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1.0 THE GOVERNMENT’S MAIN OBJECTIVES
Overcoming scarcity by augmentation & conservation Enhancing performance of water sector institutions Restoring productivity of land by control of waterlogging, salinity &floods
Promoting beneficiary participation in development initiatives
WATER SECTOR DEVELOPMENT
Managing quantity/ quality of drainage effluent
Groundwater mgmt by tubewell transition, aquifer monitoring & management
Implementing an integrated flood control & management programme
Rainfall in Pakistan is markedly variable in magnitude, time of occurrence and its aerial distribution. However, almost two-thirds of the rainfall is concentrated in the three summer months of July - September. The mean annual precipitation ranges from less than 100 mm in parts of the Lower Indus Plain to over 750 mm near the foothills in the Upper Indus Plain. There are two major sources of rainfall in Pakistan: the Monsoons and the Western Disturbances. The relative contribution of rainfall in most of the canal commands is low when compared with the two other sources of irrigation water i.e., canal water and groundwater. More than 60% of the kharif season rainfall is concentrated in the month of July for almost all of the canal commands. The Monsoons originate in the Bay of Bengal and usually reach Pakistan, after passing over India, in early July. They continue till September. The Indus Plains receive most of their rainfall from the Monsoons. There are two periods of thunderstorms in Pakistan: (1) April-June (2) October-November. These periods are the driest parts of the year, particularly October and November. During this time, thunderstorms caused by convection bring sporadic and localized rainfall.
The canal command areas of Guddu and Sukkur Barrages fall in an area where variability is the highest. respectively.Khan 3. The Kabul River.0 GLACIER The catchment area of the Indus Basin contains some of the largest glaciers in the world. Based on 10-year average (1990-1999).e. in the NWFP) receive almost 55% of their annual rainfall during the kharif season. during the kharif season.Pakistan lies in an arid and semi-arid climate zone. The glacial area of the upper Indus catchment is about 2..250 km2 and accounts for most of the river runoff in summer. The entire Indus Plains (canal command areas) receive an average seasonal rainfall of 212 mm (95% confidence interval ± 28) and 53 mm (95% confidence interval ± 8) in the kharif and rabi seasons. It is only the canal command areas in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) and the northern-most canal commands of the Punjab Province that receive some appreciable amount of rainfall during the summer as well as the winter season. outside the Polar Regions. The rainfall varies as we move from the north and northeast to the south of the country. It drains eastern Afghanistan and then enters Pakistan just north of the Khyber Pass. The canal commands upstream of the rim stations (i. The annual variability of rainfall increases as one moves south. Quetta Zhob . The canal commands in the Upper and Lower Indus Plains receive 75% and 85. data from the Pakistan Meteorological Department of annual rainfall in some of the major cities is as follows: RAINFALL DATA OF MAJOR CITIES 10 years average (1990-99) 1400 1200 Millimetres 1326 1000 800 600 400 200 0 310 183 147 130 155 322 247 724 528 346 276 Hyderabad Jacobabad Multan Bahawalpur Rawalpindi Karachi Khuzdar Lahore Peshawar D. originates from the Unai Pass of the Southern Hindukush at an elevation of 3.90% of the annual rainfall respectively.I. which is mainly snow-fed.000 m above sea level (masl).
the Khushdil Khan Dam – 1890 and the Spin Karaiz – 1945. Since the Chenab River rises at higher altitudes.6 23. their an unbroken snow cover. These are presented in the table below. the Jhelum and Chenab River catchments can simultaneously be influenced by the Monsoons.0 11. However. most likely was created some fifty million years ago. The Namal Dam. River Indus Jhelum Chenab Ravi Sutlej Kabul Total Average Annual Flow (1922-61) MAF 93 23 26 7 14 26 189. 1985-1995 to indicate the post-treaty flows and the 2001-02 flows to present the current situation of drought conditions. The perennial River Indus fulfilled the irrigation needs and the drinking water supply was served by tapping the vast underground water reservoir.9 92.0 3.02 18. there were only three dams in Pakistan. the Kabul River starts to rise approximately a month earlier than the main stem of the Indus. It falls much less rapidly than the Indus River after entering Pakistani territory. Between the two plates was the Tethys Sea. It flows through Jammu in Indian-held Kashmir and enters Pakistani territory upstream of the Marala Barrage. and none on the major rivers.5 5. Snowmelt accounts for more than 50% of the flow in the Jhelum River. However. when the Indian Plate (Gondwanaland) first collided with Eurasia (Angaraland).62 The history of dam construction in Pakistan is relatively short. 1913 was located in the Mianwali district of the Punjab. which is the main source of surface water in Pakistan. Its flows are of significance for fulfilling the late-rabi early-kharif (March to May) irrigation requirements of the canals.0 RIVERS AND DAMS The embryonic Indus river system.e. The snow and ice melt from the glacial area of the Upper Indus catchment supply approximately 80% of the total flow of the Indus River in the summer season.6 27.47 0. have become the primary source of water to the Indus system. the Jhelum is much more dependent than the Indus on the variable monsoon runoff.38 1. Both. These mountains.0 Average Annual Flow (1985-95) MAF 62. The average annual flow-rates of major rivers has been calculated between 1922-61 to indicate water flows before the Indus Water Treaty. . which was shallow and sandy and up-folded to form the great Himalayan Mountains in the Mesozoic era.85 12. Before independence. The annual flows in the Kabul River are less than one-third of that in the Indus River. The Chenab River originates in the Himachal Pardesh in India.900 masl.8 Average Annual Flow (2001-02) MAF 48.7 26. 4.The Jhelum River rises in Kashmir at a much lower elevation than the source of the Indus River.4 148. snowmelt accounts for a considerable proportion of its runoff. Two of the dams were in the water scarce area of Balochistan i. at an elevation of over 4.
In addition. Surface Water Supplies Total = 154 MAF Flow to Sea 26% Eastern Rivers 6% Surface Water Consumption Total = 154 MAF Western Rivers 94% System Losses 6% Irrigation 68% The flows of the Indus and its tributaries vary widely from year to year and within the year.000 water courses. The waters of the Indus Basin Rivers are diverted through reservoirs/barrages into canals. The system utilizes over 41. 5 in NWFP and 2 in Balochistan) and more than 107. 14 in Sindh. The Indus River and its tributaries. as a part of the Indus Basin Replacement Works. 12 inter river link canals. 2 siphons across major rivers.9 MAF is consumed by the system losses which include evaporation. bring 154 MAF of water annually. seepage and spills during floods. 39. Marala Barrage for the Chenab River and Balloki and Sulemanki Barrages for the Ravi and Sutlej Rivers.0 SURFACE WATER The accounting of surface water resources in the Indus System is based on river inflows measured at Rim Stations. 44 canal systems (23 in Punjab. it became imperative to build large storages and link canals to restore water to the affected canal system. Most of this. As is the case with the water availability.073 km. is diverted for irrigation.88 MAF and Tarbela with 11.6 million km. a number of relatively smaller schemes of irrigation and water supply dams were also undertaken. when India stopped water supplies to the network of canals in Pakistan. there is significant variation in annual flows to the sea.62 MAF. Mangla Reservoir for the Jhelum River. classified as Main Canals. The Indus Basin Irrigation System comprises of three major reservoirs. Work on the Warsak Dam on Kabul River near Peshawar was undertaken. Mangla with a gross storage capacity of 5. 16 barrages. etc. These main canals then distribute the irrigation water into their command areas through a network of branch canals. The aggregate length of the canals is about 56. is defined as a control structure (reservoir. 5. on an average. This includes 144.) on the river just when the river enters into Pakistani territory or upstream of the canal-irrigated Indus Plains of Punjab and Sindh Provinces. in the context of the Indus Basin Irrigation System. about 104.91 MAF from the three Western rivers and 9.6 MAF of . when the country was facing an acute power shortage. farm channels and field ditches cover another 1. A rim station. barrage.The construction of dams in Pakistan was initiated in 1955.14 MAF from the Eastern rivers. Later. The rim stations for the Indus System rivers are the Kalabagh Barrage (or sometimes Tarbela Reservoir) for the main Indus River. This resulted in the construction of two gigantic dams. the watercourses.4 MAF flows to the sea and about 9. Apart from replacement works. 2 head-works.73 MAF.
some 13. After the introduction of weir-controlled irrigation. It is underlain by an unconfined aquifer covering about 15 million acres in surface area. the development of private tube wells received a boost. Now more than 500.6 MAF of supplemental irrigation water every year. In the late 1950s.0 GROUNDWATER – HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT Before the introduction of widespread irrigation.500 tubewells were installed by the Government to lower the groundwater table.000 tubewells supply about 41. after diluting with the fresh canal water. water courses and irrigation fields. Over a period of about 30 years. the performance of the SCARP tubewells deteriorated. At some locations. especially in the Upper Indus Plain. minors.000 tubewells in the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) and the annual pumpage in all canal command areas has been . about 9. Of these. Outside the Indus Basin. Some groundwater is saline.groundwater.000 tube wells. where ground water quality is good. Particularly in the eighties. pumped through more than 500. The projects initially proved to be quite effective in lowering the water table but with time. the groundwater table in the Indus Basin varied from about 40 feet in depth in Sindh and Bahawalpur areas to about 100 feet in Rechna Doab (the area between Ravi and Chenab Rivers). In the Punjab. the groundwater table started rising due to poor irrigation management. when locally manufactured inexpensive diesel engines became available. in addition to the canal supplies. about 79% of the area and in Sindh. Most of these shallow tube wells were individually owned. about 28% of the area is underlain by fresh groundwater. Large scale tubewell pumpage for irrigation started in the early sixties. the water table rose to the ground surface or very close to the surface causing waterlogging and soil salinity. lack of drainage facilities and the resulting additional recharge from the canals. where this is not possible. One on the Mekran coast of Balochistan drains directly in to the sea and a closed basin (Kharan). These tubewells compensated the loss of pumping capacity of the SCARP tubewells and helped in lowering the water table. reducing productivity. there are smaller river basins. This is mostly used as supplemental irrigation water and pumped through tubewells. Water from the saline tube wells is generally put into drains and. 7. the Government embarked upon a programme of Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARPS) wherein large deep tube wells were installed to control the groundwater table. 6.800 tube wells were in the Punjab. These in total amount to an inflow of less than 4 MAF annually. mostly in periods of low surface water availability.0 STATUS OF GROUNDWATER IN PAKISTAN The Indus Basin was formed by alluvial deposits carried by the Indus and its tributaries.30 years. The development of deep public tube wells under the SCARPS was soon followed by private investment in shallow tube wells. ground water has become a major supplement to canal supplies. distributaries. In the last 25. There are presently more than 500. it is discharged into large canals for use in irrigation.
The Cholistan area in southern Punjab is well known for highly brackish waters. In Tharparkar and Umarkot. Saline waters are mostly encountered in the central Doab areas.estimated to be over 50 BCM.78 million acres are underlain with groundwater of less than 1000 mg/l TDS. Large areas in the province are underlain with groundwater of poor quality. However. ranging from 65 to 12 mg/l in groundwater in the Bahawalpur area. Kasur and Mianwali. the total groundwater potential in Pakistan is of the order of 55 MAF.26 million acres with salinity more than 3000 mg/l TDS. with salinity more than 3000 mg/l TDS. the water has less than 1000 mg/l TDS. Groundwater Quality Salinity More Than 3000 mg/l TDS 36% Total Area = 29. . Indiscriminate pumping has resulted in contamination of the aquifer at many places where the salinity of tubewell water has increased. Gujrat and Sargodha districts have shown concentrations of arsenic well above the WHO guideline value of 50 g/l.31 Million Acres Salinity Less Than 1000 mg/l TDS 49% Salinity between 1000-3000 mg/l TDS 15% Punjab About 79% of the Punjab province has access to fresh groundwater. 3 million acres with salinity ranging from 1000 to 3000 mg/l TDS and 3.e. Some 9. the amount of abstraction varies throughout the area. The general distribution of fresh and saline groundwater in the country is well known and mapped. reflecting inadequacy/unreliability of surface water supplies and groundwater quality distribution. highly brackish water include Thar. Close to the edges of the irrigated lands. Nara and Kohistan.25 m depth. Samplings of groundwater in Jhelum. According to a study. the situation is further complicated by the occurrence of high fluoride in the groundwater. There are also reports of high fluoride content. as it influences the options for irrigation and drinking water supplies. Sindh Around 28% of the Sindh province has access to fresh groundwater suitable for irrigation i. which can not be used for drinking purposes. fresh groundwater can be found at 20 . Groundwater with high fluoride content is found in the Salt Range. Major part of the groundwater abstraction for irrigation is within the canal commands or in the flood plains of the rivers. The areas with non-potable. The quality of groundwater ranges from fresh (salinity less than 1000 mg/l TDS) near the major rivers to highly saline farther away.
NWFP In NWFP. the relative priority of water sector has changed during various government regimes. Local communities use groundwater with TDS as high as 3000 mg/l. Asim R. “Water Availability and Some Macro Level Issues Related to Water Resources Planning and Management in the Indus Basin Irrigation System in Pakistan”. as there are no alternatives. by the year 2025. Khan has lowered the water table and resulted in the contamination from underlying saline water.mainly through hydel sources.6 60 Billion Rupees 50 40 30 20 10 0 55-60 60-65 65-70 70-78 78-83 83-88 88-93 93-98 98-2001 22. Bannu and D. for drinking purposes.02 Year The goals of the government for the development of water resources are reflected in the WAPDA Vision 2025 document. 8. REFERENCES 1.I.0 EXPENDITURE Government expenditure in the water sector has randomly fluctuated since independence. Saim Muhammad. . June 1999. Pakistan Water & Power Development Authority.4 0. Khan. “Proceedings of the National Workshop on Water Resources Achievements and Issues in 20th Century and Challenges for the Next Millennium”.000 MW of additional power . M. because the allocation of funds for the development of the sector have not observed consistent growth patterns.02 28.81 15. 2. Kaleem Ullah. abstraction in excess of recharge in certain areas such as Karak.51 12. Bashir A Chandio and Ms Nuzhat Yasmin.77 26. 2001. Balochistan The Makran coastal zone and several other basins contain highly brackish groundwater. The Makran coast and Kharan have also been reported to have high fluoride groundwater. the groundwater has been found to have high fluoride content.97 4. Kohat. Also. which stipulates the addition of 64 MAF of storage capacity and about 27. 2002 3.6 4. In Mastung Valley. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources. Dr. “Annual Report 19992000”. The estimated investment for Vision 2025 will be $50 billion spread over the next 25 years. The expenditure in the water sector as accrued during the 5-year development plans of the government are shown in the graph below: GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE IN THE WATER SECTOR 55.
Resources. Supply. London.Environmental Issues”. “Water Sector Investment Planning Study” Provincial Investment Plans. 12. Water Resources Sector Strategy. 8. National Engineering Services Pakistan (Pvt) Ltd. Global Water Partnership. Centre of Excellence in Water Resources Engineering. Development and Socio. July 1994. “National Water Sector Profile”. 6.Water Vision 2025” Country Report – Pakistan. “Proceedings Water for the 21st Century: Demand. 11. Lahore. “Water Resources of Pakistan”. 2000. 9. Humankind”. “The Indus River – Biodiversity. “Draft South Asia . Harza Engineering co International LP. Nazir Ahmad.MacDonald & Partners Ltd. Govt of Pakistan (Sep 2001). Oxford University Press. 7. Statistics Division. Sir M. April 2001. Associated Consulting Engineers ACE (Pvt) Ltd. Govt of Pakistan. 10. April 2002 Planning Commission. Lahore September 1993. Partial data acquired from Indus River System Authority for flows of rivers in Pakistan. June 1997. Asian Development Bank – TA. December 1990. 5. . Federal Bureau of Statistics. “Pakistan Statistical Yearbook 2001”. “Ten Year Perspective Development Plan 2001-11& Three Year Development Programme 2001-04”. Proceedings of a Symposium at Burlington House.4. Dr. Miraj uddin Press.
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