• Methods have been devised to modify the yield strength, ductility, and toughness of both crystalline and amorphous materials. • These strengthening mechanisms give engineers the ability to tailor the mechanical properties of materials to suit a variety of different applications. • For example, the favorable properties of steel result from interstitial incorporation of carbon into the iron lattice.
4/4/2014 2

• Brass, a binary alloy of copper and zinc, has superior mechanical properties compared to its constituent metals due to solution strengthening. • Work hardening (such as beating a red-hot piece of metal on anvil) has also been used for centuries by blacksmiths to introduce dislocations into materials, increasing their yield strengths.



4/4/2014 4 . it is the movement of dislocations in the material which allows for deformation.e. we simply need to introduce a mechanism which prohibits the mobility of these dislocations. increase the yield and tensile strength).What is Strengthening? • Plastic deformation occurs when large numbers of dislocations move and multiply so as to result in macroscopic deformation. • In other words. • If we want to enhance a material's mechanical properties (i.

) they all hinder dislocation motion and render the material stronger than previously. (work hardening.What is Strengthening? • Whatever the mechanism may be. etc. grain size reduction. so this mode of stress relief is energetically favorable. 4/4/2014 5 . • The stress required to cause dislocation motion is orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical stress required to shift an entire plane of atoms. the hardness and strength (both yield and tensile) critically depend on the ease with which dislocations move. • Hence.

creating physical barriers from second phase precipitates forming along grain boundaries.What is Strengthening? • Pinning points. or locations in the crystal that oppose the motion of dislocations. • Dislocations may be pinned due to stress field interactions with other dislocations and solute particles. can be introduced into the lattice to reduce dislocation mobility. thereby increasing mechanical strength. 4/4/2014 6 .

by some processing method. 4/4/2014 7 .What is Strengthening? • There are four main strengthening mechanisms for metals. the amount of force required to start irreversible (plastic) deformation is greater than it was for the original material. you are making it energetically unfavorable for the dislocation to move or propagate. the key concept to remember about strengthening of metallic materials is that it is all about preventing dislocation motion and propagation. • For a material that has been strengthened.

• In these systems. 4/4/2014 8 . the lack of long range order leads to yielding via mechanisms such as brittle fracture.What is Strengthening? • In amorphous materials such as polymers. amorphous ceramics (glass). strengthening mechanisms do not involve dislocations. but rather consist of modifications to the chemical structure and processing of the constituent material. and amorphous metals. crazing. and shear band formation.

What is Strengthening? • Unfortunately. Each of the mechanisms elaborated below involves some trade off by which other material properties are compromised in the process of strengthening. 4/4/2014 9 . strength of materials cannot infinitely increase.

Strengthening Mechanisms in Metals • 1-Work hardening: Work hardening. • Any material with a reasonably high melting point such as metals and alloys can be strengthened in this fashion 4/4/2014 10 . • This strengthening occurs because of dislocation movements within the crystal structure of the material. is the strengthening of a metal by plastic deformation. also known as strain hardening or cold working. • Or is the phenomenon whereby a ductile metal becomes harder and stronger as it is plastically deformed.

such as indium. 4/4/2014 11 . • Some materials cannot be work-hardened at normal ambient temperatures.1-Work hardening • Alloys not amenable ‫ تیار‬to heat treatment. are often workhardened. such as pure copper and aluminum. • The primary species responsible for work hardening are dislocations. however others can only be strengthened via work hardening. including low-carbon steel.

causing the formation of a jog which opposes dislocation motion.1-Work hardening • Dislocations interact with each other by generating stress fields in the material. if two dislocations cross. • These entanglements and jogs act as pinning points. • Additionally. 4/4/2014 12 . which oppose dislocation motion. dislocation line entanglement occurs. • The interaction between the stress fields of dislocations can impede dislocation motion by repulsive or attractive interactions.

and is the dislocation density. • where G is the shear modulus. there is a correlation between dislocation density and yield strength. • Increasing the dislocation density increases the yield strength which results in a higher shear stress required to move the dislocations. b is the Burgers vector. 4/4/2014 13 .1-Work hardening • As both of these processes are more likely to occur when more dislocations are present.

the strength of a material with no dislocations will be extremely high (τ=G/2) because plastic deformation would require the breaking of many bonds simultaneously. 4/4/2014 14 . at moderate dislocation density values of around 107-109 dislocations/m2. • Theoretically. the material will exhibit a significantly lower mechanical strength. • .1-Work hardening • This process is easily observed while working a material.

1-Work hardening • Analogously. It should be noted that the dislocation density can't be infinitely high because then the material would lose its crystalline structure. • At dislocation densities of 1014 dislocations/m2 or higher. the strength of the material becomes high once again. 4/4/2014 15 . it is easier to move a rubber rug across a surface by propagating a small ripple through it than by dragging the whole rug.

increasing the yield stress of the material. solute atoms of one element are added to another. • Solute atoms have stress fields around them which can interact with those of dislocations. • The solute atoms cause lattice distortions that impede dislocation motion. resulting in either substitutional or interstitial point defects in the crystal (see Figure 1).2-Solid Solution Strengthening/Alloying • For this strengthening mechanism. 4/4/2014 16 .

4/4/2014 17 .

2-Solid Solution Strengthening/Alloying • The presence of solute atoms impart compressive or tensile stresses to the lattice. depending on solute size. 4/4/2014 18 . • The shear stress required to move dislocations in a material is: • where c is the solute concentration and ε is the strain on the material caused by the solute. causing the solute atoms to act as potential barriers to dislocation propagation and/or multiplication. which interfere with nearby dislocations.

and one should look at the phase diagram for the material and the alloy to make sure that a second phase is not created. but there is a limit to the amount of solute that can be added. shear modulus of the solute atoms.2-Solid Solution Strengthening/Alloying • Increasing the concentration of the solute atoms will increase the yield strength of a material. size of solute atoms. 4/4/2014 19 . the solid solution strengthening depends on the concentration of the solute atoms. and the symmetry of the solute stress field. valency of solute atoms (for ionic materials). • In general.

4/4/2014 20 .2-Solid Solution Strengthening/Alloying • Note that the magnitude of strengthening is higher for non-symmetric stress fields because these solutes can interact with both edge and screw dislocations whereas symmetric stress fields. can only interact with edge dislocations. which cause only volume change and not shape change.

magnesium. • Precipitation hardening. and some stainless steels. nickel and titanium.3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening • precipitation hardening -a process in which alloys are strengthened by the formation. 4/4/2014 ‫پھیالنے‬ 21 . also called age hardening. in their lattice. including most structural alloys of aluminium. of a fine dispersion of one component when the metal is quenched from a high temperature and aged at an intermediate temperature. is a heat treatment technique used to increase the yield strength of malleable materials.

• Since dislocations are often the dominant carriers of plasticity. 4/4/2014 22 . • The impurities play the same role as the particle substances in particle-reinforced composite materials. this serves to harden the material. which impede the movement of dislocations.3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening • It relies on changes in solid solubility with temperature to produce fine particles of an impurity phase. or defects in a crystal's lattice.

• Unlike ordinary tempering. depending upon the thermal history of a given portion of the atmosphere. • This time delay is called aging. alloys must be kept at elevated temperature for hours to allow precipitation to take place. or hail. which have radically different properties.3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening • Just as the formation of ice in air can produce clouds. precipitation in solids can produce many different sizes of particles. 4/4/2014 23 . snow.

• Solid solution strengthening involves formation of a single-phase solid solution via quenching and leaves a material softer.3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening • Solution treatment and aging is sometimes abbreviated "STA" in metals specs and certs. 4/4/2014 24 . • Note that two different heat treatments involving precipitates can alter the strength of a material: solution heat treating and precipitation heat treating.

such as many aluminum alloys. • In some cases.3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening • Diffusion's exponential dependence upon temperature makes precipitation strengthening. a fairly delicate process. an increase in strength is achieved at the expense of corrosion resistance. 4/4/2014 25 . but benign. like all heat treatments. • A large number of other constituents may be unintentional. or may be added for other purposes such as grain refinement or corrosion resistance.

• However. precipitates of chromium.3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening • The addition of large amounts of nickel and chromium needed for corrosion resistance in stainless steels means that traditional hardening and tempering methods are not effective. • The strength can be tailored by adjusting the annealing process. copper or other elements can strengthen the steel by similar amounts in comparison to hardening and tempering. • The lower initial temperature increase driving force of nucleation. 4/4/2014 26 . with lower initial temperatures resulting in higher strengths.

3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening • More driving force means more nucleation sites. and more sites. • For instance. means more places for dislocations to be disrupted while the finished part is in use. some aluminium alloys used to make rivets for aircraft construction are kept in dry ice from their initial heat treatment until they are installed in the structure. • Many alloy systems allow the aging temperature to be adjusted. 4/4/2014 27 .

4/4/2014 28 . • Higher aging temperatures would risk overaging other parts of the structure. and require expensive post-assembly heat treatment. aging occurs at room temperature and increases its strength. • Too high of an aging temperature promotes the precipitate to grow too readily. locking the structure together.3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening • After this type of rivet is deformed into its final shape.

• The particles that compose the second phase precipitates act as pinning points in a similar manner to solutes. 4/4/2014 29 . • The dislocations in a material can interact with the precipitate atoms in one of two ways (see Figure 2). though the particles are not necessarily single atoms. alloying above a concentration given by the phase diagram will cause the formation of a second phase. • A second phase can also be created by mechanical or thermal treatments.3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening • In most binary systems.

3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening 4/4/2014 30 .

looping or bowing of the dislocations would occur which results in dislocations getting longer. • For larger precipitate particles.3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening • If the precipitate atoms are small. the dislocations would cut through them. • As a result. new surfaces (b in Figure 2) of the particle would get exposed to the matrix and the particle/matrix interfacial energy would increase. 4/4/2014 31 .

dislocations will preferably cut across the obstacle while for a radius of 30 nm. looping or bowing of the dislocations would occur which results in dislocations getting longer. at a critical radius of about 5 nm. The mathematical descriptions are as follows: For Particle BowingFor Particle Cutting32 4/4/2014 . the dislocations will readily bow or loop to overcome the obstacle. Hence.• • • • 3-Precipitation Hardening/Age Hardening For larger precipitate particles.

• Grain boundaries act as an impediment to dislocation motion for the following two reasons: 4/4/2014 33 . Grain Boundary Strengthening • In a polycrystalline metal. grain boundaries arise. grain size has a tremendous influence on the mechanical properties. • Because grains usually have varying crystallographic orientations. • While an undergoing deformation. slip motion will take place.4.

Discontinuity of slip planes from grain 1 to grain 2. Dislocation must change its direction of motion due to the differing orientation of grains. • The average number of dislocations per grain decreases with average grain size (see Figure 3). Grain Boundary Strengthening • 1. 4/4/2014 34 . 2. • The stress required to move a dislocation from one grain to another in order to plastically deform a material depends on the grain size.4.

Grain Boundary Strengthening •A lower number of dislocations per grain results in a lower dislocation 'pressure' building up at grain boundaries.4. •This makes it more difficult for dislocations to move into adjacent grains. 4/4/2014 35 .

more free volume is generated resulting in lattice mismatch. d is the average grain diameter and σy.0 is the original yield stress. Grain Boundary Strengthening • This relationship is the Hall-Petch Relationship and can be mathematically described as follows: • where k is a constant. • As the grain size decreases. 4/4/2014 36 .4. • The fact that the yield strength increases with decreasing grain size is accompanied by the caveat that the grain size cannot be decreased infinitely.

the grain boundaries will tend to slide instead. • If the grain size gets too small. so the discovery that strength decreases below a critical grain size is still exciting. 4/4/2014 37 . a phenomenon known as grain-boundary sliding. • It was not possible to produce materials with grain sizes below 10 nm until recently.4. it becomes more difficult to fit the dislocations in the grain and the stress required to move them is less. Grain Boundary Strengthening • Below approximately 10 nm.

Transformation Hardening • This is an assignment 4/4/2014 38 .5.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.