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2008

Xy dng K hoch Truyn thng


Ti liu tham kho cho nhng ngi hot ng trong lnh vc truyn thng
[Vit "K hoch truyn thng" ("Communication Strategy" hay "Communication Plan") khng phi l mt khoa hc, m l mt ngh thut. Bi vy m n rt a dng, bin ha v rt kh tm ra mt mu s chung, mt mu "chun", "hon ho" no.]

TI LIU C CHIA S TI

Hoa Time Universal Communications

www.marketingvietnam.net

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MC LC
CHUN B K NNG ........................................................................................................................................ 3 NI DUNG CHNH CA MT K HOCH TRUYN THNG ................................................................. 8 BI CNH.......................................................................................................................................................... 13 TNG QUAN MI TRNG ......................................................................................................................... 15 XC NH I TNG LIN QUAN......................................................................................................... 16 XC NH MC TIU .................................................................................................................................... 19 CHIN LC .................................................................................................................................................... 21 CNG CHNG MC TIU ............................................................................................................................. 23 TUYN B ......................................................................................................................................................... 26 THNG IP CHNH ..................................................................................................................................... 28 CHIN THUT HAY PHNG THC THC HIN ................................................................................. 30 QUN L RI RO ............................................................................................................................................ 33 NGN SCH ...................................................................................................................................................... 35 NH GI ......................................................................................................................................................... 37 KT LUN .......................................................................................................................................................... 40

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CHUN B K NNG

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

Hu ht cc nhn vin PR m ti tng tuyn dng u, hoc l rt r hoc l thng thn, hi xin Trang | 4 mt "mu k hoch truyn thng", k c nhng ngi tng c kinh nghim lm vic mt vi cng ty PR trc hay nhng em sinh vin ch mi bc chn ra khi trng i hc. Thc ra ngay c khi nim PR l g, c kh nhiu ngi cha tng c, cha tng hc, thm ch cha tng tm hiu, ch cha ni n khi nim hay cch thc vit, thc hin mt chin dch/ k hoch truyn thng nh th no. Tuy nhin, cng vic trong mt cng ty PR li lun yu cu nhn vin PR phi vit cc bn k hoch ny, gi cho nhng ngi (l khch hng ca h, nhng li) tng tip xc vi rt nhiu bn t vn k hoch truyn thng t cc cng ty PR chuyn nghip, t nhng ngi lm PR chuyn nghip lin tc gi ti. y l mt th thch ht sc ln, nht l cho nhng ngi mi bc chn vo ngh, cha c kin thc v lnh vc, cha chun b c t duy h thng, t duy phn tch, t duy chin lc v t duy sng to. Trc khi i vo gii thiu vi cc bn u l mt "mu" k hoch truyn thng (m ti ch dm gi l "tm n", v s khng c mt mu hon ho no, v thc t th mi mt k hoch truyn thng c vit ra li c hnh thc, ni dung... v cng khc nhau, chng khc nhau gia k hoch ny sang k hoch khc, gia khch hng ny sang khch hng khc, thm ch l khc nhau bi chnh c tnh ca ngi vit), ti mun cp ti nhng "hnh trang" m bn cn chun b trc khi bt tay vo vit mt k hoch truyn thng. Nhng hnh trang l g?

Kh nng nm bt v tng hp thng tin


Mt cch l tng v chuyn nghip, th mi mt cng ty PR ch nn tp trung vo mt lnh vc c th no . V d, cng ty A tp trung vo t vn cch doanh nghip trong lnh vc ngn hng, ti chnh, cng ty B tp trung vo lnh vc y t, sc khe cng ng, cng ty C tp trung vo h thng siu th, nh hng... Hay mt cng ty c th tp trung vo mt vi lnh vc nh ngn hng, ti chnh, bt ng sn, cng ngh... Ch khng nht thit mt cng ty PR phi cung cp dch v cho tt c cc khch hng cn n dch v PR. Tuy nhin, iu ny Vit Nam gn nh l cha th (ti khng ni l khng th), bi v yu cu v PR c th cho tng lnh vc Vit Nam cha thc s cao, bn thn ngi yu cu dch v ln ngi cung cp dch v cha t vn ny ln hng th nht. Do , mt cng ty PR Vit Nam vn c th cung cp dch v cho a dng khch hng, cho d l nh sn xut hng tiu dng, hay mt cng ty cng ngh cao, hay mt bnh vin t nhn, hay mt nh sn xut my bay... iu ny t ngi lm PR Vit Nam vo mt th thch ht sc ln. Bn s hi vn ti va nu ra c lin quan g ti hng trang u tin ca ngi lm PR l kh nng nm bt v tng hp thng tin? Vn nm ch, nu nh mt chuyn gia PR lm ti cng ty Carter Ryley Thomas (cng ty c xp hng u trong nhng cng ty PR tt nht lm vic trn th gii), ch tp trung vo mt hoc ti a l bn lnh vc: Corporate, Consumer, Health, Interactive, th bn, mt PR Executive ti Vit Nam, bn phi l nh t vn cho khch hng trong tt c cc lnh vc. u l s khc bit ln lao ny?
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Th nht, cc chuyn gia PR (v d nh n t CRT ni trn), h l nhng nh hot ng truyn thng, nhng ngi hot ng trong lnh vc hng tiu dng hay y t lu nm, h c kin thc nn tng v nhng lnh vc ny, h c "lch s" kin thc v lnh vc ny v hng ngy, hin nay l hng pht (nu bn chu c tm c blog ca cc chuyn gia ti cng ty ny, bn s thy h cp nht so vi th gii nh th no) h cp nht v lnh vc ca h. Do , cc chuyn gia lm vic trong nhng lnh vc ny coi h nh nhng ngi bn, nhng ngun tham kho, nhng chuyn gia t vn mi khi h gp vn . Cn vi chng ta? La PR c o to mt cch bi bn u tin Vit Nam cha ra l, nhng ngi c o to nc ngoi chuyn nghip v lnh vc ny v hin ang lnh o cc cng ty PR chuyn nghip Vit Nam m c trn u ngn tay, nhng ngi c o to bi bn nc ngoi, nhng cha tr thnh lnh o doanh nghip, cng ch va mi v nc, cn li, l nhng ngi t hc, t tng hp, t rt kinh nghim thng au t thc t, nhng ngi va mi bc chn vo ngh, mi kin thc cn ln xn, nhm ln, nhng ngi mc d kinh qua vi cng ty PR vn cha hiu bn cht quy trnh, cng vic PR... Vy th, tr mt vi gim c cc cng ty PR, nhng ngi c hc hnh chuyn nghip t nc ngoi v, l c th tr thnh "bn", thnh "ngun tham kho", thnh "nh t vn" thc s cho cc vn ca khch hng (tuy nhin, phi nhc li l, khng phi tt c mi lnh vc), cn s cn li, chng ta s xoay s th no trong vic theo ui v gi chn khch hng? Hnh trang u tin m bn phi chun b, xin nhc li, chnh l kh nng nm bt v tng hp thng tin. Kh nng ny s dng vo ngh PR v c th l lp k hoch truyn thng nh th no? l, trong vng vi ngy, thm ch vi gi, bn phi c kh nng nm bt s b ton b thng tin c bn v mt lnh vc, mt ngnh hng no . Nu khch hng ca bn nm trong khu vc ti chnh, ngn hng, bn phi (tm mi cch, vic ny hon ton do bn, khng c mt ch dn c th, ring bit no cho vic tm kim thng tin, n gin nht l "Just Google It!") np thng tin, tng hp chng, phn tch chng, ch ra cho khch hng ca bn thy "H ang u" trn th trng ngn hng ti chnh. n gin nht bn c th s dng m hnh SWOT gip chnh bn v khch hng ca bn xc nh v tr ny. M hnh ny c th rt quen thuc vi cc sinh vin khi ngnh kinh t, nhng vi cc bn hc bo ch, ngoi ng, v cc ngnh khc, y l cha kha cho cc bn: S Strength, W - Weakness, O - Opportunity, T - Threat.

T duy h thng, t duy phn tch


Bn va lm xong mt vic ti quan trng l tm kim v tng hp thng tin, mc d dng th s, nhng mi vic s tr nn v ngha nu nh bn khng bit lm g, khng bit xoay s nh th no vi ng thng tin ngn ngn . Tt nhin, bn cng cn phi c c kh nng nm bt nhanh chng cc khi nim, v d nh khi nim nh u t, c ng, tnh thanh khon ca th trng, ngn hng thng mi, ... bi v y cng l mt trong nhng kh nng quan trng gip vic tng hp v phn tch thng tin tr nn nhanh chng, d dng. Nu bn cha tng lm mt cng trnh nghin cu khoa hc no, bn cha vit mt bn bo co khoa hc, mt kha lun, mt bi tp ln hay mt bi lun no, con ng pha trc ca bn s kh
Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

chng gai. L do l ch, mt khi bn tng tri qua nhng cng vic ny, t nht bn cng tng tri nghim vic tng hp, phn tch v nh gi thng tin. Nu nh lun vn tt nghip trng ca bn t im 9 hoc 10 cho khi ngnh khoa hc x hi, ti c l bn c t duy tng hp v phn tch thng tin kh tt, iu ny cng th hin bn tng i c t duy h thng. T duy h thng ng mt vai tr v cng quan trng, n cho bn kh nng xu chui cc thng tin, s kin li vi nhau, suy xt n di mi gc cng nh gc no nn s dng l ct li cho vn bn

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ang cp n. Ni su xa hn na, nu bn tng l mt sinh vin gii Trit hc, hay bn yu thch b mn ny, bn l ngi c t duy h thng, bn c kh nng chim lnh l thuyt v nhanh chng nm bt mt lnh vc, tng kt thnh cc quy lut, xu hng. Nu bn thc s c nng lc ny, n l mt cha kha s gip bn thnh cng. Mt trong nhng phn u tin v v cng quan trng ca mt bn k hoch truyn thng s cn bn phi s dng cc nng lc t duy m ti nu trn. l bn phi xc nh bi cnh ca khch hng, bn phi tng quan th trng, a ra cc nhn nh, t phn tch nh ra cc mc tiu, cc chin lc (tng phn c th ti s ch ra trong cc bi vit tip theo). Mc tiu ca chin lc truyn thng ca bn c ng v ph hp hay khng ph thuc hon ton vo kt qu phn tch ca bn trc . V cc chin lc c th, hot ng c th bn p dng t c cc mc tiu ra cng hon ton l kt qu ca cc phn tch ny. Do , nng lc phn tch ca bn chnh l b lc gip bn chuyn ha nhng thng tin bn c v th trng thnh cc hot ng c kh nng thay i thi v nhn thc ca cng chng mc tiu, t thay i hnh vi ca h nh bn mong mun (ty thuc vo mc tiu ca tng chin dch).

T duy chin lc v t duy sng to


Hai phn quan trng trong mt k hoch truyn thng l "Strategy" v "Tactics" c th tm dch l "Chin lc" v "Chin thut", c th hiu l "Chin lc" v "Cc hot ng p dng cho tng chin lc". thc hin tt hai phn ny, trc ht, bn phi c phn tch tng quan ng v th trng, v khch hng (nh ni trn) v phi nu chnh xc cc mc tiu ca mt k hoch truyn thng. T mc tiu ny, bn s a ra chin lc cho ton b k hoch / chng trnh. C rt nhiu nh ngha khc nhau v "chin lc", nhng c mt nh ngha rt th v ca William H. Marquardt: "Chin lc l vic chn khng lm g trc khi la chn lm g". Cn theo Dave Fleet, mt chuyn gia PR, th chin lc chnh l tr li cu hi: "Bn nh i ti u? Ti sao?" tr li c nhng cu hi n gin ny, bn phi c t duy ca ngi hoch nh chin lc, xc nh mnh s lm g t c mc ch, bn s khng lm g trnh ng u vi nhng vt cn ng, hoc nhng hot ng lng ph khng cn thit, v bn s s dng phng thc no lm nhng vic . Sau khi vch ra c mt chin lc, bn s phi vn dng t duy sng to ngh ra cc "chin thut". y chnh l cc hot ng c th (t chc s kin, hp bo, PR trn bo bng bi vit, ti
Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

tr...) din t t duy chin lc ca bn bng hnh ng. V tt nhin, cc hnh ng ny phi n khp v thc t vi ton b mc tiu v chin lc. T duy sng to s t ra hu dng ti thi im ny khi cc hot ng bn xut va phi ph hp vi chin lc chung va phi m bo tnh "mi", tnh khng lp li, trong khi phi m ng c trch nhim th hin c c th v lnh vc, cng vic ca khch hng.

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T duy thc t
Mt phn quan trng ca bn k hoch truyn thng l xut cc hng mc thc hin v chi ph. Phn ny i khi c chuyn cho mt b phn khc, mt ngi khc, mt cng ty th ba (nh cung cp) thc hin nu nh bn thn ngi vit khng c kinh nghim thc t. Trong mt cng ty PR, c th s tn ti quy trnh: ngi vit n (proposal) s ch vit nhng phn u (tng quan, mc tiu, chin lc, thng ip, chin thut...) v ngi ln chi ph - PE (Production Estimation hoc Project Estimation) (gm hng mc v gi) thc hin phn cn li. Tuy nhin, l tng l ngi vit Proposal c kh nng thc hin ton b cc phn ny. Nhng thc hin c, bn cn phi c kinh nghim thc tin, c t duy thc t trong vic xut cc hng mc tng ng v chi ph ph hp cho tng hng mc v ph hp cho tng khch hng. Bi i khi, tng cho mt hot ng no c th ht sc bay bng, v cng sng to, rt thng minh, t ph, nhng so vi "th trng" ca khch hng li l mt iu vin vng, mt s lng ph hay l mt cch "dng dao m tru git g". Do , hy thc t, khi hon thin mt trong nhng phn quan trng cui cng ny ca bn k hoch. Ngoi ra, t duy thc t hay nng lc thc tin cn rt cn cho vic d on cc ri ro tim n ca k hoch truyn thng v vic a ra cc ch s o lng nh gi mc thnh cng ca chng trnh -- mt phn m rt nhiu ngi b qun hoc c tnh b qua khi thc hin cc k hoch truyn thng. C th l qu nhiu! C th l i hi qu ng, khi bn ch mi bc chn vo lnh vc ny, cng vic ny. Nhng tr thnh cc chuyn gia PR (PR experts, thut ng cng sp tr thnh lc hu) hay cao hn l cc chuyn gia truyn thng (communications experts, thut ng thay th), khng c cch no khc l bn phi trang b cho mnh nhng nng lc t duy ny, bng khng, bn ch c th vui v lm mt phn vic c th no trong ton b quy trnh thc hin cc chin dch truyn thng, bn ch nm c mt phn trong cng vic PR, ging nh mt ngi th vy. Nhng t duy ny c th hc c t u? C th bn c sn n nh l mt nng lc bm sinh. Nhng nu bn cha c, bn phi hc, t rt nhiu pha. C th t trit hc, nh ti ni trn, c th t vic to thi quen c, tng hp thng tin, t lm cc nghin cu v mt ti kinh t, x hi, vn ha no , t trang b cc kin thc v marketing, v PR, nu c th th tham gia vo mt kha o to chuyn nghip. Bi v, PR hi kin thc ca cc ngnh khoa hc nh truyn thng i chng, ngn ng hc, tm l hc, x hi hc, marketing, khoa hc v qun l, vn ha v rt nhiu kinh nghim.

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NI DUNG CHNH CA MT K HOCH TRUYN THNG

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Vit "K hoch truyn thng" ("Communication Strategy" hay "Communication Plan") khng phi l mt khoa hc, m l mt ngh thut. Bi vy m n rt a dng, bin ha v rt kh tm ra mt mu s chung, mt mu "chun", "hon ho" cho mt k hoch truyn thng. Nh ni bi trc, K hoch truyn thng rt khc nhau, gia doanh nghip ny sang doanh

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nghip khc, khch hng ny sang khch hng khc, nh t vn ny sang nh t vn khc. Rt nhiu chuyn gia truyn thng trn th gii a ra mt s "mu" k hoch truyn thng c bn, vi nhng phn "cng" kh gn nhau. C nhng k hoch rt n gin nhng cng c nhng k hoch rt phc tp. V d, ngi th a ra cu trc: * Objectives (Xc nh mc tiu) * Audiences (Xc nh cng chng mc tiu) * Messages (Xy dng thng ip chnh) * Tools and activities (Xc nh knh truyn thng v hot ng truyn thng) * Resources (Ngun) * Timescales (K hoch thc hin) * Evaluation and amendment (nh gi hiu qu v iu chnh) Mt phng n khc li xut: * where you are now: a summary of the audit findings (xc nh "bn ang u" - tng kt nhng thng tin thu thp c) * who your key stakeholders are (xc nh cc i tng lin quan) * key priorities (xc nh th t u tin ca cc i tng lin quan) * clear aims and objectives, including targets (Xc nh mc ch, mc tiu, bao gm cc kt qu nhm ti) * key messages (xc nh cc thng ip chnh) * milestones (l trnh thc hin) * quick wins (nhng im cn nhanh chng t c) * resources available budgets and staff (ngun lc sn c - ngn sch, nhn s) * communications tools, for example, poster campaigns, roadshows, events, residents magazine evaluation (xc nh cng c truyn thng, v d, chin dch poster, roadshows, events, nh gi tp ch tiu dng) * how you will measure success (bn s o lng thnh cng ca chin dch nh th no) C rt nhiu phng n son tho mt k hoch hay chin dch truyn thng, tuy nhin cho d bn s nh trnh by nh th no, th mt s thnh phn (khi nim) di y chc chn s khng th b qua, n xut pht t chnh m hnh truyn thng kinh in: Ngun --> Thng ip --> M ha --> Knh --> Ngi nhn --> Nhiu --> Phn hi --> Ngun Cc thnh phn gm:
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Phn tch tng quan Mc tiu Cc i tng lin quan Chin lc Cng chng mc tiu Thng ip chnh Knh/ hot ng nh gi iu chnh

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Ty thuc vo quy m ca chin dch, ty thuc vo yu cu v tnh cht ca khch hng m ni dung ca k hoch truyn thng s bao gm hoc khng bao gm nhng thnh phn no. Di y l nhng phn c bn ca mt k hoch truyn thng. Khng phi k hoch no cng cn ton b tt c cc yu t di y, nhng y l danh sch c bn: PHN PHN TCH 1. Bi cnh: Chuyn g xy ra trc y? u l lch s ca vn m bn ang cp n? 2. Tng quan mi trng bn ngoi: u l nhng yu t chnh s nh hng ti thnh cng bn? Bo ch ang ni g? 3. Cc i tng lin quan: Cc i tng lin quan ca bn l ai? Phn ng bn mong i h l g? Bn s lm g qun l h? PHN LP K HOCH 4. Mc tiu: Bn mun t c iu g? (Nn r rng, ph hp, o lng c... s dng phng php SMART tip cn nu bn mun). 5. Chin lc: Bn nh i ti u? Ti sao? 6. Cng chng: Cng chng mc tiu ca bn l nhng ai? 7. Tuyn b: vi chin lc ni trn, bn s a ra tuyn b ch? l tuyn b g? 8. Thng ip: Bn s ni g v tuyn b trn?

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

9. Chin thut (phng thc thc hin): Bn s tin hnh chin lc ca bn nh th no, c trc, trong v sau tuyn b chnh? 10. Ri ro tim n: Nhng vn g bn c th s phi vt qua? 11. Ngn sch: bn s mt bao nhiu tin cho chin dch ny? 12. nh gi: Lm sao bit l bn thnh cng? Cch thc thc hin tng phn s c ch r trong cc bi vit tip theo.

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PHN TCH

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BI CNH
Phn u tin ca mt k hoch truyn thng chnh l phn tch bi cnh. Ti sao li phi lm vic ny? Bi v n s buc bn phi lm hai vic sau: - Tm tt li nhng g ang din ra bng mt tng kt ngn gn. - Tp trung vo vn bn chun b vit trong k hoch truyn thng.

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Xc nh bi cnh
Phn "bi cnh" trong k hoch ca bn tp trung vo vic "xc nh" bi cnh. y khng phi l phn vit chi tit v chng trnh bn s thc hin, vn cha ti phn quyt nh xem mc tiu v chin lc ca k hoch truyn thng ca bn l g. Phn ny hon ton l phn "phng" cho k hoch ca bn. y l phn kh d lm trong ton b k hoch truyn thng. Nu bn c sn phng kin thc v vn bn ang thc hin th gn nh bn lm xong phn ny. Nu bn cha c, bn phi trang b gp cho mnh kin thc v lnh vc thc hin phn ny. vit tt phn "bi cnh", bn cn phi bit chnh xc nhng g ang din ra trong lnh vc m bn cp n.

Trang b cho chnh bn


Bn s khng th thc hin tt cc phn khc nu nh bn khng thc hin vic nghin cu phng kin thc chung v lnh vc bn ang tip cn. Di y l mt vi im bn cn phi suy ngh ti khi bn tip cn vic xc nh "bi cnh" trong k hoch truyn thng ca mnh. Lu rng nhng im ny tp trung vo "bn trong", vo chnh bn, trc khi tp trung vo cc yu t khc. Nhng im bn phi lu gm: K hoch truyn thng ca bn l v vn g? K hoch ny lin quan n nhng chng trnh no bn tng thc hin trc ? K hoch thc hin nh th no? (C sn phm no sp sa ra mt? Hi tho no sp sa din ra? Deadline no cho vic g lin quan ti vn ca bn? v.v...) C nhng mc thi gian quan trng no? Ai s l nhng ngi tham gia vo?

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

Ai l nhng ngi trong cng ty/t chc ca bn s tham gia vo chng trnh ny? Nhng cng ty/t chc no s tham gia vo/c lin quan? Bn c i tc ng thc hin k hoch ny khng? (Lu y khng phi l n v c trong danh sch "i tng lin quan" chng ta s bn phn sau).

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TNG QUAN MI TRNG


Nu nh phn "bi cnh" l ch ra bn ang lm g trong bi cnh nh th no, th phn tng quan a ra ci nhn tng qut (bn ngoi) v vic nhng ngi khc ang lm g v ni g. Phn tng quan (v th trng) khng ch cp ti vic bo ch ang ni g, mc d y l mt vn chnh ca phn ny. Bn cn phi i trc c bo ch nhn rng hn v ton b mi trng xung quanh v bn s lm th no thch ng vi nhng iu kin .

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Chn m hnh phn tch


Nu bn hc ngnh kinh t, qun tr, hn bn quen thuc vi m hnh phn tch PEST (Political Chnh tr, Economic - Kinh t, Social - X hi v Technological - Cng ngh). y l mt m hnh rt hu ch c th s dng bt u suy ngh v cc vn bn ang quan tm. Hy t vn ca bn vo bi cnh ca tng kha cnh kinh t, chnh tr, x hi hay cng ngh. Sau , xc nh nhng nh hng ca chng ti bi cnh ca chng trnh m bn ang theo ui. Tuy nhin, ng p dng qu cng nhc m hnh ny. Phn tch theo m hnh SWOT cng l m hnh kh hiu qu. Strengths v Weaknesses s cho bn ci nhn tp trung vo ni lc ca bn. Phn Opportunities v Threats s cho bn ci nhn v mi trng bn ngoi. Bn cn tp trung vo nhng im di y: - i th ca bn gn y lm g? - i th ca bn lm nhng g i vi vn tng t vi vn ca bn? - Bi cnh php lut (v vn ca bn) nh th no? - Nhng o lut no ang c thi hnh? (iu ny c bit quan trng i vi nhng chng trnh truyn thng dnh cho khi nh nc). - Bo ch chnh thng ni g v ti ny? (T bo hoc nh bo no vit v ti ny? H ni vi ging iu nh th no? Tch cc hay tiu cc?) - Trn mng ngi ta ang ni g? (Ai l nhng ngi vit c nh hng v vn ny? H tip cn vn ny nh th no? Nhng kt qu tm kim no xut hin u tin v cng ty/sn phm/vn ca bn?) - Thnh phn kinh t no lin quan ti vn ca bn? - S kin /ngy thng c bit no (nu c) c th lin quan ti chng trnh ca bn? ng lp y phn tng quan ny ca bn bng cc trch dn di dng dc t cc bi bo m ch nn tng kt mt cch ngn gn nhng g h ni. Trch dn ht trang ny n trang khc s chng gip ch g. Hy vit ngn gn v i thng vo vn .

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XC NH I TNG LIN QUAN


y l phn cui cng trong phn Phn tch.

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Chun b
Bn c ci nhn tng quan v bi cnh, bn ang lm g v mi trng xung quanh bn nh th no, bn cn lm g thch ng vi n. Gi l lc bn phi suy ngh xem nhng ai, t chc no l nhng i tng lin quan ti chng trnh ca bn. Lu : t c s n gin m hiu qu, trt t ca ba phn u tin ny (bi cnh, tng quan mi trng v xc nh i tng lin quan) c sp xp mt cch c ch . Bi v khi bt tay vo thc t, bn rt d chng cho, ln ln cc phn ny vi nhau. V d, i tng lin quan c th xut hin trong phn tng quan v mi trng. Khng sao c. Vn l bn phi ngh k v thng sut v tt c cc vn ny sao cho bn khng b qua mt vn no khin bn gp phi rc ri sau ny. Tng phn ca bn k hoch truyn thng phi c trnh by mt cch logic v phn ny phi c lin quan cht ch n phn kia, c bit phn phn tch cc i tng lin quan ny tng lai s phi lin quan ti rt nhiu phn khc pha sau trong bn k hoch. Phi lun suy ngh v cc i tng ny v lin tc quay tr li phn ny trong khi bn lm cc phn cn li ca k hoch. Phn tch cc i tng lin quan nn tp trung vo nhng ngi thc s b tc ng bi chng trnh ca bn.

Nhng cu hi cn t ra
Bn phi t ra nhng cu hi sau y cho mnh: - Tng i tng ng vai tr nh th no trong chng trnh ca bn? - Bn d kin tng i tng s phn ng nh th no i vi nhng g bn ang lm? Hy kim tra li kinh nghim bn c trc y vi tng i tng. Bn c hy vng h s ni ln suy ngh ca mnh khng? Liu h c th hin mi quan tm ca mnh mt cch ring t khng, hay h s s dng truyn thng? - Bn s s dng s ng h ca nhng i tng m bn cho l s c phn ng tch cc nh th no? Mi h tham d vo mt s kin bo ch trong tng lai?

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

ng gp kin, trch dn trong cc ti liu bo ch? a ra ci nhn mang tnh a phng v pht ngn ca bn trong chng trnh ny?

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- Bn s lm g gim thiu nhng i tng tiu cc c th gy nh hng? Bn c th ni chuyn trc vi h khng? Bn c th tham vn h v vic bn ang lm g trc khi a ra tuyn b chnh thc ca mnh mt cch rng ri khng? Bn s lm g nu nh bn khng th hn ch c h?

Nhc im chung ph bin nht ca cc k hoch truyn thng l khng xc nh c cc phn ng tiu cc c th xy ra. y c th l nguyn nhn xut pht bi bn khng xc nh c phn ng, cm gic ca cc i tng lin quan v nhng g bn ang lm. N cng c th l nguyn nhn ca s lc quan ca bn, bn cho rng s khng c ai c phn ng tiu cc c. N cng c th xut pht t l do bn khng mun cp trn ca mnh bit rng bn khng lm cho tt c mi ngi u cm thy hi lng. Nhng c mt iu bn chc chn phi nghi nh, l nu bn bit c mt ngi hoc mt nhm ngi no s phn ng tiu cc i vi nhng g bn ang lm (chng trnh, doanh nghip, sn phm... ca bn), th vic "l n i" l mt suy ngh sai lm. Bn s khng th lm mi ngi hi lng khi gi v nh mi ngi u hi lng trong khi bn bit r s tht khng phi vy. Bn s thng xuyn nhn ra rng vi chng trnh ca bn, s c mt phn trm nh nhng ngi ng h cao v cng s c mt phn trm nh nhng ngi kch lit chng i. Nu bn quan st cc phn ng ny mt cch c h thng, chng cng s chnh l cc nhm i tng. Bn c th khng lm c g nhiu thay i quan im ca h. Trong khi nhng i tng bn mun tc ng li chim ti 80% ca cc nhm i tng, nhng bn cng ng v th m b qua cc i tng cn li, nhng ngi, nhiu kh nng s c th gy nh hng xu ti chng trnh ca bn.

Ti s tr li trong mt bi vit khc dnh ring cho k thut phn tch v xc nh i tng lin quan (stakeholder) sau khi kt thc series bi v lp k hoch truyn thng.

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

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LP K HOCH

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

XC NH MC TIU
Ngi xa c cu: phi bit mnh s i u trc khi tnh xem mnh i ti bng cch no. Cng nh vy, trc khi lp k hoch chin lc, thm ch trc khi bn ngh ti chuyn s s dng sn phm truyn thng no, s kin g... bn cn phi xc nh c mc tiu ca mnh.

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Bn ang c gng lm g?
Phn ny l phn bn xc nh bn ang c gng t c iu g trong k hoch truyn thng ca mnh. V d: - Bn c mun gio dc khch hng ca mnh khng? - Bn c mun tm kim, xy dng s ng h hay bn mun to ra nhu cu? - Bn c mun khin mi ngi lm mt vic g khc i khng? - Bn c mun xoa du mt vn no khng? - Bn c mun ci thin kt qu tm kim v cng ty/sn phm/nhn s cao cp ca bn khng? - Bn c mun nng cao danh ting ca cng ty bn khng? - Bn c mun xut hin trn bo ch c online v offline nhiu hn khng? Cho d bn mun lm bt c vic g i na, th y cng l ch bn xc nh ra n.

Xc nh mc tiu
C l bn s cn phi s dng n "thn ch" ca cc trng kinh t vy - m hnh SMART. Mc tiu ca bn cn phi: Specific - c th Measurable - c th o lng c Achievable - c th t c Realistic - thc t Time-focused - tp trung vo yu t thi gian Nu bn nghin cu k m hnh ny ti Manager Tools, bn s nhn thy mt khi bn m bo c hai yu t l "M" v "T", bn gn nh c th m bo tip c cc yu t cn li. Hy chc chn l mc tiu ca bn c th o lng c v quan tm ti yu t thi gian. Tnh C th, C-th-tc v Thc t cng s lin quan mt thit ti hai yu t ny. Cc mc tiu m h s tr thnh "cm by" sau ny. Hy m bo l bn c th o lng c chng v bn s buc phi "c th" chng. i vi "Achievable" v "Realistic", nu mc tiu ca bn khng p ng c hai tiu ch ny, bn s khng "c php" cng nh khng c kh nng, vit bt k mt bn k hoch no, ch cha th ni n mt k hoch truyn thng.

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

Mc tiu kinh doanh v mc tiu truyn thng khng phi l mt


Mt trong nhng phn kh nht ca phn ny l bn phi phn bit c s khc nhau gia mc tiu kinh doanh v mc tiu truyn thng. Vic phn bit, khng nhm ln hai loi mc tiu ny c bit quan trng. Hy nh rng bn khng th chu ht trch nhim cho thnh cng hay tht bi ca c hai mc tiu ny. Bn vn c th a mt phn mc tiu kinh doanh vo trong mc tiu truyn thng. Lm nh vy bn c th m bo c l chng trnh ca bn c h tr cho mc tiu kinh doanh tng th, ch bn khng th thc hin trc tip cc mc tiu kinh doanh ny.

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S dng phn tch trc


Cc phn trc y hon ton l phn phn tch, ng lng ph cc phn tch ny. Hy nhn li xem bn mong mun cc i tng ca bn s phn ng nh th no. Xem li xem bo ch ni g v vn ca bn. Hy xc lp mc tiu ca mnh t nhng thc tin ny.

n tng no s lu li?
Nu c mt iu g bn mun mi ngi nh v chng trnh ca bn, th l g? iu ny khng cn bn phi vit ra nh l mt "thng ip chnh", nhng n nn c ng c nhng thng tin cn thit nht v nhng g bn ang lm. Theo Dave Fleet, ng ln u tin pht hin ra ci gi l "n tng cn mi" trong mt k hoch truyn thng mi ch vi nm trc y, v ng rt thch n. N khin bn phi c kt nhng g bn ang lm trong mt hoc hai cu m mt ngi "trung bnh" c th hiu c. y l mt cch tuyt vi gip cho ngi c k hoch ca bn, kha cnh n gin nht, c th bit c "chuyn g ang din ra". y l mt im quan trng m bn phi ghi nh trong sut qu trnh lp k hoch ca mnh. Bn vit n ra gip bn c mt cch tip cn ph hp vi cc hot ng truyn thng cng nh gip ngi khc hiu (v ng h, thng qua) k hoch ca bn. Hy gi n thng trc trong u trong sut qu trnh lp k hoch. Mt li ch na ca vic xc nh c "n tng cn mi" ny l gip bn hc c cch din t tng chnh ca ton b chng trnh ca bn mt cch n gin. y l mt k nng cn thit cho mt ngi lm truyn thng.

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

CHIN LC
Gi th bn xc nh c mc tiu cho k hoch truyn thng ca mnh, bn bit bn s i ti u. n lc tm xem lm th no n c ni bn mun n. Chin lc chnh l ni bn xc nh bn s t c mc tiu ca mnh bng cch no. Nu bn lm tt phn phn tch v ngh ht sc k lng v cc mc tiu ca mnh, chin lc cng s xut hin trc mt bn mt cch sun s. Cn nu cc bc trc bn thc hin cha "chun", cha ng, bn c th cn phi quay li t u v ngh k hn, xem xt k hn li tng phn.

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Chin lc cn bao gm nhng g?


Nng lc Bn hy ngh v cch tip cn chung ca mnh. Bn c mun xut hin ti a trn truyn thng i chng khng? Hay bn mun xut hin t nht c th? n gin nht l bn t tr li cu hi: bn mun chin dch truyn thng ca bn c thc hin mt cch chuyn nghip, ch ng (high-profile) hay ch mc va phi, th ng (low-profile)? Ch ng, chuyn nghip (Proactive) hay th ng (reactive)? Trong qu trnh tham gia vo lnh vc PR ny, bn s dn nhn ra rng tip cn mt cch chuyn nghip (high-profile) s lun i cng vi vic phi tr nn ch ng (proactive) v ngc li. Tuy nhin, khng phi mi trng hp u nh th. Bn c mun t mnh xoay chuyn vn , hay bn mun ch i khch hng v truyn thng t tm n vi bn?

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

i tng lin quan Hy lun nh trong u mt cch r rng v cc i tng lin quan bn xc nh c bn trn, mc chung nht, bn s lm g tip cn h? Bn s tip cn tt c cc i tng bn c hay ch tip cn mt vi i tng chnh? Bn s giao tip vi h mt cch trc tip hay thng qua truyn thng bo ch hay c th t website ca bn?

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Lun nh...
Lin h ti mc tiu
Bn dnh thi gian xc nh mc tiu cho k hoch ca mnh, ng b ph cng sc ny. Hy m bo l chin lc ca bn ph hp vi ci ch m bn mun ti.

Lin h ti phn phn tch


Cng nh th, chin lc ca bn cn phi ph hp vi cc phn tch bn thc hin trc . Cch d nht thc hin iu ny l bn phi nhn thy r, vch r c ranh gii khc bit gia hai phn ny.

ng nhm ln "chin lc" vi "chin thut" (phng thc thc hin)


y l im rt d nhm ln. Hy nh rng: "chin lc" v "chin thut" l hai khi nim hon ton khc nhau. ng vi ch ra chnh xc bn s lm nhng g a ra/gii quyt/sng to cho chng trnh ca bn vo thi im ny. Tng i kh, bi v lc ny trong u bn xut hin no l tiu cho thng co bo ch s nh th no, giao din blog trng s ra sao, cc hnh nh, sn phm... s nh th no -- nhng hy p bn thn mnh tp trung vo bc tranh ln hn trc. Tuy nhin, hy nh rng trong khi chin dch v chin thut l hon ton khc nhau, th chng li c quan h rt gn gi vi nhau -- chin thut s gip bn nh hnh c cc quyt nh trong tng lai, trong c bao gm cc chin thut (phng thc thc hin). Nhng la chn m bn thc hin a ra chin lc s l mt nhn t quyt nh ti vic bn s la chn cc chin thut no. Bn i qua phn "chin lc" mt cch khng phi l qu kh khn ng khng? Gi th bn bit mnh ang n lc t c iu g, "chin lc" s l cp u tin trong vic bn ch ra mnh s lm g i ti ch.

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

CNG CHNG MC TIU


Chng ta va thc hin xong cc phn: phn tch tnh hnh, xc nh mc tiu v quyt nh chin lc. Gi l lc quyt nh xem ai l cng chng ca bn, hay ni cch khc l bn s ni cho nhng ai nghe.

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Ngh li
Bn phi quyt nh xem ai l ngi bn mun tip cn trong chng trnh truyn thng ca mnh. Phn tch cc nhm cng chng hoc c nhn bn mun tip cn v u l nhu cu ca h. Nhng i tng lin quan no bn phn tch bn trn tr thnh nhm cng chng mc tiu? Bn cn phi quan tm ti nhng nhm cng chng no na? thnh cng bn phi lin h ti nhng ai? Hy nh lin h li vi mc tiu v chin lc bn trn ca bn. Bn ang c gng tip cn mt nhm cng chng nh hay l cng chng trn din rng?

K lng
Hy m bo l bn khng b qua bt k mt nhm cng chng no. Bn suy ngh t nhng gc no? Hy ngh k xem ti sao bn li cn nhc i tng ny hay i tng khc a vo nhm cng chng tim nng. H ng vai tr nh th no trong ton b vn ? H c phi nhng ngi khng bao gi hi lng vi nhng g bn lm (nu vy, bn c th nn xc nh li, tp trung vo nhng ngi c kh nng "hp th" nhng g bn a ra nhiu hn)? H bit n u v vn ca bn (iu ny c th nh hng ti vic la chn chin thut sau ny)? Bn c th lp ra danh sch di cc nhm cng chng mc tiu. Cc i tng lin quan m bn phn tch phn trn l im d nht bt u. Xem xt k cc i tng lin quan v xc nh xem cng chng mc tiu ca bn gm nhng ai trong danh sch . Mt s nhm tim nng c th tr thnh cng chng ca bn nh: Nhng ngi m t tng, kin ca h c nh hng Cc nhm chuyn gia / lnh vc / doanh nghip Chnh ph (cc th ch, chnh sch, nu bn lm vic trong khu vc nh nc) Cc nh phn tch chuyn mn thuc lnh vc ca bn Nhn vin ca bn
Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

Cng chng trn mng (v d: cc nhm trn mng x hi, cc cng ng c bit lin quan Trang | 24 n bn, cc blogger)

Nhm quan tm / ng h Bo ch

Chnh xc
Nu bn ang mun "ni chuyn" vi khch hng (hay bn ang mun ni chuyn vi cng chng ni chung nu nh bn lm trong khu vc nh nc), hy c gng ht sc chia nh v pht hin ta tng i tng ring bit mt. C th bn chia theo nhn khu hc, c th theo mc quan tm hoc theo thi quen mua sm trc , bn c th chia theo bt k cch no m bn cm thy ph hp, nhng ng bao gi a ra nhng cm t chung chung nh "cng chng", "khch hng" nh l mt nhm cng chng mc tiu. Thu hp mt cch cn thn phn khc khch hng mc tiu s gip bn tm c cc chin thut d dng hn trong phn tip theo. V d, nu bn mong mun tip cn nhm cng chng l nhng cp v chng trung nin c con, chc chn bn s phi s dng cc chin thut khc so vi vic bn mun tip cn vi i tng nam gii tr trung hoc hc sinh trung hc. Cng nh vi hai cm t "khch hng" v "cng chng" chung chung nh ni trn, ng bao gi gi chung l "bo ch" m phi chia nh ra thnh tng nhm bo ch trng tm. Hy xem li phn tng quan v mi trng (bn thy l tng phn ca k hoch truyn thng c mi quan h cht ch vi nhau nh th no cha?) v xem xem nhng ai / t bo no vit v vn ca bn. Ai l ngi quan tm ti lnh vc ny? Khng ch cc t bo, m cn l c nhn cc nh bo nu c th (tuy nhin c mt vi t bo chuyn mn c bit khng tn tc gi nn bn kh c th lin h trc tip vi tc gi nu mun.) Tip theo, vic phn chia cc nhm khch hng mc tiu mt cch cn thn cng s gip bn xc nh ng nhm bo ch trng tm. Bn phi chc chn l khch hng mc tiu v bo ch mc tiu phi n khp vi nhau. Nu bn nhm ti nhm i tng l blogger hoc cc cng ng online, hy ngh tht cn thn. Bn xc nh c v tm c mi lin h vi cc blogger quan trng v cng ng quan trng lin quan ti lnh vc ca mnh ri ng khng? iu c ngha l bn cng bit ai quan tm ti chng trnh ca bn v ai s l ngi hp th c cch tip cn ca bn. ng ch gi thng co bo ch ca bn ti tt c cc blogger hay din n m bn bit, m ch lm nh bn lm vi bo ch, hy ngh k xem h cn g, quan im ca h l g v liu bn c nn tip cn tng i tng mt hay khng.

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

Vi mi mt site bn nn chn mt cch tip cn ring, bn c cc bi vit ca h, bn bit h lTrang | 25 ai (bao gm c tn tui), bn lin h c vi h, bn bit h quan tm ti vn g, v bn bit ci g s thu ht c s ch ca h. ng t ra li nhc khi tip cn nhm i tng ny. Mc d cc "review" tch cc trn th gii blog tht l li hi, nhng cc blogger cng rt d phn nn mt cch cng khai nu nh h khng hi lng, iu ny d dng hn nhiu so vi bo ch, cc nh bo thng cn trng hn v t trc tip hn so vi cc blogger.

D on
Bn phi cn nhc xem bn c th d on trc c s ng h ca cc nhm cng chng mc tiu i vi tuyn b bn sp a ra hay khng, chun b cho vic a ra cc chin thut sp ti. Xc nh nhm cng chng mc tiu c bit quan trng i vi thnh cng ca chin lc truyn thng ca bn. Nhm cng chng ch lp ch trng hoc khng chnh xc s dn ti vic khng tp trung, truyn thng khng hiu qu. Ngc li, xc nh tt cc nhm cng chng mc tiu s gip bn xy dng c cc thng ip v chin thut ph hp gip bn t c mc tiu ca mnh.

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

TUYN B
cng th bn cng c th ngh ti tuyn b chnh thc ca mnh trong chng trnh ny l g. Trong k hoch m bn vit, phn tuyn b l phn kh ngn gn. Hiu qu nht th y chnh l phn tng kt ngn gn v y nht ca ton b k hoch v nhng g bn ang lm v v sao bn li lm nhng vic . Tuyn b ca bn s d b "lc li" nu "mc tiu" v "chin lc" ca bn khng ch ra yu cu v mt tuyn b mang tnh ch ng (proactive). Nu bn chn mt chin dch th ng vi low-profile, bn s phi tp trung nhiu hn vo phn qun l ri ro tim n sau ny. Bn nn vit phn ny thnh mt trang ring, bn c th dn ln c, bn c th xem li bt k lc no bn mun trong sut qu trnh bn xy dng thng ip v chin lc sau ny. Tuy nhin, y thc s l mt phn d trong bn k hoch ca bn.

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Gi th bn xc nh c ton th ri, xy dng c mc tiu v chn c cng chng, cui

Lu : Cu trc ca mt bn k hoch truyn thng s tt hn nu bn khng sao chp n mt cch cng nhc. Mt bn k hoch truyn thng tt s gip ngi lp k hoch s dng nhng ni dung no h cn v khng khin h phi thc hin tt c cc phn khng cn thit.

Tng kt
Phc tho (cc) tuyn b ca bn mt cch t nhin. ng quan tm ti "thng ip: hay l "chin thut" vo lc ny, vic sau. Bn hon thin phn ln cng vic trong phn ny, ng "sng to li bnh xe", mt cng thit k ra nhng g c sn ri, ch cn rt ra cc ni dung t nhng phn tch trc y ca bn. Vit phn ny nh l mt tng kt ngn gn, sc tch v nhng g bn vit cho n thi im ny.

n gin
Mc d y khng phi l phn u tin trong k hoch ca bn nhng li l phn u tin m nhng ngi c hoc duyt k hoch ca bn s c. Do , bn phi tng kt c chnh xc nhng g bn ang ni n mt cch c ng nht. C gng xc nh c tuyn b ca bn v ti sao bn li tuyn b n trong mt hoc hai cu ngn gn bng ngn ng d hiu. Nh rng: cc nh qun l, sp ca bn hay nhng ngi duyt k hoch ca bn khng h c li g t cc phn tch nn tng bn thc hin pha trn, n thc s ch gip ch cho bn thi.

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

Lin h
Bn xc nh c "bi cnh" t u, s dng n tng kt ngn gn y, ch ra n ph hp nh th no i vi cc hot ng trong phm vi ln hn i vi t chc ca bn.

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Trung thc
ng nh la chnh mnh. Bn rt d t hng mi chuyn trong k hoch ca mnh, c gng a ra cc "tin tt", nhng lm th s chng gip g c cho bn. Hy t ra trung thc trong qu trnh lp k hoch v n s gip bn lm mi vic tt hn trong ton b qu trnh.

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

THNG IP CHNH
Bn lm xong phn phn tch cng nh phn chin lc, bn cng bit i tng cng chng mc tiu ca bn l ai, n lc bn phi thit k ra cc thng ip. Nhng bn s bt u t u? Cc thng ip chnh gip bn phc tho ln ton b cc "sn phm" (truyn thng) bn s dng sau ny khi bn trin khai thc hin k hoch truyn thng ca mnh. Chng s gip bn i ng hng v m bo bn s truyn thng ti / giao tip vi, ng ngi v ni ng vn . Cc thng ip chnh s ngm vo ton b qu trnh truyn thng ca bn, do , n cng s chim kh nhiu s quan tm ca nhng ngi c ting ni quyt nh. Phn ny s i vo phm vi hp hn so vi cc phn trn. iu quan trng lc ny l bn phi dnh thi gian cho n. Thng ip chnh chnh l nhng g bn mun ni vi mi ngi. Nu mi ngi ly i mt ci g t chin dch truyn thng ca bn, chc chn bn mong mun chnh l thng ip chnh. Thng ip chnh nn: Chuyn ti nhng g bn ang lm v ti sao bn li lm vic Chuyn ti nhng g s to nn s thay i, l im mi m Ph hp vi mc tiu ca bn Ni vi tt c cc i tng cng chng ca bn

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Bn ang lm g v ti sao
Thng ip u tin m bn tho ra lun l thng ip quan trng nht, ni ln bn ang lm g v ti sao. Bn dnh nhiu thi gian cho cc nghin cu v phn tch bn trn (l tng l t u n gi bn l ngi tham gia trc tip vo tt c cc phn ny), cho nn bn bit cng ty/t chc ca bn ang lm g v ti sao li lm vic . By gi bn ch cn phi vit li iu ln giy. Nghe th c v d, nhng n s l mt vic kh khn mt cch ng ngc nhin. Mt vi im mu cht bn cn quan tm khi vit thng ip chnh: Tp trung vo nhng im chnh - bn khng cn phi ghi chi tit ra y Ngn gn Bn l con ngi, vy th hy vit nh mt con ngi
Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

Lm ni bt nhng mt tch cc ca nhng g bn ang lm, nhng ng ni sai lch i Quyt nh xem bn mun cc "cu chuyn" v nhng g bn ang lm s ni v ci g. Tp trung vo .

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Nhng g s thay i
S d hiu hn cho mi ngi nu nh bn cho h thy t nhiu bi cnh v nhng g bn ang lm. Bn ang nhn i s tin ln cho mt chng trnh ca chnh ph? Hay bn ang sn xut mt sn phm tt hn sn phm trc ti 50%? S dng cc v d trc / sau nu ph hp Gii thch ti sao mi ngi nn quan tm, trong phm vi mi quan tm ca h Cng c cc thng ip ca bn bng nhng s liu, dn chng c th nu bn c

Lin h ti mc tiu ca bn
Hy ngh v mc tiu m bn t ra trn. Cho d l mc tiu g th bn cng phi vit thng ip phn nh c mc tiu . Bn ang c gng nng cao nhn thc ca cng chng v mt sn phm? Bn ang c gng lm cho mi ngi thay i thi ? C th bn ang c gng xc nh mt vn gy bt ng no . Hy chc chn l bn khng i theo hng b qu nhng l do khin bn lm tt c nhng vic ny. S rt d ri vo tnh trng ny nu bn khng cn thn.

Bao qut tt c cc nhm cng chng


C ngi th thch vit mt lot thng ip chnh cho tng k hoch truyn thng sau s dng tng thng ip cho tng mc ch. C ngi th li thch vit ra mt lot cc thng ip chnh cho tng i tng cng chng mc tiu. Theo Dave Fleet, ng thch cch nhn vo tng i tng mc tiu vit ra cc thng ip ph hp vi nhu cu ca h. Nu bn bit r mt nhm cng chng no c quan tm ti mt kha cnh no v nhng g bn ang lm, bn phi m bo l cc thng ip ca bn phi ch ra mt cch c th vn . Cng nh vy, nu h ang mong i mt tnh nng, mt c im mi no trong sn phm mi ca bn, hy m bo l bn cng nu ra iu trong thng ip ca mnh. Nu bn lm nh vy, bn s khng gp phi nhiu s phn i t pha cng chng mc tiu.

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

CHIN THUT HAY PHNG THC THC HIN


"K hoch ch thc s c ngha khi n c thc hin c th mt cch n lc." -- Peter Drucker
Bn bit c mc ch ca mnh, bn bit bn s "ni nhng g" (thng ip chnh), v "ni vi ai" (cng chng mc tiu). Gi l lc bn phi quyt nh "ni nh th no" (chin thut). Bn s tip cn cng chng mc tiu ca bn nh th no?

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Chia giai on
S rt hu ch nu bn suy ngh v thng ip ca mnh ba giai on - trc tuyn b, tuyn b v sau tuyn b.

Trc tuyn b: Bn s tip cn, lm quen vi cc bn lin quan / c ng / khch hng /


bo ch nh th no trc tuyn b?

Tuyn b: Bn s thc hin k hoch ca mnh nh th no? Sau tuyn b: Bn s lm g tip tc c bo ch / cng chng ni n sau tuyn b?

Chin lc
Nh ni trn, ton b cc phn ca k hoch truyn thng c mi lin h cht ch vi nhau (phn tch ban u tr thnh mc ch, mc tiu; cc i tng lin quan tr thnh cng chng, chin lc l kt qu ca mc tiu, v.v...), tng t nh th, chin thut cng s ph hp vi chin lc. Nu bn chn chin lc tip cn ch ng, high-profile, th chin thut ca bn cng phi ht sc r rng v khc bit so vi bn chn chin lc tip cn th ng, low-profile. Bn quyt nh truyn thng thng qua bo ch, qua cc i tng lin quan hay trc tip ti khch hng? Bn cng phi c li phn bi cnh v tng quan mi trng. Bn c cn phi nng cao nhn thc ca cng chng v vn ca bn trc khi bn a ra tuyn b ca mnh khng? Nu bn thc hin tng bc trong vic lp k hoch truyn thng ny mt cch chnh xc, th ti lc ny, bn thn k hoch s gip bn thc hin phn ny. Vi vic xy dng cc chin thut phn cui ca k hoch truyn thng ny, s gip bn p mnh xem xt k v k hoch ca bn t mi gc . iu ny cng ng ngha vi vic gip bn trnh c vic "default" (mc nh) trong u mt thng co bo ch no m bn c ngh l ph hp nhng thc ra li khng, hay mt s kin bo ch no m bn khng h cn nhc k xem n c thc s cn thit cho ton b k hoch khng.
Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

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Lnh hi
Phi chc chn l bn gi tn c ton b cng chng ca mnh. Kim tra i kim tra li xem bn c b qua mt nhm cng chng quan trng no khng. Mt b quyt kh hu ch l: to mt bng lit k ton b danh sch cng chng mc tiu (bn tri) v cc chin thut bn xut thanh ngang. Hy nh du chin thut no ph hp cho nhm cng chng no. Nhng phi nh l mi nhm cng chng phi c nh du t nht hai hoc ba chin thut. Chin thut 1 Cng chng 1 Cng chng 2 Cng chng 3 Cng chng 4 Cng chng 5 x x x X x x x Chin thut 2 Chin thut 3 x X x x X X Chin thut 4 X X Chin thut 5

Nu sau khi lp bng ny ri m bn vn cm thy dng nh mnh b st mt nhm cng chng quan trng no , hy quay tr li cc bc trn v suy ngh li.

Cc chin thut ph bin


Di y l mt vi chin thut bn c th s dng cho cc giai on khc nhau lin quan n tuyn b. Mt s chin thut trong danh sch di y c th yu cu mt k hoch ring thc hin n: ng bi trn bo - ch ng lin h vi nh bo vit bi, ch ng vit cc bi bo c th ng c. cp n chng trnh ca bn thng qua cc s kin/tuyn b khc Cc s kin truyn thng, bo ch Tuyn b mang tnh khu vc, phm vi Din vn Ti liu gii thiu sn phm - thng co bo ch (v/hoc thng co cho bo ch kinh t x hi) Brochure, t ri White paper Tuyn b v tin trnh - mc thi gian, kt qu, ngy m ca
Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

T vn hoc s kin dnh cho cc i tng lin quan Th gi ti cc i tng lin quan Qung co trn Tivi / pht thanh / bo giy / ngoi tri / tng tc Gi newsletter qua email Quan h vi blogger Tham gia vo mng x hi Pht trin / tip cn cng ng online

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Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

QUN L RI RO
Bn thc hin xong tng phn ca bn k hoch mt cch kh hon ho -- mc tiu, chin lc, chin thut, bn gn nh sp xong vic ri! Nhng chuyn g s xy ra nu c iu g khng nh mun ca bn, nu nh c s c? Chuyn g s xy ra nu mt nh bo "hiu chin" no hi shock bn, thm ch a tin tiu cc v nhng g bn ang lm? "Qun l vn " thc cht l nm bt c cc vn trc khi

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chng tr thnh khng hong. K hoch chin lc ca bn s


gip bn qun l c iu ny. Ni chung, rt kh ni trc c chuyn g s xy ra, nhng nu suy ngh k lng, bn vn c th lng trc c hu ht mi chuyn. Trong khung c bn ca mt k hoch truyn thng, phn qun l cc ri ro tim n thng xut hin di dng cu hi Q&A nh l phn hi p bn thng chun b cho cc cuc hp bo hoc cho cc s kin. Chun b phn Q&A ny s gip bn gii quyt cc vn pht sinh d dng hn theo logic hiu bit: Q: X l g? A: Cu tr li ca chng ti l...

Pht hin vn
c tht k bn k hoch ca bn v t hi bn thn nhng cu sau: Ci g ang thay i? Phn no s gy tranh ci? Nhng nhm ng h no s quan tm ti chng trnh ny? C i tng lin quan no trng i mt ci g khc hn khng? C kha cnh no trong k hoch ny tng thu ht gii bo ch trc y khng? Blog no ang vit v ti ny? H ni nhng g? Liu chng trnh ny c to ra c tc ng v mt tnh cm, cm xc no i vi mi ngi?

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

C bt k iu g trong chng trnh ny c nh hng trc tip ti i tng no khng? Trang | 34 Bn (t chc ca bn) ni vi h v vn ny cha?

C phn no kh hiu khng? C cn phi gii thch thm khng?

C rt nhiu cu hi, nhng tht may mn l cc cng vic bn lm t u n gi c th gip bn kh nhiu trong vic tr li. c li tt c cc phn trong bn k hoch ca mnh, t bi cnh, tng quan, c bit l phn phn tch cc i tng lin quan, trong khi tm cch tr li cc cu hi ny. Bn s tm thy rt nhiu cu tr li . Bn cng nn tm ti cc chuyn gia v vn ca bn, trong lnh vc ca bn, nhng ngi c lin quan cht ch ti chng trnh ca bn, hi xem h ngh g. Cng nh lm cc phn trc, bn nn suy ngh tht k v vit ra bt k cu hi no m bn cm thy cn thit hoc bn cht ngh ra.

Gim thiu ri ro
Mt khi bn xc nh c cc ri ro tim n, bn hy ngh ti vic lm th no gim thiu chng. Nhiu khi mt bng Q&A thng thng l c th gii quyt c cc ri ro ca bn. Nhng trong rt nhiu trng hp, bn cn phi xem li cc phn trong k hoch ca mnh (chin lc, thng ip, cng chng, chin thut...) v iu chnh. Trong mt s trng hp khc, nhng g bn cn lm th mt chin dch truyn thng cha hn gii quyt c, m bn cn phi tham vn cc chuyn gia v lnh vc v a ra cc vn nh h gii quyt trc khi bn a ra tuyn b ca mnh. Xem xt k lng cc vn tim n s gip bn c c mt nn tng vng chc thc hin thnh cng k hoch ca mnh cng nh gim bt kh nng ri ro v hn ch nhng vic khng mong mun trong tng lai.

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

NGN SCH
nht cng bao gm phn ny. Trong bn k hoch truyn thng dnh cho doanh nghip, phn ny phi thc hin ht sc chi tit. Catharine Montgomery ng khi ch ra rng bn cn phi lun nh trong u v khon ngn sch m bn c trong sut qu trnh vit bn k hoch cng nh xut cc hot ng tng ng. Trong phn ny, bn s a ra mc chi ph ph hp cho cc xut bn trn ca bn.

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Cho d bn rt ngi ngh n tin nong, th tht khng may l ngay c k hoch truyn thng s lc

Rt nhiu yu t cn cn nhc
Nu bn chn chin lc tip cn th ng, low-profile, ngn sch cho k hoch ca bn s kh thp bi v phn ln cng vic ca bn lin quan ti vit lch, vn bn. Tuy nhin, nu bn chn chin lc ch ng, high-profile, ngn sch ca bn c th s cao chng mt. V d, mt chng trnh m Dave Fleet thc hin vo u nm 2008 va qua, cc hng mc chi ph bao gm: - T chc mt s kin bo ch - nh sng, sn khu, m thanh, thit k, t chc a im - Sn xut v bin tp video ti ch - Ti liu bo ch: Thng co bo ch Ti liu gii thiu Ti liu k thut T vn truyn thng

- Cc ti liu khc Bi bo vit sn Din vn ca ngi pht ngn Q&A cho bo ch B-roll video Chin dch gio dc nhn thc cng chng

Cho d y l mt chin lc high-profile, nhng khng h c chi ph thu a im, khng c cc hot ng tng tc ln, khng s dng cc phng tin truyn thng mi, khng c marketing thc s, khng c nghin cu th trng v khng c c qung co.
Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

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Li chi tit
Nu bn xut mt chi ph ln (c bit l bn a c qung co vo trong chng trnh ca bn), hy c gng chi tit, c th tng hng mc chi ph. Bn s nhn ra rng bn xut chi ph ca bn cng chi tit th cng d c thng qua. Nhiu trng hp bn phi xut vi phng n tip cn cho k hoch ca bn. V d, bn s phi a ra c ba phng n low, medium v high-profile trong xut ca mnh. Nu nh vy, hy m bo l bn cng phi xut chi ph tng ng cho tng phng n. Ngun ngn sch cho bn n t u? N c ph hp vi ngn sch nh trc cho truyn thng khng hay n vt mc cn thit? Nu vy th bn cn phi c thng qua nhng g na c duyt ngn sch ny?

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

NH GI
y l phn cui cng trong k hoch truyn thng ca bn. Bn sp c th th pho c ri. Cng nh cc phn khc, phn ny mt ln na li cn ti kin ch quan ca bn. Trc khi lm phn ny, bn nht thit phi c li cc phn tch v mc tiu ca bn (bn bit phi o lng ci g). nh gi l mt vic ht sc kh, v trong lnh vc PR, n thng b "l" i. C rt nhiu l do: Tm mt cng c o lng cho cc hot ng ht sc a dng ca mt chin dch PR thc s l mt th thch. Khch hng khng thoi mi khi phi tr ph cho hot ng nh gi Thiu cc tiu ch nh gi chun cho thnh cng ca mng x hi Nhu cu truyn thng lin tc, nhanh chng y chng ta ti ch cha thc hin xong chin dch ny lo chin dch khc.

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Mc ch ca bn
Mc ch ca bn trong phn nh gi ny l ch ra c bn s o thnh cng ca chin dch truyn thng ca mnh bng cch no. Vi chin lc tip cn high-profile, bn s phi tri qua kh nhiu giai on ca tuyn b (trc, trong v sau nh ni trn), bn s phi nh gi da trn cc giai on ny, trong cc chin lc khc, n c th c phm vi nh hn.

Cc giai on nh gi
Nu bn chia giai on thc hin, bn cng phi chia giai on nh gi. Cng vi vic em li nhng kt qu ng kinh ngc, vic chia giai on ny c th gip bn thc hin nhng vic ph hp nu nh cc hot ng trc khng em li c kt qu nh mong mun. Xem li cc mc thi gian khc nhau bn va t ra v a ra cc im nh gi tng ng. Nu c th, bn hy c gng t ra cc im chun cho qu trnh nh gi. Cho d l k hoch bn hng, nng cao nhn thc hay tng thi lng a tin, hay thay i thi , hoc cc tiu ch khc na, nh gi ca bn s c tnh thuyt phc hn, trong trng hp bn ch ra mnh thnh cng, nu bn a ra c cc so snh trc v sau. iu ny c ngha l vo thi im bn thc
Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

hin xong chin dch ca mnh, bn phi o lng xem bn hon thnh mc tiu ca mnh n u. L tng l, bn s c th s dng kt qu bn c ch ra c mc tiu kinh doanh cng c hon thnh nh th no.

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Thc o tim nng


Di y l mt s thc o bn c th s dng.

Tn xut xut hin trn bo


C bao nhiu bi bo vit v bn? Ging iu ca cc bi bo ny (tiu cc hay tch cc)? Nhng t bo no a tin? a tin trang no, phn no? Cng chng ca h l ai? Bn c t c hnh nh mong mun khng? H c ly li thng ip ca bn khng? Ngi pht ngn ca bn c c dn li khng? Cc bi bo vit v chng trnh ca bn nh l ni dung chnh hay ch l ni dung im qua, thm tht? Phng php nh gi theo cch ny rt a dng. Bn c th tham kho ti Media Relations Rating Points (xem bi vit One Degree ca Ben Boudreu lm v d tham kho).

Tng tc trn mng


Bao nhiu ngi c bi vit v bn? Thi gian h lu trn trang ca bn? Nhng trang no h click vo? C trang c bit no m h gh thm nhiu nht? T l ngi quay tr li c trang ca bn nh th no? T l tham gia thc s vo nh th no (ty thuc vo mc ch ca bn l ch cn li ko ngi c hay cn phi thc hin vic mua bn, ng k hay download ti liu...) o lng hiu qu ca mng x hi hin nay thm ch cn gy tranh ci nhiu hn vic o lng hiu qu ca PR. Cc comment, cc lin kt ngc, v.v... kh tuyt nhng i khi n li o nhiu hn l c ngha o lng thc t. Bn c th bt u vi cch o lng ca KD Paine's "un-standard" hay Joseph Thornley, Social Media Measurement Routable (hi tho Toronto u nm 2008).
Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

Cc i tng lin quan


Cc i tng lin quan phn ng nh th no?

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n nhn t pha cng chng


Bao nhiu th / email / cuc in thoi bn nhn c v vn ny? Nhiu hn hay t hn thng l?

Ging iu ca bo ch nh th no?
Cc nh bo hi/ni iu g?

Mc quan trng
Tin hnh cc nghin cu / kho st th trng trc, sau (thm ch trong khi) bn ang thc hin truyn thng v ch ra c s ci thin v ch s, v d i vi thi ca cng chng. Tp trung vo tng nhm

Trn y khng phi l ton b cc cng c bn c th s dng o lng m mi ch l bt u. Vic nh gi ny rt a dng, bn c th thit k cho ph hp vi chng trnh ca mnh.

Time Universal Communications | Confidential | 12/11/2008 |

KT LUN
Gi th bn c mt k hoch hon chnh. Mi hai phn logic vi nhau trong mt k hoch truyn thng. Hy c gng thc hin mi hai phn ny. Xc lp mt nn tng vng chc thng qua cc phn tch bi cnh mt cch k lng, ci nhn bao qut v tng quan mi trng, v tt c cc i tng lin quan c th b tc ng bi chng trnh ca bn. Nhng phn u tin nu lm tt s em n cho bn ci nhn su sc, gi tr, bn pht trin cc phn tip theo. Trong qu trnh lp k hoch, bn nn quan tm ti vic lin h tng phn vi nhau. Nu bn lm tt, chin lc v chin thut ca bn s rt r rng i vi ngi c k hoch ca bn, h c th hiu c suy ngh ca bn. S khng c mt k hoch truyn thng "hon ho" no. y chnh l th thch cho ngi lm truyn thng. Tng k hoch li rt khc nhau, thm ch, nh ni bi u tin, n cn ty thuc c vo phong cch ca ngi vit. Tuy nhin, nu bn suy ngh cn thn trong qu trnh thc hin tng phn ca k hoch, bn s c mt k hoch rt tt, tha mn c cch tip cn ca bn v cng tha mn ngi ph duyt k hoch ca bn. C th n s khng hon ho, nhng bn ang i ng hng c th xy dng c mt k hoch truyn thng tt. Thng tin trong lot bi v xy dng k hoch truyn thng ny l tng hp nghin cu, tham kho k hoch truyn thng ca Dave Fleet, I&Dea, ODI, Mind Tools, v rt nhiu ngun khc.

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