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IMSols_4

# IMSols_4

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mATERIAL sC
Crystal Directions and Planes
Powr Point Presenattions

Millers indices
mATERIAL sC
Crystal Directions and Planes
Powr Point Presenattions

Millers indices

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04/05/2014

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# LN–4

LN–4 IDLE MIND SOLUTIONS

1.

To do this, the equality of the molar volume N vol v + # unit cells x + nA x a 3 (m 3ńmole) mole unit cell and AW (gńmole) v + atomic wt. + density r (gńcm 3) is used, remembering to convert the volume obtained to m3/mole using the atomic weight: AW (gńmole) *6 m 3 + N A (atomsńmole) x a 3 (m 3ńunit cell) x 10 n (atomsńunit cell) r (gńcm 3) cm 3

Ni:

AW = 58.70 g/mole ρ = 8.90 g/cm3 FCC, so n = 4 atoms/unit cell a3 +
3 (58.70 gńmole) (4 atomsńunit cell) x 10 *6 m 3 3 23 cm (8.90 gńcm ) (6.023 x 10 atomsńmole)

= 4.38 x 10–29 m3 a = (4.38 x 10–29)1/3 = 3.60 x 10–10 m Cr: AW = 52.0 g/mole ρ = 7.19 g/cm3 BCC, so n = 2 atoms/unit cell a3 +
3 (52.0 gńmole) (2 atomsńunit cell) x 10 *6 m 3 3 23 cm (7.19 gńcm ) (6.023 x 10 atomsńmole)

= 2.40 x 10–29 m3 a = (2.40 x 10–29)1/3 = 2.89 x 10–10 m WATCH OUT!! ρ=r

LN–4

2.

Mo:

AW = 95.94 g/mole ρ = 10.2 g/cm3 BCC, so n = 2 atoms/unit cell a3 +
3 (95.94 gńmole) (2 atomsńunit cell) x 10 *6 m 3 3 23 cm (10.2 gńcm ) (6.023 x 10 atomsńmole)

= 3.12 x 10–29 m3 a = 3.22 x 10–10 m For BCC, a Ǹ3 + 4r, so 3. BCC structure, so n = 2 a = 3.31 Å = 3.31 x 10–10 m ρ = 16.6 g/cm3 AW x 10 *6 + N A x a 3 r n AW + (6.023 x 10 23 atomsńmole) (3.31 x 10 *10 m) 3 x 16.6 gńcm 3 (2 atomsńunit cell) (10 *6 m 3ńcm 3) r + 1.39 x 10 *10 m

= 181.3 g/mole

4.

Cu is FCC, so: n=4 a = 3.655Å = 3.655 x 10–10 m AW = 63.55 g/mole AW x 10 *6 + N A x a 3 r n r + (63.55 gńmole) (4 atomsńunit cell) + 8.64 gńcm 3 (6.023 x 10 23 atomsńmole) (3.655 x 10 *10 m 3)

WATCH OUT!! ρ=r

61 x 10 2 pm m 1st nearest neighbor 2nd nearest neighbor 6.94 g/mole ρ = 5.8 x 6.LN–4 5.70 g/mole ρ = 8. the second nearest neighbor distance equals “a” (see LN4–11).70 gńmole) (10 *6 m 3ńcm 3) (4 atomsńunit cell) (6. so n = 2 The highest density would be found in the [111] direction.75 x 109 atoms/m WATCH OUT!! ρ=r .94 x 2 5. Vanadium: AW = 50. Ni: n= 4 AW = 58.83 gńcm 3) + 4.08 x 10 *10 m The length in the [111] direction is a Ǹ3. AW x 10 *6 + N A x a 3 r n a3 + (58.41 x 10 *29 m 3 a + 3.023 x 10 23 a + 3.08 x 10 *10 x Ǹ3 m) = 3.08 x 10 *8 cm + 3. so there are: 2 atomsńa Ǹ3 + 2 atomsń(3. To find “a”: AW + a 3 N A r n ³ a3 + 50.83 g/cm3 For a face–centered cubic structure.61 x 10 *10 m x 10 12 pm + 3.023 x 10 23 atomsńmole) (8.8 g/cm3 BCC.

atomsńU. = 68% 9. + Mol. n = 2 a = 3. (We must watch out for dimensions!) BCC. + 6.039 x 10 *10) 3 2 x 5. cm 3 ǒ Ǔ = 49.Wt.81 g/cm3 At.C. + (8pr 3)ń3 a3 a Ǹ3 + 4r a + (4r)ń Ǹ3 a 3 + (64r 3)ń3 Ǹ3 Ǹ3 p (8pr 3)ń3 24 Ǹ3 pr 3 P.ńU.LN–4 7.81 x 10 6 at x x m x 2 mole atńU. cm 3 3 23 3 g 1 At.Wt.D.81 g at x 1 ǒmole Ǔ x m x atńU.D.C. + nA x a 3 x r 23 + 6. This problem can easily be solved by relating it to the unit cell dimensions. for BCC P.02 x 10 x a 3 x 5. + * + + 0. + Vol. U. P.1 g/mole appears to be vanadium?? 8. the lattice constant: a WATCH OUT!! ρ=r .02 x 10 x (3.039 x 10–10 m ρ = 5.68 8 3 x 64r 3 (64r 3)ń3 Ǹ3 P. (a) To answer this question we can look at the lecture notes (#4.C.Vol. U.Wt. p. Vol.C.C.C. 11) and find for the FCC system (Ni) the second nearest neighbor distance given as a! Alternately we can look at two adjacent unit cells and confirm “a” to be the distance to the next nearest neighbor. + N A x a 3 r n N At. The problem is reduced to the determination of “a”.D.D.

02 x 10–5 = NA/4 a3 a + 1.63 x 10 Ǹ4 x6.(BCC) = 64/6 Ǹ3 FCC: 4 at.08 x 10 *10 x Ǹ2 + 1. 4 (r = unity) Vat.02 x 10 3 *6 23 + 3. Thus: 1. (a) Continued.(FCC) = a3/4 = (16 Ǹ2)/4 = 4 Ǹ2 = a3/2 a Ǹ3 a3 = 64/3 Ǹ3 a = 2 Ǹ2 (r = unity) a3 = 16 Ǹ2 = WATCH OUT!! ρ=r . we assume the atomic radius to be unity – 1Å if you want. + 58.C. We can solve this problem by considering the effective volume per atom in the two unit cells. we find: Structure: FCC At.C. Vat. Vol. At. Au: For the FCC system we know that a Ǹ2 + 4r.T.08 x 10 *10 m a Ǹ2 + 4r r + 4.LN–4 9.: 10.02 x 10 3 *5 23 + 4.86 4 mole a + 6. in the P.Wt. (To simplify calculations./U.44 x 10 *10 m 4 11.7 + 6. The volume change in % is then given by (Vf – Vi) / Vi x 100.) BCC: 2 at.53 x 10 *10 m (b) FCC is a close packed structure with 12 nearest neighbors: six in one plane and three above and below that plane.2 cm3/mole = 1.02 x 10–5 m3/mole 10.02 x 10 Ǹ4 x6./U. BCC and FCC.63 x 10 *6 m 3 + N A a 3 r 8.

1/2 . The volume change for the transformation (in %) is: V * Vi 4 Ǹ2 DV + f x 100 + ȧ ȧ 64 * 1ȧ ȧ x 100 + Vi Ȣ6Ǹ3 Ȥ = – 8. (a) The largest “holes” are the “octahedral voids” formed by eight (8) contiguous atoms.LN–4 11.? One in the center and 1/4 void centered on each edge of the U. (b) WATCH OUT!! ρ=r . 1/2 . we have a total of (1 + 12/4) = 4 octahedral voids. about the (very) center of an FCC unit cell.C.1% ȡ ȣ ǒ 24 x Ǹ6 * 1 64 Ǔ x 100 12. for example. [112] z [101] [012] z [021] y [100] x x y 13. Continued.C. The total number of octahedral voids per U. The location of the center: 1/2 . Since there are 12 edges.

C.C. We look at the problem on the scale of the U. we know: Mol. a Ǹ2 a 2 atńa 2 Ǹ2 From the P.1 x 10 Ǹ4 6.T.18 x 10 18 at @ m *2 Ǹ Ǹ 2 * 19 2 2 x 1. The (111) plane in an FCC structure contains six [110] directions./U. (FCC). z [110] x ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ [011] [101] [101] [110] y [011] 15. = 9. 9.02 x 10 3 *6 23 + 3.Vol.10 cm3/mole FCC = 4 at.1 x 10–6 = NA/4 a3 a + x 9.54 x 10 a 2 m WATCH OUT!! ρ=r .93 x 10 *10 m 2 atoms 2 atoms + + 9.LN–4 14.

Wt. = at.21 cm x g ƫ + ƪmole cm 3 3 52.LN–4 16.89 x 10 *10 m 23 Mol. * At. We solve this problem by determining the molar (atomic) volume.Vol. Pt: A look at the U.02 x 10 x (2. Mol.89 x 10 *10) 3 + 7.Wt. + 7.C. the lattice constant. can be found to be 3. WATCH OUT!! ρ=r .26 cm 3ńmole 2 + 7.: The face centered atoms are next nearest neighbors! They are spaced at “a”. r At. + 6.Vol.26 x 7. a “a”.93 x 10–10 m.Wt./ρ = NA/2a3 We need to know “a” – given d(110) d (110) + a Ǹ2 a + Ǹ2 x 2.04 x 10 *10 m + 2.26 Mol.Vol.3 17.

LN–4 18. which consist of interwoven conglomerates of small crystallites (grains with diameters ranging from <10–6 to >10–4 m). Anisotropy in materials is contingent on the existence of order over macroscopic dimension.039 x 10 *10) 3 x 5.Wt. on the other hand. N Atomic Weight + A x a3 r 2 Atomic Weight + 3. 20.01 x 10 23 x (3.1 WATCH OUT!! ρ=r . Thus “single crystals” will exhibit properties that are dependent on direction (anisotropy). appear isotropic because of the random spatial orientation of the crystallites. = 49. In nature most solids appear as polycrystalline systems. ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ y x z (111) z (012) x ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ y ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ z (012) x y 19. Polycrystalline materials. Required: Molar Volume + BCC → 2 atoms/u.81 10 *6 At.c.

a = 2r Volume of AtomsńUnit Cell VolumeńUnit Cell Packing Density + 3 3 4p r 4p r 3 + 3 + p + 0.4% + 6 a3 8r 3 22. [101] z z z y x [210] x [101] y x [101] y 23. Required: SC → 1 atom/u.02 x 10 x 8. N Atomic Weight + Molecular Volume + a 3 A 4 Density N + 3d 3 Ǹ3 A 4 (a + d (111) Ǹ3) 23 Atomic Weight + 3 x (2.1 4 10 *6 WATCH OUT!! ρ=r .LN–4 21.c.08 x 10 *10) 3 Ǹ3 6.c.96 + 63. Required: d(hkl) = ań Ǹh 2 ) k 2 ) l 2 FCC = 4 atoms/u.524 + 52.

08 x 10 19 atomsńm 2 WATCH OUT!! ρ=r . = 63.96 x N A Ǔ 1ń3 + 3. 25.61 x 10 *10 m 2 atomsń ƪǸ2 x (3.4 ρ = 12. It is most convenient to resort to the Unit Cell dimensions: We recognize that there is one atom per lattice constant (a) in the [100] direction a [100] x From the P.Wt.4 + a 3 N A 4 12.62 x 10 *10) 2ƫ + 1.LN–4 24.) = 3.T.96 g/cm3 Structure = FCC 1/4 1/4 63.: At.0 g/cm3 Structure = FCC 106.4 x 4 Ǹ12.Wt.546 ρ = 8. ÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉ a Ǹ2 a + a Ǹ2 1/4 1/2 1/2 1/4 We recognize two atoms within the area a 2 Ǹ2.546 8. = 106.89 x 10–10 m).57 x 109 atoms/m in the [100] direction. or: 2.0 a + 106.89 x 10–10 m A We have one atom/(3.62 x 10 *8 cm + 3.96 ǒ 4 x 63. a Cu: At.0 x N 3 + 3.89 x 10 *8 cm (We used ρ in units of g/cm3.546 + a 3 N A 4 8.

29. {111} planes are found (by inspection of the FCC unit cell) to have the widest spacing. By changing to axes at some random angle (α). (111) ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ z y ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ z (012) x y x 28. (continued) WATCH OUT!! ρ=r . {100} and {110} planes are not the widest spaced planes because the additional lattice sites in the FCC structure occupy positions between these planes. Diffraction experiments show us that Cu has an FCC crystal structure.LN–4 26.732 r 27. The fifth pattern is a rhombus for which α = 60o (a triangular pattern). we obtain two additional arrangements: a rhombus (deduced from a square) and a parallelepiped (deduced from a rectangle). This is not a primitive unit cell. We can also obtain such a lattice distribution by operating with a rectangular pattern. The square lattice includes squares of all sizes and orientation. (a) There are five ways in which points can be arranged in two dimensions so that every point has identical surroundings. D + a Ǹ3 * 2r + 2r Ǹ3 * 2r + 2r(Ǹ3 * 1) R (interstitial) + r(Ǹ3 * 1) + 0. The diameter of an interstitial atom is therefore given by the body diagonal minus 2r. In the simple cubic system the void at the center of the unit cell is bounded by the eight (8) corner atoms.

26Å.12 x 1013 atoms/mm2 WATCH OUT!! ρ=r . α=90o ° ° ° a ° ° ° ° b° ° a=b.LN–4 29. α≠90o ° (a t u b) (4) a ° ° ° °b ° ° a=b. α≠90o (5) a≠b.47 x 10 *14 mm 8. (b) (1) a °α ° °b ° ° ° ° ° ° (2) a °α °b ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° (3) a°α a=b.47 x 10 *20 m 2 or: 1. We therefore have: 1 atom 1 atom + 8. α=60ο 30. Fe at room temperature is BCC (body centered cubic). taking the atomic radius of Fe as 1.47Å) 2 + 8. α=90o (a t u b) ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° b° ° a≠b. we have a face of the unit cell (with a Ǹ3 + 4r) at: 2 a 2 + 16r + (8.47 x 10 *20 m 2 3 The face (100) of the unit cell contains 1 atom (4 x 1/4 atoms).

R a/2 according to Pythagoras: r a/4 (R ) r) 2 + ǒaǓ 2 2 ) ǒaǓ 4 2 2 and 2 (R ) r) + a Ǹǒ Ǔ a 2 ) a 4 ǒǓ + a Ǹ5 4 But: r + a Ǹ5 * R 4 Ǹ 4R 5 R Ǹ5 a + 4R (BCC) and * R + r * R + r Ǹ3 Ǹ3 x 4 Ǹ3 r + R or : ǒ Ǹ5 * 1 Ǹ3 Ǔ ǒ Ǹ5 * 1 Ǹ3 R for vanadium = 1. the largest void can readily be identified as located about the site 1/2.9 x 10 *11 m WATCH OUT!! ρ=r .34Å r + 1. (There obviously are a large number of such equivalent sites in each unit cell. the distance of the site from the origin (0) is. In the BCC structure of vanadium. 0 in the unit cell. 1/4.LN–4 31.39Å + 3.34 Ǔ + 0.) Look at a unit cell face for V with radius (R).

The atomic packing factor: P.D.c. The simplest approach involves the unit cell dimensions: Cu: FCC (4 atoms/u.c. See above.c.1 x 10–6 = NA/4 a3 a + x 7.68 + 68% P. vol.LN–4 32.) <110> are face–diagonals a Ǹ2 + 4r. x (a) (b) (c) ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ z (110) y atoms/unit cell: (8 x 1/8) + (6 x 1/2) = 4 atoms/u.D.ńu. The intercepts of a plane (421) on the x and y coordinates are the reciprocals 1/4 and 1/2. + 3 3 + 3 8 64r 3 x 64r 3Ǹ3 33.02 x 10 3 *6 23 + 3. or 2 atomsńa Ǹ2 The calculation requires knowledge of “a”. vol. Determine the linear density of atoms/cm along the [110] direction in Cu.61 x 10 *10 m WATCH OUT!! ρ=r . For BCC lattices we have 2 atoms/u.c.c.. the lattice constant: 7. thus the ratio of the intercepts is 1/2. atomsńu.1 x 10 Ǹ4 6. + a Ǹ3 + 4r Thus: or 3 a + 4r and a 3 + 64r Ǹ3 3 Ǹ3 (d) 8pr 3 24 Ǹ3 pr 3 p Ǹ3 + + 0.

86 x 10 19 Ni atomsńm 2 1.52 x 10 *10 m Area of equilateral triangle: A + h x (a Ǹ2)ń2 + h x (ań Ǹ2) 2 h 2 + (a Ǹ2) 2 * ( a ) 2 + 2a 2 * a + 3 a 2 Ǹ2 2 2 h + Ǹ3 a 2 Ǹ3 a x a Ǹ 2 2 + Ǹ3 a 2 + 1.LN–4 33.07 x 10 *19 m 2 WATCH OUT!! ρ=r . Continued. Determine the planar atomic density per m2 for Ni (FCC) in {111} planes.61 x 10 *10 x Ǹ2 m 100 cm 34.02 x 10 3 *6 23 + 3.59 x 10 Ǹ4 x6. First we determine “a”. the lattice constant: 6.9 x 10 7 atomsńcm along t 110 u 3.59 x 10 *6 + NA x a3 . In the unit cell we find (3 x 1/2) + (3 x 1/6) atoms = 2 atoms within the area of the {111} planes. a + 4 6.07 x 10 *19 m 2 2 A + Planar Atomic Density + 2 atoms + 1. Accordingly: 2 atoms x 1 m + 3.

86x10 *10 m) 3 7.44 g/mol 37. a + (2. (a) To find the Miller indices of ∞.1.023 x 10 23 atomsńmol a p + (2.86 x 10 *10 m n = 2 for the BCC structure p = 7.LN–4 35.86Å + 2.2. (111) x ÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉ z (102) z y ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ y x 36.W.02Å) Ǹ2 + 2. take the reciprocal: 1 1 1 R 2 *1 Multiply by 2 so that they are all integers: 0 1 2 Put parenthesis around them: (012) (continued) WATCH OUT!! ρ=r .87 g/cm3 = 7. + ǒ Ǔ NA 3 6.87x10 gńm 3 n 2 atomsńunit cell = 55.87 x 106 g/m3 A.

LN–4 37.39 x 10–10m Ǹ 3 9.246 d (hkl) Ǹh 2 ) k 2 ) l 2 + h2 + k2 + l2 = 8 = (22 + 22 + 0) The family of planes is {220}.828 1. In the cubic system.93x10 *10x Ǹ2 a Ǹ2 + 4 4 1. a. the lattice constant permits determination of r (a Ǹ2 + 4r) molar volume = 195. Continued. the indices of directions normal to a plane are given by the Miller indices of the plane: [012] This is the same problem as #6 of this lecture note! 39. (b) (012) ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ ÇÇÇÇÇÇÇ z y x (c) 38. determine the molar volume and relate to the # uc’s.09 a + NA 3 3 3 g x 1cm + 9. getting. FCC.93 x 10 –10m WATCH OUT!! ρ=r .524 + 2.4g mole mole 10 cm a Ǹ2 + 4r r + r= 3.12cm x 1m + x a3 6 3 4 21. We know: d (hkl) + a Ǹh 2 ) k 2 ) l 2 a + 3.02 x 10 23 a = 3. 40.12 x 10 *6 x 4 6.

39x10 *10) 3 x (3. could do it – you do not have to know this).92x10 *10) 3 * 6.02 x 10 23 4px(1. otherwise. GeO2 + Ge → 2 GeO ↑ the final compound is volatile and escapes – all that would happen: a lot of smoke is generated and there would be no Ge left to melt). Accordingly. (110).07 x 10–6 – 6. Alternately. I would go and read the lecture notes! (LN4. page 1). there would be no geometric patterns on the surface of the etched glass sphere.LN–4 41. Determine the atomic radius to get the Vol atoms/mole and subtract that from the molar volume. 43. HF and the like. I would use the data from the previous question. I would extract heat somehow from the bottom until all the melt is cooled to below the melting point and then I would pray that only a single crystal was formed in the process. (101) (011). Self explanatory: I hope you did it! 44. (011) (see lecture notes) WATCH OUT!! ρ=r . we may determine the packing density and use that (determined in school as 74%) to get the void volume (26% of the molar volume).77 x 10–6 = 2. From above 9. To make the solution simpler.02 x 10 23 x 4 3 9. I would put some Ge into a quartz glass.37 cm3/mole void volume 3 or (N x a 3) * N x 4pr = void volume/ mole 3 4 6.35 cm3/mole 42. a typical conchoidal fracture – on the crystal appearance of some facets – flat areas reflecting exposure of low index planes. (101). (011). (101). (011). The simplest way to differentiate the 2 samples is to put them into a dissolving solution (dilute nitric acid. 45. (110). On the single crystal sphere you would notice etch pits with distinct symmetry features which reflect internal atomic order. {110} = (110). that Ge would be oxidized in air Ge + O2 → GeO2.74) = 2. heat it up to above the melting point – just a bit so that all is molten ( I would have to do that in an inert gas.12 cm3/mole x (1 – 0. You could also take a hammer and smash the sample – expect on the glass. (110) (101).

wt + N a 3 r 4 + 3 4 @ 87. ρ = 2.6 @ 6.5 @ 6.wt r@N 3 molar volume = a = 4.31x10–10m 2atoms = 1.89x10–10m WATCH OUT!! ρ=r .07 @ 10 m At.31 @ 10 m) a 2 48. = 180. n=2 .wt r + N 3 . a + @ 10 @ 2 Ǹ10. @4 Ǹat. Ta: BCC.95.09 @ 10 *10 Ǹ2 = 2.wt = 87.9 6.02 @ 10 3 *6 23 = next nearest neighbor or distance (b) d{110} Ag: Ǹ1 2 ) 1 2 ) 0 2 a + a Ǹ2 + 4.wt Ǹ4 r @N At.6g/cm3 at. 1atom = 1. n=4 At.6g/cm ] mol vol = a + 3 @ At. a Ǹ2 a planar density = 2 atoms/a2 Ǹ2 ρ = 16.29x1019/m2 planar atom density = 2atoms = Ǹ Ǹ 2 * 10 2 2 @ (3. second nearest neighbors are spaced at “a”.02 @ 10 23 + 6.87 10.wt. vol = 180.07 @ 10 *8cm x 1m 100cm linear density = 47.LN–4 46. 2 @ 1 atoms 1atom 2 <100> linear density = + a a 3 [Sr: FCC.95 16.02 @ 10 3 *6 23 = 3.6 + N 3 a 2 .09x10–10m At.62. (a) Ag: FCC nearest neighbors are along a Ǹ2 at a Ǹ2 ń2 .65 x 109atoms/m * 10 6. a + a 4 + @ 10 @ 4 Ǹ107.62 Ǹ2.

02 @ 10 3 –10m = 2 atoms/ a 2 Ǹ2 @ 2 Ǹ3 2 + 2atoms *2 m a 2 Ǹ3 ń2 = 7.9 6.47x1018atoms/m2 WATCH OUT!! ρ=r .56x10 Ǹ25.LN–4 49. planar density in {111} = 2atomsń h 2 + (a Ǹ2) 2 * + 2 a2 * h + a a Ǹ2 2 ǒ Ǔ a2 2 + a Ǹ2 @h 2 2 Ǹ3 2 *6 23 3 2 a 2 planar atom density = a + @ 10 @ 4 = 5.

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