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OBJECTIVES: At the end of this discussion, the staff nurse orientee will be able to: 1. Understand the significance of a patients laboratory exams 2. Gain knowledge regarding the normal values of significant laboratory exams 3. Enumerate the necessary nursing intervention according to the results LABORATORY RESULTS: CLINICAL CHEMISTRY ~defined as the analysis of bodily fluids ELECTROLYTES: a. Potassium b. Sodium c. Calcium d. Magnesium RENAL FUNCTION a. Creatinine b. BUN LIVER FUNCTION a. Total Protein b. Albumin c. Globulin d. A/G Ratio e. Total Bilirubin f. Bilirubin (direct) g. Bilirubin (indirect) h. AST/SGOT i. ALT/SGPT j. Alkaline Phosphatase CARDIAC MARKERS a. Trop-I b. CK-MB LIPID PROFILE a. Cholesterol b. Triglycerides c. VLDL d. LDL e. HDL PANCREAS MARKERS a. Amylase b. Lipase

3.3-5.3 mmol/L 135-145 mmol/L 8.6-10.2 mg/dL 1.3-2.3 mg/dL 0.6-1.5 mg/dL 10-20 mg/dL 60-80 g/L 40-55 g/L 17-33 g/L 1.2-1.5 0.3-1.0 mg/dL 0.1-0.4 mg/dL 0.1-0.4 mg/dL 10-40 (M), 15-30 (F) U/L 10-40 (M), 8-45 (F) U/mL 45-125 IU/L <0.35 ng/mL <3 ng/mL 130-200 mg/dL 10-190 mg/ dL 2-38 mg/dL <130 mg/dL >65 mg/dL 30-130 U/L 70-200 U/L

OTHERS a. Uric Acid b. Fasting Blood Sugar c. HBA1C

2.7-7.3 mg/dL 60-100 mg/dL 3.5-5.5 %

HEMATOLOGY Blood Count a. WBC b. RBC c. HGB d. HCT e. Platelet Blood Indices a. MCV b. MCH c. MCHC d. RDW e. PDW f. MPV Relative Differential Count a. Neutrophils b. Lymphocyte c. Monocyte d. Eosinophils e. Basophils f. LUC Coagulation Prothrombin Time Partial Thromboplastin Time Clotting Time Bleeding Time

4.8-10.8 10^3/uL 4.2-5.4 10^6/uL 12-16 g/dL 37-47 % 130-400 10^3/uL 81-99 fL 27-31 pg 33-37 g/dL 11-16 % 25-65 % 7.2-11.1 fL Relative Absolute 40-74 1.9-8 10^3/uL 19-48 0.9-5.2 10^3/uL 3.4-9.0 0.16-1 10^3/uL 0-7 0-8 10^3/uL 0-1.5 0-0.2 10^3/uL 0-4 0-0.4 10^3/uL 9.5-12 sec 25.4-36.7 sec 5-8 minutes 1-9 minutes

NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Facilitate the performance of the exams as soon as ordered Prepare patient accordingly (i.e. fasting) Follow-up the results after the tests are performed Refer accordingly to the significant service if with abnormalities/panic values Transcribe results as they are released Enact independent nursing responsibilities fitting to the patients results Proper hand-off of significant results during endorsement