
ω
¸ _
· −
÷
¸ ,
-
6 @ 6
1 122
8 12 1 12 - 8 12
ω
− − −
¸ _
· −
÷
× × × × ×
¸ ,
12" 222 rad;sec ω ·
Since the circuit is initially rela#ed" initial voltage across capacitor is .ero as also
the initial current through 5 and the e#pression for current i is
sin
t
V
i e t
L
δ
ω
ω

· " where
-
R
L
δ · "
Therefore pea= value of
V
i
L ω
·
6
622
@
12222 8 12
i A

· ·
× ×
Conducting time of SCR 2611msec
12222
π π
ω
· · ·
Prole$ .!0 / Fig"%e 1.A so#s ! self $omm"t!ting $i%$"it. Te ind"$t!n$e $!%%ies !n
initi!l $"%%ent of )++ A !nd te initi!l volt!ge !$%oss te $!p!$ito% is V, te s"ppl(
volt!ge. 4ete%mine te $ond"$tion time of te SCR !nd te $!p!$ito% volt!ge !t t"%n off.
7
? 1 2 2 7
5
8 2 0 µ
1 2 3 µ
C
T
I

i ( t )
→ !
(
7
C
( 2 ) ? 7
Fi!" @"F"
116
So$(tion #
The transformed circuit of figure 1C is shown in figure 1B
s 5
7
S
7 ( 2 )
S
C
! 5
(
I
I
I



1
C S
! ( S )
? 7
Fi!"@"G# T+ans'o+-ed Ci+(it o' Fi!" @"F
The governing e$uation is
( )
( )
( )
2
1
C
O
V
V
I S sL I L I S
s s Cs
· − + +
Therefore ( )
( ) 2
1
C
O
V
V
I L
s s
I S
sL
Cs
− +
·
+
( )
( )
- -
2
1 1
C
O
V
V
Cs
s s
I LCs
I S
s LC s LC
1

1
¸ ]
· +
+ +
( )
( )
- -
2
1 1
C
O
V V C
I LCs
I S
LC s LC s
LC LC
− 1
¸ ]
· +
1 1
+ +
1 1
¸ ] ¸ ]
( )
( )
- - - -
2
C O
V V sI
I S
s L s ω ω

· +
+ 1 +
¸ ]
( )
( )
- - - -
2
C
O
V V
sI
I S
s L s
ω
ω ω ω
− 1
¸ ]
· +
+ 1 +
¸ ]
where
1
LC
ω ·
Ta=ing inverse 5T
( ) ( ) 2 sin cos
C O
C
i t V V t I t
L
ω ω · − + 1
¸ ]
111
The capacitor voltage is given by
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1
2
t
$ C
v t i t dt V
C
· +

( ) ( ) ( )
2
1
2 sin cos 2
t
$ C O C
C
v t V V t I t dt V
C L
ω ω
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
· − + + 1
' ;
¸ ]
¹ ¹
¹ ¹

( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1
cos sin 2
C
O
$ C
V V t t
I C
v t t t V
o o C L
ω ω
ω ω
1 −
· − + +
1
1
¸ ]
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1
1 cos sin 2
C
O
$ C
V V
I C
v t t t V
C L
ω ω
ω ω
1 −
· − + +
1
1
¸ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
sin 2 1 cos 2
O
$ C C
I C
v t LC t V V LC t V
C C L
ω ω · × + − − +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) sin cos 2 2 cos 2
$ O C C C
L
v t I t V V t V V t V
C
ω ω ω · + − − + +
( ) ( ) ( )
sin 2 cos
$ O C
L
v t I t V V t V
C
ω ω · − − +
!n this problem ( ) 2
C
V V ·
Therefore we get" ( ) cos
O
i t I t ω ·
and
( ) sin
$ O
L
v t I t V
C
ω · +
118
The waveforms are as shown in figure 1D
!
2
i ( t )
π ; -
π ; -
ω t
ω t
v
c
( t )
7
Fi!"# @"=
Turn off occurs at a time to so that
-
O
t
π
ω ·
Therefore
28
28
O
t LC
π
π
ω
· ·
@ @
28 12 12 82 12
O
t π
− −
· × × × ×
@
28 12 822 681 seconds
O
t π µ

· × × ·
and the capacitor voltage at turn off is given by
( ) sin
$ O O O
L
v t I t V
C
ω · +
( )
@
2
@
12 12
-22 sinD2 122
82 12
$ O
v t


×
· +
×
( )
681-
-22 211C sin 122
--6@
$ O
v t
¸ _
· × × +
÷
¸ ,
( ) BD1 122 1BD1
$ O
v t V · + ·
11@
Prole$ .!1/ In te $i%$"it so#n in fig"%e 1.1+. V 0 :++ volts, initi!l $!p!$ito% volt!ge
is /e%o, L 0 )+ µ., C 0 -+µF !nd te $"%%ent t%o"g te ind"$t!n$e !t te time of SCR
t%igge%ing is I
o
0 *-+ A. 4ete%mine 8!9 te pe!k v!l"es of $!p!$ito% volt!ge !nd $"%%ent
879 te $ond"$tion time of T
1
.
7
5
i ( t )
→ !
2
C
T
1
Fi!" @"@>
So$(tion#
(Refer to problem 1-)
The e#pression for ( ) i t
is given by
( ) ( ) 2 sin cos
C O
C
i t V V t I t
L
ω ω · − + 1
¸ ]
!t is given that the initial voltage across the capacitor" ( )
C
V O
is .ero
Therefore
( ) sin cos
O
C
i t V t I t
L
ω ω · +
( ) i t
can be written as
( ) ( )
- -
sin
O
C
i t I V t
L
ω α · + +
where
1
tan
O
L
I
C
V
α

·
and
1
LC
ω ·

The pea= capacitor current is
- -
O
C
I V
L
+
Substituting the values" the pea= capacitor current
11C
@
- -
@
82 12
682 @22 12111D
-2 12
A


×
· + × ·
×
The e#pression for capacitor voltage is
( ) ( ) ( )
sin 2 cos
$ O C
L
v t I t V V t V
C
ω ω · − − +
with
( ) ( ) 2 2" sin cos
C $ O
L
V v t I t V t V
C
ω ω · · − +
This can be rewritten as
( ) ( )
- -
sin
$ O
L
v t V I t V
C
ω β · + − +
,here 1
tan
O
C
V
L
I
β

·
The pea= value of capacitor voltage is
- -
O
L
V I V
C
· + +
Substituting the values" the pea= value of capacitor voltage
@
- -
@
-2 12
@22 682 @22
82 12


×
· + × +
×
@6D8 @22 1-6D8V · + ·
To a$($ate ond(tion ti-e o'
1
T
The waveform of capacitor current is shown in figure 111 ,hen the capacitor
current becomes .ero the SCR turns off
ω t
C a p a c i t o r
c u r r e n t
π − α
2
α
11B
Fi!" @"@@"
Therefore conduction time of SCR
π α
ω

·
1
tan
1
O
L
I
C
V
LC
π

¸ _
÷
÷

÷
÷
¸ ,
·
Substituting the values
1
tan
O
L
I
C
V
α

¸ _
÷
÷
·
÷
÷
¸ ,
@
1
@
682 -2 12
tan
@22 82 12
α



×
·
×
2
-2-8 ie" 26861 radians α ·
@ @
1 1
61@--B rad;sec
-2 12 82 12
LC
ω
− −
· · ·
× × ×
Therefore conduction time of SCR
26861
BB1C sec
61@--B
π
µ

· ·
RESONANT PULSE CO11UTATION (CLASS 4 CO11UTATION)
The circuit for resonant pulse commutation is shown in figure 11-
5
C
7
5 o a d
0 , 4
a
b
i
T
!
5
11D
Fi!" @"@A# Ci+(it 'o+ Resonant P($se Co--(tation
This is a type of commutation in which a 5C series circuit is connected across the
SCR Since the commutation circuit has negligible resistance it is always under)damped
ie" the current in 5C circuit tends to oscillate whenever the SCR is on
!nitially the SCR is off and the capacitor is charged to 7 volts with plate &a' being
positive Referring to figure 116 at
1
t t ·
the SCR is turned (/ by giving a gate pulse A
current
L
I
flows through the load and this is assumed to be constant At the same time
SCR short circuits the 5C combination which starts oscillating A current &i' starts
flowing in the direction shown in figure As &i' reaches its ma#imum value" the capacitor
voltage reduces to .ero and then the polarity of the capacitor voltage reverses &b' becomes
positive) ,hen &i' falls to .ero this reverse voltage becomes ma#imum" and then
direction of &i' reverses ie" through SCR the load current
L
I
and &i' flow in opposite
direction ,hen the instantaneous value of &i' becomes e$ual to
L
I
" the SCR current
becomes .ero and the SCR turns off /ow the capacitor starts charging and its voltage
reaches the supply voltage with plate a being positive The related waveforms are shown
in figure 116
> a t e p u l s e
o f S C R
C a p a c i t o r v o l t a g e
v
a b
π t
1
7
t
t
t
t
t
!
p
i
7 o l t a g e a c r o s s
S C R
!
5
t
C
∆ t
π
ω
!
S C R
Fi!" @"@?# Resonant P($se Co--(tation B Va+io(s ,a*e'o+-s
182
E0PRESSION FOR
$
t
2 THE CIRCUIT TURN OFF TI1E
Assume that at the time of turn off of the SCR the capacitor voltage
!7
v V ≈ −
and
load current
L
I
is constant
$
t
is the time ta=en for the capacitor voltage to reach 2 volts
from M 7 volts and is derived as follows
2
1
$
t
L
V I dt
C
·

L $
I t
V
C
·
seconds
$
L
VC
t
I
·
0or proper commutation
$
t
should be greater than
'
t
" the turn off time of T Also"
the magnitude of
p
I
" the pea= value of i should be greater than the load current
L
I
and
the e#pression for i is derived as follows
The 5C circuit during the commutation period is shown in figure 111
i
5
C
T
I

7
C
( 2 )
? 7
Fi!" @"@C"
The transformed circuit is shown in figure 118
! ( S )
s 5
T
1
C s
7
s
I

181
Fi!" @"@D"
( )
1
V
s
I S
sL
Cs
·
+
( )
-
1
V
Cs
s
I S
s LC
¸ _
÷
¸ ,
·
+
( )
-
1
VC
I S
LC s
LC
·
¸ _
+
÷
¸ ,
( )
-
1
1
V
I S
L
s
LC
· ×
+
( )
-
1
1
1
1
V
LC
I S
L
s
LC
LC
¸ _
÷
¸ ,
· × ×
¸ _
+
÷
¸ ,
( )
-
1
1
C
LC
I S V
L
s
LC
¸ _
÷
¸ ,
· ×
+
Ta=ing inverse 5T
( ) sin
C
i t V t
L
ω ·
,here
1
LC
ω ·
(r ( ) sin sin
p
V
i t t I t
L
ω ω
ω
· ·
Therefore amps
p
C
I V
L
· "
18-
E0PRESSION FOR CON/UCTION TI1E OF SCR
0or figure 116 (waveform of i)" the conduction time of SCR
t
π
ω
· + ∆
1
sin
L
p
I
I
π
ω ω

¸ _
÷
÷
¸ ,
· +
ALTERNATE CIRCUIT FOR RESONANT PULSE CO11UTATION
The wor=ing of the circuit can be e#plained as follows The capacitor C is
assumed to be charged to ( ) 2
C
V
with polarity as shown"
1
T
is conducting and the load
current
L
I
is a constant To turn off
1
T
"
-
T
is triggered 5" C"
1
T
and
-
T
forms a resonant
circuit A resonant current ( )
$
i t
flows in the direction shown" ie" in a direction opposite
to that of load current
L
I
"
( )
$
i t
?
sin
p
I t ω
(refer to the previous circuit description) ,here
( ) 2
p C
C
I V
L
·
< and the capacitor voltage is given by
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1

1
2 sin
2 cos
$ C
$ C
$ C
v t i t dt
C
C
v t V t dt
C L
v t V t
ω
ω
·
·
· −


"
7
5
(
A
4
0 , 4
5
T
1 !
5
T
6
T
-
i
C
( t )
i
C
( t )
7
C
( 2 )
a b
I

C
Fi!" @"@E# Resonant P($se Co--(tation B An A$te+nate Ci+(it
186
,hen ( )
$
i t
becomes e$ual to
L
I
(the load current)" the current through
1
T

becomes .ero and
1
T
turns off This happens at time
1
t
such that
1
sin
L p
t
I I
LC
·
( ) 2
p C
C
I V
L
·
( )
1
1
sin
2
L
C
I L
t LC
V C

¸ _
·
÷
÷
¸ ,
and the corresponding capacitor voltage is
( ) ( )
1 1 1
2 cos
$ C
v t V V t ω · − · −
(nce the thyristor
1
T
turns off" the capacitor starts charging towards the supply
voltage through
-
T
and load As the capacitor charges through the load capacitor current
is same as load current
L
I
" which is constant ,hen the capacitor voltage reaches 7" the
supply voltage" the 0,4 starts conducting and the energy stored in 5 charges C to a still
higher voltage The triggering of
6
T
reverses the polarity of the capacitor voltage and the
circuit is ready for another triggering of
1
T
The waveforms are shown in figure 11C
E0PRESSION FOR
$
t
Assuming a constant load current
L
I
which charges the capacitor
1
seconds
$
L
CV
t
I
·
/ormally ( )
1
2
C
V V ≈
0or reliable commutation
$
t
should be greater than
'
t
" the turn off time of SCR
1
T

!t is to be noted that
$
t
depends upon
L
I
and becomes smaller for higher values of load
current
181
t
t
t
C
t
1
7
1
7
7
C
( 2 )
C a p a c i t o r
v o l t a g e v
a b
C u r r e n t i
C
( t )
Fi!" @"@F# Resonant P($se Co--(tation B A$te+nate Ci+(it B Va+io(s ,a*e'o+-s
RESONANT PULSE CO11UTATION ,ITH ACCELERATING /IO/E
7
5
(
A
4
0 , 4
5 C
T
1
!
5
T
6
T
-
i
C
( t )
7
C
( 2 )
I #
4
-
i
C
( t )
Fi!" @"@F(a)
188
!
5
2
7
C
2
7
1
7 ( ( )
C
i
C
t
t
t
1
t
-
t
C
Fi!" @"@F(7)
A diode
-
4
is connected as shown in the figure 11C(a) to accelerate the
discharging of the capacitor &C' ,hen thyristor
-
T
is fired a resonant current ( )
C
i t

flows through the capacitor and thyristor
1
T
At time
1
t t ·
" the capacitor current ( )
C
i t

e$uals the load current
L
I
and hence current through
1
T
is reduced to .ero resulting in
turning off of
1
T
/ow the capacitor current ( )
C
i t
continues to flow through the diode
-
4

until it reduces to load current level
L
I
at time
-
t
Thus the presence of
-
4
has
accelerated the discharge of capacitor &C' /ow the capacitor gets charged through the
load and the charging current is constant (nce capacitor is fully charged
-
T
turns off by
itself +ut once current of thyristor
1
T
reduces to .ero the reverse voltage appearing across
1
T
is the forward voltage drop of
-
4
which is very small This ma=es the thyristor
recovery process very slow and it becomes necessary to provide longer reverse bias time
0rom figure 11C(b)
- 1
t LC t π · −
( ) ( )
- -
cos
C C
V t V O t ω · −
Circuit turn)off time
- 1 C
t t t · −
Prole$ .!2 / Te $i%$"it in fig"%e 1.1B so#s ! %eson!nt p"lse $omm"t!tion $i%$"it. Te
initi!l $!p!$ito% volt!ge
( )
-22
C O
V V ·
, C 0 *+µF !nd L 0 *µ.. 4ete%mine te $i%$"it
t"%n off time
$
t
, if te lo!d $"%%ent
L
I
is 8!9 )++ A !nd 879 -+ A.
18@
7
5
(
A
4
0 , 4
5 C
T
1
!
5
T
6
T
-
i
C
( t )
7
C
( 2 )
I

Fi!" @"@G"
So$(tion
(a) ,hen
-22
L
I A ·
5et
-
T
be triggered at 2 t ·
The capacitor current ( )
$
i t
reaches a value
L
I
at
1
t t ·
" when
1
T
turns off
( )
1
1
sin
2
L
C
I L
t LC
V C

¸ _
·
÷
÷
¸ ,
@
@ @ 1
1 @
-22 6 12
6 12 62 12 sin
-22 62 12
t

− − −

¸ _
×
· × × × ÷
÷
×
¸ ,
1
628 sec t µ ·

@ @
1 1
6 12 62 12
LC
ω
− −
· ·
× × ×
@
2128 12 ; sec %!d ω · ×
At
1
t t ·
" the magnitude of capacitor voltage is ( )
1 1
2 cos
C
V V t ω ·
That is
@ @
1
-22cos 2128 12 628 12 V

· × × ×
1
-22 2D1BC V · ×
1
1BDC8 7olts V ·
and
1
$
L
CV
t
I
·
18C
@
62 12 1BDC8
-B1@ sec
-22
$
t µ

× ×
· ·
(b) ,hen
82
L
I A ·
@
@ @ 1
1 @
82 6 12
6 12 62 12 sin
-22 62 12
t

− − −

¸ _
×
· × × × ÷
÷
×
¸ ,
1
2C1D sec t µ ·

@ @
1
-22cos 2128 12 2C1D 12 V

· × × ×
1
-22 1 -22 7olts V · × ·

1
$
L
CV
t
I
·
@
62 12 -22
1-2 sec
82
$
t µ

× ×
· ·
!t is observed that as load current increases the value of
$
t
reduces
Prole$ .!2a / Repe!t te !7ove p%o7lem fo%
-22
L
I A ·
, if !n !ntip!%!llel diode
-
4
is
$onne$ted !$%oss t(%isto%
1
T
!s so#n in fig"%e 1.1B!.
7
5
(
A
4
0 , 4
5 C
T
1
!
5
T
6
T
-
i
C
( t )
7
C
( 2 )
I
#
4
-
i
C
( t )
Fi!" @"@G(a)
18B
So$(tion
-22
L
I A ·
5et
-
T
be triggered at 2 t ·
Capacitor current ( )
C
i t
reaches the value
1 1
at " when turns off
L
I t t T ·
Therefore
( )
1
1
sin
L
C
I L
t LC
V O C

1
·
1
¸ ]
@
@ @ 1
1 @
-22 6 12
6 12 62 12 sin
-22 62 12
t

− − −

¸ _
×
· × × × ÷
÷
×
¸ ,
N
1
628 sec t µ ·

@ @
1 1
6 12 62 12
LC
ω
− −
· ·
× × ×
@
2128 12 radians;sec ω · ×
1
At t t ·
( ) ( )
1 1 1
cos
C C
V t V V O t ω · · −
( ) ( )
@ @
1
-22cos 2128 12 628 12
C
V t

· − × × ×
( )
1
1BDC8
C
V t V · −
( )
C
i t
flows through diode
-
4
after
1
T
turns off
( )
C
i t
current falls bac= to
-
at
L
I t
- 1
t LC t π · −
@ @ @
-
6 12 62 12 628 12 t π
− − −
· × × × − ×
-
-@C8 sec t µ ·

@ @
1 1
6 12 62 12
LC
ω
− −
· ·
× × ×
@
2128 12 rad;sec ω · ×
18D
-
At t t ·
( )
@ @
- -
-22cos 2128 12 -@C8 12
C
V t V
+ −
· · − × × ×
( )
- -
1BD2-
C
V t V V · ·
Therefore
@ @
- 1
-@C8 12 628 12
C
t t t
− −
· − · × − ×
-6C secs
C
t µ ·
Prole$ .!3/ Fo% te $i%$"it so#n in fig"%e 1.1C $!l$"l!te te v!l"e of L fo% p%ope%
$omm"t!tion of SCR. Also find te $ond"$tion time of SCR.
7
? 6 2 7
5
i
1 0 µ
R
5
!
5 6 2 Ω
Fi!" @"@="
So$(tion#
The load current
62
1 Amp
62
L
L
V
I
R
· · ·
0or proper SCR commutation
p
I
" the pea= value of resonant current i" should be
greater than
L
I
"
5et
-
p L
I I ·
" Therefore
- Amps
p
I ·

Also 1
p
V V C
I V
L L
L
LC
ω
· · ·
×
Therefore
@
1 12
- 62
L

×
· ×
Therefore 2D L m. ·
6 @
1 1
1@@@@ rad;sec
2D 12 1 12
LC
ω
− −
· · ·
× × ×
1@2
Conduction time of SCR ?
1
sin
L
p
I
I
π
ω ω

¸ _
÷
÷
¸ ,
+
1
1
sin
-
1@@@@ 1@@@@
π

¸ _
÷
¸ ,
· +
28-6
radians
1@@@@
π +
·
2222-- seconds ·
2-- msec ·
Prole$ .!4/ Fo% te $i%$"it so#n in fig"%e 1.)+ given t!t te lo!d $"%%ent to 7e
$omm"t!ted is 1+ A, t"%n off time %e'"i%ed is 1+µse$ !nd te s"ppl( volt!ge is 1++ V.
O7t!in te p%ope% v!l"es of $omm"t!ting elements.
7
? 1 2 2 7
5
i !
5
!
5
C
Fi!" @"A>"
So$(tion
p
I
pea= value of
C
i V
L
· and this should be greater than
L
I
5et
18
p L
I I ·

Therefore
( ) 18 12 122
C
!
L
× ·
Also" assuming that at the time of turn off the capacitor voltage is appro#imately
e$ual to 7" (and referring to waveform of capacitor voltage in figure 116) and the load
current linearly charges the capacitor
seconds
$
L
CV
t
I
·
and this
$
t
is given to be 12 µsec
Therefore
@
122
12 12
12
C

× · ×
1@1
Therefore
1 C F µ ·
Substituting this in e$uation (a)
@
1 12
18 12 122
L

×
× ·
1 @
- -
12 1 12
18 12
L

× ×
× ·
Therefore
1
1CCC 12 L .

· ×
21CC L m. ·
Prole$ .!5 / In ! %eson!nt $omm"t!tion $i%$"it s"ppl( volt!ge is )++ V. Lo!d $"%%ent is
1+ A !nd te devi$e t"%n off time is )+µs. Te %!tio of pe!k %eson!nt $"%%ent to lo!d
$"%%ent is 1.-. 4ete%mine te v!l"e of L !nd C of te $omm"t!tion $i%$"it.
So$(tion
>iven
18
p
L
I
I
·
Therefore
18 18 12 18
p L
I I A · · × ·

That is
( ) 18
p
C
I V A !
L
· ·
!t is given that the device turn off time is -2 µsec Therefore
$
t
" the circuit turn off
time should be greater than this"
5et
62 sec
$
t µ ·

And $
L
CV
t
I
·
Therefore
@
-22
62 12
12
C

×
× ·
Therefore
18 C F µ ·

Substituting in (a)
@
18 12
18 -22
L

×
·
1@-
@
- -
18 12
18 -22
L

×
· ×
Therefore 2-@@@ m3 L ·
CO1PLE1ENTARY CO11UTATION (CLASS C CO11UTATION2
PARALLEL CAPACITOR CO11UTATION)
!n complementary commutation the current can be transferred between two loads
Two SCRs are used and firing of one SCR turns off the other The circuit is shown in
figure 1-1
7
R
1
R
-
T
1
T
-
!
5
i
C
C
a b
Fi!" @"A@# Co-%$e-enta+3 Co--(tation
The wor=ing of the circuit can be e#plained as follows
!nitially both
1
T
and
-
T
are offA /ow"
1
T
is fired 5oad current
L
I
flows through
1
R
At the same time" the capacitor C gets charged to 7 volts through
-
R
and
1
T
(&b'
becomes positive with respect to &a') ,hen the capacitor gets fully charged" the capacitor
current
$
i
becomes .ero
To turn off
1
T
"
-
T
is firedA the voltage across C comes across
1
T
and reverse biases
it" hence
1
T
turns off At the same time" the load current flows through
-
R
and
-
T
The
capacitor &C' charges towards 7 through
1
R
and
-
T
and is finally charged to 7 volts with
&a' plate positive ,hen the capacitor is fully charged" the capacitor current becomes
.ero To turn off
-
T
"
1
T
is triggered" the capacitor voltage (with &a' positive) comes across
-
T
and
-
T
turns off The related waveforms are shown in figure 1--
E0PRESSION FOR CIRCUIT TURN OFF TI1E
$
t
0rom the waveforms of the voltages across
1
T
and capacitor" it is obvious that
$
t

is the time ta=en by the capacitor voltage to reach 2 volts from M 7 volts" the time
constant being RC and the final voltage reached by the capacitor being 7 volts The
e$uation for capacitor voltage ( )
$
v t
can be written as
1@6
( ) ( )
t
$ f i f
v t V V V e
τ −
· + −
,here
f
V
is the final voltage"
i
V
is the initial voltage and
τ
is the time constant
At
$
t t ·
" ( ) 2
$
v t ·
"
1
RC τ ·
"
f
V V ·
"
i
V V · −
"
Therefore
( )
1
2
$
t
R C
V V V e

· + − −
1
2 -
$
t
R C
V Ve

· −
Therefore
1
-
$
t
R C
V Ve

·
1
28
$
t
R C
e

·
Ta=ing natural logarithms on both sides
1
ln 28
$
t
RC

·
1
2@D6
$
t RC ·
This time should be greater than the turn off time
'
t
of
1
T

Similarly when
-
T
is commutated
-
2@D6
$
t R C ·
And this time should be greater than
'
t
of
-
T

:sually
1 -
R R R · ·
1@1
> a t e p u l s e
o f T
1
> a t e p u l s e
o f T
-
C u r r e n t t h r o u g h R
1
p
!
5
7
t
t
t
t
t
t
C u r r e n t t h r o u g h T
1
7 o l t a g e a c r o s s
c a p a c i t o r v
a b
7 o l t a g e a c r o s s T
1
C u r r e n t t h r o u g h T
-
t
C
t
C
t
C
7
# 7
-
-
V
R
-
1
V
R
V
R
1
V
R
-
-
1
V
R
V
R
1
Fi!" @"AA
1@8
Prole$ .!6 / In te $i%$"it so#n in fig"%e 1.)* te lo!d %esist!n$es
1 -
8 R R R · · · Ω

!nd te $!p!$it!n$e C 0 A.- µF, V 0 1++ volts. 4ete%mine te $i%$"it t"%n off time
$
t
.
7
R
1
R
-
T
1
T
-
C
Fi!" @"A?"
So$(tion
The circuit turn)off time
2@D6 RC seconds
$
t ·
@
2@D6 8 C8 12
$
t

· × × ×
-@ sec
$
t µ ·

Prole$ .!7/ C!l$"l!te te v!l"es of
L
R
!nd C to 7e "sed fo% $omm"t!ting te m!in SCR
in te $i%$"it so#n in fig"%e 1.)1. 3en it is $ond"$ting ! f"ll lo!d $"%%ent of )- A
flo#s. Te minim"m time fo% #i$ te SCR !s to 7e %eve%se 7i!sed fo% p%ope%
$omm"t!tion is 1+µse$. Also find
1
R
, given t!t te !";ili!%( SCR #ill "nde%go n!t"%!l
$omm"t!tion #en its fo%#!%d $"%%ent f!lls 7elo# te olding $"%%ent v!l"e of ) mA.
7
? 1 2 2 7
R
1
R
5
M a i n
S C R
A u # i l i a r y
S C R
i
C
C
!
5
i
1
Fi!" @"AC"
So$(tion
!n this circuit only the main SCR carries the load and the au#iliary SCR is used to
turn off the main SCR (nce the main SCR turns off the current through the au#iliary
SCR is the sum of the capacitor charging current
$
i
and the current
1
i
through
1
R
"
$
i

reduces to .ero after a time
$
t
and hence the au#iliary SCR turns off automatically after a
time
$
t
"
1
i
should be less than the holding current
1@@
>iven
-8
L
I A ·
That is
122
-8
L L
V
A
R R
· ·
Therefore
1
L
R · Ω
12 sec 2@D6
$ L
t R C µ · ·
That is
@
12 12 2@D6 1 C

× · × ×
Therefore
@
12 12
1 2@D6
C

×
·
×
1116 C F µ ·
1
1
V
i
R
·
should be less than the holding current of au#iliary SCR
Therefore
1
122
R
should be O -mA
Therefore
1 6
122
- 12
R

>
×
That is
1
82 R 6 > Ω
I1PULSE CO11UTATION (CLASS / CO11UTATION)
The circuit for impulse commutation is as shown in figure 1-8
7
5
(
A
4
0 , 4
C
T
1
T
6
!
5
T
-
7
C
( ( )
I

5
Fi!" @"AD# Ci+(it 'o+ I-%($se Co--(tation
1@C
The wor=ing of the circuit can be e#plained as follows !t is assumed that initially
the capacitor C is charged to a voltage ( )
C
V O
with polarity as shown 5et the thyristor
1
T

be conducting and carry a load current
L
I
!f the thyristor
1
T
is to be turned off"
-
T
is
fired The capacitor voltage comes across
1
T
"
1
T
is reverse biased and it turns off /ow
the capacitor starts charging through
-
T
and the load The capacitor voltage reaches 7
with top plate being positive +y this time the capacitor charging current (current through
-
T
) would have reduced to .ero and
-
T
automatically turns off /ow
1
T
and
-
T
are both
off +efore firing
1
T
again" the capacitor voltage should be reversed This is done by
turning on
6
T
" C discharges through
6
T
and 5 and the capacitor voltage reverses The
waveforms are shown in figure 1-@
> a t e p u l s e
o f T
-
> a t e p u l s e
o f T
6
7 o l t a g e a c r o s s T
1
C a p a c i t o r
v o l t a g e
> a t e p u l s e
o f T
1
7
S
t
t
t
t
C
7
C
7
C
Fi!" @"AE# I-%($se Co--(tation B ,a*e'o+-s o' Ca%aito+ Vo$ta!e2 Vo$ta!e a+oss
1
T
"
1@B
E0PRESSION FOR CIRCUIT TURN OFF TI1E (AVAILA4LE TURN OFF
TI1E)
$
t
$
t
depends on the load current
L
I
and is given by the e#pression
2
1
$
t
C L
V I dt
C
·

(assuming the load current to be constant)
L $
C
I t
V
C
·
seconds
C
$
L
V C
t
I
·
0or proper commutation
$
t
should be P
'
t
" turn off time of
1
T

Note#

1
T
is turned off by applying a negative voltage across its terminals 3ence this is
voltage commutation

$
t
depends on load current 0or higher load currents
$
t
is small This is a
disadvantage of this circuit
• ,hen
-
T
is fired" voltage across the load is
C
V V +
A hence the current through
load shoots up and then decays as the capacitor starts charging
AN ALTERNATIVE CIRCUIT FOR I1PULSE CO11UTATION
!s shown in figure 1-C
7
C
4
T
1
!
T 1
!
5
i
T
-
5
R
5
7
C
( ( )
I
Q
Fi!" @"AF# I-%($se Co--(tation B An A$te+nate Ci+(it
1@D
The wor=ing of the circuit can be e#plained as followsG
!nitially let the voltage across the capacitor be ( )
C
V O
with the top plate positive
/ow
1
T
is triggered 5oad current flows through
1
T
and load At the same time" C
discharges through
1
T
" 5 and 4 (the current is &i') and the voltage across C reverses ie"
the bottom plate becomes positive The diode 4 ensures that the bottom plate of the
capacitor remains positive
To turn off
1
T
"
-
T
is triggeredA the voltage across the capacitor comes across
1
T

1
T
is reverse biased and it turns off (voltage commutation) The capacitor now starts
charging through
-
T
and load ,hen it charges to 7 volts (with the top plate positive)" the
current through
-
T
becomes .ero and
-
T
automatically turns off
The related waveforms are shown in figure 1-B
> a t e p u l s e
o f T
1
> a t e p u l s e
o f T
-
C u r r e n t t h r o u g h S C R
5 o a d c u r r e n t
T h i s i s d u e t o i
7 o l t a g e a c r o s s T
1
C a p a c i t o r
v o l t a g e
t
t
t
t
t
t
C
t
C
7
C
!
5
!
5
7
!
T
1
− 7
7
R
5
- 7
R
5
Fi!" @"AG# I-%($se Co--(tation B (A$te+nate Ci+(it) B Va+io(s ,a*e'o+-s
1C2
Prole$ .!.8/ An imp"lse $omm"t!ted t(%isto% $i%$"it is so#n in fig"%e 1.)C.
4ete%mine te !v!il!7le t"%n off time of te $i%$"it if V 0 1++ V, R 0 1+ Ω !nd C 0 1+
µF. Volt!ge !$%oss $!p!$ito% 7efo%e
-
T
is fi%ed is V volts #it pol!%it( !s so#n.
C
T
1
T
-
7 ( 2 )
C
7
I
I
#
#
R
Fi!" @"A="
So$(tion
,hen
-
T
is triggered the circuit is as shown in figure 162
C
i ( t )
T
-
7
I
I
#
#
R
7 ( ( )
C
Fi!" @"?>"
,riting the transform circuit" we obtain
7
s
7 ( 2 )
s
C
I
I


! ( s )
1
C s
R
Fi!" @"?@"
1C1
,e have to obtain an e#pression for capacitor voltage !t is done as followsG
( )
( ) ( )
1
2
1
C
V V
s
I S
R
Cs
+
·
+
( )
( ) ( )
2
1
C
C V V
I S
RCs
+
·
+
( )
( ) ( )
2
1
C
V V
I S
R s
RC
+
·
¸ _
+
÷
¸ ,
7oltage across capacitor
( ) ( )
( ) 2
1
C
C
V
V s I s
Cs s
· −
( )
( ) ( ) 2 2
1
1
C C
C
V V V
V s
RCs s
s
RC
+
· −
¸ _
+
÷
¸ ,
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 2 2
1
C C C
C
V V V V V
V s
s s
s
RC
+ +
· − −
¸ _
+
÷
¸ ,
( )
( ) 2
1 1
C
C
V
V V
V s
s
s s
RC RC
· − −
+ +
( )
( )
( ) 1 2
t t
RC RC
$ C
v t V e V e
− −
· − −
!n the given problem ( ) 2
C
V V ·
Therefore ( )
( )
1 -
t
RC
$
v t V e

· −
The waveform of ( )
$
v t
is shown in figure 16-
1C-
t
t
C
7
7 ( 2 )
C
v ( t )
C
Fi!" @"?A"
At
$
t t ·
" ( ) 2
$
v t ·
Therefore
2 1 -
$
t
RC
V e

¸ _
· −
÷
¸ ,
1 -
$
t
RC
e

·
1
-
$
t
RC
e

·
Ta=ing natural logarithms
1
log
-
$
e
t
RC

¸ _
·
÷
¸ ,
( ) ln -
$
t RC ·
( )
@
12 12 12 ln -
$
t

· × ×
@D6 sec
$
t µ ·

Prole$ .!.. / In te $omm"t!tion $i%$"it so#n in fig"%e 1.**. C 0 )+ µF, te inp"t
volt!ge V v!%ies 7et#een 1B+ !nd ))+ V !nd te lo!d $"%%ent v!%ies 7et#een -+ !nd )++
A. 4ete%mine te minim"m !nd m!;im"m v!l"es of !v!il!7le t"%n off time
$
t
.
C
T
1
T
-
!
2
!
2
7 ( 2 ) ?
C
7
I

7
Fi!" @"??"
1C6
So$(tion
!t is given that 7 varies between 1B2 and --2 7 and
O
I
varies between 82 and
-22 A
The e#pression for available turn off time
$
t
is given by
$
O
CV
t
I
·
$
t
is ma#imum when 7 is ma#imum and
O
I
is minimum
Therefore
ma#
ma#
min
$
O
CV
t
I
·
@
ma#
--2
-2 12 BB sec
82
$
t µ

· × × ·
and
min
min
ma#
$
O
CV
t
I
·
@
min
1B2
-2 12 1B sec
-22
$
t µ

· × × ·
E0TERNAL PULSE CO11UTATION (CLASS E CO11UTATION)
7
S
7
A : R
5
C
T
1
T
6
T
-
R
5
- 7
A : R
I

Fi!" @"?C# E.te+na$ P($se Co--(tation
!n this type of commutation an additional source is re$uired to turn)off the
conducting thyristor 0igure 161 shows a circuit for e#ternal pulse commutation
S
V
is
the main voltage source and
A<D
V
is the au#iliary supply Assume thyristor
1
T
is
conducting and load
L
R
is connected across supply
S
V
,hen thyristor
6
T
is turned (/ at
2 t · "
A<D
V
"
6
T
" 5 and C from an oscillatory circuit Assuming capacitor is initially
uncharged" capacitor C is now charged to a voltage
-
A<D
V
with upper plate positive at
t LC π · ,hen current through
6
T
falls to .ero"
6
T
gets commutated To turn)off the
1C1
main thyristor
1
T
" thyristor
-
T
is turned (/ Then
1
T
is sub%ected to a reverse voltage
e$ual to
-
S A<D
V V −
This results in thyristor
1
T
being turned)off (nce
1
T
is off capacitor
&C' discharges through the load
L
R
LOA/ SI/E CO11UTATION
!n load side commutation the discharging and recharging of capacitor ta=es place
through the load 3ence to test the commutation circuit the load has to be connected
9#amples of load side commutation are Resonant *ulse Commutation and !mpulse
Commutation
LINE SI/E CO11UTATION
!n this type of commutation the discharging and recharging of capacitor ta=es
place through the supply
5
(
A
4
0 , 4
5
r
C
T
6
!
5
5
T
-
7
S
T
1
I
Q
I
Q
Fi!"# @"?D Line Side Co--(tation Ci+(it
0igure 168 shows line side commutation circuit Thyristor
-
T
is fired to charge
the capacitor &C' ,hen &C' charges to a voltage of -7"
-
T
is self commutated To
reverse the voltage of capacitor to )-7" thyristor
6
T
is fired and
6
T
commutates by itself
Assuming that
1
T
is conducting and carries a load current
L
I
thyristor
-
T
is fired to turn
off
1
T
The turning (/ of
-
T
will result in forward biasing the diode (0,4) and applying
a reverse voltage of -7 across
1
T
This turns off
1
T
" thus the discharging and recharging
of capacitor is done through the supply and the commutation circuit can be tested without
load
1C8
DC CHOPPERS
INTRO/UCTION
A chopper is a static device which is used to obtain a variable dc voltage from a
constant dc voltage source A chopper is also =nown as dc)to)dc converter The thyristor
converter offers greater efficiency" faster response" lower maintenance" smaller si.e and
smooth control Choppers are widely used in trolley cars" battery operated vehicles"
traction motor control" control of large number of dc motors" etcS They are also used in
regenerative bra=ing of dc motors to return energy bac= to supply and also as dc voltage
regulators
Choppers are of two types
• Step)down choppers
• Step)up choppers
!n step)down choppers" the output voltage will be less than the input voltage
whereas in step)up choppers output voltage will be more than the input voltage
PRINCIPLE OF STEP-/O,N CHOPPER
7
i
2
7
2
C h o p p e r
R
I

Fi!" A"@# Ste%-do)n C&o%%e+ )it& Resisti*e Load
0igure -1 shows a step)down chopper with resistive load The thyristor in the
circuit acts as a switch ,hen thyristor is (/" supply voltage appears across the load and
when thyristor is (00" the voltage across the load will be .ero The output voltage and
current waveforms are as shown in figure --
1C@
7
d c
v
2
7
7 ; R
i
2
!
d c
t
t
t
( /
T
t
( 0 0
Fi!" A"A# Ste%-do)n &o%%e+s H o(t%(t *o$ta!e and (++ent )a*e'o+-s
d$
V
? average value of output or load voltage
d$
I
? average value of output or load current
ON
t
? time interval for which SCR conducts
OFF
t
? time interval for which SCR is (00
ON OFF
T t t · +
? period of switching or chopping period
1
f
T
· · fre$uency of chopper switching or chopping fre$uency
Average output voltage
( ) -1
ON
d$
ON OFF
t
V V
t t
¸ _
·
÷
+
¸ ,
( ) --
ON
d$
t
V V V d
T
¸ _
· ·
÷
¸ ,
but ( ) duty cycle -6
ON
t
d
t
¸ _
· ·
÷
¸ ,
Average output current"
( ) -1
d$
d$
V
I
R
·
( ) -8
ON
d$
t V V
I d
R T R
¸ _
· ·
÷
¸ ,
1CC
RMS value of output voltage
-
2
1
ON
t
O o
V v dt
T
·

+ut during
"
ON o
t v V ·
Therefore RMS output voltage
-
2
1
ON
t
O
V V dt
T
·

( )
-
-@
ON
O ON
t V
V t V
T T
· ·
( ) -C
O
V d V ·
(utput power
O O O
P V I ·
+ut
O
O
V
I
R
·
Therefore output power
-
O
O
V
P
R
·
( )
-
-B
O
dV
P
R
·
9ffective input resistance of chopper
( ) -D
i
d$
V
R
I
·
( ) -12
i
R
R
d
·
The output voltage can be varied by varying the duty cycle
1ETHO/S OF CONTROL
The output dc voltage can be varied by the following methods
• *ulse width modulation control or constant fre$uency operation
• 7ariable fre$uency control
PULSE ,I/TH 1O/ULATION
!n pulse width modulation the pulse width ( )
ON
t
of the output waveform is varied
=eeping chopping fre$uency &f' and hence chopping period &T' constant Therefore output
voltage is varied by varying the (/ time"
ON
t
0igure -6 shows the output voltage
waveforms for different (/ times
1CB
7
2
7
7
7
2
t
t
t
( /
t
( /
t
( 0 0
t
( 0 0
T
Fi!" A"?# P($se ,idt& 1od($ation Cont+o$
VARIA4LE FREQUENCY CONTROL
!n this method of control" chopping fre$uency f is varied =eeping either
ON
t
or
OFF
t
constant This method is also =nown as fre$uency modulation
0igure -1 shows the output voltage waveforms for a constant
ON
t
and variable
chopping period T
!n fre$uency modulation to obtain full output voltage" range fre$uency has to be
varied over a wide range This method produces harmonics in the output and for large
OFF
t
load current may become discontinuous
v
2
7
7
v
2
t
t
t
( /
t
( /
T
T
t
( 0 0
t
( 0 0
Fi!" A"C# O(t%(t Vo$ta!e ,a*e'o+-s 'o+ Ti-e Ratio Cont+o$
1CD
STEP-/O,N CHOPPER ,ITH R-L LOA/
0igure -8 shows a step)down chopper with R)5 load and free wheeling diode
,hen chopper is (/" the supply is connected across the load Current flows from the
supply to the load ,hen chopper is (00" the load current
O
i
continues to flow in the
same direction through the free)wheeling diode due to the energy stored in the inductor 5
The load current can be continuous or discontinuous depending on the values of 5 and
duty cycle" d 0or a continuous current operation the load current is assumed to vary
between two limits
min
I
and
ma#
I

0igure -@ shows the output current and output voltage waveforms for a
continuous current and discontinuous current operation
7
i
2
7
2
C h o p p e r
R
5
0 , 4
9
I

Fi!" A"D# Ste% /o)n C&o%%e+ )it& R-L Load
( u t p u t
v o l t a g e
( u t p u t
c u r r e n t
v
2
7
i
2
!
m a #
!
m i n
t
t
t
( /
T
t
( 0 0
C o n t i n u o u s
c u r r e n t
( u t p u t
c u r r e n t
t
4 i s c o n t i n u o u s
c u r r e n t
i
2
Fi!" A"E# O(t%(t Vo$ta!e and Load C(++ent ,a*e'o+-s (Contin(o(s C(++ent)
1B2
,hen the current e#ceeds
ma#
I
the chopper is turned)off and it is turned)on when
current reduces to
min
I

E0PRESSIONS FOR LOA/ CURRENT
O
i
FOR CONTINUOUS CURRENT
OPERATION ,HEN CHOPPER IS ON ( ) 2
ON
t t ≤ ≤
7
i
2
7
2
R
5
9
I
#
Fi!" A"D (a)
7oltage e$uation for the circuit shown in figure -8(a) is
( ) -11
O
O
di
V i R L =
dt
· + +
Ta=ing 5aplace Transform
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 -1-
O O O
V =
RI S L S I S i
S S

1
· + − +
¸ ]
At 2 t · " initial current ( )
min
2
O
i I

·
( ) ( )
min
-16
O
I V =
I S
R R
S LS S
L L

· +
¸ _
+ +
÷
¸ ,
Ta=ing !nverse 5aplace Transform
( ) ( )
min
1 -11
R R
t t
L L
O
V =
i t e I e
R
¸ _ ¸ _
− −
÷ ÷
¸ , ¸ ,
1

· − +
1
1
¸ ]
This e#pression is valid for
2
ON
t t ≤ ≤
ie" during the period chopper is (/
At the instant the chopper is turned off" load current is
( )
ma# O ON
i t I ·
1B1
,&en C&o%%e+ is OFF ( ) 2
OFF
t t ≤ ≤
i
2
R
5
9
Fi!" A"D (7)
7oltage e$uation for the circuit shown in figure -8(b) is
( ) 2 -18
O
O
di
Ri L =
dt
· + +
Ta=ing 5aplace transform
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
O O O
=
RI S L SI S i
S

1
· + − +
¸ ]
Redefining time origin we have at 2 t · " initial current ( )
ma#
2
O
i I

·
Therefore
( )
ma#
O
I =
I S
R R
S LS S
L L
· −
¸ _
+ +
÷
¸ ,
Ta=ing !nverse 5aplace Transform
( ) ( )
ma#
1 -1@
R R
t t
L L
O
=
i t I e e
R
− − 1
· − −
1
¸ ]
The e#pression is valid for
2
OFF
t t ≤ ≤
" ie" during the period chopper is (00 At
the instant the chopper is turned (/ or at the end of the off period" the load current is
( )
min O OFF
i t I ·
1B-
TO FIN/
ma#
I
AN/
min
I
0rom e$uation (-11)"
At ( )
ma#
"
ON O
t t dT i t I · · ·
Therefore ( )
ma# min
1 -1C
dRT dRT
L L
V =
I e I e
R
− − 1 −
· − +
1
¸ ]
0rom e$uation (-1@)"
At ( )
min
"
OFF ON O
t t T t i t I · · − ·
( ) 1
OFF
t t d T · · −
Therefore
( ) ( )
( )
1 1
min ma#
1 -1B
d RT d RT
L L
=
I I e e
R
− −
− − 1
· − −
1
1
¸ ]
Substituting for
min
I
in e$uation (-1C) we get"
( )
ma#
1
-1D
1
dRT
L
RT
L
V e =
I
R R
e


1

1
· −
1

1
¸ ]
Substituting for
ma#
I
in e$uation (-1B) we get"
( )
min
1
--2
1
dRT
L
RT
L
V e =
I
R R
e
1

1
· −
1

1
¸ ]
( )
ma# min
I I −
is =nown as the steady state ripple
Therefore pea=)to)pea= ripple current
ma# min
I I I ∆ · −
Average output voltage
( ) --1
d$
V d V ·
Average output current
( )
( )
ma# min
---
-
d$ !pp%o;
I I
I
+
·
1B6
Assuming load current varies linearly from
min
I
to
ma#
I
instantaneous load current is
given by
( )
( )
min

2
O ON
I t
i I fo% t t dT
dT

· + ≤ ≤
( )
ma# min
min
--6
O
I I
i I t
dT
− ¸ _
· +
÷
¸ ,
RMS value of load current
( )
-
2
2
1
dT
O RMS
I i dt
dT
·

( )
( )
-
ma# min
min
2
1
dT
O RMS
I I t
I I dt
dT dT
− 1
· +
1
¸ ]

( )
( )
-
min ma# min - - ma# min
min
2
-
1
dT
O RMS
I I I t I I
I I t dt
dT dT dT
1
− −
¸ _
· + +
1
÷
¸ ,
1
¸ ]

RMS value of output current
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
-
-
ma# min -
min min ma# min
--1
6
O RMS
I I
I I I I I
1

· + + − 1
1
¸ ]
RMS chopper current
-
2
2
1
dT
C.
I i dt
T
·

-
ma# min
min
2
1
dT
C.
I I
I I t dt
T dT
− 1 ¸ _
· +
÷ 1
¸ , ¸ ]

( )
( )
1
-
-
ma# min -
min min ma# min
6
C.
I I
I d I I I I
1

· + + − 1
1
¸ ]
( )
( ) --8
C. O RMS
I d I ·
9ffective input resistance is
i
S
V
R
I
·
1B1
,here
S
I
? Average source current
S d$
I dI ·
Therefore
( ) --@
i
d$
V
R
dI
·
PRINCIPLE OF STEP-UP CHOPPER
I

7
(
7
C h o p p e r
C
5
(
A
4
4 5 !
I −
Fi!" A"@?# Ste%-(% C&o%%e+
0igure -16 shows a step)up chopper to obtain a load voltage
O
V
higher than the
input voltage V The values of L and C are chosen depending upon the re$uirement of
output voltage and current ,hen the chopper is ON, the inductor L is connected across
the supply The inductor current EIF rises and the inductor stores energy during the ON
time of the chopper"
ON
t
,hen the chopper is off" the inductor current I is forced to flow
through the diode 4 and load for a period"
OFF
t
The current tends to decrease resulting in
reversing the polarity of induced 9M0 in L Therefore voltage across load is given by
( ) " --C
O O
dI
V V L i e V V
dt
· + >
!f a large capacitor &C' is connected across the load then the capacitor will provide
a continuous output voltage
O
V
4iode 4 prevents any current flow from capacitor to the
source Step up choppers are used for regenerative bra=ing of dc motors
E0PRESSION FOR OUTPUT VOLTAGE
Assume the average inductor current to be I during ON and OFF time of Chopper
,&en C&o%%e+ is ON
7oltage across inductor L V ·
1B8
Therefore energy stored in inductor ? ( ) --B
ON
V I t
"
where
ON
t ON ·
period of chopper
,&en C&o%%e+ is OFF (energy is supplied by inductor to load)
7oltage across
O
L V V · −
9nergy supplied by inductor ( )
O OFF
L V V It · −
" where
OFF
t OFF ·
period of
Chopper
/eglecting losses" energy stored in inductor L ? energy supplied by inductor 5
Therefore ( )
ON O OFF
VIt V V It · −
[ ]
ON OFF
O
OFF
V t t
V
t
+
·
O
ON
T
V V
T t
¸ _
·
÷

¸ ,
,here T ? Chopping period or period of switching
ON OFF
T t t · +
1
1
O
ON
V V
t
T
¸ _
÷
·
÷
÷

¸ ,
Therefore ( )
1
--D
1
O
V V
d
¸ _
·
÷

¸ ,
,here duty cyle
ON
t
d
T
· ·
0or variation of duty cycle &d' in the range of 2 1 d < < the output voltage
O
V
will vary
in the range
O
V V < < ∞

PERFOR1ANCE PARA1ETERS
The thyristor re$uires a certain minimum time to turn ON and turn OFF 3ence
duty cycle d can be varied only between a minimum and a ma#imum value" limiting the
minimum and ma#imum value of the output voltage Ripple in the load current depends
inversely on the chopping fre$uency" f Therefore to reduce the load ripple current"
fre$uency should be as high as possible
1B@
CLASSIFICATION OF CHOPPERS
Choppers are classified as follows
• Class A Chopper
• Class + Chopper
• Class C Chopper
• Class 4 Chopper
• Class 9 Chopper
CLASS A CHOPPER
7
C h o p p e r
0 , 4
I

v
2
v
2
i
2
i
2
5
(
A
4
7
Fi!" A"@C# C$ass A C&o%%e+ and
O O
v i −
C&a+ate+isti
0igure -11 shows a Cl!ss A Coppe% circuit with inductive load and free)
wheeling diode ,hen chopper is ON, supply voltage V is connected across the load ie"
O
v V · and current i
2
flows as shown in figure ,hen chopper is (00" v
2
? 2 and the
load current
O
i
continues to flow in the same direction through the free wheeling diode
Therefore the average values of output voltage and current ie"
O
v
and
O
i
are always
positive 3ence" Cl!ss A Coppe% is a first $uadrant chopper (or single $uadrant chopper)
0igure -18 shows output voltage and current waveforms for a continuous load current
1BC
( u t p u t c u r r e n t
T h y r i s t o r
g a t e p u l s e
( u t p u t v o l t a g e
i
g
i
2
v
2
t
t
t
t
( /
T
C 3 ( /
0 , 4 C o n d u c t s
Fi!" A"@D# Fi+st 5(ad+ant C&o%%e+ - O(t%(t Vo$ta!e and C(++ent ,a*e'o+-s
Cl!ss A Coppe% is a step)down chopper in which power always flows from
source to load !t is used to control the speed of dc motor The output current e$uations
obtained in step down chopper with R&L load can be used to study the performance of
Cl!ss A Coppe%.
CLASS 4 CHOPPER
7
C h o p p e r
I

v
2
v
2
− i
2
i
2
5
9
R
4
Fi!" A"@E# C$ass 4 C&o%%e+
0ig -1@ shows a Cl!ss > Coppe% circuit ,hen chopper is (/"
2
O
v ·
and =
drives a current
O
i
through L and R in a direction opposite to that shown in figure -1@
4uring the (/ period of the chopper" the inductance L stores energy ,hen Chopper is
(00" diode 4 conducts"
O
v V ·
and part of the energy stored in inductor L is returned to
the supply Also the current
O
i
continues to flow from the load to source 3ence the
average output voltage is positive and average output current is negative Therefore Cl!ss
1BB
> Coppe% operates in second $uadrant !n this chopper" power flows from load to source
Cl!ss > Coppe% is used for regenerative bra=ing of dc motor 0igure -1C shows the
output voltage and current waveforms of a Cl!ss > Coppe%.
The output current e$uations can be obtained as follows 4uring the interval diode
&4' conducts (chopper is off) voltage e$uation is given by
7
i
2
7
2
R
5
9
I
#
4
C o n d u c t i n g
O
O
Ldi
V Ri =
dt
· + +
0or the initial condition ie" ( )
min O
i t I ·
at 2 t ·
The solution of the above e$uation is obtained along similar lines as in step)down
chopper with R)5 load
Therefore ( )
min
1 2
R R
t t
L L
O OFF
V =
i t e I e t t
R
− − ¸ _ −
· − + < <
÷
¸ ,

At
OFF
t t ·
( )
( )
ma# O
i t I ·
ma# min
1
OFF OFF
R R
t t
L L
V =
I e I e
R
− − ¸ _ −
· − +
÷
¸ ,
4uring the interval chopper is (/ voltage e$uation is given by
i
2
7
2
R
5
9
I
#
C h o p p e r
( /
2
O
O
Ldi
Ri =
dt
· + +
1BD
Redefining the time origin" at 2 t · ( )
ma# O
i t I ·

The solution for the stated initial condition is
( )
ma#
1 2
R R
t t
L L
O ON
=
i t I e e t t
R
− − ¸ _
· − − < <
÷
¸ ,
At ( )
min ON O
t t i t I · ·
Therefore
min ma#
1
ON ON
R R
t t
L L
=
I I e e
R
− − ¸ _
· − −
÷
¸ ,
( u t p u t c u r r e n t
4
c o n d u c t s
C h o p p e r
c o n d u c t s
T h y r i s t o r
g a t e p u l s e
( u t p u t v o l t a g e
i
g
i
2
v
2
t
t
t
!
m i n
!
m a #
T
t
( /
t
( 0 0
Fi!" A"@F# C$ass 4 C&o%%e+ - O(t%(t Vo$ta!e and C(++ent ,a*e'o+-s
CLASS C CHOPPER
Cl!ss C Coppe% is a combination of Cl!ss A and Cl!ss > Coppe%s 0igure -1B
shows a Cl!ss C two $uadrant Chopper circuit 0or first $uadrant operation"
1
C.
is (/
or
-
4
conducts and for second $uadrant operation"
-
C.
is (/ or
1
4
conducts ,hen
1
C.
is (/" the load current
O
i
is positive ie"
O
i
flows in the direction as shown in
figure -1B
The output voltage is e$ual to ( )
O
V v V ·
and the load receives power from the
source
1D2
7
C h o p p e r
I

v
2
4
1
4
-
C 3
-
C 3
1
v
2
i
2
i
2
5
9
R
Fi!" A"@G# C$ass C C&o%%e+
,hen
1
C.
is turned (00" energy stored in inductance 5 forces current to flow
through the diode
-
4
and the output voltage
2
O
v ·
" but
O
i
continues to flow in positive
direction ,hen
-
C.
is triggered" the voltage 9 forces
O
i
to flow in opposite direction
through 5 and
-
C.
The output voltage
2
O
v ·
(n turning (00
-
C.
" the energy stored
in the inductance drives current through diode
1
4
and the supplyA output voltage
O
v V ·

the input current becomes negative and power flows from load to source
Thus the average output voltage
O
v
is positive but the average output current
O
i
can ta=e both positive and negative values Choppers
1
C.
and
-
C.
should not be turned
(/ simultaneously as it would result in short circuiting the supply Cl!ss C Coppe% can
be used both for dc motor control and regenerative bra=ing of dc motor 0igure -1D
shows the output voltage and current waveforms
> a t e p u l s e
o f C 3
-
> a t e p u l s e
o f C 3
1
( u t p u t c u r r e n t
( u t p u t v o l t a g e
i
g 1
i
g -
i
2
7
2
t
t
t
t
4
1
4
1
4
-
4
-
C 3
1
C 3
-
C 3
1
C 3
-
( / ( / ( / ( /
Fi!" A"@=# C$ass C C&o%%e+ - O(t%(t Vo$ta!e and C(++ent ,a*e'o+-s
1D1
CLASS / CHOPPER
7
I
− v
2
4
-
4
1
C 3
-
C 3
1
v
2
i
2
5 9
R i
2
Fi!" A"A># C$ass / C&o%%e+
0igure --2 shows a class 4 two $uadrant chopper circuit ,hen both
1
C.
and
-
C.
are triggered simultaneously" the output voltage
O
v V ·
and output current
O
i
flows
through the load in the direction shown in figure --2 ,hen
1
C.
and
-
C.
are turned
(00" the load current
O
i
continues to flow in the same direction through load"
1
4
and
-
4
"
due to the energy stored in the inductor 5" but output voltage
O
v V · −
The average load
voltage
O
v
is positive if chopper (/)time ( )
ON
t
is more than their (00)time ( )
OFF
t
and
average output voltage becomes negative if
ON OFF
t t <
3ence the direction of load current
is always positive but load voltage can be positive or negative ,aveforms are shown in
figures --1 and ---
> a t e p u l s e
o f C 3
-
> a t e p u l s e
o f C 3
1
( u t p u t c u r r e n t
( u t p u t v o l t a g e
A v e r a g e v
2
i
g 1
i
g -
i
2
v
2
7
t
t
t
t
C 3 " C 3
( /
1 -
4 1 " 4 - C o n d u c t i n g
Fi!" A"A@# O(t%(t Vo$ta!e and C(++ent ,a*e'o+-s 'o+
ON OFF
t t >
1D-
> a t e p u l s e
o f C 3
-
> a t e p u l s e
o f C 3
1
( u t p u t c u r r e n t
( u t p u t v o l t a g e
A v e r a g e v
2
i
g 1
i
g -
i
2
v
2
7
t
t
t
t
C 3
C 3
1
-
4 " 4
1 -
Fi!" A"AA# O(t%(t Vo$ta!e and C(++ent ,a*e'o+-s 'o+
ON OFF
t t <
CLASS E CHOPPER
7
v
2
i
2
5
9
R
C 3
-
C 3
1
4
-
4
1
4
1
4
6
C 3
1
C 3
6
I −
Fi!" A"A?# C$ass E C&o%%e+
1D6
v
2
i
2
C 3 ) C 3 ( /
C 3 ) 4 C o n d u c t s
1 1
1 -
4 4
- 6
) C o n d u c t s
C 3 ) 4 C o n d u c t s
1 -
C 3 ) C 3 ( /
C 3 ) 4 C o n d u c t s
6 -
- 1
C 3 ) 4 C o n d u c t s
4 ) 4 C o n d u c t s
- 1
1 1
Fi!" A"A?(a)# Fo(+ Q(ad+ant O%e+ation
0igure --6 shows a class 9 1 $uadrant chopper circuit ,hen
1
C.
and
1
C.
are
triggered" output current
O
i
flows in positive direction as shown in figure --6 through
1
C.
and
1
C.
" with output voltage
O
v V ·
This gives the first $uadrant operation ,hen
both
1
C.
and
1
C.
are (00" the energy stored in the inductor 5 drives
O
i
through
6
4

and
-
4
in the same direction" but output voltage
O
v V · −
Therefore the chopper
operates in the fourth $uadrant 0or fourth $uadrant operation the direction of battery
must be reversed ,hen
-
C.
and
6
C.
are triggered" the load current
O
i
flows in
opposite direction and output voltage
O
v V · −

Since both
O
i
and
O
v
are negative" the chopper operates in third $uadrant ,hen
both
-
C.
and
6
C.
are (00" the load current
O
i
continues to flow in the same direction
through
1
4
and
1
4
and the output voltage
O
v V ·
Therefore the chopper operates in
second $uadrant as
O
v
is positive but
O
i
is negative 0igure --6(a) shows the devices
which are operative in different $uadrants
EFFECT OF SOURCE AN/ LOA/ IN/UCTANCE
!n choppers" the source inductance should be as small as possible to limit the
transient voltage :sually an input filter is used to overcome the problem of source
inductance Also source inductance may cause commutation problem for the chopper
The load ripple current is inversely proportional to load inductance and chopping
fre$uency Therefore the pea= load current depends on load inductance To limit the load
ripple current" a smoothing inductor is connected in series with the load
P%o7lem ).1 5 Fo% te fi%st '"!d%!nt $oppe% so#n in fig"%e ).)1, e;p%ess te follo#ing
v!%i!7les !s f"n$tions of V, R !nd d"t( $($le EdF in $!se lo!d is %esistive.
• Ave%!ge o"tp"t volt!ge !nd $"%%ent
• O"tp"t $"%%ent !t te inst!nt of $omm"t!tion
• Ave%!ge !nd %ms f%ee #eeling diode $"%%ent.
• RMS v!l"e of o"tp"t volt!ge
• RMS !nd !ve%!ge t(%isto% $"%%ents.
1D1
7
i
2
v
2
C h o p p e r
0 , 4
I

5
(
A
4
Fi!" E"AC"
So$(tion
• Average output voltage2
ON
d$
t
V V dV
T
¸ _
· ·
÷
¸ ,
Average output current"
d$
d$
V dV
I
R R
· ·
• The thyristor is commutated at the instant
ON
t t ·

Therefore output current at the instant of commutation is
V
R
" since 7 is the output
voltage at that instant
• 0ree wheeling diode (0,4) will never conduct in a resistive load Therefore
average and RMS free wheeling diode currents are .ero
• RMS value of output voltage
( )
-
2
2
1
ON
t
O RMS
V v dt
T
·

+ut
O
v V ·
during
ON
t
( )
-
2
1
ON
t
O RMS
V V dt
T
·

( )
- ON
O RMS
t
V V
T
¸ _
·
÷
¸ ,
( ) O RMS
V dV ·
,here duty cycle"
ON
t
d
T
·
1D8
• RMS value of thyristor current
? RMS value of load current
( ) O RMS
V
R
·
dV
R
·
Average value of thyristor current
? Average value of load current
dV
R
·
P%o7lem ).) 5 A Coppe% $i%$"it is ope%!ting on TRC !t ! f%e'"en$( of ) k./ on ! 1:+ V
s"ppl(. If te lo!d volt!ge is *-+ volts, $!l$"l!te te $ond"$tion pe%iod of te t(%isto% in
e!$ $($le.
So$(tion
7 ? 1@2 7"
d$
V
? 682 7" f ? - =3.
Chopping period
1
T
f
·
6
1
28 sec
- 12
T m

· ·
×
(utput voltage
ON
d$
t
V V
T
¸ _
·
÷
¸ ,
Conduction period of thyristor
d$
ON
T V
t
V
×
·
6
28 12 682
1@2
ON
t

× ×
·
26B msec
ON
t ·
P%o7lem ).* 5 Inp"t to te step "p $oppe% is )++ V. Te o"tp"t %e'"i%ed is :++ V. If te
$ond"$ting time of t(%isto% is )++ µsse$. Comp"te
• Copping f%e'"en$(,
• If te p"lse #idt is !lved fo% $onst!nt f%e'"en$( of ope%!tion, find te ne#
o"tp"t volt!ge.
1D@
So$(tion
7 ? -22 7"
-22
ON
t s µ ·
"
@22
d$
V V ·
d$
ON
T
V V
T t
¸ _
·
÷

¸ ,
@
@22 -22
-22 12
T
T

¸ _
·
÷
− ×
¸ ,
Solving for T
622 T s µ ·
• Chopping fre$uency
1
f
T
·
@
1
666
622 12
f 6./

· ·
×
• *ulse width is halved
Therefore
@
-22 12
122
-
ON
t s µ

×
· ·
0re$uency is constant
Therefore
666 f 6./ ·
1
622 T s
f
µ · ·
Therefore output voltage ?
ON
T
V
T t
¸ _
÷

¸ ,

( )
@
@
622 12
-22 622 7olts
622 122 12


¸ _
×
· ·
÷
÷

¸ ,
P%o7lem ).15 A d$ $oppe% !s ! %esistive lo!d of -2Ω !nd inp"t volt!ge
--2
S
V V ·
.
3en $oppe% is ON, its volt!ge d%op is 1.- volts !nd $opping f%e'"en$( is 1+ k./. If
te d"t( $($le is B+G, dete%mine te !ve%!ge o"tp"t volt!ge !nd te $oppe% on time.
1DC
So$(tion
--2
S
V V ·
" -2 R · Ω" f ? 12 =3.
2B2
ON
t
d
T
· ·
$
V
? 7oltage drop across chopper ? 18 volts
Average output voltage
( )
ON
d$ S $
t
V V V
T
¸ _
· −
÷
¸ ,
( ) 2B2 --2 18 1C1B 7olts
d$
V · − ·
Chopper (/ time"
ON
t dT ·
Chopping period"
1
T
f
·
6
6
1
21 12 secs 122 Tsecs
12 12
T

· · × ·
×
Chopper (/ time"
ON
t dT ·
6
2B2 21 12
ON
t

· × ×
6
22B 12 B2 Tsecs
ON
t

· × ·
P%o7lem ).-5 In ! d$ $oppe%, te !ve%!ge lo!d $"%%ent is *+ Amps, $opping f%e'"en$(
is )-+ ./. S"ppl( volt!ge is 11+ volts. C!l$"l!te te ON !nd OFF pe%iods of te $oppe%
if te lo!d %esist!n$e is ) oms.
So$(tion
62 Amps
d$
I ·
, f ? -82 3." 7 ? 112 7" - R · Ω
Chopping period"
6
1 1
1 12 1 msecs
-82
T
f

· · · × ·
d$
d$
V
I
R
· and
d$
V dV ·
Therefore
d$
dV
I
R
·
1DB
62 -
2818
112
d$
I R
d
V
×
· · ·
Chopper (/ period"
6
2818 1 12 -1B msecs
ON
t dT

· · × × ·
Chopper (00 period"
OFF ON
t T t · −
6 6
1 12 -1B 12
OFF
t
− −
· × − ×
6
1B- 12 1B- msec
OFF
t

· × ·
P%o7lem ).:5 A d$ $oppe% in fig"%e ).)- !s ! %esistive lo!d of 12 R · Ω !nd inp"t
volt!ge of V 0 )++ V. 3en $oppe% is ON, its volt!ge d%op is ) V !nd te $opping
f%e'"en$( is 1 k./. If te d"t( $($le is :+G, dete%mine
• Ave%!ge o"tp"t volt!ge
• RMS v!l"e of o"tp"t volt!ge
• =ffe$tive inp"t %esist!n$e of $oppe%
• Coppe% effi$ien$(.
7
i
2
C h o p p e r
I

R
v
2
Fi!" A"AD
So$(tion
7 ? -22 7" 12 R · Ω, Chopper voltage drop"
-
$
V V ·
, d ? 2@2" f ? 1 =3.
• Average output voltage
( )
d$ $
V d V V · −
[ ]
2@2 -22 - 11BB 7olts
d$
V · − ·
• RMS value of output voltage
( )
O $
V d V V · −
( ) 2@ -22 - 1866C 7olts
O
V · − ·
1DD
• 9ffective input resistance of chopper is
i
S d$
V V
R
I I
· ·
11BB
11BB Amps
12
d$
d$
V
I
R
· · ·
-22
1@B6
11BB
i
S d$
V V
R
I I
· · · · Ω
• (utput power is
-
2
2
1
dT
O
v
P dt
T R
·

( )
-
2
1
dT
$
O
V V
P dt
T R

·

( )
-
$
O
d V V
P
R

·
[ ]
-
2@ -22 -
-68--1 watts
12
O
P

· ·
• !nput power"
2
1
dT
i O
P Vi dt
T
·

( )
2
1
dT
$
O
V V V
P dt
T R

·

( ) [ ]
2@ -22 -22 -
-6C@ watts
12
$
O
dV V V
P
R
× − −
· · ·
• Chopper efficiency"
122
O
i
P
P
η · ×
-68--1
122 DDF
-6C@
η · × ·
P%o7lem ).A5 A $oppe% is s"ppl(ing !n ind"$tive lo!d #it ! f%ee&#eeling diode. Te
lo!d ind"$t!n$e is - . !nd %esist!n$e is 1+Ω. Te inp"t volt!ge to te $oppe% is )++
-22
volts !nd te $oppe% is ope%!ting !t ! f%e'"en$( of 1+++ ./. If te ONHOFF time %!tio is
)5*. C!l$"l!te
• M!;im"m !nd minim"m v!l"es of lo!d $"%%ent in one $($le of $oppe% ope%!tion.
• Ave%!ge lo!d $"%%ent
So$(tion#
5 ? 8 3" R ? 12 Ω" f ? 1222 3." 7 ? -22 7"
G -G 6
ON OFF
t t ·
Chopping period"
1 1
1 msecs
1222
T
f
· · ·
-
6
ON
OFF
t
t
·
-
6
ON OFF
t t ·
ON OFF
T t t · +
-
6
OFF OFF
T t t · +
8
6
OFF
T t ·
6
8
OFF
t T ·
6
6
1 12 2@ msec
8
T

· × × ·
ON OFF
t T t · −
( )
6
1 2@ 12 21 msec
ON
t

· − × ·
4uty cycle"
6
6
21 12
21
1 12
ON
t
d
T


×
· · ·
×
• Refer e$uations (-1D) and (--2) for e#pressions of
ma#
I
and
min
I

Ma#imum value of load current Ue$uation (-1D)V is
ma#
1
1
dRT
L
RT
L
V e =
I
R R
e


1

1
· −
1

1
¸ ]
-21
Since there is no voltage source in the load circuit" 9 ? 2
Therefore
ma#
1
1
dRT
L
RT
L
V e
I
R
e


1

1
·
1

1
¸ ]
6
6
21 12 1 12
8
ma#
12 1 12
8
-22 1
12
1
e
I
e


× × ×

× ×

1

1
·
1
1

¸ ]
6
6
2B 12
ma#
- 12
1
-2
1
e
I
e


− ×
− ×
1

·
1

1
¸ ]
ma#
B221CA I ·
Minimum value of load current from e$uation (--2) with 9 ? 2 is
min
1
1
dRT
L
RT
L
V e
I
R
e
1

1
·
1

1
¸ ]
6
6
21 12 1 12
8
min
12 1 12
8
-22 1
CDD8 A
12
1
e
I
e


× × ×
× ×
1

1
· ·
1
1

¸ ]
• Average load current
ma# min
-
d$
I I
I
+
·
B221C CDD8
B A
-
d$
I
+
· ≈
P%o7lem ).B 5 A $oppe% feeding on RL lo!d is so#n in fig"%e ).):. 3it V 0 )++ V, R
0 -Ω, L 0 - m., f 0 1 k./, d 0 +.- !nd = 0 + V. C!l$"l!te
• M!;im"m !nd minim"m v!l"es of lo!d $"%%ent
• Ave%!ge v!l"e of lo!d $"%%ent
• RMS lo!d $"%%ent
• =ffe$tive inp"t %esist!n$e !s seen 7( so"%$e
• RMS $oppe% $"%%ent.
So$(tion
7 ? -22 7" R ? 8 Ω" 5 ? 8 m3" f ? 1=3." d ? 28" 9 ? 2
-2-
Chopping period is
6
6
1 1
1 12 secs
1 12
T
f

· · · ×
×
i
2
v
2
C h o p p e r
R
5
0 , 4
9
I

Fi!"# A"AE
Refer e$uations (-1D) and (--2) for e#pressions of
ma#
I
and
min
I

Ma#imum value of load current
ma#
1
1
dRT
L
RT
L
V e =
I
R R
e


1

1
· −
1

1
¸ ]
6
6
6
6
28 8 1 12
8 12
ma#
8 1 12
8 12
-22 1
2
8
1
e
I
e



× × ×

×
× ×

×
1
− 1
· −
1
1

¸ ]
28
ma# 1
1
12 -1D A
1
e
I
e


1 −
· ·
1

¸ ]
Minimum value of load current is
min
1
1
dRT
L
RT
L
V e =
I
R R
e
1

1
· −
1

1
¸ ]
6
6
6
6
28 8 1 12
8 12
min
8 1 12
8 12
-22 1
2
8
1
e
I
e




× × ×
×
× ×
×
1
− 1
· −
1
1

¸ ]
28
min 1
1
12 181 A
1
e
I
e
1 −
· ·
1

¸ ]
Average value of load current is
1 -
-
d$
I I
I
+
· for linear variation of currents
-26
Therefore
-1D 181
-2 A
-
d$
I
+
· ·
Refer e$uations (--1) and (--8) for RMS load current and RMS chopper current
RMS load current from e$uation (--1) is
( )
( )
( )
1
-
-
ma# min -
min min ma# min
6
O RMS
I I
I I I I I
1

· + + − 1
1
¸ ]
( )
( )
( )
1
-
-
-
-1D 181
181 181 -1D 181
6
O RMS
I
1

· + + − 1
1
¸ ]
( )
1
-
D@21
--B21 11CDB -2- A
6
O RMS
I
1
· + + ·
1
¸ ]
RMS chopper current from e$uation is (--8) is
( )
28 -2- 11-B A
$ O RMS
I dI · · × ·
9ffective input resistance is
i
S
V
R
I
·
S
I
? Average source current
S d$
I dI ·
28 -2 12 A
S
I · × ·
Therefore effective input resistance is
-22
-2
12
i
S
V
R
I
· · · Ω
P%o7lem ).C5 A )++ V d$ moto% fed 7( ! $oppe%, %"ns !t 1+++ %pm #it ! d"t( %!tio of
+.B. 3!t m"st 7e te ON time of te $oppe% if te moto% !s to %"n !t B++ %pm. Te
$oppe% ope%!tes !t 1++ ./.
So$(tion
Speed of motor
1
N
? 1222 rpm
4uty ratio
1
2B d ·
" f ? 122 3.
-21
,e =now that bac= 9M0 of motor
7
=
is given by
@2
7
ZNP
=
A
φ
·
,here / ? speed in rpm
φ ? flu#;pole in wbs
W ? /umber of Armature conductors
* ? /umber of poles
A ? /umber of parallel paths
Therefore

7
= N α φ
if flu# is constant
7
= N α φ
7
!
a
C h o p p e r
R
a
9
b
I
I


7
d c
M
Fi!" A"AF
7 d$ ! !
= V I R · −
where
!
I
? Armature current
!
R
? Armature Resistance
Since
!
R
is not given"
! !
I R
drop is neglected
Therefore
1 1
-22 volts
7 d$
= V · ·
1
1 d$
V d V ·
Supply"
1
1
d$
V
V
d
·
-22
2B
V ·
-82 7olts V ·
-28
1
1

7
= N α
( ) -22 1222 -62 α
/ow speed changes hence &d' also changes
>iven
-
B22 N ·
rpm
-
K
7
= ·
- -

7
= N α
( )
-
B22 -61
7
= α
4ividing e$uation (-62) by e$uation (-61) we get
-
-22 1222
B22
7
=
·
-
B22 -22
1@2 7
1222
7
=
·
×
·
+ut
- -
- 7 d$
= V d V · ·
-
-
1@2
2@1
-82
d$
V
d
V
· · ·
Chopping fre$uency f ? 122 3.
1 1
221 sec
122
T
f
· · ·
12 msecs T ·
-
ON
t
d
T
·
(/ time of chopper
- ON
t d T ·
6
2@1 12 12
ON
t

· × ×
@1 msecs
ON
t ·
-2@
I1PULSE CO11UTATE/ CHOPPER
!mpulse commutated choppers are widely used in high power circuits where load
fluctuation is not large This chopper is also =nown as parallel capacitor turn)off chopper
or voltage commutated chopper or classical chopper
0ig --B shows an impulse commutated chopper with two thyristors T
1
and T
)
.
,e shall assume that the load current remains constant at a value I
L
during the
commutation process
5
(
A
4
5
C
!
5
5
S
7
S
I
Q
I
Q
T
-
T
1
4
1
a
b
i
C
i
T 1
v
(
I
Q
0 , 4
Fi!" A"AG
To start the circuit" capacitor ECF is initially charged with polarity (with plate &a'
positive) as shown in the fig --B by triggering the thyristor T
)
Capacitor ECF gets
charged through EV
S
F, ECF, T
)
and load As the charging current decays to .ero thyristor T
)
will be turned)off ,ith capacitor charged with plate &a' positive the circuit is ready for
operation 0or convenience the chopper operation is divided into five modes
1O/E B @
Thyristor T
1
is fired at t 0 +
.
The supply voltage comes across the load 5oad
current I
L
flows through T
1
and load At the same time capacitor discharges through T
1
,
4
1
, L
1
, and ECF and the capacitor reverses its voltage This reverse voltage on capacitor is
held constant by diode 4
1
0ig --D shows the e$uivalent circuit of Mode 1
5
(
A
4
5
C
!
5
5
S
7
S
I
Q
I
Q
T
1
4
1
7
C
i
C
Fi!" A"A=
-2C
Capacitor 4ischarge Current
( ) sin
C
C
i t V t
L
ω ·
( ) sin
C P
i t I t ω ·
A where
P
C
I V
L
·
,here
1
LC
ω ·
< Capacitor 7oltage
( ) cos
C
V t V t ω ·
1O/E B A
Thyristor T
)
is now fired to commutate thyristor T
1
,hen T
)
is (/ capacitor
voltage reverse biases T
1
and turns it off /ow the capacitor discharges through the load
from IV
S
to + and the discharge time is =nown as circuit turn)off time
Circuit turn)off time is given by
C
C
L
V C
t
I
×
·
,here I
L
is load current
Since t
C
depends on load current" it must be designed for the worst case condition
which occur at the ma#imum value of load current and minimum value of capacitor
voltage
Then the capacitor recharges bac= to the supply voltage (with plate &a' positive)
This time is called the recharging time and is given by
S
d
L
V C
t
I
×
·
The total time re$uired for the capacitor to discharge and recharge is called the
commutation time and it is given by
% C d
t t t · +
At the end of Mode)- capacitor has recharged to &V
S
F and the free wheeling diode
starts conducting The e$uivalent circuit for Mode)- is shown in fig -62
-2B
5
(
A
4
C
5
S
7
S
I
Q I
Q
T
-
7
C
!
5
!
5
Fi!" A"?>"
1O/E B ?
0ree wheeling diode F34 starts conducting and the load current decays The
energy stored in source inductance L
S
is transferred to capacitor !nstantaneous current is
( ) cos
L
i t I t ω ·
3ence capacitor charges to a voltage higher than supply voltage
-
T

naturally turns)off
The instantaneous capacitor voltage is
( ) sin
S
C S L S
L
V t V I t
C
ω · +
,here
1
S
S
L C
ω ·
0ig -61 shows the e$uivalent circuit of Mode M 6
5
(
A
4
C
5
S
7
S
I
Q
I
Q
T
-
7
S
0 , 4
!
5
!
5
Fi!" A"?@
1O/E B C
Since the capacitor has been overcharged ie its voltage is above supply voltage it
starts discharging in reverse direction 3ence capacitor current becomes negative The
capacitor discharges through L
S
, V
S
, F34, 4
1
!nd L. ,hen this current reduces to .ero
4
1
will stop conducting and the capacitor voltage will be same as the supply voltage fig
-6- shows in e$uivalent circuit of Mode M 1
-2D
5
(
A
4
C
5
S
7
S
I
Q
I
Q
4
1
5
0 , 4
!
5
7
C
Fi!" A"?A
1O/E B D
!n mode 8 both thyristors are off and the load current flows through the free
wheeling diode (0,4) This mode will end once thyristor T
1
is fired The e$uivalent
circuit for mode 8 is shown in fig -66
5
(
A
4
!
5
0 , 4
Fi!" A"??
0ig -61 shows the current and voltage waveforms for a voltage commutated
chopper
-12
C a p a c i t o r C u r r e n t
!
5
t
t
t
t
t
!
p
C u r r e n t t h r o u g h T
1
7 o l t a g e a c r o s s T
1
( u t p u t 7 o l t a g e
C a p a c i t o r 7 o l t a g e
t
c
t
d
i
c
2
I
p
i
T 1
2
v
T 1
V
c
2
v
o
V
s c
I V
V
s
v
c
V
c
& V
c
!
5
Fi!" A"?C
Though voltage commutated chopper is a simple circuit it has the following
disadvantages
• A starting circuit is re$uired and the starting circuit should be such that it triggers
thyristor T
)
first
• 5oad voltage %umps to twice the supply voltage when the commutation is initiated
• The discharging and charging time of commutation capacitor are dependent on the
load current and this limits high fre$uency operation" especially at low load
current
• Chopper cannot be tested without connecting load
• Thyristor T
1
has to carry load current as well as resonant current resulting in
increasing its pea= current rating
-11
IoneJs C&o%%e+
C
4
I

7
I

5
0 , 4
R
T
1
T
-
5
-
5
1
v
2
Fi!" A"?D# IoneJs C&o%%e+
0igure -68 shows a Xone's Chopper circuit for an inductive load with free
wheeling diode Xone's Chopper is an e#ample of class 4 commutation Two thyristors
are used" T
1
is the main thyristor and T
-
is the au#iliary thyristor Commutating circuit
for T
1
consists of thyristor T
-
" capacitor C" diode 4 and autotransformer (5
1
and 5
-
)
!nitially thyristor T
-
is turned (/ and capacitor C is charged to a voltage 7 with a
polarity as shown in figure -68 As C charges" the charging current through thyristor T
-
decays e#ponentially and when current falls below holding current level" thyristor T
-
turns (00 by itself ,hen thyristor T
1
is triggered" load current flows through thyristor
T
1
" 5
-
and load The capacitor discharges through thyristor T
1
" 5
1
and diode 4 4ue to
resonant action of the auto transformer inductance 5
-
and capacitance C" the voltage
across the capacitor reverses after some time
!t is to be noted that the load current in 5
1
induces a voltage in 5
-
due to
autotransformer action 4ue to this voltage in 5
-
in the reverse direction" the capacitor
charges to a voltage greater than the supply voltage (The capacitor now tries to discharge
in opposite direction but it is bloc=ed by diode 4 and hence capacitor maintains the
reverse voltage across it) ,hen thyristor T
1
is to be commutated" thyristor T
-
is turned
(/ resulting in connecting capacitor C directly across thyristor T
1
Capacitor voltage
reverse biases thyristor T
1
and turns it off The capacitor again begins to charge through
thyristor T
-
and the load for the ne#t cycle of operation
The various waveforms are shown in figure -6@
-1-
> a t e p u l s e o f T
-
> a t e p u l s e o f T
1
> a t e p u l s e o f T
-
C a p a c i t o r 7 o l t a g e
C a p a c i t o r
d i s c h a r g e c u r r e n t
C u r r e n t o f T
1
7 o l t a g e a c r o s s T
1
A u t o t r a n s f o r m e r a c t i o n
R e s o n a n t a c t i o n
!
g
!
5
!
5
7
C
I 7
− 7
t
t
t
t
t
C
t
C
-16