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Demographic and Social

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A N D O T T O M A N

STUDIES

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U N I V E R S I T Y O F W I S C O N S I N PRESS

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LIST O F T A B L E S PREFACE

Vl-Vll ix xi

INTRODUCTION'

MAPS
CHAPTER 1

xiv-XVi

C O N C E P T U A L A N D M E T H O D O L O G I C A L PROBI.F.MS I N T H E STUDY OF THE O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N

CHAPTER 2

POPULATION DISTRIBUTION A N D THE EVOLUTION OF O T T O M A N CENSUSES, 1800-1914 18

CHAPTER 3

T H E RELIGIOUS A N D E T H N I C DISTRIBUTION OF THE O T T O M A N POPULATION: A N OVERVIEW 45

CHAPTER 4

P O P U L A T I O N M O V E M E N T S IN- T H E O T T O M A N S T A T E I N THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 60

CHAPTER 5

T H E POPULATION A N D THE SOCIAL A N D E C O N O M I C T R A N S F O R M A T I O N OF ISTANBUL: T H E O T T O M A N MICROCOSM 86

STATISTICAL SECTION I

APPENDICES

G E N E R A L O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N STATISTICS F R O M C E N S U S E S , REGISTERS, A N D Y E A R B O O K S 107

SECTION I I

T A B U L A T I O N S OF N A T I O N A L A N D RELIGIOUS GROUP POPULATIONS 191

SECTION I I I

T H E P O P U L A T I O N OF ISTANBUL I N T H E N I N E T E E N T H A N D EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURIES 201

SECTION I V

SOME DEMOGRAPHIC, SOCIAL, A N D ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N 209 IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY

Published 1985 The University of Wisconsin Press 114 North Murray Street Madison, Wisconsin 53715 The University of Wisconsin Press, Ltd. 1 Gower Street London WC1E 6HA, England Copyright © 1985 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System All rights reserved First printing Printed in the United States of America For LC C1P information see the colophon ISBN 0-299-09160-0 Reg. No:

INDEX

227

LIST

OF

T A B L E S

A . l . Y e a r b o o k s (Salnames) P u b l i s h e d i n the O t t o m a n E m p i r e a n d the R e p u b l i c of T u r k e y : Chronological and Administrative Distribution . . A . 2 . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D i v i s i o n of the O t t o m a n State, 1831 ( H . 1247) A . 3 . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D i v i s i o n of the O t t o m a n State, 1850-1853 ( H . 1266-1270) A . 4. Some B i r t h a n d D e a t h Statistics, 1835-1853 ( H . 1251-1268) 2 . 1 . H e a d Tax Rate Increase, 1804-1834 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. Religious D i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n , 1831 P o p u l a t i o n of O t t o m a n B a l k a n T e r r i t o r i e s , 1831 . . P o p u l a t i o n of O t t o m a n T e r r i t o r i e s i n E u r o p e , 1820-1840 P o p u l a t i o n of T u n a P r o v i n c e , 1868 ( H . 1285) P o p u l a t i o n of the O t t o m a n State A c c o r d i n g to S a l a h e d d i n Bey (1867) C o m p a r a t i v e Statistics of P o p u l a t i o n of Sivas Province

5 . 1 . Miri 5.2. 12 14 16 16 21 21 22 23 25 25 34 36 36 5.3. 5.4.

B u d g e t of 1776

88 93 103 103 104 104 105 105 106

Budget of 1855 P o p u l a t i o n of I s t a n b u l , 1794-1916: V a r i o u s Estimates

P o p u l a t i o n of I s t a n b u l : S u m m a r y of C e n s u s Figures 5.5. T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n of I s t a n b u l , 1897 5.6. Ethnic D i s t r i b u t i o n of Istanbul P o p u l a t i o n , 1897 5.7. P o p u l a t i o n of I s t a n b u l i n 1885: N a t i v e s a n d Newcomers 5.8. O c c u p a t i o n s of I s t a n b u l Residents, 1885 D . M a j o r Public a n d Private W o r k s i n I s t a n b u l i n t h e 19th C e n t u r y ,~. STATISTICAL APPENDICES ^

1.1. The O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n i n C e r t a i n D i s t r i c t s of R u m i l i (Rumelia) a n d A n a t o l i a , 1831 1.2. O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n , 1844-1856 1.3. P o p u l a t i o n a n d N u m b e r of V i l l a g e s , T u n a P r o v i n c e , 1868 ( H . 1285) 1.4. P o p u l a t i o n a n d N u m b e r of V i l l a g e s , T u n a P r o v i n c e , 1869 ( H . 1286) 1.5. P o p u l a t i o n a n d N u m b e r of V i l l a g e s , T u n a P r o v i n c e , 1874 ( H . 1291) 1.6. O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n i n E u r o p e a n d A s i a , 1872 a n d 1874 1.7. A . P o p u l a t i o n of the O t t o m a n State, 1877/78 ( H . 1294) 1.7. B. S u m m a r v of Totals 1.8. A . O t t o m a n General C e n s u s of 1881/82-1893 I.8.B. S u m m a r y : Totals for P r i n c i p a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Districts I.8.C. S u p p l e m e n t to 1881/82-1893 Census Results: P o p u l a t i o n Estimates 1.8. D . Final S u m m a r y : C o u n t e d a n d E s t i m a t e d Totals 1.9. O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n , 1894 1.10.

109 116 116 116 117 117 118 121 122 148 150 151 152

B. l . Some 1831 C e n s u s O f f i c i a l s B.2. N u m b e r a n d E c o n o m i c Status of S o m e C h r i s t i a n s i n R u m i l i i n 1831 B.3. Samples of P o p u l a t i o n Registers D e v e l o p e d b y t h e O t t o m a n s i n 1874: R e p r o d u c t i o n s of O r i g i n a l Registers w i t h T r a n s l i t e r a t e d a n d T r a n s l a t e d Versions

37 38 40 42 44 46 48 48 50 50 54 56 69 72 72 73

B.3.a. Sample Register of P o p u l a t i o n B.3.b. Sample D a i l y E v e n t s Register B.3.C. Sample S u m m a r y Register B.4. Directors of the O t t o m a n Statistical O f f i c e , 1892-1916 (R. 1308-1332) .* 3 . 1 . Ethnic D i s t r i b u t i o n of the O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n i n the Balkans, 1876-1878 3.2. G r e e k P o p u l a t i o n i n E u r o p e a n T u r k e v , 1878 3.3. G r e e k P o p u l a t i o n i n the O t t o m a n State i n 1878 ( A c c o r d i n g to S y n v e t ) 3.4. 3.5. M a c e d o n i a n P o p u l a t i o n ( A c c o r d i n g to V a r i o u s N a t i o n a l Statistics) P o p u l a t i o n of Eastern R u m e l i a before a n d after the W a r of 1877-1878

M u s l i m s a n d N o n - M u s l i n s i n the O t t o m a n State, 1894 155 1.11. M u s l i m a n d N o n - M u s l i m Subjects C o u n t e d i n the Census u p to 1895 156 1.12. 1.13. 1.14. 1.15. M u s l i m s a n d N o n - M u s l i m s i n the O t t o m a n State, 1896 O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n , 1897 O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n G r o w t h , 1874/75-1894/95 (R. 1290-1310) : Foreign C i t i z e n s i n the O t t o m a n State, 1899 158 160 160

3.6. A r m e n i a n P o p u l a t i o n of the O t t o m a n E m p i r e , 1882 ( A r m e n i a n Patriarchate Figures) 3.7. M u s l i m s i n E u r o p e a n P r o v i n c e s , 1860-1878 4 . 1 . Refugees f r o m Russian L a n d s i n S a m s u n i n 1880 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. Religious S t r u c t u r e of the O t t o m a n P o p u l a i t o n i n E u r o p e , 1820-1900 S u m m a r y of Religious S t r u c t u r e of the O t t o m a n Population Racial-Ethnic S t r u c t u r e of the O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n i n E u r o p e , 1820-1900

(R. 1315) 161 1.16. A . S u m m a r v of Census of O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n , 1906 7. . ' Ic2 I.16.B. Final S u m m a r v of O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n , 1906 7 168 •1.17.A. O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n , 1914 (R. 1330) 170
Vll

w e r e the m o s t o u t s t a n d i n g features of d e m o g r a p h i c c h a n g e . P o p u l a t i o n o f I s t a n b u l I Í L 1 i v u S h '. a n d r e l i g i o u s . ^ ••• g 2 °P u i a t i o n D e n s i t y . writers on Ottoman p o p u l a t i o n — and Cuinet. 5 . N u m b e r a n d Percentage of Males a n d Females in the O t t o m a n State. IV . . the u n d e r c o u n t IX ' 226 a m o n g the d i f f e r e n t social.« ^ « - ' . g r a t i o n — a l o n g w i t h b i r t h a n d d e a t h rates that ' ^ ^ ^ l ^ ^ ^ ^ 1 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ " ' m Potion J 222" . P o p u l a t i o n of D o b r u c a . p Ü.2. 10.viii ¡. S . E s t i m a t e d V a l u e of Y e a r l y Cereal P r o d u c t i o n ^ ' ' 6 3 1 s t u d i e d . S l v a s ' a n d T r e b . I V . 0 sonnel. as the liberal. 1290-1310) . 1894/95 b e y o n d e v e n t o the p r e s e n t d a y has been c o n s i d e r e d . or p o l i t i c a l . f o r the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the capital e p i t o m i z e d a n d reflected that of the e m p i r e as a w h o l e . e t h n i c . 1 9 . a r b e k .e . 1315) ' 11 I V . i v Jo' r : " p e r k m . S y r i a . A s these data w e r e i n w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n b o o k f o r m . 1899 (R. A t . A g r i c u I t u r a l L a n d A r e a a n d C u l t i v a t i o n i n the' " ^ O t t o m a n State. L i s t o f O c c u p a t i o n s m i s t a n b u l a n d t h e T h r e e " " B o r o u g h s i n 1878 (R. r i i i e r T h a n T r a d e - d ^ " . literacy . P o p u l a t i o n o f ' i s t a n b u i : ' C o m p a r a t i v e F i g u r e s ' ' ' ' m o . PU Pi S A " T o i n S S c h °° T 1 S n a 1 8 9 4 ' V : 9 5 (R. 1894 95 .e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n a n d of the social and e c o n o m i c forces that c o n d i t i o n e d its g r o w t h a n d d i f ferentiation. H. I V . " U . The p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t s i n the O t t o m a n state w e r e emigration and immivaried both the a g e n t a n d the c h i e f c o n s e q u e n c e of the s t r u c t u r a l transformation. . i ) . T h e first c h a p t e r s u r v e y s the p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e . 1310) .n a t i o n a l states f r o m 1815 into a and and (H S i ) " 2 0 2 U P r ° l n ' t 3 1 0 ^ h e r 2 I V . o n l y those of the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t w e r e c o m p i l e d b y m a k i n g an actual c o u n t of the p o p u l a t i o n . 2 2 .R . ¡ 8 9 7 (R n i l ) 1884-169/ (R. C h a p ters 3 a n d 4 deal. N u m b e r a n d Percentage of Persons Emplo'ved i n ' Trade a n d I n d u s t r y (Crafts). t o 1920 e s t a b l i s h m e n t of m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s . the s e c o n d describes a n d analyzes i n d e t a i l the v a r i o u s censuses f r o m 1830 t o 1914 a n d the p u r p o s e a n d f u n c t i o n i n g of the p o p u l a t i o n registers. ( R o p n the O t t o m a n State. i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c . it b e i n g m y i n t e n t i o n to p r o v i d e a t h o r o u g h analysis of t h e change i n the s t r u c t u r e of the O t t o m a n population in a later v o l u m e of t h i s o n g o i n g s t u d y . It s h o u l d be n o t e d at the start that the O t t o m a n " c e n s u s " consisted of the r e g i s t r a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n of each d i s trict b y a c o m m i t t e e . military conscription. b y D i s t r i c t a n d „ P «Ca p i ta.g. by A g e . 3 ' " : IV. Cross A n n u a l I n c o m e . respectively.. Actually. A n a t o l i a . J7. ^ I V . to Ubicini. I r a q .8. a n d the b u i l d i n g of railroads a n d h i g h w a y s i n the m o s t u s e f u l l o c a t i o n s . v • 2 0 i D a i i y d ^ W o o ] P ^ r o d u c * t i o n ^ / ^ 1S94/g5(R mo) . 1894/95 (R. S u b s e q u e n t a n n u a l p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s for the r e a l m w e r e o b t a i n e d b v c u m u l a t i v e l y a d d i n g b i r t h s a n d s u b t r a c t i n g deaths as these w e r e registered t e n d e d f o r i n t e r n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e use. 1 3 1 0 ) . M u s l i m a n d N o n . Population Distribution. a n d X sources of d e m o g r a p h i c data w e r e the f i g u r e s issued b y the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t itself. m o s t of the m v r i a d so-called ethno•graphic studies p u b l i s h e d i n the W e s t a n d c l a i m i n g to deal w i t h O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the 1800s—were u n r e l i a b l e . a n d r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s a n d the s e t t l e m e n t of m i l l i o n s of n o m a d i c t r i b e s m e n i n A n a t o lia. the Thus The 11. ^ • IV. C o m p a r a t i v e Table S h o w i n g V a r i o u s ' Estimates of the P o p u l a t e of C e r t a i n Provinces of the Uttoman Empire the \ ilave s of E r z e r o u m . O f all the e x i s t i n g statistics. I a m p e r s u a d e d b v m y vears of research a n d w r i t i n g that a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the social a n d p o l i t i c a l t r a n s f o r m a tion of the B a l k a n s a n d the M i d d l e East d e m a n d s a c o m p r e hensive s t u d y of the size. t h e y w e r e r e q u i r e d t o be as a c c u r a t e as p o s s i b l e . 1894/95 (R. rational.u p o f t h e O t t o m a n c o m m o n w e a l t h group of e t h n i c . such as tax levies.B_ S u m m a r y of O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n . 1. 7 . . S I V . r S s 8 ^ r p u t P R E F A C E . a n d it t u r n e d o u t that the m o s t trustworthy European e. I undertook a s y s t e m a t i c a n d critical r e v i e w of p o p u l a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n . census results o n l v one i n each or t w o district b v the p o p u l a t i o n b u r e a u . a n d o n the o u t s k i r t s of the A r a b i a n P e n i n s u la ( w h i c h i n c r e a s e d t h e n u m b e r s o f t h e s e d e n t a r y p o p u l a tion a n d s p u r r e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n ) — . . g r o w t h rate.9.3. V a n .M u s l i m P o p u l a t i o n i n Six eastern Provinces. 1894/95 (R 1310) ' ' I V . AdnrinistrativV Units " ' ru j P P ^ 2 rv. Helle v o n Samo. i n fact. The b r e a k . N u m b e r a n d Percentage of Persons i n "' ^ 1 Q u ^ 1 4 . 13Ü0-1313) 9 p 5 . IV." l 3 1 0 ) " ' ' 2 « c e p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t s w e r e the direct e x p r e s s i o n of t h a t transformation. 1 4 . T h e reasons t h a t i m p e l l e d m e to u n d e r t a k e the . 1 7 . a n d these 1 D e c e m b e r 1875 to 30 N o v e m b e r 1876 I I L 6 2 0 S gradual d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the O t t o m a n state t h a t b e g a n i n t h e r e s u l t of changes i n its e c o n o m i c a n d social s t r u c t u r e caused b y the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a capitalist e c o n o m i c system a n d the a d o p tion of n a t i o n a l s t a t e h o o d as a n e w p r i n c i p l e of p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . e p i t o m i z e d the O t t o m a n c o m m i t m e n t to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e f o r m a n d the establishment of a n e w . [ „ „ ^ 8 Europe w i t h basic O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n data f o r the p e r i o d 1830 to 1914. The c o m m o n s h o r t c o m i n g of O t t o m a n censuses w a s the consistent u n d e r c o u n t i n g of p o p u l a t i o n i n general a n d of w o m e n i n p a r t i c u l a r . The f i n a l c h a p t e r of the text is d e v o t e d to the city of I s t a n b u l . o n l v t o d i s c o v e r that m o s t o f the e x i s t i n g studies o n the t o p i c — t h a t i s . exceptionally d i f f i c u l t (but v i t a l ) task of c o m p i l i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n arose f r o m m y b r o a d e r s t u d y of t h e socioeconomic a n d p o l i t i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the O t t o m a n state: 11. 1294) T His W O R K p r o v i d e s those i n t e r e s t e d i n the social transsoutheast the e n d .n a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n . P ^ l a t i o n o f l s ^ HI.' .6. Sports. w i t h the ethnic-religious c o m p o s i t i o n of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n a n d w i t h the m i g r a t i o n s that so drastically affected the c o m p o s i t i o n a n d the total size of the p o p u l a t i o n . Estimates of the P o p u l a t i o n of Six Provinces i n " " Eastern A n a t o l i a i n 1896 1 8 7 8 Í Q n a m e just a f e w — b a s e d t h e i r w o r k o n O t t o m a n o f f i c i a l data.3.4. These e v e n t s m a n i f e s t e d t h e m s e l v e s n o t o n l y in the e m e r g e n c e of a n e w social o r d e r b u t also i n a v a r i e t y of p o l i t i c a l a n d i d e o l o g i c a l a l i g n m e n t s c o n d i t i o n e d as m u c h bv e c o n o m i c i n t e r e s t as b y r e l i g i o u s i d e n t i t y . The O t t o m a n officials w e r e a w a r e of this p r o b l e m a n d d u l y n o t e d t h o s e areas w h e r e the census of w o m e n or o t h e r g r o u p s w a s i n c o m p l e t e . it can be s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l because the c i t v was subjected to five censuses i n the n i n e t e e n t h centurv. E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r Teachers a n d I V 15 „?" C a t l 0 n a l P e r O ^ . as w e l l . 1310) „ w e r e i n A r a b i c script a n d i n a l i m i t e d n u m b e r of copies.7. D . The text of the present b o o k discusses the h i s t o r y a n d e v o l u t i o n of the O t t o m a n census a n d r e g i s t r a t i o n arid collection of statistical i n f o r m a t i o n . these are v e r y general. „ ^ 8/4// to 1894/95 (R. . e t h n i c a f f i l i a t i o n . . M v o r i g i n a l s f u d v r e q u i r e d a c o m p l e t e r e c o r d of O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r v . 1894/95 (R. Kutshera. m o d e r n i s t reaction of a n e w class of rule.lo. 1914 u f o t t o m a n C e n s u s L I S T OF T A B L E S I s s 5 : ? . Bitlis..' bv N u m b e r of Practitioners. as t h e c o n s e q u e n c e of f o r e i g n i n t e r v e n t i o n and/or as a m o v e m e n t of n a t i o n a l r e v i v a l a n d . it a p p e a r e d t h a t the m o s t consistently reliable fo r mH a t i o n of t h e M i d d l e East. 1894 ^ 1 Percentage of Persons a b o v e t h e ' ' ' . T h e v w e r e c o m p i l e d for s t r i c t l y practical purposes. B e i n g c o n s i s t e n t . T h e r e f o r e .21. Deaths I s t a n b u l a n d the T h r e e B o r o u g l s ' m r o m p o p u l a t i o n censuses a n d r e g i s t r a t i o n s y s t e m . s r n o f i s t a n b u i a n d i t s B o r ° u s h s ' i 8 8 2 ' " ' - 0 3 (R. . . Professions i n the O t t o m a n Sta'te. 1894/95 (R 1310) ->->. systematic b u r e a u c r a c v a n d u s h e r e d i n the p e r i o d of m o d e r n i z a t i o n . T h e y p r o v i d e d estimates for n o m a d i c tribes a n d f o r areas w h e r e the census c o u l d n o t be carried o u t . the fundamental elites to t r a d i t i o n a l i s m a n d autocratic the n i n e t e e n t h century was IIJ. Indeed.

p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the statistical m a t e r i a l . a n d E n g i n A k a r l i . a n d o n various social a n d e c o n o m i c facets of the state's d e v e l o p m e n t . T e v f i k G ü r a n . I a m d e e p l y g r a t e f u l to the v a r i o u s persons w h o h a v e assisted m e i n m y end e a v o r to p r e s e n t this first c o l l e c t i o n of statistics i n usable f o r m . Kossovo. For e x a m ple.. H a r p u t r a t h e r t h a n K h a r p u t . appears t h r o u g h o u t as a n o r d i n a r y d o t t e d i . f o r t h e i r v a r i o u s efforts o n behalf of this w o r k . It has r e q u i r e d years of e x c e p t i o n a l l y t e d i o u s w o r k to sort out. I t w-as a d o p t e d as a second o f f i c i a l O t t o m a n calendar o n the first o f M a r c h of the H i c r i year 1256 ( A . ciziye rather t h a n jiziyc or djiziye. a n d o n e cannot be sure. t h e solar calendar w i t h the year b e g i n n i n g J a n u a r y 1 . Barbara H u s s e i n i ' Robert Eıls. Cosovo. I have also u s e d T u r k i s h s p e l l i n g s . systematization. a l t h o u g h the H i c r i calendar c o n t i n u e d i n use also t h r o u g h o u t the r e i g n of A b d u l h a ¬ m i d I I (1876-1909).. KEMAL H. I n general. It is m y f e r v e n t h o p e t h a t this s t u d y w i l l s t i m u l a t e n e w interest i n the v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o p i c of O t t o m a n dem o g r a p h y a n d w i l l be s u p p l e m e n t e d a n d e x p a n d e d b y a d d i t i o n a l studies as the 21. M a n astir i n s t e a d of M o n a s t i r . The solar calendar was k n o w n as M a l i or R u m i ( R o m a n ) a n d w a s the same as the calendar i n t r o d u c e d i n 1582 b y P o p e G r e g o r y X I I I a n d called i n the W e s t the G r e g o r i a n calendar. H ü l y a S o w e r w i n e . o n the p o p u l a t i o n of the c i t y of I s t a n b u l . Tables W h e r e it seemed advisable. harac r a t h e r t h a n khamj. By July of 1794. I have also a t t e m p t e d to g i v e u s e f u l technical i n f o r m a t i o n (for e x a m p l e . to make necessary technical c o r r e c t i o n s . i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of v o l u m i n o u s and diverse m a t e r i a l .w o r k i n g staff o f the D e p a r t m e n t of H i s t o r y . i n a s m u c h as the lists g i v e p o p u l a t i o n statistics a c c o r d i n g to the various d i s t r i c t s a n d a p p e a r e d i n n e e d of e l u c i d a t i o n o n this p o i n t . U n i v e r s i ty of W i s c o n s i n .e t h n i c g r o u p s . a n d I also t h a n k Eric B i n g e n M i c h a e l H a r p k e . o n R. as early as 20 J u l y 1677 the device of a d d i n g one year to the calendar every t h i r t y years w a s a d o p t e d . a n d check the o r i g i n a l figures. as I have p o i n t e d o u t i n text. to r e t y p e t h e m i n final f o r m . a l a w decreeing that the d a t i n g system h e n c e f o r t h u s e d i n the Republic of T u r k e y w o u l d be the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y accepted o n e — i . E x t e n s i v e notes give i n f o r m a t i o n of significance a b o u t p a r t i c u l a r f i g u r e s . s o m e tables are p r e s e n t e d e s s e n t i a l l y as t h e y a p p e a r i n t h e source. 622). A f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the R e p u b l i c (1923) the G r a n d N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y b r o u g h t the T u r k i s h calendar completely i n t o accordance w i t h the western calendar. I n 1912 the g o v e r n m e n t i n t r o d u c e d the t w e n t y f o u r . r a t h e r t h a n E u r o p e a n or t r a n s l i t e r a t e d A r a b i c .K a m e r i ( H . a t r e n d t o w a r d a p p l i c a t i o n of the solar calendar i n all f i n a n c i a l matters w a s e s t a b l i s h e d . A l t e r nate or p r e s e n t . R u m i (R.h o u r d a y {saati zevali). D . u w i t h u m l a u t as i n G e r m a n . I h a v e g i v e n totals f o r c o n v e n ience w h e r e c o l u m n s w e r e n o t t o t a l e d i n the o r i g i n a l .d a y n a m e s of m a j o r locations are f r o m t i m e to t i m e g i v e n p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y or i n notes. a b o u t the h i s t o r y of the O t t o m a n calendar) w h e r e it seemed this w o u l d h e l p the reader to u n d e r s t a n d the p o p u l a t i o n records better. 6. the statistical appendices. to p r e s e n t the statistics a n d o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s v o l u m e i n t h e m o s t usable f o r m possible. a n d the p a t i e n t ' h a r d . Kosova. 26 D e c e m b e r 1341 (1925). for such'analysis w o u l d have called f o r the use of o t h e r f i g u r e s a n d of h i s t o r ical a n d p o l i t i c a l data t h a t c o u l d have o b s c u r e d the i n t r i n s i c v a l u e of the o r i g i n a l statistics. a d d u p . D r . N e v e r t h e l e s s .) d a t i n g t h e n became s t a n d a r d i n the g o v e r n m e n t statistical offices as w e l l as i n the f i n a n c i a l offices. Several p r o b l e m s h a v e b e e n s o l v e d a l o n g the w a y . the H i c r i . or a n a m e m a y a p p e a r i n several d i f f e r e n t spellings—e. a n d so o n . e . H o w e v e r . . a n d as n o t e d . q u a l i t a t i v e s u r v e y . c o m p l e t e w i t h E u r o p e a n v e r s i o n s of n a m e s . The n a m e C e z a y i r . bv d e v i s i n * a ' ° T h e second. Madison. w h i l e t h e l o n g capital 1 is u n d o t t e d . 20 June 1982 . u = o. w h i l e revenues a n d e x p e n d i t u r e s w e r e still calculated a c c o r d i n g to the H i c r i calendar. 1 have corrected totals t h a t are i n c o r r e c t i n t h e o r i g i n a l ( r e a l i z i n g the w h i l e that the error i n the o r i g i n a l m a y be i n fact i n the f i g u r e s for w h i c h the total is g i v e n r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e c o m p u t a t i o n of the O t t o m a n statistician). a n d u i n T u r k i s h w o r d s of A r a b i c or Persian o r i g i n a n d have e l i m i n a t e d l o n g v o w e l m a r k i n g s (a. w h i c h is the first c o m p r e h e n s i v e . i n general. O t h e r sections c o n t a i n data o n r e l i g i o u s . I have p r e s e n t e d the statistics w i t h o u t m a j o r i n t e r p r e t i v e analysis (after s u b j e c t i n g t h e m to s o m e necessary correction. is d i v i d e d i n t o several sections. a n d m a j o r . t h u s . see Faik xi Place N a m e s a n d S p e l l i n g The same l o c a l i t y m a y be called b y d i f f e r e n t n a m e s i n d i f f e r e n t sources. N o n e of these corrections s i g n i f i c a n t l y affects the basic d a t a .000 or so p o p u l a t i o n registers k n o w n to exist i n v a r i o u s a r c h i v a l stores are f u l l y catal o g u e d a n d m a d e available to scholars. b u t others r e m a i n f o r the reader to sort o u t . h o w e v e r . " a l t h o u g h the b o u n d a r i e s o f that p r o v i n c e o f t e n e x t e n d e d b e y o n d t h e A e g e a n Sea to the n o r t h a n d t h e south. a n d 6. § = s h . T h i s a d d e d year came to be k n o w n as t h e year o f " ş i v i s " — r o u g h l y . finally. c = c h .i Sefid is t r a n s l a t e d as " A e g e a n I s l a n d s . For a fuller e x p l a n a t i o n of the O t t o m a n system of d a t i n g . f o r w o r d s o t h e r t h a n place n a m e s . N u r h a n a n d E r o l Katircioğlu' Dr.s t u d y of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n to cover systematically the entire n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . D .i B a h r .d a y n a m e s f o r f o r m e r O t t o m a n possessions. of " o v e r l a p p i n g " or " i n t e r p é n é t r a t i o n . i n w h i c h c = j . w i t h o u t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . etc.M a d i s o n . use of the R o m a n calendar became general. a n d t h e n to p u t t h e m i n some m e a n i n g f u l o r d e r a n d . T h a n k s are d u e f i r s t to H a y r i M u t l u ç a ğ f o r his various i n p u t s i n t o t h i s w o r k . I a m also v e r y g r a t e f u l to the G r a d u a t e School U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n . as o p p o s e d t o E u r o p e a n or t r a n s l i t e r a t e d A r a b i c n a m e s or spellings. d u r i n g the r e i g n of Selim I I I . W i t h the rise to p o w e r of the U n i o n a n d Progress Society i n 1908. T h e first sect i o n contains basic p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s c o m p i l e d b y the Gove r n m e n t . T h e short l . 1 h a v e corrected f i g u r e s i n the tables. D o bruca i n s t e a d of D o b r u j a . " B y 1740 salaries a n d a p p o i n t m e n t s w e r e b e i n g calculated o n the basis of a solar calendar year b e g i n n i n g i n M a r c h . a d o p t i n g . a n d to the Social Science Research C o u n c i l f o r the salary s u p p o r t a n d research assistance that has e n a b l e d m e to a c c o m p l i s h t h i s w o r k . i n s o m e cases p o p u l a t i o n c o m p a r i s o n s c a n n o t u s e f u l l y be m a d e because w e d o n o t have i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e exact b o u n d a r i e s of t h e areas for w h i c h p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s are g i v e n . i. i ) . A l t h o u g h p o p u l a t i o n lists f o l l o w e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n s after 1870. s o m e w i l l n o t be c o m p l e t e l y solvable w i t h o u t m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n .M a d i s o n . and clarification). The o r t h o g r a p h y is m o d e r n T u r k i s h . sancak r a t h e r t h a n sanjak or sandjak.X PREFACE of the p o p u l a t i o n can easily be corrected p r o p e r m a r g i n of e r r o r . Calendar and Dates I n general the O t t o m a n s u s e d the M u s l i m calendar. 1 have used the f o r m of the n a m e t h a t appears i n T u r k i s h sources a n d h a v e u s e d O t t o m a n T u r k i s h s p e l l i n g s . ) calendar t h a t w a s t i e d to t h e l u n a r year a n d b e g a n w i t h the year of t h e H e g i r a ( A . I have p r o v i d e d s o m e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g b o u n d a r i e s of the O t t o m a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s . d e p e n d i n g o n c o n t e x t .g. p a r t of this b o o k . there w e r e f r e q u e n t r e s h u f f l i n g s of d i s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s . a n d o n 1 M a r c h 1917 the solar calendar became the official calendar f o r a l l ' g o v e r n m e n t transactions. a n d i n the text I o f t e n use t h e c o m m o n p r e s e n t . M o s t o f ' t h e s e f i g u r e s are p u b l i s h e d for the first t i m e i n this w o r k . Justin M c C a r t h y . 13 M a r c h 1840). g = soft g. t y p e . t h a t a d i s t r i c t has r e m a i n e d t h e same i n area f r o m o n e p o p u l a t i o n list to the next e v e n w h e n its n a m e r e m a i n s t h e same. KARPAT I N T R O D U C T I O N I T H A S BEEN m y a i m .e. Extensive i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d analysis w i l l be p r o v i d e d i n a n o t h e r v o l u m e i n w h i c h the d y n a m i c s of t h e p o p u l a t i o n changes are s t u d i e d . I have also i g n o r e d the c o n v e n t i o n t h a t uses a.

(P) = P e r a k e n d e ("scattered"—miscellaneous d o c u m e n t s n o t classified precisely i n t o subsections). o f t e n w i t h o u t reference to the o t h e r . v o l u m e or d o c u m e n t n u m b e r .i Vala ( S u p r e m e C o u n c i l ) . ( K K ) = K a m i l Kepeci ( d o c u m e n t s f i l e d u n d e r the n a m e of t h e i r c a t a l o g u e r ) . (I) = I r a d e (decrees). o f t e n . o n Gazi A h m e t M u h t a r Paşa. (2) B A = B a ş b a k a n l i k Arşivi (the B a ş b a n k a n l i k A r c h i v e i n I s t a n b u l ) . a n d . p r i n c i p a l l y . ( M ) = M a l i y e (Finance O f f i c e ) . occasionally. a l t h o u g h n o t m u c h c i t e d . . (3) F M = the T u r k i s h F o r e i g n M i n i s t r y archives. the v o l u m e year. (S) = Siyasi ( p o l i t i c a l file). Section a b b r e v i a t i o n s are the f o l l o w ing: (Id) = I d a r e ( a d m i n i s t r a t i v e file). the reference to the a r c h i v e is f o l l o w e d b y section a n d subsection d e s i g n a t i o n s . a n d each c o m p i l e d its o w n statistics. a n d . the d o c u m e n t n u m ber. (Y) = Y i l d i z (a c o l l e c t i o n of d o c u m e n t s c o n t a i n i n g the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e of S u l t a n A b d u l h a m i d t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m Y i l d i z Palace in toto a n d k e p t t o g e t h e r i n the a r c h i v e s ) . (4) F O = B r i t i s h F o r e i g n O f f i c e a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l f r o m the Public Records O f f i c e i n L o n d o n . a M i l a d i date s u c h as 1881/82 m a y be u s e d . A n i m p o r t a n t source for b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n . t h i s m a i n reference is f o l l o w e d b y t h e s e c t i o n d e s i g n a t i o n . a d h e r e d to the H i c r i calendar.i H ü m a y u n (Secretariat of the I m p e r i a l P a l a c e — p r i v a t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e of the s u l t a n ) . These offices w e r e a t t a c h e d to d i f f e r e n t m i n i s t r i e s . I n c o n v e r t i n g dates i n this w o r k I have r e l i e d o n U n a t ' s Guide a n d . the page n u m b e r a n d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the m a t e r i a l c i t e d .i H ü m a y u n (orders sent b v the s u l t a n to the g r a n d v i z i e r for e x e c u t i o n ) . a d e s c r i p t i o n of the d o c u m e n t a n d date. f r e q u e n t l y . a date a n d d e s c r i p t i o n of the d o c u m e n t . f r e q u e n t l y . 1331 [1915]). Hicri Tarihleri Miladi Tarihe Çevirme Kılavuzu ( G u i d e to the c o n v e r s i o n of H i c r i vears to solar vears] ( A n kara. the a b b r e v i a t e d m a i n reference is f o l l o w e d b y the Parliamentary Papers v o l u m e n u m b e r a n d the n u m b e r of the Accounts and Papers v o l u m e (separated b y a slant l i n e ) .i M a h s u s (Special C o u n c i l ) .xii Reşit U n a t . d o c u m e n t n u m b e r . a n d . the exact date of an event is g i v e n . this reference i n c l u d e s a file n u m b e r . 1959). T ü r k ç e Yazmalar ( T u r k i s h m a n u s c r i p t section). a n d . i n c l u d i n g the P o p u l a t i o n B u r e a u . ( M H ) = M a b e y n . A l t h o u g h the Statistical Office used the R u m i calendar year (as d i d the f i n a n c i a l services). INTRODUCTION M A P S OF T H E O T T O M A N E M P I R E ( H H ) = H a t t . (D) = D a h i l i y e ( I n t e r i o r M i n i s t r y ) . the date and/or title of the d o c u m e n t . ( M V ) = M e c l i s . A S I A N P R O V I N C E S E U R O P E A N P R O V I N C E S Sources a n d A b b r e v i a t i o n s F r e q u e n t l y c i t e d sources are a b b r e v i a t e d i n notes as f o l lows: (1) I U K T Y = I s t a n b u l Ü n i v e r s i t e s i Kitaplığı ( I s t a n b u l U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y ) . i n cases i n w h i c h the source gives o n l y a year. (ŞD) = Şuray-i D e v l e t ( C o u n c i l of State). because of the fact that the H i c r i year o v e r l a p p e d t w o w e s t e r n calendar years. I have t h r o u g h o u t g i v e n the w e s t e r n ( M i l a d i ) date a l o n g w i t h the o r i g i n a l date. ( M M ) = M e c l i s . W h e r e the source i n d i c a t e d m o n t h a n d d a y . Late i n the c e n t u r y p o p u l a t i o n statistics w e r e p r e p a r e d by b o t h the P o p u l a t i o n Bureau (Sicill-i N ü f u s ) a n d the Stat i s t i c a l O f f i c e . s o m e t i m e s . o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n such as the date and/or title of t h e d o c u m e n t . most o t h e r offices. the a b b r e v i a t e d m a i n reference is f o l l o w e d b y the d o c u m e n t n u m b e r a n d . BA sections a n d subsections are a b b r e v i a t e d as f o l lows: (C) = C e v d e t ( c o l l e c t i o n of d o c u m e n t s f i l e d u n d e r the n a m e of t h e i r cataloguer). Takvim-i Sinin [ T h e C a l e n d a r of Years] ( I s t a n b u l : Ceride-i H a v a d i s . (5) H C A P = the H o u s e of C o m m o n s Accounts and Papers i n Great B r i t a i n ' s series of p u b l i s h e d Parliamentary Papers. w a s the F r e n c h F o r e i g n M i n i s t r y A r c h i v e i n Paris.

Cebdilubnan. Asian Ottoman Empire.. Kiepert. Note: Some of the divisions shown on the map as provinces or *.<*** were. xiv XV . Based on Synvet's adaptation of a map by H . Samos was a /«.*. special districts. in fact. 1. Beyrut. 1883.Map. while Canik (bamsun)../. and Kudus (Jerusalem) were mutwrifliks and were administered directly from Istanbulrather than from the provincial centers.

xvi . before the Treaty of Berlin. 2. 1878. 1830-1914 4 Map.I r O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N . l-uropean Ottoman Empire.

a n d g o a l s — t h a t l i m i t the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of these alien concepts. " Tarih Mccmuasi 10 (1953). ) The socio-political a n d e c o n o m i c h i s t o r y of the M i d d l e East i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s i n large m e a s u r e the p r o d u c t of m a j o r p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t s . the f o r c e d m i g r a t i o n of M u s l i m s from Russia (the Caucasus a n d C r i m e a ) i n the e i g h t e e n t h to t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s . (Ali Shariati. is h a m p e r e d b v i n s u f f i c i e n t data o n the size of the p o p u l a t i o n a n d b y lack of k n o w l e d g e about p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e g i s t e r i n g b i r t h s a n d deaths. c h a n g e d the rates of b i r t h a n d death. of course. T h e f e w e x i s t i n g studies deal essentially w i t h d e m o g r a p h i c p r o b l e m s as isolated p h e n o m e n a . suffer basically f r o m lack of i n f o r m a t i o n . " " t h e o r i e s . I n s o m e cases the theorists have m a d e s w e e p i n g false assertions. p o p u l a t i o n movements i n t h e M i d d l e East. especially d u r i n g the O t t o m a n era. p a r a d o x i c a l l y . and regional d i m e n s i o n s . I n t h e h i s t o r y of t h e M i d d l e East o n e f i n d s excellent e x a m p l e s . i n all of the h i s t o r y of t h e w o r l d . For e x a m p l e . political. have n o t vet been s t u d i e d i n a b r o a d h i s t o r i c a l a n d conceptual f r a m e w o r k . h i s t o r i c a l experience. i n t e n s i f i e d u r b a n i z a t i o n . especially precise topics such as f e r t i l i t y or m o r t a l i t y rates or f a m i l y size i n a g i v e n p e r i o d of h i s t o r y or f o r a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n . The M u s l i m calendar begins w i t h an act of m i g r a t i o n . T o d a y . " a n d " m o d e l s " to e x p l a i n the e n t i r e h i s t o r y a n d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the society i n t h a t area. i n the Islamic r e v o l u t i o n i n Iran the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the n e w a r r i v a l s i n T e h e r a n w a s a major factor. It is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . A n y o n e a t t e m p t i n g to s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n p r o b l e m s i n the M i d d l e East. a n d p o l i t i c a l effects of these d e m o g r a p h i c e v e n t s — i s clearly a n d w i d e l y discernible. L. for the social t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the e n t i r e M u s l i m w o r l d .C O N C E P T U A L I N T H E A N D M E T H O D O L O G I C A L OF T H E O T T O M A N P R O B L E M S S T U D Y P O P U L A T I O N p I O P L ' L A T I O N M O V E M E N T S have a l w a y s p l a y e d a d y n a m i c role i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of h u m a n society. D . M i g r a n t s g o i n g from the c o u n t r y s i d e to u r b a n centers or f l e e i n g f r o m areas hostile to I s l a m have a l w a y s exerted crucial i n f l u e n c e o n t h e social a n d p o l i t i c a l d e s t i n y of M u s l i m c o u n t r i e s . at least i n p a r t . t h e s h i f t s of p o p u l a t i o n s i n I n d i a . contain m u c h material on populat i o n size a n d t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n systems. e c o n o m i c . the first task of the 1 1. Ottoman censuses and surveys of the land i n the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are known of through O. d e p e n d s first o n the a c c u m u l a t i o n of usable e m p i r ical data. c u l t u r a l . a n d Palestine since 1948. stated that he became a w a r e of the i m p o r t a n c e of m i g r a t i o n i n I s l a m b y r e a d i n g the K o r a n . especially those in Istanbul and Ankara. m i g r a t i o n f r o m villages to cities has changed the d e m o g r a p h i c p i c t u r e of p r a c t i c a l l y all the M u s l i m c o u n t r i e s a n d has b e e n a p o w e r f u l factor i n sociopolitical c h a n g e . Despite their obvious importance. T h e refugees f l e e i n g f r o m S p a i n to N o r t h A f r i c a i n the f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . There are some notable exceptions. The d e v e l o p m e n t o f suitable concepts a n d theories. to cite j u s t a f e w e x a m ples. a n d g e n e r a t e d a v a r i e t y of related changes. F e w scholars n o w a d a y s seem to have the t i m e or patience t o pore over h u n d r e d s of d o c u m e n t s f o r m o n t h s on e n d i n d u s t y archives i n o r d e r to extract i n f o r m a t i o n that can be c o n d e n s e d i n a f e w pages a n d m a y r e m a i n l o n g u n n o t i c e d a n d u n a p p r e c i a t e d . have been m a j o r factors a c c o u n t i n g . i n t e r p r e t i n g M i d d l e Easte r n events o n the basis of p r e c o n c e i v e d w e s t e r n concepts or scattered i m p r e s s i o n s w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s — i n c u l t u r e . These p r o d u c e d increased social m o b i l i t y . the I r a n i a n f u n d a m e n t a l i s t teacher [1933-1977]. A l t h o u g h archives i n the area. t h a t is. Barkan's pioneering works: "Tarihi De¬ mografi Arastirmalari ve Osmanli T a r i h i . 622. v e r y little of this material has been sorted o u t a n d used to s t u d y specific d e m o g r a p h i c p r o b l e m s . besides f a i l i n g to a p p l y m e t h o d s a n d techniques a d a p t e d to the s o c i o . Pakistan. a m a j o r s h o r t c o m i n g o f M i d d l e East social studies i n general a n d of p o p u l a t i o n studies i n p a r t i c u l a r d e r i v e s f r o m t h e lack of concepts a n d theories capable of e x p r e s s i n g the social a n d h i s t o r i c a l experience of the M i d d l e East w i t h i n its o w n value system a n d p a t t e r n s of change a n d a c c u l t u r a t i o n . therefore. ignoring their w i d e r historical. t h e i m p a c t of m i g r a t i o n a n d settlement—as w e l l as of h i g h or l o w rates of b i r t h a n d m o r t a l i t y a n d of the social. the hejira of A . the studies of M i d d l e Eastern p o p u l a t i o n h i s t o r y . I n d e e d . I n d e e d .c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e . "Essai sur les données statistiques des registres de recensement 3 . that considerable i n g e n u i t y a n d i m a g i n a t i o n have been i n v e s t e d i n d e v i s i n g " c o n c e p t s . Yet.

See also Marc Pinson. kans. A s i m i l a r m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n h a d b e e n n o t e d earlier b y W i l l i a m E t o n . early i n the t w e n t i e t h lished in the yearbook and by Nikolai Todorov in Balkanskiat Grad. a n d later t h e L e a g u e of N a t i o n s used t h e n . G .A Study of Kayseri. a statistical table p u t o u t b y t h e A r m e n i a n p a t r i a r c h i n Bulgarians b y c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r i n g the V l a h s . M i k h o v takes n o t e of the fact t h a t m a n y of the cited a u t h o r s estim a t e d O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n b y a p p l y i n g subjective j u d g m e n t or u s i n g false i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d b y natives. (La Population dc la Turquic et de la Bulgarie an XV11T ct an XIX ' sieclcs). I n o t h e r cases m a j o r i t y i n m o s t of the c e n t r a l a n d n o r t h e a s t e r n parts of the M u s l i m s w o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o t r i b a l g r o u p s .) n i o n 1 4 2 sified as n o n . at t i m e s . 9-21. at the B e r l i n Congress i n and other n o n o r t h o d o x M u s l i m g r o u p s . The precedent for the variety of scholars a n d p o l i t i c i a n s . However. 1977). p. volumes 2 through 4 list titles omitted from volume 1. 1486-1583)" (Ph.* r r c e k a n d O t t o m a n statistics coincided perfectly. at 1. Trabzon.V E K [The Balkan t o w n . "The Ottoman Tahrir Detters as a Source of Urban Demographic History: The Case Study ofTrabzon(ca. These titles i n c l u d e 1. The Balkan Citv. A survey of the Western bibliography on Ottoman population in the nineteenth century is in Engin Akarli. t h e final totals g i v e n m all. (It is mterestmg to note that Léart was actually an Armenian from Istanbul whose real name was Kirkor Zohrap. o n l y a f e w of t h e m u t i l i z e reliable statistical i n f o r m a t i o n based o n the actual c o u n t of p o p u l a t i o n . despite the fact that the tion " International journal of Turkish Studies 1. A .183. or 45. A l t h o u g h i t is a p e r m a n e n t h i s t o r i c a l source a n d a m o n u m e n t to M i k h o v ' s d e d i c a t i o n to i n d u s t r i o u s s c h o l a r s h i p . a c c o r d i n g to the p a t r i a r c h ' s statisofficers.. "Urban Population in Anatolia in the Sixteenth Century. pp 37-72.123 f r o m F r e n c h . he p o i n t s o u t that t r a v e l e r s ' estimates of the t o t a l n u m b e r of B u l g a r i a n s i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1800 to 1878 r a n g e d f r o m 500. 1854-1866" (Ph. i m p a c t . Wolf-Dieter Hutteroth and Kamal Abduifattah. the w o r k has basic weaknesses.M u s l i m i n o r d e r to p r o Bulgaria u n d e r the San Stefano treaty i n 1878. A l e v i for i n d u c i n g the B r i t i s h to o p p o s e . Racial. systematize. and my "Ottoman Immigration Polices and Settlement i n Palestine. l e a v i n g A n a t o l i a nremier E l e u t h e r i o s V e n i z e l o s . while the last volume concerns itself with Russian works on Ottoman population.7 pp. a n d v a i l l e s i n 1919 as the basis f o r c l a i m i n g w e s t e r n A n a t o l i a after m o s t of the Balkans h a d achiev ed the desired i n d e for Greece. "Demographic Warfare: A n Aspect of Ottoman and Russian Policy. I n the first f o u r v o l u m e s the titles of 3. diss. that is. are l i s t e d . Leila Erder. i n some of t h e m the statistics w e r e b l a t a n t l y m a n i p u . just a s h a d e M u s l i m s . 5. L i e o r i g i n the G r e e k . 1977). the Russian delegate s u b m i t t e d a series of p o p u l a t i o n A n o t h e r s u b t e r f u g e u s e d b v advocates of the v a r i o u s statistics alleged to have b e e n p r e p a r e d b y a great a u t h o r groups was to reclassify all t h e C h r i s t i a n s as " B u l g a r i a n " or i t y . K u r d i s h the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t w a s at that t i m e m o r e o f t e n t h a n nomads T h i s s u b t e r f u g e w a s d i s c o v e r e d b y the B r i t i s h ofn o t v i e w e d as i n e v i t a b l y r i g h t a n d p r o p e r . 111. This is p a r t i c u l a r l y v i t a l for the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r v . See the English version of Todorov's book. objected to b e c o m i n g p a r t of B u l g a r i a . h e l d i n D e c e m b e r 1876 for the p r o v i n c e s . t h e y s t r o n g l y reflect the p o l i t i . Second. 1971). w h o d i s m i s s e d the c l a i m b y the Greeks t h a t t h e y n u m b e r e d 8 m i l l i o n at the e n d of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . M i k h o v ' s s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n i n p a r t to j u s t i f y B u l g a r i a n n a t i o n h o o d a n d advance ( i n d i r e c t l y ) B u l g a r i a n claims to M a c e d o n i a a n d i n p a r t to c o u n t e r Greek a n d Serbian e f f o r t s to i n c l u d e t h e B u l g a r i a n s as p a r t of t h e i r o w n g r o u p s . "Greek Statistics on Ottoman Greek PopulaGreece acquire these t e r r i t o r i e s . 327 ft. (London. documents (Paris: A .D. the rate of p r o d u c t i o n of studies of O t t o calculate the n u m b e r of G r e e k refugees f r o m T u r k e y . L i n t h e i r classification of the p o p u l a t i o n a c c o r d i n g rial c l a i m of an e x i s t i n g or p o t e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l state. G e n e r a l l y h o w e v e r . pp. Sivas. These reports. thesis. XV-XIX centuries] (Sofia. or i n t o Shute Balkans—that is. the cession of t e r r i t o r y i n the central a n d s o u t h e r n parts of the Balkans to B u l g a r i a . w h o s e v o l u m i n o u s p o p u l a t i o n reports ( a l t h o u g h tics. D a v i d U r q u h a r t . U b i c i n i . 1976). a n d Y e z i d i s . "The Demography of the Middle East. T h e r e are n o citations f r o m T u r k i s h . 163-71. m u l t i v o l u m e bibliographical w o r k by Nikola V. I n m a n y cases these i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e travelers or professionals w h o l i v e d i n e x c l u sively E u r o p e a n sections of O t t o m a n cities. 7.s p o n s o r e d statistics i g n o r e d the most of these " p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e s " (or e t h n o g r a p h i c surO t t o m a n classification a n d s u b s t i t u t e d i n f l a t e d n u m b e r s for veys. Zaza. these s t u d i e s o f t e n w e r e u n d e r t a k e n w i t h the sole p u r p o s e of s u p p o r t i n g the p o l i t i c a l claims of certain ethnic or religious g r o u p s w i t h i n the e m p i r e .X I X . Amasya. occasionally [ K h a r p u t ] ." in Settler Regimes in Africa and the Arab World. i n the area w h i c h became p a r t of Greater and S u n n i . Ronald J Jennings. First.s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s u n a c c o u n t e d for. a n d A m i B o u e a n d to statisticians a n d d e m o g r a p h e r s such as E. Faced w i t h the total p o p u l a t i o n . I here address i n s o m e d e t a i l the issue of the disthis deceptive f i g u r e has since b e e n used e x t e n s i v e l y b y a honest use of p o p u l a t i o n statistics. T h i r d . w o r s t of . E r z u r u m . Cook. a n d N o r t h Africa is to assemble. T h e r e m a i n i n g 9. f o r e v e n i n E u r o p e r e g u l a r systematic censuses w e r e n o t ' t a k e n u n t i l early i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . besides d e m - dans l'Empire ottoman au X V et X V I * siècles. southeast E u r o p e . or w o r k e d i n r e m o t e cor- 6. I t is i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e t h a t M i k h o v c o n s i d e r e d t h e scarcity of o f f i c i a l censuses i n the O t t o m a n state to be n o r m a l . w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g the n u m b e r of M u s l i m s . 291. See also Heath W. 1799). 731 f r o m E n g l i s h . no. or 45.: Medina University Press International. a n d the n u m b e r of the A r m e n i a n s as this s t r o n g reaction f r o m C h r i s t i a n s w h o .. was m a d e u p of " v a r i o u s o t h e r r e l i g i o n s . together w i t h extracts c o n t a i n i n g statistics a n d i n f o r m a t i o n o n B u l g a r i a n h i s t o r y a n d society. i n d i s p e n s a b l e to a n y s t u d y of this t o p i c .1 percent of the t o t a l .. no. For e x a m Russian statistics h a d i n f l a t e d the c o m p a r a t i v e n u m b e r of ple. a n d . This is how the results of the census of 1866 in Tuna Province The m a n i p u l a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n statistics for p o l i t i c a l were used. 1400-1900 (Seattle: University of Washington Press. see my The Cecekondu: Rural Migration and Urbanization in Turkey (New York' Cambridge University Press. H a r p u t t i o n to the Russian statistics. lated or falsified o u t r i g h t i n o r d e r to s u p p o r t some territo. Challamel.c e n t u r y p o p u l a t i o n studies is clearly revealed i n t h e m o n u m e n t a l .) 4.. a n y s u b t e r f u g e e m p l o y e d against his c o u n t M u s l i m s . T h e man p o p u l a t i o n d r o p p e d drastically. E v i d e n c e o f t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s of n i n e t e e n t h . M . 1974). a n d D i v a r b e k i r ) as 1. Its Territorial. 1 have requested a copy of the register but have not received it and have therefore relied on the figures as pubspread a n d i n g e n i o u s . 1 . Cook (London: Oxford University Press 1970). c e n t u r y the Greek Patriarchate issued figures p u r p o r t i n g to X T . Karaman. t h e i r value is l i m i t e d . "The Measurement of P r e i n d u tnal Population Changes: The Ottoman Empire from the Fifteenth to the Seventeenth C e n t u r y . M .4 Sunvu oi the Turkish Empire. the mote the p r e f e r r e d g r o u p to n u m e r i c a l m a j o r i t y . a n d analyze the p o p u l a t i o n data available in T u r k i s h archives a n d o t h e r places a n d to s t u d y the p r o c e d u r e s used i n g a t h e r i n g these data. 1. . (The B r i t i s h h o p e d to see 3.000. D u r i n g the talks ficials i n charge of i m p l e m e n t i n g r e f o r m s i n the eastern at the I s t a n b u l C o n f e r e n c e . no less t h a n the 1 018. Justin McCarthy. For a general survey of current population studies. Çarikli.. journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient 1. a n d . " = I n a d i f f e r o f t e n d i s t o r t e d i n f a v o r of the Greeks) are w o r t h y of s t u d y . see Georges Sabagh. Population Pressure in Rural AnatoliaUoO-1600 (London: Oxford University Press." Middle East Studies Association Bulletin 4. T h e p a t r i a r c h p l a c e d the t o t a l n u m b e r of M u s l i m s g o v e r n m e n t d e c i d e d to i n v e s t i g a t e the n u m b e r s of Greeks. T h e p a t r i a r c h s i m p l y political m a n i p u l a t i o n of d e m o g r a p h i c data was set bv Rusa d d e d i n w i t h h i s f i g u r e s for the A r m e n i a n p o p u l a t i o n of sia. Harvard University 1970). pp.prez XVU1-X1X v. a n d 1917 gives t h e total n u m b e r of C h r i s t i a n s i n six p r o v i n c e s m Serbs. and "Research on the Ottoman Fiscal Surveys. U b i c i n i ) . ent c o l u m n it is i n d i c a t e d that these " o t h e r r e l i g i o n s " c o n I believe that these r e p o r t s w e r e at least p a r t l y responsible sisted of Kizilba§. K. to pendence (1878). These statistics i n d i c a t e d that the B u l g a r i a n s f o r m e d a " G r e e k " or s o m e o t h e r c h o s e n n a t i o n a l i t y . at t h e peace conference at a n d the A r a b i c . S u b m i t t e d t o t h e B e r l i n C o n g r e s s m 1878. T h e a u t h o r s stated t h a t these f i g u r e s w e r e f r o m the cal biases of the w r i t e r s or of their i n f o r m a n t s . ed. 1830-1914 5 TTUAL A N D M E T H O D O L O G I C A L PROBLEMS scholar interested i n the social h i s t o r v a n d the t r a n s f o r m a tion of the M i d d l e East. ed.. a n d 7 f r o m o t h e r E u r o p e a n languages.000. t h a t is. 2 (1970): 1-19. B i t l i s .4 OTTOMAN POPULATION. Hall and Co.126 c i t a t i o n s f r o m G e r m a n . 5 vols. Nasclemento na Turtsii i Bulgani. each volume also has a preface in French. a n d the practice w a s t h u s i m m e d i a t e l y l e g i t i m i z e d — a s the p r o v i n c e u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e A r m e n i a n p o p u l a t i o n seemed to be the case w i t h a n y s u c h d e e d of a b i g p o w e r i n of one or m o r e n e i g h b o r i n g p r o v i n c e s a n d e x c l u d e d f r o m the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A r m e n i a n p a t r i a r c h a d o p t e d a d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d for a r r i v i n g Because the m a n e u v e r i n g for t e r r i t o r y a n d influence i n at his i n f l a t e d figure f o r the n u m b e r of the A r m e n i a n s m the the lands of the O t t o m a n E m p i r e had' such a p r o f o u n d O t t o m a n state. the B r i t i s h census. I n d e e d . 1987) o n s t r a t i n g an a p p a l l i n g lack of i n f o r m a t i o n o n practically every aspect of M u s l i m life. 1970). r e f u g e e s . I t is t r u e t h a t t h e v are. T h i s p r e posterous c l a i m w a s rejected b y the even most biased of European statesmen. 1983). I n reaceastern A n a t o l i a ( V a n . 1913). 1 (1957). T h e y suffer f r o m three major s h o r t c o m i n g s . A . La Question arménienne à la lumière des found in the FO 78 and 242 series. M u s l i m s f o r m e d the m a j o r i t y i n m a n y places. .2 p e r c e n t of some o t h e r g r o u p s issued t h e i r o w n statistics. 2 (1980): 66-76. (Sofia. Ibrahim Abu-Lughod and Baha Abu-Laban (Wilmette. " Middle Eastern Studies 11 (1975)284-301. The name of the author and the title of this work appear in French on the title page of each volume." in Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East. no. 6 7 D o u b t a b o u t the accuracy of O t t o m a n o f f i c i a l p o p u l a t i o n figures w a s expressed by s o m e E u r o p e a n s w h o m a d e u n substantiated claims about t h e i r o w n special k n o w l e d g e of a n d i n s i g h t i n t o O t t o m a n affairs. a1 O t t o m a n censuses.D. see Justin McCarthy The Arab World. a n d classified as n o n . a l t h o u g h M i k h o v refers extensively to w r i t i n g s a n d f i g u r e s g i v e n b y w e s t e r n a u t h o r s s u c h as A . s h o w t h a t the Greeks i n w e s t e r n A n a t o l i a n u m b e r e d 1. For further bibliographical information. Studies of O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n : A n Evaluation There is no d e a r t h of w r i t i n g s a b o u t the p o p u l a t i o n of the O t t o m a n E m p i r e i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 2d ed. The tables w i t h detaile'd ethnic and religious classifications 2.050 b o o k s a n d articles.178. Turkey and the Balkans (1878-1914): A Handbook if Historical Statistics (Boston: G. R a v e n s t e i n a n d H u g o K u t schera.M u s l i m i n o r d e r to back the assertion t h a t the C h r i s t i a n s f o r m e d a m a j o r i t y i n eastern A n a t o l i a .7 perof c o n t e n t i o n . 60-61. University of Wisconsin-Madison. the Greeks a n d .000 to 8 m i l l i o n . I n fact. diss. a n d t h e p a t r i a r c h w a s f o r c e d to a d m i t h i s discussion of " r e f o r m s " (actually a u t o n o m y ) f o r the Bal" e r r o r " (see C h a p t e r 3). For e x a m p l e . 63 f r o m I t a l i a n . Historical Geography of Palestine Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Centura (Erlangem Frànkische Geographische Gesellschaft. These w e r e clas1878. discussed more fully in Chapter 3 can be may be found in Marcel Léart. 1915-1968). the text is entirely in Bulgarian and 1 therefore cite it under its Bulgarian title only throughout this volume. a n d t h e w o r k i n c l u d e s a l m o s t n o direct q u o t a t i o n s f r o m the o f f i c i a l O t t o m a n censuses (except for a reference to S a l a h e d d i n Bey's f i g u r e s d r a w n f r o m A . a n d o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s i n Thrace a n d other areas u n d e r the p e r c e n t a g e of C h r i s t i a n s . as they are p r o p e r l y called) by westerners dealt w i t h u Creeks These false statistics w e r e used by the G r e e k the E u r o p e a n part of the O t t o m a n state. The essence of this work is in the first volume. For a comprehensive study of Ottoman statistics. c o m m u n i c a t e d o n l y ' w i t h the C h r i s t i a n g r o u p s . see FO 96 205. A . " O t t o m a n Population in Europe in the 19th Century. w h e n p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t s w e r e m o r e i n f l u e n t i a l t h a n ever before i n g e n e r a t i n g social a n d p o l i t i c a l changes t h r o u g h o u t the entire O t t o m a n state. M i k h o v . and Religious Composition " ( M . A s an e x a m p l e . 19/2). i n a w a y . Greeks. Lowry. and Erzurum " International journal of Middle East Studies 7 (1976): 21-57. b u t m o s t of these are e t h n o g r a p h i c w o r k s . The original register for this census is in the National purposes b y v a r i o u s e t h n i c a n d religious g r o u p s was w i d e Library in Sofia. University of California at Los Angeles.000—about t w i c e the n u m b e r i n the o f f i c i a l O t t o m a n M u s l i m s . I t sent to these places a n u m b e r of m i l i t a r y cent of the p o p u l a t i o n .

Paul Boutet. l a n d surveys. o n e can a r r i v e at a t e n t a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e f o r the c i t y b y s u b t r a c t i n g f r o m the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the central kaza a certain n u m b e r of p e o p l e d e e m e d to l i v e i n the villages attached a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y to i t . the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f males o b l i g a t e d to d o m i l i t a r y service c o u l d have b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d o n l y u n d e r a s o u n d registrat i o n s y s t e m . These f i g u r e s . is that published by the Research Centre for Islamic History. P o p u l a t i o n estimates g i v e n b y v a r i o u s E u r o p e a n scholars a n d d i p l o m a t s . their w o r k s i n t u r n became p r i m a r y sources for m a n y lesser w r i t e r s a n d a great v a r i e t y of p e r i o d i c a l s . on doit convenir que jamais les statistiques fournies d'une façon officielle par la Porte. w h e n i n d o u b t a b o u t s o m e f i g u r e s . have relatively h i g h e r m a r g i n s of e r r o r t h a n those of t h e census taken i n the 1880s. w h o d e v o t e d three v o l u m e s of his e l e v e n . The provincial saluâmes. w i t h the partial exception of those for Avdm and Hudavendigar provinces. (Ravenstein's work is commented on in Chapter 3. e v e n t u a l l y . a n d defense capabilities i n o r d e r to p r o v i d e t h e i r h o m e g o v e r n m e n t s w i t h f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d e d f o r the m a k i n g o f v i t a l e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l decisions. A l t h o u g h t h e size of t h e t e r r i t o r y of t h e central kaza v a r i e s . a n d o t h e r smaller t o w n s . w i t h m i l i t a r y o b l i g a t i o n s d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g l y : the active d u t y g r o u p {muvazzaf) s e r v e d f o u r years f r o m age t w e n t y . donnés jusqu'ici par des publicistes qui pour la plupart. ' D e s p i t e t h e i r gross d i s t o r t i o n s . A group of British statisticians trying to assess the human resources of Turkey and Russia had the following to say about the Ottoman figures: " I n treating the Turkish statistics. especially. see "Osmanli Rumelisi Tarih ve C o g r a f v a s i . ses k e p t t h e i r o w n registers f o r the M u s l i m s . a m o n g 14 8. T h e census results are g i v e n b y vilayet/eyalet ( p r o v i n c e ) . The best and most comprehensive study of the saluâmes. but it was not declared complete until more than ten Gregorian years later. A g o o d e x a m p l e is F. embassy secretaries. corresponding to 1881/82. Bianconi wrote: "Le peu de scrupule qui ont les Turcs étant aujourd'hui universellement reconnu. T h e y l e a r n e d the l a n g u a g e . These E u r o p e a n s d e v e l o p e d a h e a l t h y respect for the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n statistics a n d used t h e m extens i v e l y . these E u r o p e a n s q u e s t i o n e d O t t o m a n ministers a n d p r i m e ministers. I n fact. I n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i sion of the O t t o m a n state u n d e r w e n t several changes that t e n d to confuse one u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the process.) 11. or sahmmes for short. (Earlier f i g u r e s . t h e census of 1831 occasionally i n c l u d e s t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c i t y . for the successful d i s c h a r g e of w h i c h k n o w l e d g e of the e m p i r e ' s h u m a n a n d f i n a n c i a l resources w a s necessary. Some censuses refer specifically to t h e p o p u l a t i o n of a g i v e n t o w n . The section on Rumili has been published recently i n a version prepared by H ." Hayai Tanh Mecmuasi 10. Of this a very good account has lately been given by M r . issued his o w n set of p o p u l a t i o n statistics. To meet t h i s s t r o n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e n e e d . a n d t h e Cihanmima. a n d after t h o r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h e y came to accept the O t t o m a n o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s as b a s i c a l l y t r u s t w o r t h y . the p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e villages" is s e l d o m m o r e n u m e r o u s t h a n the p o p u l a t i o n of t h e c i t v i t s e l f . the territorial/local m i l i t i a {mustahfiz) served f o r f o u r years. m i l i t a r y a t t a c h é s . Balkanskiat Grad and "The Balkan Town in the Second Half of the 19th C e n t u r y . " Güney Doğu Avrupa Araştırmaları Dergisi 2-3 (1973-1974): 11-88. etc. for exa m p l e . this was c o m p e n s a t e d f o r by the t e s t i m o n y of o t h e r E u r o p e a n s . it was. e v e n t u a l l y . except during the First World War. O f t e n the first f i g u r e g i v e n f o l l o w i n g t h e name of a specific a d m i n i s t r a t i v e center is t h e p o p u l a t i o n of the capital c i t y . p. For instance. rely e i t h e r o n these o f f i c i a l p u b l i s h e d records or o n the i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d b y officials i n charge of p o p u l a t i o n affairs. U p o n r e t u r n i n g to t h e i r c o u n t r i e s of o r i g i n . A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the a d m i n i s trative d i v i s i o n of a later p e r i o d w a s g i v e n at t h e b e g i n n i n g of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y (1804) by P. from 1847 to 1918. of K o n y a . 1877]. B i a n c o n i . A large n u m b e r of E u r o p e a n s of all n a t i o n a l i t i e s w o r k e d f o r l o n g p e r i o d s i n the O t t o m a n state as d i p l o m a t i c representatives (consuls.v. Freiherr von Hanvmer-Purgstall. g . are very valuable sources on Ottoman socio-economic history despite the fact that. Andreasyan. T h e census m e t h o d s a n d the q u a l i t y of t h e statistics p r o d u c e d u n d e r w e n t c o n t i n u a l e v o l u t i o n . a n d . 16). E d i r n e . A r t . . . u s e d e x t e n sively by v a r i o u s E u r o p e a n e t h n o g r a p h e r s a n d statisticians. The o r i g inal d i v i s i o n . a d o p t e d i n the second h a l f of t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . r e a c h i n g a q u i t e a d v a n c e d l e v e l i n the census o f 1881/82-1893. sur ses sujets. The conscription system for M u s l i m s i n t r o d u c e d by M a h m u t I I i n 1838. the most advanced and comprehensive of all the Ottoman population surveys conducted i n the nineteenth century. A . u p o n r e t u r n i n g to the West. Ritter z u r Helle v o n Samo. w h i l e g e n e r a l l y reliable. a r m y officers t o o k active roles i n O t t o m a n 10. nos. w i t h the possible exception of the partial census taken i n Tuna Province in 1866. Dennis Hyde. 104 (1973). surtout pour une oeuvre faite dans u n pays oriental. Ernst B e h m . These m e n h a d to seek the m o s t reliable sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n . d e s p i t e v a r i o u s changes. no. f o r instance. the central kaza i n c l u d e s the m a i n city a n d the v i l lages i n the v i c i n i t y of the c i t y . The imperial yearbooks. "Salnamc. 1982). 8 OTTOMAN POPULATION. and Ubicini. C e n t r a l i z a t i o n h a d forced it to assume n e w a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Ravenstein . T h e s u r r o u n d i n g areas (the n e i g h b o r h o o d s — nahiyes) i n d i c a t e d separately. p r o v i d e s f a i r l y estensive i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h i s . a p e r m a n e n t p o p u l a t i o n register s y s t e m became v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t for the g o v e r n m e n t i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . m a k i n g possible t h e c o m p a r i s o n of t h e u r b a n a n d r u r a l p o p u l a tions. no 2 (1969)31. and may leave no practical doubt on the more important questions to be answered. Ubicini. a n d . " Etudes balkaniques. T h e data c o n 9 T h e O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n statistics w e r e d e v e l o p e d to satisfy pressing a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d m i l i t a r y needs. is k n o w n t h r o u g h f i g u r e s p u b lished b y U b i c i n i a n d B o r é . H . e ." 1 0 CONCEPTUAL A N D M E T H O D O L O G I C A L PROBLEMS 7 also f r o m tax registers a n d o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n available to the p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . r e a d the loca! press. As will be demonstrated i n detail in Chapter 2." Middle East Studies Association Bulletin 13.6 ners of the r e a l m . 9. 1263). M . the inactive reserve {redif) w a s u n d e r o b l i g a t i o n f o r a n o t h e r f o u r t e e n years." Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 40 [1877]: 633-34).). plus ou moins fantaisistes. o r business representatives. t h e n . V i t a l C u i n e t . The first p r o v i n c i a l y e a r b o o k (for Bosnia) w a s p u b l i s h e d i n 1866. C e n suses. h a d s o m e of his p o p u l a t i o n figures c h e c k e d b y A h m e t V e f i k Paşa. but they will be much better than no results at all. w h o w o r k e d as an engineer f o r a r a i l r o a d c o m p a n y f r o m 1872 to 1876 a n d t h e n .t o . L . Paul Boutet. l f o l l o w i n g this chapter. t h e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r the w h o l e e m p i r e a p p e a r e d f o r t h e first t i m e o n l y i n t h e v o l u m e i s s u e d i n 1877/78. as w e l l as b y O t t o m a n g e o g r a p h e r s a n d e n c y c l o p e d i s t s . R u m i l i ( v o l u m e 6). I n c i c i y a n . Boue. these " e x p e r t s " o n O t t o m a n affairs w r o t e b o o k s a n d gave o u t estimates a n d o p i n i o n s r e l a t i n g to e v e r v aspect of O t t o m a n life. 12. livalsancak. without the aids we are used to in countries where there is a good administration. were based o n earlier f i g u r e s o b t a i n e d b y actual c o u n t a n d 13 P o p u l a t i o n Censuses a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D i v i s i o n T h e s t u d y of O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n is v i t a l l y d e p e n d e n t o n precise. en conséquence. teachers. the g e n e r a l c o n s c r i p t i o n i n t r o d u c e d i n 1855 ( b u t never a c t u a l l y a p p l i e d to C h r i s t i a n s ) . I n the latter p a r t of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y M u s l i m males w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r age g r o u p s . therefore. t h e r e f o r e . . a b o u t the e t h n i c division of the C h r i s t i a n s as w e l l . D. This census w-as begun in the Hicri year 1299. a n d A n a t o l i a ( v o l u m e 1 0 ) . both state a n d p r o v i n c i a l . we need not be absolutely i n the dark. h a d s u r v i v e d . Documents statistiques " Exploration 2 [1877]: 159). which includes information about their location i n libraries i n Turkey. 2 (1976): 10-20. The statistical tables c o m p i l e d by the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y also p r o v i d e excellent i n f o r m a t i o n f o r m e a s u r i n g the level of u r b a n i z a t i o n .d a t e m a p s s h o w i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i sion of the r e a l m . ( A male M u s l i m t h u s m i g h t have s o m e sort o f m i l i t a r y d u t y f o r as m u c h as t w e n t y . comme devant avoir une autorité de beaucoup supérieure à celle des divers chiffres. W a g n e r . "Osmanli Devrinde Salnameler. The r e c r u i t m e n t of a m o d e r n a r m y a n d its o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t o active a n d r e s e r v e u n i t s r e q u i r e d a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the n u m b e r a n d age of t h e male p o p u l a t i o n . See"also Islam Ansiklopedesi. on peut accepter ces statistiques. publiées officiellement. a n d kaza—that is. n'avaient pas accès aux sources d'information" ("L'Empire ottoman. The results will not be so authoritative or so complete in detail as it is expedient to have them. H o w e v e r . and Hasan R.v o l u m e w o r k o n w o r l d g e o g r a p h y to the d e s c r i p t i o n of I s t a n b u l ( v o l u m e 5). n'ont pu être prises en sérieuse considération et ne doivent. . u s u a l l y u n d e r a h e a d i n g such as merkez kcizasi (central kaza). servir en aucune manière comme documents pour l'élaboration d ' u n travail ethnographique de ces contrées" {Ethnographie et statistique de la Turquie d'Europe et de la Grèce 2d ed [Paris. for example. a c c o r d i n g to t h e m a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s of the t i m e . O t t o m a n O f f i c i a l D a t a : I t s V a l u e a n d Use A l t h o u g h t h e v i e w s of t h o s e f e w m i s i n f o r m e d i n d i v i d u a l s w h o m i s t r u s t e d O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n statistics enj o y e d considerable p u b l i c i t y i n the E u r o p e a n press. T h e d e t a i l e d lists that w e r e the bases for the f i n a l census f i g u r e s ( w i t h the p a r t i a l e x c e p t i o n of lists f r o m t h e 1866 census of T u n a vilayet) p r o b a b l y w i l l not be available u n t i l all t h e O t t o m a n d o c u m e n t s of t h e nineteenth c e n t u r y are f u l l y c a t a l o g u e d . u p . . few were published regularly. a l t h o u g h t h e y o f t e n m a d e a d j u s t m e n t s to c o m p e n s a t e f o r certain technical s h o r t c o m i n g s . M a n a s t i r (Bitolia). a n d became i n t i m a t e l y acq u a i n t e d w i t h the O t t o m a n b u r e a u c r a c y . which began to be published roughly from 1868 onwards and amount to several hundred volumes of various sizes. a n d .) T h e O t t o m a n m i l i t a r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t w a s therefore the first to s h o w k e e n i n t e r e s t i n p o p u l a t i o n records a n d to exert pressure o n the s u l t a n a n d the g o v e r n m e n t to u n d e r take censuses a n d a d o p t a r e g u l a r p o p u l a t i o n register syst e m . See also Justin McCarthy and I . o f t e n p u b l i s h i n g t h e m i n E u r o p e .f o u r years. militarys t r e n g t h . a n d ^ o p e r a t e d closely w i t h civilian p o p u l a t i o n officials t h r o u g h o u t t h e n i n e t e e n t h a n d t w e n t i e t h centuries. D'Ohsson. who used the Ottoman population lists for 1877/78 wrote: "Tout en tenant compte des erreurs inévitables qui accompagnent toujours u n premier essai d ' u n genre pareil. t h e classical w o r k o n g e o g r a p h y of K a t i p Çelebi (1609-1658). A list of y e a r b o o k s a c c o r d i n g t o p u b l i c a t i o n date is i n c l u d e d as A p p e n d i x A . a n d o t h e r s . and Culture. 1830-1914 t a i n e d i n the o f f i c i a l censuses or p u b l i s h e d i n i m p e r i a l or p r o v i n c i a l yearbooks w e r e accepted as s o u n d a n d used (as shall be s h o w n i n the n e x t c h a p t e r ) b y U b i c i n i . T h e y t r i e d to c o m pile statistics o n m a t t e r s s u c h as O t t o m a n t r a d e . and 4-5 (1975-76): 101-152. N o w a d a y s even scholars b e l o n g i n g to those e t h n i c a n d n a t i o n a l g r o u p s that w e r e at one t i m e u n d e r O t t o m a n r u l e a n d critical of its policies have come to accept the Porte's o f f i c i a l statistics as mainly reliable. Kutschera. k n o w n as Dcvlct-i Ahyc Salnamelcri.) 12 The censuses t a k e n at v a r i o u s t i m e s i n the n i n e t e e n t h and early t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s are t h u s the p r i n c i p a l O t t o man source of i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e p o p u l a t i o n . the Otto¬ ' n d e v e l o p e d the censuses a n d t h e y e a r b o o k s {saluâmes). consist of sixty-six volumes published regularly. " ("Turkish Resources. I n s o m e cases. 13. u n t i l that t i m e . f i n a l l y . See Todorov. s. By 1868 there w e r e several saluâmes g i v i n g p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s for their respective p r o v i n c e s ." 14. A l t h o u g h i m p e r i a l saluâmes covering the entire r e a l m b e g a n to be p u b l i s h e d i n 1847 ( H . these have n o t b e e n p u b l i s h e d o f f i c i a l l y i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . a l t h o u g h some s u m m a r i e s w e r e m a d e p u b l i c : the i m p o r t a n t census of 1844. U r q u h a r t . I n t e r n a l p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t is after all s i m p l y a transfer of p e o p l e f r o m o n e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t to a n o t h e r . to be basic a n d reliable sources of i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e size a n d g e n e r a l r e l i g i o u s c o m p o s i tion of the p o p u l a t i o n a n d . 103. Joseph. I n the case of E d i r n e P r o v i n c e . "Ottoman Imperial and Provincial Salnames. he used n o reliable sources b u t t r i e d to enhance his o w n c r e d i b i l i t y b y d e n o u n c i n g the T u r k s a n d t h e i r statistics. T h e second m a j o r source of i n f o r m a t i o n o n O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n is t h e y e a r b o o k s . Bianconi's figures have o f t e n been cited as a m a j o r source of i n f o r m a tion o n O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n . Ertug. Ottoman Year-Books (Salnamc and Nevasal) (Istanbul. The first question which presents itself is that of population and area. the active reserve g r o u p {ihtiyat) s e r v e d f o r t w o m o r e years.

1980). Sur Petal du systeme des timars des XVII'-XVIW siccles (Sofia: Academie Bulgare des Sciences. T h e p u r p o s e of the r e f o r m was to s t r e n g t h e n the a u t h o r i t y of the c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t by e l i m i n a t i n g or n e u t r a l i z i n g the i n f l u e n c e of the derebei/s a n d o t h e r local l o r d s . For a survey of the administrative reform (but without the list of vilayets). one of these s u b d i v i s i o n s w a s chosen as the seat of the p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n o r a n d was k n o w n as " p a ş a s a n c a g i . pp: 3-4. d e s p i t e all efforts to i m p r o v e t h e c o u n t . T u n a [ B u l g a r i a ] . 3. "Ottoman Tahrir Deltas." . r e t a i n i n g a rather c o n f u s i n g status) s u b d i v i d e d i n t o livas or sancaks. hence there arose the necessity of l e a r n i n g the exact n u m ber of each m a j o r C h r i s t i a n e t h n i c g r o u p . " T h e C e n s u s B u r e a u estimated that i n certain d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d areas as m u c h as 18 percent of s o m e age g r o u p s w o u l d escape the c o u n t . 1 [ 1981 J: 3-44.D.8 O T T O M A N POPULATION. f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of n a t i o n a l c h u r c h e s a n d schools—as w e l l as i n claims f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d t e r r i t o r y . t h i s w a s the p i l o t project f o r a c h i e v i n g m o d e r n i z a t i o n . the t e r m r e f e r r e d either to the sociologically d e f i n e d nuclear f a m i l y or to the e x t e n d e d f a m i l y rather t h a n to the t a x p a y i n g h o u s e h o l d . can t r u l y c o u n t the e n t i r e p o p u l a tion For instance. after t h e s i g n i n g of the Paris treaty i n 1856. (The final version of this paper is "The Population of Ottoman Syria and Iraq. T h e vilayet o f T u n a w a s the first.M u s l i m s a n d . ~ Bv the m i d d l e of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . w a s still n o t a n e n d i n itself. Mamuretülaziz. L a n d s u r v e y s . i n d i f f e r e n t years m u s t be sure to take i n t o a c c o u n t the c r e a t i o n of these n e w a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s as w e l l as the c o n c u r r e n t use of T u r k ish a n d A r a b i c . i n c l u d i n g t h e m o s t s o p h i s t i cated c o n t e m p o r a r y o n e . basically preserved the o l d d i v i s i o n (eyalet. "Dynamics of Agricultural Production. liva/sancak. "La Turquie d'Europe d'apès le Traité de Berlin. C h r i s t i a n s b e l o w t h e age of p u b e r t y . The existing records on taxation and the distribution of miri (state) land to cultivators could yield excellent figures on the Ottoman population in the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. a c c o r d i n g t o new. i t m u s t be e m p h a s i z e d . g . Die Territorialverwaltung im östlichen Teil der europäischen Turkey vom Erlass der Vilayets- 20. a n d the results reflected the s o c i o . w e s t e r n s t u d e n t s of O t t o m a n affairs. T h e eyalets w e r e subd i v i d e d i n t o 440 livas. I t w a s p a r t l y c o m p l e t e d b y 1871 b u t c o n t i n u e d t h e r e a f t e r . f o r t h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t the first m o d e r n style census. A m o n g o t h e r recent w o r k s . t h e New York Times of 9 M a r c h 1980 reported. Mutafchieva and Stashimir Dimitrov. Population Growth and Urban Development: A Case Study of Areas in North Central Anatolia. The g r a d u a l e v o l u t i o n of a n e w a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n began w i t h the p r o m u l g a t i o n of the V i l a y e t L a w of 1864. i n r e g a r d to t h e U n i t e d States census to b e g i n o n 1 A p r i l 1980. a n d Serbia b e i n g a l m o s t i n d e p e n d ent. the standards to be a p p l i e d i n e v a l u a t i n g O t t o m a n data are (1) i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . the h o u s e h o l d as r e p r e s e n t e d b y its male h e a d . s o . 1968). a n d 3 i n A f r i c a . 1878-1914. Slavic. Reform in the Ottoman Empire 1856-1876 (Princeton: Princeton University Press 1963) D D 157-71. their p o l i t i c a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e status w a s v a r i e d . Bitlis." Revue de géographie 3 (1878): 97-123. kazas ( a d m i n i s t e r e d b y a mildir assisted by a c o u n c i l of n o t a b l e s ) . These h u m a n i s t functionalist-nationalist considerations were manifest i n the census a n d r e g i s t r a t i o n s y s t e m i m p l e m e n t e d i n 1881' 82-1893. 1520-1575" (Ph. w h i c h w e r e basically j u d i c i a l districts u n d e r a j u d g e (kadi). especially o f t h e vilayets. M o r e o v e r . 1800-1914.b u t u n v e r i f i e d i n f o r m a t i o n ) . w a s to assess the area of c u l t i v a t e d l a n d s f o r the l e v y i n g of taxes o n t h e c u l t i v a t o r . the yoklamas. a n d its results were r e c o r d e d i n l a n d d e e d registers (tapu defteri). I f t h e U n i t e d States. it suffices f o r the p u r p o s e of this s t u d y to say that the O t t o m a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n i n 1831—that is. H o w e v e r . w h i c h is c o n f i n e d to a q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d y o f p o p u l a t i o n . I n the early 1850s the O t t o m a n state appears to have b e e n d i v i d e d i n t o 36 eyalets. t h e r i s i n g n a t i o n a l consciousness a m o n g the C h r i s t i a n g r o u p s h a d m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n t h e f o r m of a v a r i e t y o f d e m a n d s — e . K ü d u s . See opinions summarized in A m n o n Cohen and Bernard Lewis. o r p h a n s . E g y p t . 18. 1691. Corps de droit ottoman 1 (Oxford: Clarendon Press. the first u s u a l l y a m o n g M u s l i m s . T h e kazas w e r e f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o nahiyes—mainly r u r a l districts w h i c h h a d a g i v e n n u m b e r of villages. N o census taker. a n d (3) consistency w i t h d e m o g r a p h i c r u l e s . of w h i c h 15 w e r e i n E u r o p e . f o r the c o n s c r i p t i o n of M u s l i m male a d u l t s into the a r m y . w h i l e T u n i s i a h a d special status. see also Lowrv. e. a n d D i y a r b e k i r c e d e d S i i r t to B i t l i s a n d M a l a t y a to H a r p u t ( K h a r p u t ) . diss. a n d the capital. a n d nahiyes ( a d m i n i s t e r e d b y elected muhtars or kocabaşı. created i n 1864 b y c o m b i n i n g the eyalets o f S i l i s t r e . ' & 19. ) The Vilayet L a w of 1864. I n 1867 a n d 1871 n e w vilayets w e r e created. the second i n n o n . Some of thé deficiencies revealed b y t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of these standards are technical a n d easily r e m e d i e d by a r i t h m e t i c a l adjust2 0 15. kaza. W a l l a c h i a . i n 1878/79 the vilayet of E r z u r u m w a s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h e vilayets of V a n . it is t o t a l l y u n r e a l i s t i c to criticize t h e Ottomans f o r n o t h a v i n g b e e n able to c o u n t exactly t h e i r entire p o p u l a t i o n i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 1978). 16. as p r e v i o u s ly p o i n t e d o u t . T h e y have p a r t i c u l a r characteristics w h i c h m u s t be u n d e r s t o o d . " The liva or sancak was d i v i d e d i n t u r n i n t o kazas. i n 1870 there w e r e 23 vilayets. a n d the e m p i r e r e v e r t e d to the o l d a d m i n istrative s y s t e m . 31 sancaks. The complexity of the population problem in the Ottoman state in the sixteenth century becomes evident if one approaches it from the viewpoint of agricultural production and urbanization. T h e e ° t h o d s w e r e d e v i s e d i n accordance w i t h the special O t t o - m a n p h i l o s o p h y of the p o p u l a t i o n c o u n t ." Asian and African Studies 15. m e a n w h i l e .c e n t u r y tahrirs i n v o l v e d t h e registration of a d u l t m a l e s — e s p e c i a l l y h o u s e h o l d s heads as taxpayers b u t also bachelors a n d o t h e r s — a n d t h u s the tapu defteri are r e g a r d e d as a f a i r l y g o o d source of d e m o g r a p h i c information. the g o v e r n m e n t was n o i t h e n i n t e r e s t e d i n a n d d i d n o t seek to register those i n d i v i d u a l s — w o m e n . The Porte began to embrace the E u r o p e a n concept of f u n c t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t a n d service to society. C o n s e q u e n t l y . KarsA r t v i n . These surveys show a continuing preoccupation with the size of cultivable lands—at least w i t h those given as fiefs to the stpahis—and with their revenue. T h e t r a d i t i o n a l tax u n i t i n t h e f i f t e e n t h a n d s i x t e e n t h centuries was the hane. I n the n i n e t e e n t h century n e w c o n s i d e r a t i o n s d i c t a t e d a n e w t y p e of s u r v e y . nahiye) b u t changed the eyalets i n t o vilayets a d m i n i s t e r e d b y valis (governors) a p p o i n t e d by the central g o v e r n m e n t . w h i l e H a l e p itself was d i v i d e d i n t o H a l e p a n d A d a n a . 1830-1914 CONCEPTUAL A N D M E T H O D O L O G I C A L PROBLEMS 9 k n o w n as emlak tahrin.. p. o f t e n s u p p o r t e d b y data i g n o r i n g o t h e r g r o u p s . . See for details Hans-Jurgen Kornrumpf.c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h i t w a s carried o u t . c o n t i n u e d to be c o n d u c t e d b u t w e r e taken separately f r o m the p o p u l a t i o n c o u n t .i . t h e n 2 1 Yearbooks p u b l i s h e d after 1847 g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n o n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n . g r a d u a l l y . l ? It is n o t necessary here to p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n . The raison d'etre of O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n c o u n t s w a s o r i g i nally not the s i m p l e desire to have a n accurate record of the total n u m b e r of p e o p l e i n t h e r e a l m or details a b o u t t h e i r socio-ethnic c o m p o s i t i o n . a n d i z m i t ) . The"' o l d O t t o m a n " h o u s e h o l d " d i d n o t necessarily c o r r e s p o n d to either the nuclear or the e x t e n d e d f a m i l y : it w a s a h o u s e h o l d d e f i n e d f i n a n c i a l l y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y such a task goes far b e y o n d the scope of this w o r k . c a n n o t c o n d u c t a perfect census i n t h e late t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y .M u s l i m c o m m u n i t i e s ) . I n 1834 S u l t a n M a h m u d I I i n t r o d u c e d a n e w a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n c o n s i s t i n g of 28 eyalets. the O t t o m a n census p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r w e n t a n o t h e r c h a n g e . T h i s census used several e t h n i c . see Roderic H . as a m e n d e d . See Ernest Dottain. no. M o l d a v i a . H o w e v e r . Biga. parts o f Z o r (Deir) w e r e a t t a c h e d to H a l e p ( A l e p p o ) a n d Damascus. lb a n d Asia ( e x c l u d i n g N o r t h A f r i c a ) . T h e exact size of the O t t o m a n " f a m i l y " has n o t y e t been accurately establ i s h e d . t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . O n e p o l i t i c a l l y i n s p i r e d r e p o r t d i d g i v e s o m e f i g u r e s on 22. e t c . Its m a i n p u r p o s e w a s to establish a q u a n t i t a t i v e basis for the l e v y i n g of p e r s o n a l taxes o n n o n . 18 i n A s i a . University ol Wisconsin-Madison. h o w e v e r .g. 2 a n d A . censuses of the timars taken i n 1596. Kerkük ( M o s u l ) . or avanz hanesi. — w h o w e r e n o t o b l i g a t e d to p a y personal taxes or d o m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e .a n d s i x t e e n t h . The p e r v a s i v e flaw i n these data is the u n d e r s t a t e m e n t of " o v u l a t i o n . b e g u n i n 1831 (or 1830. 1979). Five years later this n e w d i v i s i o n was a b a n d o n e d .. ' ' F F ordiumg (1864) bis zum Berliner Kongress (1878) nach amtlichen osmanischen Veröffentlichungen (Weisbaden: Klaus Schwarz Verlae 1976). that is. and 1715. or sancaks ( a d m i n i s t e r e d b y a kaymakam or mutassanif). "Population of the Ottoman Fertile Crescent" (Paper delivered at the International Conference on the Economic History of the Middle East. T h e r e w e r e changes also i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e titles: a mudir became the a d m i n istrator of the nahiye. ' T h e r e f o r m w a s a s l o w process. Population and Revenue in the Towns of Palestine in the Sixteenth Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press. 17. d i d the r e g i s t r a t i o n u n i t .) 21. b u t all t h e M u s l i m s c o n t i n u e d to be c o u n t e d as one h o m o g e n e o u s g r o u p . the m e n t a l l y or p h y s i c l a l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d .c o n f e s s i o n a l categories for the C h r i s t i a n p o p u l a t i o n . 4 special d i s t r i c t s (Çatalca. b u t t h e o b j e c t of t h e tahrir. o r G r e e k n a m e s f o r a g i v e n locality w i t h i n the same vilayet. t s O t h e r s s t e m f r o m the special O t t o m a n concept of n s u s P i lP e n c e a n d f r o m a v a r i e t y of social a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e census tors a f f e c t i n g the c o m p o s i t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e c u l a t i o n . it is e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t to h a v e a c o m p l e t e a n d detailed s t u d y of the O t t o m a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n a n d of the b o u n d a r y changes i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .267 kazas. A n y c o m p a r i s o n of the p o p u l a t i o n s of the various regions. 1698. at least. T h e t r a d i t i o n a l O t t o m a n tahrir was a s u r v e y c a r r i e d o u t f o r tax p u r p o s e s . Lists of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s of 1831 a n d the early 1850s are g i v e n i n a p p e n d i c e s A . w h e n the first m o d e r n census was t a k e n — i n c l u d e d 29 eyalets ( w i t h one or t w o of t h e m . the vilayets w e r e p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o smaller u n i t s for m o r e e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . i n 1880 Bağdat ( B a g h d a d ) w a s d i v i d e d i n t o Bağdat. i n 1875 the n u m b e r w a s 25. Die Provinzen des osmanischen Reiches (Wiesbaden. a n d 54 i n d e p e n d e n t voivodas s u b d i v i d e d i n t o 126 livas a n d 1. . George Young. s o m e of t h e O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n lists issued i n the second h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m e n t i o n e d the n u m b e r of hane i n a r e g i o n or i n the e n t i r e c o u n t r y . Viranşehir. (It s h o u l d be r e m e m b e r e d that t e r r i t o r i e s i n the Balkans a n d Caucasus h a d b e e n lost t h r o u g h the treaty of Berlin i n 1878: these w e r e Bosnia. B r i e f l y . a n d eastern R u m e l i a . 1672. a n d it is e r r o n e o u s to a r r i v e at categorical c o n c l u sions r e g a r d i n g the size of t h e O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n w i t h o u t clearly e s t a b l i s h i n g the exact m e a n i n g of the t e r m hane a n d w i t h o u t considering other variables. T h i s direct assessment of the male p o p u l a tion replaced the f o r m e r reliance o n i n c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d b y c o m m u n a l h e a d s . See Vera P. (2) c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h m o d e r n e n u m e r a t i o n s g i v e n b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t s of the n e w states. V i d i n . Haifa Israel December 14-19. a n d Basra. and E r z u r u m . For exa m p l e . 1606. T h u s u s e d .Reichert • 1976). that is. For instance. I n s u m . a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y by A n d r e a s B i r k e n is noteworthy. h i g h r a n k i n g o f f i c i a l s . t h e s e are less easily -corrected. H o w e v e r . p r o v i d e d i l l u m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n s of the late e i g h t e e n t h a n d the n i n e t e e n t h centuries. indicate that tradition was not abandoned altogether. h o w e v e r . 1694. a n d Niş i n t o a u n i t u n d e r the g o v e r n o r s h i p of M i t h a t P a ş a . as w e l l as s h o r t c o m i n g s w h i c h m u s t be overcome or. A s the g o v e r n m e n t ' s census p h i l o s o p h y c h a n g e d . despite the e t h n i c a n d l i n g u i s t i c differences a m o n g t h e m . i n accordance w i t h the t a x p a y i n g p o t e n t i a l of its m e m b e r s r a t h e r t h a n i n accordance w i t h its n u m e r i c a l size. Davison. see Hurican Islamoglu. By 1893 t h e r e w e r e 27 vilayets i n E u r o p e 18 1 9 P r o b l e m s i n the Use o f O t t o m a n C e n s u s D a t a O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n statistics c a n n o t be accepted at face value. it felt the need to reassess its h u m a n a n d n a t u r a l resources. t h a t " t h e C e n s u s B u r e a u is u n d e r intense a n d m o u n t i n g pressure to p r o v i d e a m e a n s of a r t i f i c i a l l y a d j u s t ing its f i n a l c o u n t to i n c l u d e t h e m i l l i o n s of p e o p l e w h o are expected to e l u d e t h e census takers A p r i l 1 . 1905): 47-69. O r i g i n a l l y the vilayet w a s larger t h a n the o l d eyalet. 3 f o l l o w i n g t h i s chapter. The fifteenth.Ş e r i f [ J e r u s a l e m ] . w i t h all its t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l a n d s o p h i s t i cated c o m p u t e r s . See Justin McCarthy.

i n w h i c h m o s t of the M u s l i m s w o r k e d . a B r i t i s h c o n s u l a r o f f i c i a l i n the P h i l i p p o p o l i s ( P l o v d i v ) area of Bulgaria. epidemics s e e m e d to take a greater t o l l a m o n g M u s l i m s . H e based his figures o n the latter t w o sources a n d a r b i t r a r i l y c o n c l u d e d that M u s l i m families consisted of 5 m e m b e r s .37 m e m b e r s . c u l t u r a l . T h e u n d e r r e p o r t i n g of the p o p u l a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h o u t . a n d o t h e r n o m a d i c tribes t h r o u g h o u t A n a t o l i a .) O n e m i g h t a r r i v e at a m o r e precise c a l c u l a t i o n of the error by s t u d y i n g the b i r t h a n d d e a t h entries d u r i n g a g i v e n p e r i o d of t i m e i n a g i v e n area a n d b y d e v i s i n g a variable f o r m u l a to a c c o u n t f o r t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h a t escaped the c o u n t . became t h e s u p porters r a t h e r t h a n t h e beneficiaries of the n e w o r d e r . especially T u r k s . 6 March 1890. a n d the resistance of s o m e subjects to the census r e s u l t e d i n a considerable n u m b e r of persons b e i n g left u n r e g i s t e r e d .10 f a m i l y size. ( A p p e n d i x A . T h e y appeared to r e t a i n p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l o f t h e state m a c h i n e r y .M u s l i m families h a d f r o m 7 to 9. i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d b v churches a n d native i n f o r m a n t s . T h e increase i n t h e g r o w t h rate after 1850. I t is g e n e r a l l y a s s u m e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e first thirtv years of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the O t t o m a n p o p u l a tion decreased. b e g i n n i n g to increase again after 1850. 25.. w h i c h s t r o n g l y affected the q u a n t i t a t i v e a n d q u a l i t a t i v e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n . " O n the o t h e r h a n d . see Wolf-Dieter Hütteroth. T h e n u m b e r of the settled t r i b e s m e n a n d i m m i g r a n t s w a s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y r e f l e c t e d accurately i n the O t t o m a n statistics. o r s I n s u m . 1830-1914 CONCEPTUAL A N D M E T H O D O L O G I C A L PROBLEMS 11 had relied i n m o s t cases o n f i g u r e s s u p p l i e d bv the tribal chieftans. or o t h e r c a l a m i t i e s associated w i t h u n d e r d e v e l o p ment.000 G r e e k s . e d u c a t i o n a l . n . 29. The census of 1881 '82-1893 w a s the first to p r o v i d e c o m p r e h e n s i v e e s t i m a t e s of the p o p u l a t i o n of the tribes a n d of the areas n o t subject to actual c o u n t . M o s t o f the c h u r c h e s r e g i s t e r e d o n l y marriages a n d the n u m b e r of h o u s e s . t h r o v e u n d e r t h e c h a n g e d e c o n o m i c . " These tribes w e r e o v e r w h e l m i n g l y M u s l i m a n d t h e r e f o r e increased t h e t o t a l of the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n as t h e y became accessible to the census takers. Thrace. K u b a n . These O t t o m a n statistics of error p e r c e n t a g e . These changes i n the O t t o m a n census p h i l o s o p h y a n d i n the o f f i c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d r e g i s t r a t i o n u n i t w e r e reflected i n the results of the v a r i o u s s u r v e y s . I n this s t u d y I h a v e a d o p t e d 8 p e r c e n t as the marg i n of e r r o r f o r the c a l c u l a t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n of some areas a n d of s o m e e t h n i c g r o u p s ( b u t the figures i n the statistical a p p e n d i c e s are n o t corrected f o r e r r o r ) . h o w e v e r . 27 P o p u l a t i o n statistics issued before the 1880s s e l d o m ever m e n t i o n e d the n o m a d i c tribes. The M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n w a s u n d e r c o u n t e d m o r e o f t e n t h a n the C h r i s t i a n p o p u l a t i o n . M o r e o v e r . c o m p a c t l y s e t t l e d . I n o r d e r to a n s w e r some i n q u i r i e s f r o m E n g l a n d a b o u t the exact size of the Balkan f a m i l y . See McCarthy. I n a d d i t i o n . failed to register. i n a d d i t i o n to the official O t t o m a n y e a r b o o k s . Lloyd to White.M u s l i m communities and 28. w h i c h l e d to a f a i l u r e to take necessary precautions against its s p r e a d . p. " A i l e Deyimi H a k k i n d a . b u t m a n y others h a v e s u r v i v e d . T h r o u g h o u t the nineteenth century the g o v e r n m e n t m a d e a s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t to settle v a r i o u s T u r k m e n . t h e n o n . a n d easily accessible. a phenomenon discussed later in this chapter.110 families i n 55 villages h a v i n g a p r e d o m i n a n t l y B u l g a r i a n p o p u l a t i o n . T h e average f o r all the families i n these i m m i g r a n t villages was a b o u t 4 . T h e y c o n t a i n technical errors w h i c h d e r i v e f r o m k n o w n causes a n d can be c o r r e c t e d b y d e v e l o p i n g t h e necessary statistical criteria. several n o n .s i d e d a n d o n l y p a r t l y t r u e .M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n actually g r e w at a f a i r l y fast rate a f t e r t h e 1 8 3 0 s — p r o b a b l y 2 p e r c e n t annually. the inaccuracies r e s u l t i n g f r o m the u n d e r c o u n t i n g of v a r i o u s segments of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n . K u r d i s h . 9 For the 1831-1838 census t h e a d u l t m a l e .60. A l t h o u g h n u m e r ically a m i n o r i t y . The n o n . the latter being mostly sedentary.r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s w a s g e n e r a l l y o v e r s t a t e d . he r e m a i n e d so u n t i l the 1881/82-1893 census. HCAP 96/49 (1890). t h e r e f o r e . T h e r e are i n d i c a t i o n s . "Population of the Ottoman Fertile Crescent. as w o u l d be e x p e c t e d . a n d to the emergence of a M u s l i m m i d d l e class t h a t b e g a n to adopt the same e c o n o m i c .M u s l i m g r o u p s became t h e early recipients of t h e e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s — a n d t h e p r o m o t ers as w e l l — o f the n e w e c o n o m i c s y s t e m . a n d C e n t r a l A s i a ) a n d t h e Balkans. the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e d or r e m a i n e d the same i n n u m b e r .c u l t u r a l a n d e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n w a s altered p r o f o u n d l y b y i n t e r n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l m i g r a t i o n s . This percentage w a s a d o p t e d after c o m p a r i n g v a r i o u s figures g i v e n for one area or one g r o u p o v e r a p e r i o d of t i m e a n d assumi n g — b a s e d o n v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t a l statistics—that the a n n u a l g r o w t h rate w a s 1 p e r c e n t d u r i n g the second half of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 26. see ibid. o u g h t to be aware of the crucial b u t u n r e c o r d e d factor of m i g r a t i o n ." pp. Petersburg. Ländlich Siedlungen im südlichen Inneranatalien in den letzten vierhundert Jahren (Göttingen: Selbstverlag des Geographischen Instituts der Universität Göttingen. d i s ease. 2 2 4 2 3 2 6 O T T O M A N POPULATION. A recent s u r v e y o f a b o u t 10.M u s l i m s a n d p e n a l ized the M u s l i m s . M a n y o f these s e e m to have been d e s t r o y e d . b e t w e e n 1854 a n d 1908 t h e O t t o m a n state received a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 m i l l i o n M u s l i m i m m i g r a n t s f r o m Russia (Caucasus. w e r e c o n s i d e r e d u n r e l i a b l e even b y E u r o p e a n s f r i e n d l y to t h o s e communities. and Macedonia] (St. A r a b i c . For the settlement process. pp. ' These figures are c o n t r a v e n e d by those f r o m an actual f a m i l y s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d b y VV. c h i e f l y its M u s l i m c o m p o n e n t . h o w e v e r . It is possible to o v e r c o m e . o r e v e n 15. it is g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t these s h o w e d the C h r i s t i a n males to be far f e w e r t h a n t h e i r a c t u a l n u m b e r . HCAP 92/44 (1877).M u s l i m s . 1 0 i n d i v i d u a l s per f a m i l y . Syria. f a m i n e . t h e n . 24. as these p e o p l e u s u a l l y w e r e registered o n l y after t h e y w e r e f i r m l y established i n t h e i r assigned places a n d h a d b e c o m e e c o n o m i c a l l y capable of p a y i n g taxes a n d p r o v i d i n g m e n for m i l i t a r y service. for other estimates. w a s a t t r i b u t a b l e also to the i m p r o v e d w o r l d e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s that f a v o r e d t h e a g r i cultural sector. despite its v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e to a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the socio-political changes i n t h e M i d d l e East.) The s o c i o . w h i l e i n a n area r e p r e s e n t i n g the m a x i m u m the average w a s 9. i n part because of m i s c o n c e p t i o n s t h e y h a d a b o u t disease a n d the w a y to f i g h t i t . V l a d i m i r Tep l o v u n d e r t o o k a s t u d y of the Balkan p o p u l a t i o n u n d e r the auspices of the Russian g o v e r n m e n t a n d u s e d . besides r e f l e c t i n g the absence of w a r a n d the presence of better h e a l t h practices." Asian and African Studies 13. A r m e n i a n s . ( A c t u a l l y this p e r c e n t a g e of error m a y be raised to 10. at w h i c h t i m e the basic u n i t became the i n d i v i d u a l . no. m a n y i n d i v i d u a l s . M o r e o v e r .007 members. 2 (1979): 58-20.000 i m m i g r a n t families settled in A n a t o l i a t o w a r d s the e n d of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s h o w s t h a t i n a locality r e p r e s e n t i n g the m i n i m u m the average f a m i l y consisted of 1. Lists prepared by various n o n . factors such as i s o l a t i o n . f o r it i g n o r e s ' the differences i n g r o w t h rates b e t w e e n M u s l i m a n d n o n Muslim groups. w h i l e n o n . r a i s i n g some q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r there existed factors t h a t caused a h i g h e r m o r t a l i t y a m o n g women. d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n . H o w e v er. i n w h i c h the priest k n e w e v e r y b o d y a n y w a y . the census officials 23. T h e n . 5-7 and esp. c h i e f l y to Russia a n d t h e A m e r i c a s . f o r r e m o t e m o u n t a i n areas. w h o h a d n o m i l i t a r y obligations. h o w e v e r . m o r e t h a n w a r . 1968). c u l t u r a l . at least p a r t l y . T h i s massive p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t w a s scarcely reflected i n the census data a n d has n o t b e e n s t u d i e d at a l l . p. 1877). u s u a l l y those l i v i n g i n large c o m m u n i t i e s . A s far as the tax lists w e r e concerned.M u s l i m s . 25. a n d t h i s h a d a p o s i t i v e effect o n t h e size of t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s . one B r i t i s h c o n s u l a r agent i n d i c a t e d that the average size of s o m e 600 A r m e n i a n families p l a n n i n g to m i g r a t e to_ Persia i n the late n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s 7 members. and social c o n d i t i o n s . s l o w e d t h e g r o w t h of the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . " Tarih Derglsi 32 (1979): 331^13. became the o f f i c i a l r e g i s t r a t i o n u n i t . 4 f o l l o w i n g t h i s c h a p t e r has tables g i v i n g a f e w b i r t h a n d d e a t h statistics for the p e r i o d 1835-1850 w h i c h s h o w the differences b e t w e e n M u s l i m s a n d n o n . H e a r r i v e d at the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t each f a m i l y h a d a n average of 5. h o w e v e r . a n d p o l i t i cal i n s t i t u t i o n s (as w e l l as s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s ) t h a t h a d p r o v e d so b e n e f i c i a l to the n o n . Stoney s u r v e y e d 50. w h e n i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the O t t o m a n state w a s e x p o s e d to t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e E u r o pean capitalist e c o n o m y a n d to i n t e n s i f i e d i n t e r n a l a n d i n ternational t r a d e . one must adopt a margin-oferror percentage to a c c o u n t f o r persons u n r e g i s t e r e d by the census takers because t h e y w e r e e x e m p t f r o m taxes or w e r e not subject to c o n s c r i p t i o n or because t h e y c o u l d n o t be reached. For a full discussion of the procedures that may be adopted. 2 8 tionalisl o r g a n i z a t i o n s . L. e v e n after t h e y began to be i n d i v i d u a l l y registered i n the 1880s t h e i r n u m b e r appears as consistently less t h a n that of the m e n . Nejat Goyunc. t h a t f e r t i l jtv rates a m o n g the M u s l i m s b e g a n to increase after 1850. The assessment of f e r t i l i t y rates is a n absolute necessity f the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the g r o w t h rate o f the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n . but even this c o n t r o l was s l i p p i n g a w a y .99 persons. Trakii i Makedonii [Statistical materials on Bulgaria. 27. regardless of age or sex. 1. Materialy Dlya Statistikii Bolgarii. it w a s d i m i n i s h e d economic o p p o r t u n i t y t h a t . can be m a d e i m m e d i a t e l y u s e f u l b y a d o p t i n g a s i m p l e m a r g i n . closely k n i t c o m m u n i t i e s . 4-5. I n c o n c l u s i o n . a n d A r a b s e m i g r a t e d . T h i s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d o n l y b y l o c a t i n g a n d u s i n g the actual p o p u l a t i o n registers k e p t i n v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a tive centers. T h e M u s l i m s .622 i n d i v i d u a l s b e l o n g i n g to 10. one can say t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g O t t o m a n censuses a n d y e a r b o o k s are reliable sources of i n f o r m a t i o n o n the size a n d c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n of t h e Balkans a n d t h e M i d d l e East i n the n i n e t e e n t h a n d early t w e n t i e t h centuries. Such tribes w e r e o n l y occas i o n a l l y subjected to a n actual c o u n t . A n y s t u d e n t o f O t t o m a n d e m o g r a p h y . at t h e same t i m e s o m e 500. see Haim Gerber. C r i m e a . a n d I r a q w h e r e v e r c u l t i v a b l e l a n d w a s a v a i l a b l e . A reasonable estimate of the total p o p u l a t i o n can be m a d e f o r p e r i o d s w h e n w o m e n w e r e n o t c o u n t e d s i m p l y by d o u b l i n g the n u m b e r of m e n .000 to 800. one m u s t take i n t o account t h e i m p a c t of social a n d e c o n o m i c forces t h a t affected the f e r t i l i t y rates a m o n g v a r i o u s e t h n i c a n d r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s i n accordance w i t h t h e i r roles a n d f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n the" e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . the registers of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s c o n s t i t u e n c y k e p t b y the C h r i s t i a n ecclesiasts a p p e a r to have o n l y l i m i t e d value. i n s t u d y i n g the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . M a l e T u r k s spent t h e i r peak r e p r o d u c t i v e years i n m i l i t a r y service a n d w e r e u n a b l e to m a r r y a n d settle d o w n t o take a d v a n t a g e of e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h i s assumption is o n e . as is r e g u l a r l y d o n e b y m a n y s t u d e n t s of O t t o m a n p o p u l a tion. E v e n after the g o v e r n m e n t a d o p t e d t h e g o a l of r e g i s t e r i n g a l l its citizens as i n d i v i d u a l s . except f o r s o m e small bureaucratic a n d a g r a r i a n g r o u p s . n e i t h e r of w h i c h is a reliable index of p o p u l a t i o n . "The Population of Syria and Palestine in the Nineteenth Century. d i d n o t have s u c h registers at all. As to the c o u n t of w o m e n . regardless of h o u s e h o l d status. i n w h i c h the n u m b e r of these various e t h n o . H o w e v e r . w h e n the n u m b e r of n o m a d i c t r i b e s m e n w a s r e c o r d e d at a l l . b u t they are c e r t a i n l y inaccurate. M a n y s m a l l .M u s l i m s i n t h i s respect. S t o n e y . Teplov's data also pointed to a relatively rapid rise in Christian population and to a decrease in the Muslim population in certain areas of the empire. as t h e y d i d n o t receive r e g u l a r salaries. The causes of the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e f e r t i l i t y rates a m o n g the two g r o u p s are to be f o u n d i n the special e c o n o m i c a n d social c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h f a v o r e d n o n . 23. I t is t r u e that m a n y C h r i s t i a n prelates d e v e l o p e d special rosters for registering t h e i r f o l l o w e r s i n o r d e r to extract f r o m t h e m a p a y m e n t for t h e i r o w n services.

Sal. Haleb. Afiyet. Edirne. Marifet. Tuna. Selanik. l . Kastamoni. Musavver Nev. Aydin. Sivas. 1319 (1901): Devlet. 1327 (1911): Devlet. Diyarbekir. Erzurum. Rebi-i Marifet. Hariciye.Milli Nevsal . 1285 (1868) Devlet. Aydin. Karagöz. Masavver Newv. Bosna ve Hersek. Sal. Adana. Konya. Yemen. Servet-ı Fünun. Haleb. Konya. Hüdavendigar. Diyarbekir. and S o u r c r M | m a l s 0 volum pr0 a l t o p l C 5 o f military yearbook. Trablus Garb. Haleb. Suriye. 1328-29 (1913-14): Bahri. Diyarbekir. Bahri. Haleb. Bosna. Edirne. Cezalr-i Bahri Sefid. Konya. Kastamoni. Haleb. Osmani. Haleb. 1315 (1897): Devlet. Afiyet. Aydin. Sa. Maarif. Suriye. ıiqi7V Beyrut. Hüdavendigar. Konya. Erzurum. Tuna. Rebi-i Marifet. Ankara.6 Türk Deniz Ticareti. Kastamoni. Hicaz. Hüdavendigar. Yanya. Türkiye fi [sene 1288-1290]. Musul. Hüdavendigar. Haleb. 1299 (1882): Devlet. Sivas. Bağdad. Rebi-i Marifet. Hüdavendigar. Gayret. Manastir. Kosova. Aydin. Ankara. Cezair-i Bahri Sefid. Erzurum. Ankara. Edirne. Resimli ' ^ Salnames. Diyarbekir. Bahri İ K İSİNİ' Bolu. 1320 (1902): Devlet. Manastir. Konya. Kosova. Ankara. Sivas.37_38 (1921-22): Bolu. Bitlis. Suriye. . Ma'muret-ül-Aziz. Ma'muret-ül-Aziz. Sal. Yanya. Trabzon. Adana.3Q-(1923)' Mı"' Nevsal. Edirne. Yanya. Tuna. Musul. Cezair-i Bahri Sefid. Suriye. Manastir. Bahri. 1289 (1872): Oevlet. Asir. Konya. Haleb. Meşahir. Musavver Nev. Bahri. Suriye. Rüsumat. Cezair-i Bahri Sefid. Haleb. Selanik. 1273 (1857) Devlet. D e v l e î 13 Turk. Askeri. Musul. Cezair-i Bahri Sefid. Trablus Garb. Hüdavendigar. Selanik. Haleb. Milli Nevsal. Sal. Hüdavendigar. Suriye. Suriye. Bağdad. Haleb. Selanik. Basra. OKomar. 1264 (1848) Devlet. 1323 (1905): Devlet. Bahri. Hüdavendigar. Hariciye. Bağdad. Sal. Nev. 1297 sene-i hicriyesine mahsus salname-i kameri. Cebel-i Lübnan.341 (1925). Diyarbekir. Bitlis. Konya. Hüdavendigar. Asir. Osmani. Kosova. Edirne. Bahri. Ma'muret-ül-Aziz. Erzurum. Sivas. Kastamoni. Sal. Trabzon. Edirne. Hicaz. 1308 (1891): Oevlet. . Sal. Nev. Y e a r b o o k s (Sahiames) P u b l i s h e d i n the O t t o m a n E m p i r e a n d the R e p u b l i c of T u r k e y : 1340-41 (1924-25): Türk Ticaret 1340 (1925): Resimli Yi! -. 1295 (1878): Devlet. Adana. Malumat. Trabzon. Yanya. Aydin. Trabzon. Servet-i Fünun. Haleb. Erzurum. Asr. Sivas. Basra. Edirne. Hüdavendigar. Sivas. Haleb. Bosna. Kastamoni. Suriye. Edirne. Bağdad. Bosna. Askeri. Selanik. Konya. 1928-1929: Muallim Almanağı . Haleb. Cezair-i Bahri Sefid. Adana. Askeri. Selanik. Suriye. Trabzon. Selanik. Bağdad. Adana. 1282 (1865) Devlet. Konya. Diyarbekir. Aydin. . Türkiye fi [sene 1288-1290].34 -42 (1925-26): T C. Trabzon. Trabzon. 1279 (1862) Devlet. Ankara. 127? (1861) Devlet. Işkodra. Hüdavendigar. 1305 (1888): Oevlet. Gayret. Musavver Nev. Art.C. Haleb. Nev Edeb. Kastamoni. Sa. Kastamoni. Research Centre for Islamic History. Cezair-i Bahri Sefid. Trabzon. Konya. Servet-i Fünun. Bağdad. Girid. Konya. 1297 (1880): Devlet. Ma'muret-ül-Aziz. Hüdavendigar. Askeri. Bağdad. Diyarbekir. Üsküp. 1291 (1874): Devlet. Işkodra.35 (1920)' Diken ve İnci Salnamesi 336 (1921). Bitlis. Basra. Bağdad. 1270 (1854) Devlet 1271 (1855) Devlet. Nev. Konya Suriye. Türki. Hüdavendigar. Haleb. . Rehber-i Seadet Mektebi . Devlet. Bahri. Bahri. Konya. Erzurum. 1268 (1852) Devlet. Aydin. Yemen. Cezair-i Bahri Sefid. Suriye. Musavver Sal. Selanik. Bosna ve Hersek. Suriye. „ 8 1923)' Karesi Idadı-Sultani-Lisesı. Işkodra. Tuna. Trabzon. Basra. Musavver Eczaci Nevsali. Adana. Bosna. Sal. Yemen. Edirne. 1312 (1894): Devlet. Suriye. Hüdavendigar. 1303 (1886): Devlet. Nev. 1304 (1887): Devlet. Girid. Cezair-i Bahri Sefid. Yanya. Selanik. Trabzon. . Hüdavendigar. Trablus Garb. Trabzon. Aydin. Yanya. Konya. Nev. Tuna. Girid. Hadika. 1314 senesine mahsus Nev. Bağdad. Bosna. Diyarbekir. Edirne.^ ^ ^ Notes. Haleb. Beyrut.Salikveren Muhıbban . Yemen. 1302 (1885): Devlet. Edirne. Aydin. Bağdad. Haleb.332 (1916): "m've. Tuna. Suriye. Nev. . Aydin. Kastamoni. Sal. Kastamoni. Osmani. Bağdad. Yemen. Diyarbekir. Sivas. Erzurum. Erzurum. 1296 (1879): Devlet.' 1272 (1856) Devlet. Rebı-ı Marifet. 1324 (1906): Devlet. Bağdad. Diyarbekir. Aydin. Suriye. Musavver Nev. Trablus Garb. Trabzon.A p p e n d i x A . Suriye. Trabzon. Konya. Sal. Suriye. 1328 (1912): Devlet. 1292 (1875): Devlet. Afiyet. Hüdavendigar. Konya. Sivas. Trablus Garb. Prizren. Sal. 1300 (1883): Devlet. Konya. Diyarbekir. Bahri. Cezair-i Bahri Sefid Diyarbekir. Beyrut. Erzurum. 1330 (1914): Konya. Hüdavendigar. Bahri. Kastamoni. Van. 1298 (1881): Devlet. Cezalr-i Bahri Sefid. Servet-i Fünun. Aydin. Afiyet. Edirne. Edirne. 1307 (1890): Devlet. Marifet. Nev. Rebi-i Marifet. Nev. Sivas. 1301 (1884): Devlet. Hüdavendigar. Girid. Hüdavendigar. Trablus Garb. Haleb. . Aydin. Bosna ve Hersek. Aydin. Konya. 1265 (1849) Devlet 1266 (1850) Devle! 1267 (1851) Devlet. Diyarbekir. Selanik. Askeri. Hariciye. Selanik. Yemen. Kastamoni. Konya. Nev. Kosova. 1281 (1864) Devlet. Boğaziçi Şirket-i Hayriye ! . Haleb. Hüdavendigar. Nev Milli. T C İstanbul Şehremaneti. Hüdavendigar. Kastamoni. Nev. Beyrut. Trabzon. Bağdad. Bosna. 1 Edirne. Selanik. Kosova. Dlyabekir. 1 9 Z 6 1 9 Chronological and Administrative Distribution 1263 (1847) Devlet. Bosna ve Hersek. Bağdad. 1325 (1909): Musavver Nev. Basra. Suriye. . 1314 (1896): Devlet. Basra. Yanya. 1316 (1898): Devlet. Cezair-i Bahri Sefid. 1294 (1877): Devlet. 40 (1924): Milli Nevsal. 1274 (1858) Devlet 1275 (1859) Devlet 1276 (1860) Devlet. 1283 (1866) Devlet. Erzurum. Bosna. Askeri. Bahn Nev Baylan. Cebel-i Lübnan. Hüdavendigar. Bağdad. Kastamoni. Nev.330-31 (1914-15): Bahri »1-32 0915-16)' Bahn. Suriye. Trabzon. Nev. Hüdavendigar. Askeri 1284 (1867) Oevlet. Kastamoni. Askeri. Trabzon. Bahriye. Suriye. 1309 (1892): Devlet. Ankara. 1982V 112. Ma'muret-ül-Aziz. Nev. Katamoni. Cezair-I Bahri Sefid. Karagöz. Bosna. Sal. Hüdavendigar. Erzurum. Cebel-i Lübnan. Bağdad. Konya. Hüdavendigar. Hüdavendigar.. Cebel-i Lübnan. Ankara. Maarif. Nev. Bosna. Sivas. Manastir. Haleb. Haleb. Bahri. Haleb. Sal. 338 (1922)' Kizil Acanstan. 1326 (1910): Devlet. Ma'muret-ül-Aziz. Devlet. Takvim-i Ebüzziya. 1293 (1876): Devlet. Karagöz. Ankara. Bahriye. Suriye. Zümrüd-ı Anka Salnamesi. Haleb. Osmani. Selanik. Süs. Haleb. 1278 (1861) Devlet. Selanik. Haleb. Nev. Edirne. Yearbook . Hicaz. _ 1259 (1853) Devlet. Fenni. Osmanlı Hılal-ı Ahmer Cemiyeti Salnamesi. Konya. Aydin. Bosna. Sal. Hüdavendigar. 1280 (1863) Devlet. Musul. Trablus Garb. Ma'muret-ül-Aziz. Bahri. Bosna. Kosova. Rebi-i Marifet. Iktisad. Cezalr-i Bahri Sefid. 12 13 . Kosova. Selanik. Diyarbekir. Rebi-i Marifet. Hariciye. Bahriye. Haleb. Hüdavendigar. Diyarbekir. Adana. Askeri. . Sal. Haleb. Hüdavendigar. Rebi-i Marifet. Trabzon. Osmani. Bahri. Kastamoni. Hüdavendigar. Hicaz. Askeri. Prizren. Maarif. Suriye. Adana. Suriye. Trablus Garb. Bahri. Takvim-i Ebüzziya. Askeri. Trablus Garb. Selanik. Beyrut. Cezair-i Bahri Sefid. Konya. Nev. Musul. Aydin. Nev. Sal. Marifet. Erzurum. Hüdavendigar. Maarif. Musavver Sal. Aydin. Sivas. 1286 (1869) Devlet. Haleb. Ebüzziya. Diyarbekir. Diyarbekir. Bahri. Yemen. Bağdad. Konya. 1290 (1873): Devlet. Hüdavendigar. Aydin. Sal. Diyarbekir. Erzurum. Edirne. Tuna. Haleb. Yilı. Aydin. Servet-i Fünun. Nev. Aydin. Işkodra. Trablus Garb. 1318 (1900): Devlet. Edirne. Musavver Nev. Servet-i Fünun. Trabzon. Bosna. Hüdavendigar Karesi. Ankara. Türkiye ti [sene 1288-1290]. Karagöz. Manastir. Musavver Sal. Erzurum. Rasathane-i Amire. Manastir. Adana. Askeri 1287 (1870): Devlet. Tuna. Ankara. Beyrut. Kastamoni. Trablus Garb. Malumat. 1326 (1908): Devlet. Cebel-ı Lübnan. Sivas. Trabzon. Bosna ve Hersek. Musavver Nev. . Büyük Salname 19. Takvim-i Ebüzziya. 1311 (1893): Devlet.Salname 'and News*/) (Istanbul. Osmani. and Culture. Haleb. Edirne. Edirne. Adana. Suriye. Askeri. Ankara. Cezair-I Bahri Sefid. Ordu. Trabzon. Edirne. 1329 (1913): Cemıyet-i Tedrisiye-i Islamıye Salnamesi. Yemen.Devlet is the imperial or sWe yearbook g ı v j ^ ^ ^ Beginning in 1866 the «mes that toow ^ ^ J e s for v. Ziraat ve Ticaret. Musavver ve Muhtirali Nev Hürriyet. Musavver Nev. Aydin. Ma'muret-ül-Aziz. Aydin. Resimli Ay Almanağı. Aydin. Nısvan. Cezair-i Bahri Sefid. 1306 (1889): Devlet. Bahri. Bitlis. Ankara. Kosova. Askeri. Aydin. Cezair-i Bahri Sefid. 1313 (1895): Devlet. 1317 (1899): Devlet. Diyarbekir. interest. Suriye. Cezalr-i Bahri Sefid. Hüdavendigar. Haleb. Konya. Konya. Edirne. 1310 (1892): Devlet. Kastamoni. Bağdad. Servet-i Fünun. Edirne. Edirne.ncesthai published y e r t * ^ . Bahn. Selanik. Trabzon. Edirne. Nev. Yemen. Adana. 1321 (1903): Devlet. Haleb. Edirne. . Ragib. Suriye.. Tuna. Cebel-ı Lübnan. Ankara. Atai. Bağdad. Konya. Sivas. Maarif. Aydin. Beyrut. Kastamoni. Musavver Sal Servet-i Fünun. Erzurum. Selanik.2 7 : T. Konya. Yanya. Askeri. 1322 (1904): Devlet. Sal. Manastir. 1288 (1871): Devlet. Kastamoni. Hicaz. Bosna ve Hersek. Ma'muret-ül-Aziz. Edirne. Selanik. Bosna. 1339 0924): Bahri. Hüdavendigar. Hüdavendigar. Askeri. Işkodra. Diyarbekir' Edirne. 1325 (1907): Devlet. Suriye. Mısir. Nev. Suriye. Kastamoni. Musavver Nev. Sivas. Trabzon. Edirne. Bağdad. Musavver Sal Servet-i Fünun. Bağdad. Adana. Trablus Garb.

"1831 Tarihinde Osmanli İmparatorluğunda İdari Taksimat ve Nüfus. Teke 14. Beyşehir 3. Hinis 4. Amasya 3. 11. Silistre 2. 7. Kandiye 2 Hanya 3. RAKKA Ruha (Urfa) Deyrrehbe Cabur (Habur) Birecik Hamase Ben-i Rebia XVII. BOSNIA 1. 16. Malatya 3. Rodos (Rhodes) 1 " 5. Mahcil Cercer (Çirçir) 5. ÇILDIR Levane (Vartin) Şavşad . Adana 2. DAMASCUS) 1. Suğla 4.f Appendix A. Avlonya : 8. Ayintap" XVI. Bolu 8. 'Registers do not indicate whether the towns in this eyalet were //vas. 1 < ' : : 2 'i 5 6 7 6 9 10. 8.. Kirşehir 7. Lecun 6. Aksaray IV. Karesi 15. 'These two places are shown in some old registers as being part of Halep Eyalet. Niğde 6. 9. CEZAYIR-I BAHR-I SEFID (AEGEAN ISLANOS) 1. Mamervan 12. Kastamonu 9. presented here in revised and condensed form. Şam-i Şerif 2. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D i v i s i o n o f the O t t o m a n State. Cebecun (Cebecik) XIX. Bozok 4. Shown as a nahiye in one source. Kilis V. 15. Nablus' 5. 2 . Erzincan 3. Balis 5." that is. Arapgir (Arapkir) X. Vize 6. TRABLUSŞAM (TRİPOLİ İ N SYRIA) 1. Saruhan 11. Canik 6. 19. Saraybosna (Sarajevo) 2. IX. Alanya (Alaiye) 4. Tarsus 3. the seat of government of the administrative center. Cebeliye 5 Selmıye Source: Fazila Akba!. (H) stands for Hükümet. that is. Akka 3 Beyrut 4.2. and the first liva iisted in each case was the "paşa sancaği. Safed 5. (Belleten is the publication of the Turkish Historical Society [Türk Tarih Kurumu}. Harberut Sıncar Esferid Siverek Ergani Anade Hisni Keyf (Hasankeyf) Çemişgezek Nusaybin Çapakçur Sağman Çermik Kulb Ilkıs Penbek Pertekrek Palu (H) Giyen (H) Cizre (H) Eğil (H?)" Hazzo (H) Tercil (H) Saru (Savur) (H) c 1247) . Malazgirt 6. Çirmen 5. Gelibolu 2. ANATOLIA 1. Ilbasan 11. Tortum 7. 'The old registers do not show Nablus as a liva. Erzurum 2. Kudüs-ü Şerif (Jerusalem) 4. DIYARBEKIR • 1.) Notes: Akbai's list. Mecenkerd XII. KARAMAN 1. Hüvandendıgar 3. HALEP (ALEPPO) 1. 10. Kozancan (Kazavcan) 13. Tedmur XIII. ŞEHR-I ZOR XXIV. C 1 e 15 . Oukagin 14. Kuruçay 10. Kirkkilise VI. Trablusşam 2.g. Akşehir 4. although one source so labels them. TRABLUSGARB (TRİPOLİ XXIX. Adan (Adun) 7. Divriği (Divriki) 7. MUSUL XXV BAĞDAT(BAGHDAD) XXVI BASRA XXVII MISIR (EGYPT) XXVIII. was based on registers pertaining to various administrative units (e. Hani 3 Mazgird 4. the Detter-i Mutassal Liva-i Saruhan) found in the Archives of Land Surveys and Deeds and in other archival sources. Kars 2. Künye I. Adılcevaz Ş^rve (Şirvan) Esbaberd Köyin Zeriki Kerdkar (Kürdkar) Ağakis Erıcis Mukus Muş Bargiri (H) Hakkari (H) Bitlis (H) Hoşap (Mahmudiye) (H) II. Kengiri (Çankiri) 7. TUNUS (TUNISIA) I NORTH AFRICA) III. Kocaili • 3. 13 14. 18. TRABZON (TREBİZOND) 1. 1234-1247). Halep 2 Maarret-el Misnn 3 Matic 4. Prızren 14. Uskub 4. Hersek 3. Ankara 6. SILISTRE 1. Mefarkin (Meyafarikın) 14 XI. Karahisar-i Şarki 8. Sivas 2. Aydın 10. Niğbolu 3. "Shown as a liva in some registers and as a hükümet in other sources. KARS' 1. Izvomik 4. or the capital. Gazza 3. Delvine ' 9 Vulçıtrin 10. Sis 6. İç II (içel) 5. Resmu XXIII. 11. Menteşe 12. Hama 3. Alacahısar . "Rhodes and Cyprus are indicated as being sancaks only in the register for the Aegean Islands tor the years 1818-1831 (H. 12. Sur XV. Viranşehir 3 . Zaruşad XVIII. Gerger VIII. ADANA 1. The main divisions l-XXIX are eya/eis: the subdivisions are / / V a s (the same as sancaks). Amid 2. RUMELİ (RUMIU) 1. 17. In 1818 Ayintap was attached to Halep Eyalet as a kaza. Tırhala 7. İskenderiye 12 Yanya 13." ße//efen 15. It is probably one of the most accurate and complete administrative list available for the period. Şuregil 5. Pasin 11. Hamid 13. 1831 ( H . Köstendi! 5 Ohri 6. Karahisar-i Sahib 4. ERZURUM 1. Kibris (Cyprus) J VII MARAŞ 1. İspir 9. Kayseriye 5. T h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D i v i s i o n o f t h e O t t o m a n S t a t e ( c o n t i n u e d ) I : F XIV SAYDA 1 Sayda 2. "This division is called a sancak in a few sources only. 20. Kütahya 2.' A p p e n d i x A . "Several sources indicated Ayintap (Gaziantep) as being a sanca/cin Maraş Eyalet. Çorum 5. Maraş 2. BeylanJ e XX! HABEŞ (ABYSSINIA) Mekke-i Mükerreme Medine-i Münevvere Cidde-i Mamure Yenbuğ Tail Nil (?) XXI! KANDIYE (CRETE) 1. Sultanönü 5. 5 6. Konya 2. the place of residence of the governor. ŞAM (ŞAM-I ŞERİF. Uzeyir~j 7. no. Kağizman 3 Keçvan 4. Sofya and Manastır 2 Selanik (Saiomca) 3. Kiği 14. Kelkit 5. SİVAS (RUM) 1. 60 (1961): 617-28. Vidin 4. Samsat 4. Humus 4. Trabzon 2.

Muslim Birth and Death Rates in Terme Kaza. the birth death figures in these four tables were compiled from data scattered throughout these documents. Erzurum 25.7 — 10. Harput (Kharput) 27.485 1. 1855).2 78.2 37.6/1837 4/7/1837—3/26/1838 3/27/1838—3/16/1839 3/17/1839—3/4/1840 3. Ödemiş.504 1. Habeş (Abyssinia) 33.6 • 29.5 Number of Deaths 30 70 166 65 69 64 70 ' 66 .1 22.9 26.459 1. the shorter Muslim calendar was used.0 42.0 Number of Deaths 113 156 37 5 3 54 22 70 36 13 36 26 Yearly Rate of Death Increase Rate (Decrease) (.3 18. S o m e B i r t h a n d D e a t h Statistics (continued) 3 Muslim Birth and Death Rates in Various Localities Period of Time h__c_ty Guzelhisar Guzelhisar Alaşehir Balabanyolu Balabanyolu Erbaz Karacasu (without Yenışehır-İAydin) Nazilli Nazilli İnegöl İnegöl Inav (Denizli) Hicri Date 1 Eylül 1263—31 Kanun Evvel 1262 1 Eylül 1264—31 Kanun Evvel 1264 1 Eylül 1268—31 Kanun Evvel 1268 1 Recep 1261—29 Zilhicce 1261 1 Eylül 1262—31 Kanun Evvel 1262 1 Eylül 1262—30 Nisan 1263 1 Eylül 1265—31 Kanun Evvel 1265 1 Mayis 1267—31 Ağustos 1262 1 Kanun Sani 1262—30 Nisan 1263 1 Mayis 1267—31 Ağustos 1267 1 Kanun Sani 1267—30 Nisan 1268 1 Mart 1266—31 Teşrin Sanı 1266 Miladi Date (A.4 44. Yanya IJanina) 13.1844 1/22/1844—1.185 10. Boğdan (Moldavia) 4.000) 30. 23. Cezayir-i Bahr-i (Sefid (Aegean Islands) 15.5 43.0) (5.014 4.939 1.338 2.939 1.4 64 43 52 65 67 67 . and Kilas Bırgı Demirhisar (Paşa) Hicri Date 1 Mart 1263—30 Haziran 1263 1 Recep 1261—29 Zilhicce 1261 1 Muharrem 1247—29 Zilhicce 1247 1 Kanun Sani 1264—30 Nisan 1265 1 Recap 1258—29 Cemayizelahir 1260 Miladi Date (A.) 9 13 1846—1 12 1847 913/1848—1 12 1849 9131852—1/12 1853 7/61845—12'29/1845 9/13/1846—1/121847 9/13/1846—512/1847 9/13/1849—1 12 1850 513.4 23. 1251-1268) Muslim Birth and Death Rates in Akçay Kaza Period of Time Hicri Year 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 Miladi Year (A.6 . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D i v i s i o n of the O t t o m a n State. Misir (Egypt) 35.023 1.000) 16 135 325 11.000) 35. Saida 29. Harem-i Nebevi (Medina) AFRICA 34.535 1.980 1. Aeg/ona/ Model Lite Tables and Stable Populations (Princeton: Princeton University Press.0 46.968 1.496 1.1 27.2 18.2 45.000) 41 86 231 24 135 16.9 29.5 38.6 46. Musul 31.2 43.1846—9 121846 1/13-1847—512/1847 5/13/1851—912/1851 1/13.000) 18.012 7. Non-Muslim Birth and Death Rates in Various Localities Period of Time Locality Bırgı Demirhisar Demirhisar Hicri Date 1 Muharrem 1247—29 Zilhicce 1247 1 Receb 1254—30 Zilhicce 1254 1 Receb 1258—29 Cemayizelahir 1260 Miladı Date (A.052 2.0 28.563 1.4 65.138 6.6 1.5 0.4) (14.2 (3.774 4.8 14.7 27.5.9 17.5 31.1 6. 2.1 18.4 29.414 9.795 5.9.9 ' 29 . Aydın 19. 21 22.1847—7/12/1847 7/6-1845—12/29.8) 4.000) 9.4 34. Tunus 4. 1266-1270) Eyalet EUROPE 1.D.4 24 3 6. (6. S o m e B i r t h a n d D e a t h Statistics. 6469. Selanik (Salonica) 14.971 2.9. 6505.1845 Total Population 1.1852—5 121852 3/13/1850—11 12/1850 Yearly Number Birth of Rate Births (per 1.5) / — Period of Time A p p e n d i x A . (Decrease) (per 1. however. Trablusgarp (Tripoli) 36.4 16.5 35. Gint (Crete) ASIA 16 Kastamonu 17. Usküp I 8.3 43.) 4/29/1835—4. 44 38 Death Rate (per 1. Total Population 1. Notes: The localities listed in tables 3 and 4 were principally in Aydin Province.8 47.5 36. Şam 30.797 4. a kaza of Serez Sancak in Selanik.D.5 14.3) (13. Karaman Capital Adrianopie Rusçuk (Russe) lassi Bucarest Vidın Niş Uskup Belgrao Bosna-Seraı Manastır Janina Salonica Lamaca Canea Kastamonu 8ursa İzmir Konya Eyalet 20.9 34.3 (2.. Adana Bozüyük Sivas Trabzon (Trebizond) Capital Adana Bozöyuk Sivas Trabzon Erzurum Van Harput Alep Beyrut Damascus Musul Bağdat Adda Medine Cairo Tripoli Tunus Appendix A .1) 11.000) 47.1840—2.) 3/13. 3 .8 29.529 3. Rumıii 12. In calculating percentages given in these tables.565 1.096 SPECIAL DISTRICTS 24.8 21. 4/29/1835—4/17/1836 4/18/1836—4/6/1837 4/7/1837—3/26/1838 3/27/1838—3/16*1839 3/17/1839—3/4/1840 3/5/1840—2/22/1841 2/23/1841—2/11/1842 2/12/1842—2 31 1843 2/1/1843—1/21.3 34.5 Rate of Increase.5 Number of Deaths 13 126 — Rate of Death Increase' Rate (Decrease) (per 1. Kurdistan 26.0) 5. Hüdavendigar 18. 629915.569 1. 6417.0 43. Halep (Aleppo) 28.0 47.9 48 7 46.358 2. 1966).000) 90 66 45 11 18 73 35 70 67 11 26 32 24.4 Locality Denizli Ezıne-i Lazkiye (Denizli)* Bırgı.D.2 7.0 — Source: Adapted from [Jean Henri] AJbçiolonyme] Ubicini.000) (per 1.2 45.6 8.0 26.1 31.000) 16 9 27 2 (33 6) 14.9 58. 4 .3 40. Muslim Male Population Birth and Death Rates in Some Provinces Yearly Number Birth of Rate Births (per 1. 1835-1853 ( H .2 46.D.965 Number of Births 67 108 88 105 73 56 61 49 87 82 Birth Rate (per 1. Eflak (VVaiiachıa) 5 Vidin 6 Niş (Nıssa) i 7.7 55.3) 13. a The totals for this locality include non-Muslims.5 — 2.7 (1.-1845 6/12 1831—5.033 5.1 34. Belgrad (the fortress) 9 Sirp (Serbia) 10 Bosna (Bosnia) 11.6 15.460 1.000) (per 1.2 15.5 56. For an evaluation of these statistics. pp.5 18. 1850-1853 ( H .D. La Turquie actuelle (Paris. Canik (Samsun) Period of Time Hicri Year 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 16 Miladi Year (A.9 109.1842 2/12/1842—1/31/1843 21/1843—1/21-1844 1 22/1844—1.349 6. Coal and Paul Demeny.9 25.8 18 8 (51.2 .5 46.000) (per 1.000) 15 82 264 59 — 6.4 9.A p p e n d i x A .1 17 Number of Births 69 Birth Rate (per 1.4 Tota! Population 11.4) (125) (0 7) 16 2 20. Bağdat (Baghdad) 32.9 29.30-1832 1/13/1846—512/1849 8/8-1842—7/161844 Total Population 7.957 1.4 (25) (12.978 1.182 15.17 1836 4/18/1836—4. 4 .22/1841 2/23/1841—2/11.) 612/1831—5-30/1832 920-1838—3-16/1839 8/8/1842—7-16/1844 Number Birth of Rate Births (per 1. those with (Denizli) following the name being neighborhoods attached to the capital town of the kaza Demirhisar (Paşa) was.8 39. and 6536.6 5.1 Yearly Yearly Population Number Death Increaseof Rate (Decrease) Deaths (per 1.2) (15 1) (2.per 1.7 57.7 28.380 9.2 43. xvi-xvii.478 1.482 Rate of Increase (Decrease) (per 1.3 47. see Ansley J.2) (25.8 9.0 33.0 18.1845 Total Population 1.000) 26.9 Number of Deaths 35 56 154 77 75 66 90 53 65 66 Death Rate (per 1.499 1. Edirne (Acnanople) 2 Sılıstre 3.593 Source: BA (KK)/6502.943 1.000) 20.8 11. and BA (C)/(D)8321.

r e q u i r i n g t h e e m p l o y m e n t of a f u l l . those b e t w e e n fifteen a n d f o r t y as şabbi-anrcd (beardless). the r e c o r d i n g of the p o p u l a t i o n i n special registers (sicils) o n the basis of the best i n f o r m a t i o n available. the fact t h a t i n 18'30 e v e r y b o d y . the g o v e r n m e n t refused to spread the loss over the r e m a i n i n g families by l e v y i n g a n equal (ales-scviye) a m o u n t o n each. C a r e f u l scru. (This was a p r o m o t i o n for Sait. or O f f i c e for S u p e r v i s i o n of Registers (Defatir Nezareti). . the t w o o u t s t a n d i n g rul-i ers of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w h o a t t e m p t e d to r e f o r m the* e m p i r e ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s b y a d h e r i n g to the o l d O t t o m a n tradi-j tions of g o v e r n m e n t a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . a n d the p o p u l a t i o n s u r v e y . " c o n t r a r y to the m o d e r n usage. a l t h o u g h at t i m e s the g o v e r n m e n t asked the taxpayer to p r o v i d e a w i t n e s s or g u a r a n t o r (kefil) to s u p p o r t h i s d e c l a r a t i o n . because c o r r e s p o n d e n c e e x c h a n g e d d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n s for t h e census i m p l i e s o t h e r w i s e . I t w a s . the kaymakam p r o p o s e d that a l l males below the age of e i g h t be classified as asgar (smallest). T h e reader s h o u l d k e e p f i r m l y i n m i n d t h r o u g h o u t this d i s c u s s i o n t h a t i n the O t t o m a n c o n t e x t the t e r m " c e n s u s . 1833). H e n o t e d t h a t " n o b o d y w i l l understand a n y t h i n g of t h i s . a n d cdna ( l o w ) . as h a d already b e e n d o n e for the kazas of M a h m u t p a ş a a n d H a y r a b o l u . A m e m o r a n d u m addressed by the Porte to the s u l t a n indicates t h a t registers c o n t a i n i n g the results of the census h a d b e g u n to a r r i v e i n t h e capital a n d that the m a i n t e n a n c e a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of these registers w a s a d i f f i c u l t a n d t i m e . General Directorate of Statistics Publication no. I give throughout this volume the current registration numbers of the sources. a n d all related m a t t e r s as m a j o r r e f o r m s l i k e l y to restore* s o u n d practices i n g o v e r n m e n t . 1 have been unable to locate at all some population statistics for Kastamonu. both were supplied to me through the courtesy of Professor Halil İnalcık. such as W i l l i a m E t o n . Karal refers to this as being in the Istanbul "Üniversitesi Kütüphanesi. a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y they m u s t be used w i t h extreme care. 4. M o s t of the estimates a n d f i g u r e s are available a n d need n o t be cited at a n y l e n g t h h e r e .956 to 2. O n the s u g g e s t i o n of Hüsamettin (the j u d g e of I z m i t a s s i g n e d to c o n d u c t the census i n K ü t a h y a ) . d e s p i t e the fact that this w o u l d have b r o u g h t m o r e r e v e n u e to the t r e a s u r y . a l t h o u g h i t 1. that Sait E f e n d i . See Eton's A Survey of the Turkish Empire. 1799). a n d i n K a y s e r i the g o v e r n m e n t ref u s e d to c o m b i n e all three categories i n t o a single o n e designated ala ( h i g h e s t ) . erroneous i n f o r m a t i o n . a n d t h a t the secrecy of the census o u g h t to be d o n e a w a y w i t h . the general director. i n c l u d i n g the s u l t a n . 142. 1943). istatistik Defteri.c e n t u r y d o c u m e n t s g i v e e v i d e n c e of t h e o p p o s i t i o n to a single rate f o r the head tax: w h e n at one p o i n t the n u m b e r of çiziye taxpayers i n a l o c a l i t y decreased f r o m 2. The s u l t a n s u b s e q u e n t l y d e c l i n e d to a p p o i n t p o p u l a t i o n officials f o r all the kazas. The p o p u l a t i o n office a n d the p o p u l a t i o n registers. 1805). D a v i d U r q u h a r t . a n d s e c o n d . Osmanli imparatorluğunda Ilk Nüfus Sayimi 1831.) T h e n e w l y f o r m e d p o p u l a t i o n office w a s called the Registrar's O f f i c e .c o n s u m i n g task. T h e essence of h u n d r e d s of i n d i v i d u a l registers p r o d u c e d by the census officials i n 1831 is c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s s u m m a r y register. (Sofia. b u t the!" a d v e n t of the w a r [ w i t h Russia i n 1828-1829] p r e v e n t e d te g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . " H e f o u n d the idea generally acceptable b u t left the m a k i n g of the a p p o i n t ments to a later date w h e n p o p u l a t i o n registers for the entire r e a l m w o u l d be c o m p l e t e d . The author provided a succinct but informative introduction (translated i n Charles Issawi.u s a b i k a s i n d a n çikarmaga g e l m e z " ) . T h e three categories had been d e v i s e d i n order to achieve an equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e tax b u r d e n . 6 8 w h a t the s u l t a n w a s r e l u c t a n t to a b a n d o n w a s the t r a d i t i o n al O t t o m a n d i v i s i o n of the çiziye taxpayers i n t o three cate¬ gories a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r w e a l t h : ala ( g o o d ) . it m a y be t h a t 5. Sultan M a h m u d I I h i m s e l f w r o t e a n g r i l y that the census of R u m i l i ( R u m e l i a — E u r o p e a n side) a n d A n d o l u ( A n a tolia) was a m a t t e r d e s e r v i n g special a t t e n t i o n a n d care ( " d i k k a t ve i t i n a " ) a n d t h a t it s h o u l d n o t be c o n d u c t e d b y deviating f r o m the o l d m e t h o d ( " b u n u u s u l . T w o s e v e n t e e n t h . the m a j o r i t y o f the E u r o p e a n estimates w e r e based o n u n f o u n d e d a s s u m p t i o n s . They personally o r d e r e d the establishment of p o p u l a t i o n registers a n d s u p e r v i s e d the c o n d u c t of cen-' suses. IUKTV D-8/8867. w h o was keenlv interested in Ottoman statii tics. as "1247 senesinde m e m a l i k . after a hiatus of almost t w o c e n t u r i e s . 9 The o l d m e t h o d r e f e r r e d to b y t h e s u l t a n w a s p r o b a b l y a classification that d i d n o t d i v i d e t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t o age groups b u t m e r e l y m e n t i o n e d t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y f o r m i l i t a r y service or tax p a y m e n t . ibid. a n d those a b o v e sixty as pir (sage. n. BA (MH)(HH)'19217.' the consolidated list of the census tables of 1831 compiled by the". 6. 19263. The Economic History < < j Turkey. and Lehrbuch der Statistik der europäischen Staaten (Weimar. 10 The " f i r s t " m o d e r n O t t o m a n census was c o n d u c t e d beg i n n i n g i n 1828/29 i n b o t h E u r o p e a n d A n a t o l i a . 1800-1914 [Chicago: University of Chicago Press. possible date 1246 (1830). 1980). t h e o f f i c i a l at the Porte s u b s t i t u t i n g for the g r a n d v i z i e r a n d i n charge of c o r r e s p o n d ence—suggested to t h e s u l t a n t h a t one year m i g h t n o t be sufficient to c o m p l e t e the census. assisted by five to ten s e c r e t a r i e s . B 29" (Osmanli imparatorluğunda. The kaymakam paşa—that is. 3. t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n o u g h t to be classified a c c o r d i n g to age. D u r i n g t h i s early t i m e the chief sources of i n f o r m a t i o n o n O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n available i n the W e s t w e r e the results of the census of 1831 a n d the estimates of E u r o p e a n s . " possible date 1246 (1830).i m a h r u s e . Naseleniento na Turtsii i Bulgarii prez XVlll-XlX v. T h e Porte suggested. Presumably the many discrepancies between Karal's references and the current catalogue numbers of these documents are the result of a reclassification of the sources without reference to their old numbers. that is. r a t h e r . 1822). The s u l t a n also expressed his objec9. Geographischstatistisches Handwörterbuch (Weimar. 2. of the \ i u s official d o c u m e n t s p e r t a i n i n g to t h i s census t h r o w s w liÇ u p o n t h e O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n registers a n d population p r o b l e m s at the b e g i n n i n g of the c e n t u r y . as well as the material from the register itself. a p p a r e n t l y h a d access to s o m e o f f i c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n .450 f a m i l i e s . These documents for the seventeenth century may be found in BA (KK)3508. 195. s u c h as those o b t a i n i n g in the days of past g l o r y . biased i m a g i n a t i o n .t i m e o f f i c i a l assisted b y a n u m b e r of secretaries. " A b o u t the instructions to be issued for the officials w h o will conduct the census in Anatolia and R u m i l i . and Hassel's Statischer Umriss der Sämtlichen europäischen ( B r a u n s c h w e i g . T . the accuracy of t h i s designation may be d o u b t e d : f i r s t . be p l a c e d i n charge o f p o p u l a t i o n affairs.i ş a h a n e d e mevcut n ü f u s d e f t e r i " [Register of the p o p u l a t i o n present i n tht 4 r A l t h o u g h the census of 1831 has b e e n described as b e i n g the first one u n d e r t a k e n i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . o r d e r i n g t h a t the taxpayers be classified i n t o three categories as b e f o r e . Professor Karal t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o the L a t i n a l p h a b e t the contents of the regis* ter (defter) c o n t a i n i n g a c o n s o l i d a t e d a n d corrected summ a r y of the results of t h a t c e n s u s . 769. ' . 8. I n t h e past t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d r e p e a t e d l y r e f u s e d to accept o n e u n i f o r m çiziye tax. of the o r i g i n a l register of 1831 a n d . 5 vols. Urquhart's Turkey and Its Resources. . because the collection of taxes could not have been carried o u t w i t h o u t p o p u l a t i o n data of some sort. Sultan A b d u l h a m i d I I (1876-1909). ' " T h i s m a y have b e e n a n a l l u sion to the n e w t e r m i n o l o g y d i f f e r i n g f r o m that u s e d b y t h e p o p u l a t i o n s p e a k i n g the v e r n a c u l a r T u r k i s h or to the census itself as a n e w u n d e r t a k i n g . 1800-1878 The first p e r i o d stretches r o u g h l y f r o m the e n d of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y to the census of 1844. 8i (Ankara. Research Ser. regardless of differences i n w e a l t h . w e r e d e e p l v in>i v o l v e d i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g the p o p u l a t i o n ' surveys. 1817). H E PURPOSE of this c h a p t e r is to p r o v i d e b a c k g r o u n d i nJf_o rHl m a t i o n a b o u t v a r i o u s p o p u l a t i o n statistics a p p e a r i n g i n the appendices b y m e a n s of a p e r i o d i z a t i o n a n d a general analysis of e x i s t i n g censuses a n d some of the chief p o p u l a t i o n estimates. dated 1101 (1698) and BA (M) 'Yenı ser. a n d o t h e r s . " B o t h S u l t a n M a h m u d I I (1808-1839) and. a m e m b e r of the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e offices of the Porte. w h i c h is the basis of* the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e y l o o k e d u p o n the g a t h e r i n g of p o p u l a t i o n data. Ibid. w h i c h w e r e the p r e c u r s o r s of the s i m i l a r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e devices i n the Balkans a n d the M i d d l e East.: p O P U L A T ] O N D I S T R I B U T I O N A N D T H E E V O L U T I O N OF O T T O M A N C E N S U S E S 19 ]->47 i n the ( d i v i n e l v ) p r o t e c t e d r e a l m ] . a n d p l a i n . BA (MH)<(HH)'19210. O n l y i n the late n i n e t e e n t h cent u r y d i d the O t t o m a n census seek to e n c o m p a s s a n actual c o u n t of i n d i v i d u a l citizens. no. b u t r e t a i n e d i n s t e a d the three-layer system as b e i n g m o r e e q u i t a b l e . General Directorate of Statistics through the efforts of Celal Aybar. P o p u l a t i o n S u r v e y s . 7. Tarih-i Liitfi. vol. Mikhov. It appears also t h a t t h e classification of a C h r i s t i a n i n one of the three tax categories w a s based o n h i s o w n d e c l a r a t i o n of w e a l t h before the local j u d g e (kadi) a n d the chief n o t a b l e (ayan). A s was p o i n t e d o u t i n C h a p t e r I. known. w h o was p a i d a n a n n u a l salary of 7. t h o s e between eight a n d f i f t e e n as sagir ( s m a l l ) . I n a n y e v e n t . 18 3. O n the o t h e r h a n d . :. 10. does n o t a l w a y s i m p l y an actual h e a d c o u n t ( a l t h o u g h it w a s far f r o m b e i n g j u s t a r o u g h estimate). I n response to the suggestion. 19-22) and included. s o m e of w h o m . a n d the s u l t a n agreed. See Nikola V. p. pp. p. 2 d i d n o t c o u n t the p o p u l a t i o n i n all the kazas of the e m p i r e ! The h i s t o r i a n L u t f i has n o t e d t h a t after the a b o l i t i o n of the? Janizaries i n 1826 " m a n y of the o l d c u s t o m s a n d procedures^ c h a n g e d . w e r e created i n the p e r i o d f r o m 1829 to 1831.. G e o r g H a s s e l .500 kuruş. 1915-1968). evsat (average). Its Municipal Organization anil Free Trade (London. H e expressly o r d e r e d that each o f f i c i a l be i n s t r u c t e d t o c o n d u c t t h e c e n s u s b a s e d o n t h e o l d method ("usul-u sabika"). (London. possible date 1246 (1830). 12. 2d ed. those b e t w e e n fortv a n d sixty as sinni vusta ( m i d d l e aged). especially. Some other documents cited by Karal also appear now under different catalogue numbers in the Başbakanlık Arşivi. 6). w a s c a r r i e d o n i n the capital. 3 1 T h e census of 1828/29-1831 is c o m m o n l y k n o w n as the " f i r s t " census because t h a t is w h a t it w a s called i n the title of the b o o k b y Professor E n v e r Z i y a K a r a l i n w h i c h the' s u m m a r y of its results w a s first p u b l i s h e d . probably because the document was recatalogued under a different number in a different section. dated 1092 (1681).. it h a d been r e p e a t e d l y used i n a n o t t o o d i s t a n t past. Ibid. a p p a r e n t l y i n census t a k i n g . u n t i l a p p r o x i m a t e l y one year later. w h a t e v e r it w a s .. n % U t n X n i P O P U L A T I O N D I S T R I B U T I O N OF A N D T H E E V O L U T I O N ? 1800-1914 O T T O M A N CENSUSES. 11. o l d m e n ) . k n e w of this " o l d m e t h o d " i n d i c a t e d t h a t .

became the m a i n s t a y of the O t t o m a n military.826 Karaman 0.s t h e m i n t o " y o u n g " a n d " o l d " . C h i l d r e n w e r e n o t c o u n t e d .151 0. T h e one-year t i m e p e r i o d .01 3. T h e s y s t e m p r o d u c e d a large n u m b e r — possibly a b o u t 2 1 . deaths.la Akbal. w e r e sent o u t i n t o the f i e l d ( A p p e n d i x 12.f i v e h i g h officials. i f d o u b l e d to g i v e a c o u n t i n c l u d i n g 18 See Faz. 6417.161 1954-1955): 102. It has been recently ascertained that there are some 21. 81.188. Osmanll imparatorluğunda. the Muslims of Petriç were registered in three 138. w h o played an impor318 0 002 191 0. general c o n s c r i p t i o n for M u s l i m s w a s i n t r o d r ethnic n a m e s . h o w e v e r .780 0 02 20.942 2. The census register at o u r d i s p o s a l s h o w s thai] t o w n s .975 0. several factors. Be**.755 217. w a s to correct the tax inequities w h i c h h a d r e s u l t e d f r o m the c h a n g e i n p r o p e r t y values. these f i g u r e s are b y e v e r y a n d gypsies. t h e c o l l e c t i o n of t h e serve the m i l i t a r y e n d s envisaged b y the g o v e r n m e n t .• i n v o l v e d i n the census e f f o r t ) . of w h o m there were 1.88 numbering 1. an categories a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r w e a l t h : g o o d (ala).961 0. o t h e r s s i m p l y dividedt f o n of the w a r w i t h the H a b s b u r g s .142 0 01 Sefid (Aegean 3. 24). Christians w a s reaya-z t e r m u s e d u n t i l t h e n i n e t e e n t h cens h o w t h e m to have b e e n i n t h e m a j o r i t y i n the r e g i o n as a The C h r i s t i a n s . to m i l i t a r y service). Trabzon 0.h o u s e h o l d basis u n t i l late m the p o t e n t i a l n u m b e r of its s o l d i e r s . 1831 T h e r e is no d o u b t t h a t at t h i s date the h e a d tax was Armenians Jews Muslims Christians _ Gypsies_ g e n e r a l l y p a i d i n d i v i d u a l l y (neferen).471 0 01 35.272 Çildir tant role in bringing Ottoman legislation into conformity with Is-.01 b u t there w e r e a f e w places i n A n a t o l i a that still p a i d a Rumıli 7. b y 20 percent to p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l r e v e n u e for the sultan's. w h i l e he O n l y very general g u i d e l i n e s w e r e issued. w e r e d i v i d e d into tury to designate all the l a n d c u l t i v a t o r s regardless of t h e i r w h o l e .760 537.431 0.: t i v e l y o n l y 19. 24. H a m i d H a d z i b e g i c indicates that the ratesr began to c l i m b s h o r t l y after the t u r n of the c e n t u r y a n d that the increases became p r o g r e s s i v e l y greater t h r o u g h o u t the first t h i r d of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y (see Table 2 . which numbered 1. declared that the cızıye should be 48 kuruş for the rich. u s u a l l y those b e t w e e n the ages of f i f t e e n a n d sixty. to be discussed later). p r o b M u s l i m s . A register for Ankara that was located and subjected to a careful analysis shows the usefulness of such data (see n. 14 The census was " s e c r e t . There w o m e n . I n 1691.004 0. " i n c a p a b l e of: been the practice t h r o u g h o u t the p r e v i o u s c e n t u r i e s .03 2. 1804-1834 q u i t e substantial u n d e r c o u n t i n t h i s case w a s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o ible i.. see Budin Kanunname» 0.2 s h o w s the e t h n i c a n d r e l i g i o u s d i s t r i b u t i o n of w o r k " (amelmande—destitute.685 0 66 '2.403 categories: ihtiyaran (old). " i . m o d e r n a r m y . 1973).255. m e d i u m of S o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s .361 0. Table 2. special reference >s m a d e t o the gypsies (kipti) w e r e a l w a y s classified separately.727 273.738 0 005 18.0001 60 0.11 15.d a y d u c e d i n A n a t o l i a a n d R u m i l i .and 12 for the poor.87 228. incapable of w o r k " ) . a n d t h i s w a s d u l y n o t e d b y t h e officials (The [ h e h e a d tax.313 0. s o m e officials classified some of th£ hat this tax be an i n d i v i d u a l l e v y .263. 24 332. a n d m i g r a t i o n s a n d to r e p o r t several times a year to the central office i n I s t a n b u l .550 16. ) ' 1844 a n e w census w a s t a k e n u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n of a " c h i l d r e n . Jews w e r e l i s t e d separately. Plovdiv). in the Başbakanlik Arşivi—all as yet uncatalogued. p. I n Kars a n d A d a n a the c o u n t s w e r e respecg i o n as M u s l i m s . A r m e n i a n s . 0 0 0 — p o p u l a t i o n registers.p r o b a b l y close to 50 p e r c e n t . o l d . 0. Because of the lacltj ^ s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y despite t h e shariat's p r e s c r i p t i o n to have p a i d o n l y l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n to the registration of of u n i f o r m p r o c e d u r e s . Geliri ve Reaya Nüfusu.92 125.353 0. "Dzizja i l i Harac. a n d f r o m the c o n t i n u a t i o n of tax e x e m p t i o n s g i v e n i n the past to derbends f o r the m a i n t e n a n c e of roads a n d b r i d g e s n o w n o l o n g e r i n e x i s t e n c e .fe-i Bulgarian D o b r u c a ( D o b r u j a ) t h e M u s l i m s w e r e r e f e r r e d to occa-r specifically m e n t i o n e d i n t h e census of Filibe ( p r e s e n t . as h a d area w h e r e t h e census of M u s l i m s w a s especially n o n r i g o r average (evsat). as are the A r m e n i a n s . f o r c o n s c r i p t i o n b a s e d o n the registers w a s h a r d l y M u s l i m s as w e l l as the C h r i s t i a n s a c c o r d i n g to age (1-12 o£ y because of the n e e d f o r m o r e r e v e n u e f o r the p r o s e c u a n established p r o c e d u r e .619. t h u s g i v i n g a relatively g o o d i n d i c a t i o n of the size a n d c o m p o s i t i o n of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the early n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .166 Adana 136. T h i s h e a d tax.13 34. 15. C h r i s t i a n s ( O r t h o d o x ) . f r o m the p r e s t i gious r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t .) 1 2 O T T O M A N .10 0. t h a t is. 1954-1955): 102. b u t s o o n a f t e r w a r d s t h e y w e r e raised statistical appendices (1. 60 (1961): 628. as p o i n t e d o u t a b o v e .531 0. T h u s t h e B u l g a r i a n s (ta.865 0.004 (Istanbul.g.170. 1981).088.866 0. Ibid.06 5.ures bave been rounoeo 0.005 (Rumelia) 2. D e s p i t e the g o v e r n m e n t ' s interest m k n o w i n g gayrimuvafik ("suitable to the p u r p o s e " a n d " u n s u i t a b l e tof " i was collected o n a p e r .015 8.820 Sivas 92. no 60 (1961): 628 F.15 49. (Trebızond) 78. m sifications such as tuvana. "1831 Tarihinde Osmanli İmparatorluğunf r o m the i n c e p t i o n of the O t t o m a n state.47 251.774 0.1. Muslims. E v e n o m e cases t h e C h r i s t i a n g r o u p s w e r e m e n t i o n e d b y to note that i n s o m e areas s u c h as H i r s o v a a n d Kostenje in' t u a l l y ' i n 1855.o f p r o c e d u r e .773 0. r a t h e r t h a n as one' Total Number Number Administrative % l u m p s u m l e v i e d u p o n a c o m m u n i t y (maktu). 13.87 1. a n d s t i l l others used clas-i diye r e v e r t e d to t h e o r i g i n a l Islamic p r i n c i p l e a n d w a s clearly i n d i c a t e d ' b y the fact t h a t t h i r t e e n years later.002 105 0 93 73. T h a t the census of 1831 d i d n o t 1-14.i T a t a r a n ) . and sibyan (children under 12). w h i c h w a s far b e l o w the actual n u m b e r T h e B . A detailed study of the çiziye l e w is in 15. the specific p u r p o s e s of the census a n d s t e m m i n g as wel| Source: m o s t i n t e r e s t e d i n c o u n t i n g t h e C h r i s t i a n s as accurately as f r o m a certain awareness of l i n g u i s t i c differences. 80-82. "Tanzimat 'in Ilk Yillarinda Erzurum ' u n Çiziye Tota! ^ ^ ^ ^ Nutus. a n d amelmande ("strong/I levied i n d i v i d u a l l y .996 0. g i v e n t h e i n e x Each census o f f i c i a l w a s a s s i g n e d a n u m b e r of kazasf perience of the officials.741 Cevdet Küçük. a system thai Number % Number Number District h a d been w i d e l y u s e d before a n d w a s also used afterwards.53 176. Source: F a b 1 l D I n S t h ! 1 8 16 ( ." Prilozi 5 (Sarajevo: Oriental Institute. . l f o l l o w i n g this c h a p t e r gives a p a r t i a l list of the o f f i c i a j t . sibyan. For example.1). w a s e x c e p t i o n a l l y s h o r t . respectively. and 6505. w i t h a" the PauUcians ( P a v l i k i a n ) .461 age group. f r o m transfers of l a n d a n d use of o l d l a n d deeds. " b u t ceride h a d at the t i m e a more m o d e r n c o n n o t a t i o n . " Census officials w e r e r e c r u i t e d f r o m a m o n g j u d g e s a n d scholars. . a n d the c e n s u * territory to be c o v e r e d w a s e x t e n s i v e . " " r e t i r e d .473 0." Prilozi 5 (Sarajevo: Orienta! Institute. T h e i m p o r t a n c e attached to the census of 1831 is attested by the fact t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t y . hence e x e m p t f r o m tax).593 . t h u s it m u s t be said t h a t there w a s n o real a t t e m p t to the officials r e m a i n e d f a i t h f u l to the o l d .44 148. so that t h e y w o u l d g i v e correct i n f o r m a t i o n . Its p u r p o s e .officer especially for the a r m y ' s p u r p o s e s . m o s t l y M u s l i m T u r k s . for the three « différences between Akbal's totals and those shown m the categories of w e a l t h . It i s ' q u i t e clear that takers used v a r i o u s m e t h o d s i n their classification of the! f e w officials w e n t o u t to the v i l l a g e s or e v e n to the r e m o t e p o p u l a t i o n . assisted b y a n u m ber of secretaries.936 0.062 0 90 17.003 0 51 3. It is interesting that as early as the sixteenth cerr. a c c o r d i n g to the o f f i c i a l e x p l a n a t i o n . 1 3 T h e census o f 1831 c o u n t e d o n l y males. p p . T h e general n a m e f o r O r t h o d o x D e s p i t e t h e gross u n d e r c o u n t of M u s l i m s t h e figures c i t a t i o n also of t h e i r r e l i g i o n . l o w (edna). a n d he asked that the office be'Ceride Nezareti a n d that all p o p u l a t i o n registers be assembled t h e r e . e .08 19. occasionally.741 a n d 92. Of the individual population registers of 1831 only a few are presently available. classical Ottoman: c o u n t a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t .722. and BA (C)»(D)8-321.463 320.67 505. i n o r d e r to allay the s u s p i cions of the M u s l i m p u b l i c already t i r e d of l e n g t h y periods of m i l i t a r y service ( b e t w e e n 1774 a n d 1829 m a n y m e n . t h a t is. Table 2.925 Anatolia 0. after the a b o l i t i o n of the Janizaries i n 1826.579 1. the officials a p p e a r e d the p u r p o s e . w o u l d p u t the t o t a l O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n at a b o u t rates w e r e 48. 1 ) . 14. See Karal. C h r i s t i a n s are s h o w n as t h e m a j o r i t y m R u m i h .31 1.741 11.03 0. Jews. (Dcfatir a n d ceride b o t h m e a n " r e g i s t e r s .2. possible i n v i e w of the i m p o r t a n c e the s u l t a n attached to w e r e classified i n g e n e r a l as matluba muvafık a n d matlubi.448 0. the " d o n a t i o n " or " c o s t " i n lieu of m i l i t a r y service. The male p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e O t t o m a n s t a t e m 1 8 3 1 w a s three m a i n çiziye categories h a d b e e n m a i n t a i n e d almosl 3 722 738 T h i s f i g u r e . while! the M u s l i m s w e r e m o s t l y T u r k i s h . 6502. lS30—19i4j P O P U L A T I O N D I S T R I B U T I O N A N D T H E E V O L U T I O N O F O T T O M A N CENSUSES 21 T h e p o p u l a t i o n r e g i s t r a t i o n svstem established i n 1829 f u n c t i o n e d fairlv r e g u l a r l y u n t i l a b o u t the b e g i n n i n g of the C r i m e a n W a r i n 1853 (at w h i c h t i m e t h e d r i v e f o r E u r o p e a n i z a t i o n led to the neglect of O t t o m a n i n s t i t u t i o n s in favor of E u r o p e a n m o d e l s ) . see BA (KK)/6299. Economy life in Ottoman Europe (Lonrecalculated totals for some areas and on corrected lists.29 1. o r h a n d i c a p p e d and' A c c o r d i n g to the ( u n c o r r e c t e d ) census results t h e tota the p o p u l a t i o n . I t is k n o w n t h a t S u l t a n M a h m u d I I p l a n n e d to use the r e v e n u e f r o m the çiziye to finance the m o d e r n a r m y w h i c h . 12-40 or 14-40.227 0.619 0. a n d 12 kuruş. M o r e o v e r .550. T h e g o v e r n m e n t also w a n t e d to d e t e r m i n e the n u m b e r of M u s l i m s e l i g i b l e f o r m i l i t a r y service a n d to reassess the çiziye.004 Kars fury the well-known şeyhülislam Ibn Suud.P O P U L A T I O N . the appendix figures being based on 17 See Bruce McGowan. pp. a n d .84 270. 7 5 m i l l i o n . I n 1831 the tax da Idari Taksimat ve Nüfus." Belleten 15. later came to be k n o w n as the iane-i askeriyye or bedelat-i askeriyye. and it is to be hoped that more of this material will become available soon. 84. h a d to serve t w e n t y or m o r e years i n the a r m y ) a n d to i n s p i r e c o n f i d e n c e i n the r e s p o n d e n t s .000 population defters.044. the census office was the Ceride-i Kaleni. The p o p u l a t i o n officials i n the kazas w e r e r e q u i r e d to register all b i r t h s ." Tarih Dergisi 31 (1977): 199-234. for m i l i t a r y p r o t e c t i o n .M u s l i m s . i n the areas w h e r e s i o n a l l y b y t h e i r e t h n i c n a m e s (e. 189-90. t h e officials seemed to be •Dzizja ili Harac.20 t i o n to the title C h i e f of Registers (Dcfatir Naziri) g i v e n to Sait E f e n d i . l e v i e d o n n o n . R e l i g i o u s D i s t r i b u t i o n nf the O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n . .0004 485 0.762 0.481. K a b a i l . T h e y also i n t r o d u c e d i n n o v a t i o n s dictated bvji n d i c a t i o n v e r y l o w . T h e kaza w a s the m a i n u n i t of p o p u l a t i o n r e g i s t r a t i o n (a s y s t e m s i m i l a r to that a d o p t e d i n 1881/82. t h a t is. 40 a n d above).887 0. o u s .001 Silistre 1.580 4. nitu criye. 751.754 Islands) 3. 9 1 H e a d Tax Rate Increase.119 2. no.659 0 002 910 for the middle class. c l a s s i f y i n g the p o p u l a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the reli-j the p o p u l a t i o n .0005 368 0. I t is interesting! m i l i t a n . Cezayir-1 Bahrı-i lamic law. with a two-volume index. don and New York: Cambridge University Press. the 12 to 48 0.

Studies of the individual defters for the entire realm similar to the register for Ankara would indicate the age and occupational structure of the Ottoman population at that time. . the latter' least f i f t e e n or t w e n t y kazas are located a n d p r o p e r l y catalogued.000 200. f o r t u n a t e l y . et relatif au recensement général décrété par S. B o t h sets of f i g u r e s underestimate the E u r o p e a n p o p u l a t i o n (as a c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the m u c h m o r e reliable f i g u r e s c o v e r i n g the p e r i o d after 1882 clearly reveals). 21. peasants i n the 1870s.000 600. w h i l e the others describe t h e s i t u a t i o n i n the 1830s. "Ottoman Population in Europe in the 19th Century. University of Wisconsin-Madison. f s i l v e r . . if the tot. reprint ed. and A.000 9. less. Almanach de l'Empire ottoman pour l'année 1849'1850 (Constantinople. c l a i m e d that h i s p o p u l a tion tables " i f n o t r i g o r o u s l y exact ." journal of Ottoman Studies 1 (1980): 109-32. a n d c u l section written K Halil inalcık. U r q u h a r t . | i 919. Estimates of t h e p o p u l a t i o n of the A s i a n a n d A f r i c a n p r o v i n c e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d r a n g e d f r o m 6 to 15 m i l l i o n . merkezi nüfusu üzerinde bir araştirma. c l a i m e d t h a t he d i d so because the cur-j rency h a d become d e b a s e d i n v a l u e a n d t h a t i n real termsj the tax r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t . adressé aux missions étrangères à Constantinople. see Encyclopedia of Islam. h o w e v e r . no. see "Traduction d'un mémorandum de la Sublime-Porte. s.. T h i s is i n d e e d essential if the social effect is to bès h o w n i n Table 2 . no. .000 4.000 1. "Différenciation de fortune dans les 19.i. and Religious Composition" ( M .v. 186S)..000 rather suggestive.050. T h u s the estimates of t o t a l O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y varied f r o m 14 m i l l i o n to 23 m i l l i o n . i n a d d i t i o n to the n u m e r i c a l 22.700. .4 gives t h e average f i g u r e s f r o m a n u m b e r of these estimates. the average a n n u a l i n c o m e of a poor Free Trade (London. 1831 are. Yiquesnel.000 considered " p o o r " . 271-72.000 w. 1. and awakened energy w i t h apprehension. a n d these can easily be collected f r o m the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . l . X I X siècle.a n d the edna.3 meters) of l a n d were 6. a n d it deserves far m o r e a t t e n t i o n t h a t h i t h e r t o g i v e n i t .t e e n t h c e n t u r y . U b i c i n i . 1970). "Dzizja ill Harac. w h o raised the rate several times! d u r i n g his t e n u r e . and Religious Composition" (M A. n u m b e r of i n d i c a t o r s w h i c h s h o u l d p e r m i t j Muslims Christians one to f o r m an o p i n i o n a b o u t the relative b u r d e n of the.2 m i l l i o n b e t w e e n the t w o totals in Table 2. Table 2. d e t e r m i n e d at a l l . village de la B u l . iy Province It is i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of the Christians i n the three çiziye categories r e m a i n e d m o r e or less constant.000 Pomaks Albanians 530.000 700. evsat category. 248 (4 September 1844).500. no.5 to 8 percent of the C h r i s t i a n s .000 and of Slavs. Turkey and Its Resources. P o p u l a t i o n of O t t o m a n B a l k a n T e r r i t o r i e s .) 600. j nord-est durant les années 60 et 70 du 20. The majorityof C h r i s t i a n s M-cmed to have possessed e n o u g h p r o p e r t y to place t h e m i n tl„. C o n s e q u e n t l y . I n s u m . T h e r e s u l t s of a s t u d y c o n d u c t e d i n Bulgaria are! Albanians 1. .000 1..000 7.750 kuruş.000. 2." p. 25. University of Wisconsin-Madison. a n d t h e archives h a v e n o t yet y i e l d e d a n y related statistical m a t e r i a l . " C h r i s t i a n s i n the ala category w e r e p a y i n g approx-j innately the e q u i v a l e n t of o n e dirham. 1849 -50).000 280.w e r e n o t p a y i n g the head tax at a l l . .2 followi n g this chapU-i. a l t h o u g h a d m i t t e d l y less.000 250. A c c o r d i n g to L . b e i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y b e l o w the n u m b e r necessary for a viable e c o n o m y a n d defense. pp. By Composition Ethnic-Religious Composition Muslims Turks Albanians Bosnians (inc. one can! 2. Its Municipal Organization and p e r dönüm francs). But the passage of the Balkans has q u i c k e n e d their sight. neverthethat r e m a i n e d u n c o u n t e d a n d the reasons f o r t h i s neglect.22 There is no q u e s t i o n b u t t h a t the size of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n was rather l i m i t e d . s w e r e d e e m e d " r i c h . .000 Total Christians 6. Musa Çadirci points out in a detailed study of one of the basic registers. see La Turquie d'Europe (Paris. i l . 1970) and from various documents. 1833). U b i c i n i a n d E u g è n e Boré seemed to have h a d access to these f i g u r e s .ı„ c a l c u l a t e d to be 54 kuruş (12. see "1830 Genel Sayimina göre Ankara şehir .180.'.000 N e w i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n became available after the census i n 1844.000 1. " I 'l^-va".000 favorable.000 350.000) are excluded. 19 OTTOMAN POPULATION. By all accounts. 2 (1980): 68-70./pp.000 200. w h o gave extensive statistical information of his own.0. i n his s u m m a r y of t h e census results. T h e s u m m a r y results of the census for) 1831 d o n o t c o n t a i n a n y i n f o r m a t i o n o n the subject.000 Greece) 1. a n d those possessing! GRAND TOTAL 101 to 150i/o)iK. 1973). Serbia ( p o p u l a t i o n 95. peasants possessing u p to 30 dönüms (one: Armenians.000 dönüm b e i n g . T h i s s t u d y concerns the economic status} Bosnians.) H o w e v e r . Arno Press. l e f t m o s t of the i n t e r e s t e d parties d i s s a t i s f i e d . Turkey and Its Resources. There! Table 2. pronew ed. the n u m b e r of fcllahin as d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m A r a b s ( i n Tarsus). (Today a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 m i l l i o n people live i n the area subject to the census i n 1831. A i . Turks 700. for the practice in the Ottoman era.1) is an e x c e p t i o n a l l y v a l u a b l e q u a n t i t a t i v e source for t h e s t u d y of O t t o m a n social h i s t o r y . of the average peasant. I can bear t e s t i m o n y to the readiness w i t h w h i c h t h e y have c o m m u n i c a t e d to me all the i n f o r m a t i o n they themselves p o s s e s s e d . 700 to2. 1820-1840 A. .680. A . s t u d e n t s f a m i l i a r w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n of the Balkans d u r i n g this p e r i o d have g i v e n m u c h h i g h e r figures t h a n the census of 1831.\ 65 to 68 percent. T h e g o v e r n o r s a n d pashas of late a p p o i n t m e n t . w h e n Riza Pasha.500.5 p e r c e n t . The d i f f e r e n c e of a b o u t 1. h o w e v e r .310. . 42. and even the geographic origin of the respondents.676. kground of the çiziye. pp.700. that is.000 say that the s i t u a t i o n i n the 1830s. 23-24. w h o was b y far the best i n f o r m e d s t u d e n t of O t t o m a n affairs.000 1. placed the total Ottoman population at about 15 million (of whom 11.000. 2 3 Average Figure 1.990.000 to 3. .000 The true size . Racial. the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the ala com-i p r i s e d r o u g h l y 7. Letters on Turkey. 272-73.000 Vlahs 600. statistical details have b e e n d e m a n d e d t h r o u g h o u t the w h o l e c o u n t r y . M a l u n u d I I .650. a u | f the r i c h f a r m e r . 6 24.000 1. c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n too d i f f e r e n t f r o m the pre-i v a i l i n g some f o r t y years later. T h e y are c o m p i l e d f r o m the general census t a k e n i n 1844 t h r o u g h o u t the e m p i r e .! a n n u a l i n c o m e of the C h r i s t i a n s i n all the T h i s can be a c h i e v e d o n l y after the c o m p l e t e registers for at three categories i c o m p a r e d to t h e tax p a i d .766. f o they d i d not possess the c u s t o m a r y receipts.000 300.000) a n d Wallachia a n d M o l d a v i a ( p o p u l a t i o n 1.000. trans. thesis. T h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n ment a p p a r e n t l y d i d n o t p u b l i s h the results of t h i s i m p o r tant census. the census of 1831 ( r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e statistical appendices 1. as over 7 million.910. 1840).t h e a n n u a l i n c o m e a n d the j sources U r q u h a r t gave the p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r the Bala m o u n t of p r o p e r t y o w n e d b y the taxpayers o f each cate-i k a n s ( a d j u s t e d a c c o r d i n g to r e l i g i o n a n d e t h n i c o r i g i n ) g o r y . " - Source: Compiled from statistics given in E. peasant was a b o u t 700 kuruş. as d e c r e e d i n the early Islamic] l a y v s .000 700. a n d the like. see also Eugène Boré. It is h i g h l y desirable t h a t the census of 1831 be s t u d i e d The three categories d e f i n e d b y the B u l g a r i a n scholars were f u r t h e r i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e the extent of the r u r a l area n o t the same . j 21 The s u m m a r y register of 1831 c o n t a i n s also a v a r i e t y of information o n the n a m e s of tribes a n d t h e i r s u b d i v i s i o n s .000. A great deal of information may be gleaned from some of the 1831 census registers. " T h e average income i 10. that some of the vilayet censuses in 183031 included extensive information about the age. Voyage dans la Turquie d'Europe (Paris. | s h o w i n g the tax status of C h r i s t i a n s in various kazas in K u m i l i is i n c l u d e d as A p p e n d i x B. Herzegovinians) Pomaks Total Christians Greeks Slavs (mainly Bulgarians) Albanians Vlahs Armenians Total Jews Gypsies GRAND TOTAL Average Figure 600. The figurcv supported by extensive bibliographical data.. the evsat.9 French Source: David Urquhart. t u r a l characteristics of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n at the b e g i n 23. . had the f o l l o w i n g to sav a b o u t the g o v e r n m e n t ' s efforts to collect statistical i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a b o u t the size of the B a l k a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the 1830s: Previous to the last Russian w a r [1828] the Porte e n t e r t a i n e d the m o s t extravagant n o t i o n s as to the p o p u l a t i o n of the c o u n t r y .066. t h e highest of the f i g u r e s u n d e r e s t i m a t e d the total b y 10 to 12 million.r e l i g i o u s categories are estimates f o r t h e b e g i n n i n g of the c e n t u r y . see the vides excellent i n s i g h t s i n t o the social.000 4. Its Territorial.000 420. N i k o l a i T o d o r o y . religion.5 million were in Europe) and gave the total number of Turks in Europe as 700. A m i Boué. w h i l e the others paid) less—an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e O t t o m a n a d h e r e n c e to Islamicl practices. | u e of the c u r r e n c y . Total Muslims 3. are cited in Slavka lYaganova. pp.4.3. New York. those u s e d for çiziye p u r p o s e s . Berov andj Others (Jews. A large n u m b e r of Christians apparently.000 820. the n u m ber of houses a n d l a n d estates i n a knza. t h o s e possessing 31 to 100 dönüms were] c o n s i d e r e d " m i d d l e " or " a v e r a g e " . namely the census register for Ankara. Its Territorial. Hautesse. despite change i n t h e v a Table 2.000 Greeks (excluding çiziye. u n d e r t o o k to reorganize t h e a r m y b y a l t e r i n g t h e m e t h o d of r e c r u i t i n g . 26. "Ottoman Population in Europe in the 19th Century. etc. Racial.000 The a m o u n t <>f the çiziye w a s t h e o r e t i c a l l y the equivalent! of one dirham . H a d / i b e g i c calculated t h a t t h r o u g h o u t the eight-i eenth a n d i n t .. Lady Easthope (London." Le Moniteur universel. 2 4 Province Istanbul Thrace Bulgaria Bosnia Albania Macedonia Thessaly and Epirus Livadia Morea Crete Other (inc. P o p u l a t i o n of O t t o m a n T e r r i t o r i e s i n E u r o p e . 1830-1914 POPULATION D I S T R I B U T I O N A N D T H E E V O L U T I O N OF O T T O M A N CENSUSES 23 rang of the n i m . Akarli.000 400. . occupation. For a compilation of statistics from sixteen major sources on the Ottoman population. .000 550.100. j Estimates o f t h e O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n f r o m 1831 to 1853 The size of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n i n E u r o p e w a s t h e subject of n u m e r o u s estimates after the census results became available a n d . 1856. see Engin Akarli. Ibid.f the h e a d tax a n d its relative i m p a c t can bet A p p a r e n t l y o n the basis of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a n d o t h e r ascertained o n l y if w e k n o w ." Hu: n Historical Review. Islands) Total B. are at least as correct as it w a s possible to r e n d e r t h e m .000 kuruş. 20 t U a t o s q u a r e ( v 0 23 s s H m e u e <<:na 2. the m i d d l e range of taxpayers.000 of the B u l g a r i . O n the b. thesis. e c o n o m i c . I t t r u s t e d to its o l d registers or a d m i t t e d i n s c r u p u l o u s l y the s w o l l e n estimates. 272-73. information on various religious and ethnic groups. 24 to 27.16. T h e census register f o r 1831. Tuleman Slavs 4.4 p r o b a b l y stems f r o m the fact t h a t t h e f i g u r e s not b r o k e n d o w n i n t o e t h n o .. 3 .. For the census order. the n u m b e r of i m m i g r a n t s a n d seasonal w o r k e r s . a p p a r e n t l y . seem to have taken u p statistics w i t h s p i r i t .000 80. the M i n i s t e r of W a r .. r c amount appears to be r a t h e r l o w .

the t o t a l i n c o m e of the p o p u l a t i o n . w e r e c r i t i c i z e d b y some Europeans as b e i n g p a r t i a l to M u s l i m s .526 77.000 2. T u n a P r o v i n c e w a s c o m p r i s e d o f R u s ç u k .021. The i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s census m a t e r i a l is so a m p l e a n d u n i q u e as to m a k e it a p r i m a r y source o f i n f o r m a t i o n o n the social a n d d e m o g r a p h i c h i s t o r y o f the E u r o p e a n posses.M u s l i m s — b e g a n to sell t h e i r l a n d to the C h r i s t i a n s . w h o w a s the first to use 29 N D I S T R I B U T E AND THE EVOLUTION OE OTTOMAN CENSUSES Table 2. ( U b i c i n i ' s figures are r e p r o d u c e d i n the statistical appendices.000 1.410 71. a n d Tulça ( D o b r u c a . because m a n y b i g l a n d o w n e r s — a s w e l l as the s m a l l farmers w h o were w i t h o u t legal p r o t e c t i o n against usurers. Sir James Porter. 2 2 8 OTTOMAN POPULATION.425 610. a n o t h e r 15 m i l l i o n for the rest of the r e a l m .050.338 24. It was expected that the census of the n o n . O n e of the p u r p o s e s of t h e census of 1866 was to issue to all O t t o m a n subjects a tezkere-i osmaniyye. a m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e .133 54. a n d real estate h o l d i n g s . o f » * / i ™ ^ ' . i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of a c o u n t r y w i d e census. V a r n a ( n o r t h e r n B u l g a r i a ) . Harput) Syria. Farley. a p p o i n t i n g census officials i n the vilayets of A y d i n a n d M e n t e ş e i n 1851 a n d m a k i n g efforts to e x p a n d f u r t h e r the census t a k e n i n C y p r u s i n 1857. a n d these e v e n t u a l l y w e r e r e d u c e d to a single one.050. a n d social c o m p o s i t i o n of t h i s vital area. M o l b e c k .000 1. 1875).. 1830-1914 25 . M t a n T o w n m İ h . . exaggera t e d the n u m b e r of Slavs w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g the n u m b e r of T u r k s . The T u n a Province Census and P o p u l a t i o n Statistics to 1878 T h e r e l i g i o u s . as w a s m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r 1 .e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the Balkans became a n i m p o r t a n t issue after the Islahat Fenuani was i s s u e d i n 1856.6. see also Felix Philipp Kanitz. the t o t a l v a l u e o f real estate. o d c o d i n g « M 5 8 "'.750. The census of the n o n . a n d especially d u r i n g the.ys » r .: religious.100. T h e results of t h e census of 1844.103. i n c o n d u c t i n g h i s s t u d y of the *i6Cen Zand t h e i r social s t r u c t u r e .834 20. has e x p l i c i t l y ac* Tic t v a l u e a n d r e l i a b i l i t y .M u s l i m s was c a r r i e d o u t by f o u r teams. See BA (I)/MV)/21366. P o p u l a t i o n of the O t t o m a n State A c c o r d i n g to S a l a h e d d i n Bev (1867) Vilayet Europe Edirne (including Istanbul) Danube (Bulgaria) Prezerin. The chief p u r p o s e of this edict p r e p a r e d b y E u r o p e a n p o w e r s was to i n t r o d u c e " r e f o r m s " for the b e n e f i t o f t h e n o n . 19//). letter of 28 Safer 1279 (25 August 1862). T h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l shift w o r k e d to the d e t r i m e n t of the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n . b Î i n « . began to 27. (Leipzig.000 3.1« blamed the Ottomans.918 57. . l k a n f 1 8 7 4 3 l t i S a C e i n C e a T a b l r ^ J ^ g u ^ ^ Number ot Villages Rusçuk Varna Vidin Sofia Tirnova Tulça Niş ^ Muslims 138. 28. or d e d u c t e d f r o m t h e a n n u a l tax collected f r o m Cyprus. C. as w e l l as the n e w l y created professions. b y a v a r i e t y of people r a n g i n g f r o m the B r i t i s h c o n s u l a r agents (an exact rep r o d u c t i o n appears i n t h e H o u s e of C o m m o n s Accounts and Papers of 1860) to J. Egypt. occupations. V T J Ö Ä S Ä Ä »o « v „ . l « « — T 29.062 154.000 13.929 100. 1860-18S0 (Paris.24 A c t u a l l y the census that was started i n 1844 c o n t i n u e d w e l l b e v o n d that date. » of lh= z ^ . a l t h o u g h Bore. . raised t h r o u g h a tax l e v y of one kuruş per p e r s o n .567 147. 1.000 12. b u t even there the s i t u a t i o n became precarious. Professor N i c o l a i T o d o r o v . 5. t h e i r ages. often n o n . * A succinct s u m m a r y ' ^ i î l c n s ù s d ta for T u n a P r o v i n c e is g i v e n ir.= H „ * „ . .900. La lur uie a imposition un. intact or w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n . Sofia.417 95. i n fact.095 104. See the Tuna Vilayet Salname of 1285 (1868).769 124. letter of 7 Safer 1268 (2 December 1851). i W i n B. Special lists i n d i c a t e d the n u m b e r of h o u s e h o l d h e a d s .935 1. A l l these data w e r e s u m m a r i z e d i n s t i l l o t h e r lists s h o w i n g the total n u m b e r of the taxable p o p u l a t i o n a n d its ethnic comp o s i t i o n . o p ™ " ' ? » ™ r i S n . Baghdad Hejaz. ' It appears f r o m o f f i c i a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e that the census of the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n i n C y p r u s was c o n c l u d e d b y 1861 a n d that a census of the n o n .1 —— Source: Salaheddin Bey. . Tripoli GRAND TOTAL nnivu lu"-"pp. T i r n o v a . In general the M u s l i m s m a n a g e d to r e t a i n t h e i r h o l d o n the l a n d .892 6. t h e i r real estate h o l d i n g s a n d r e n t s . S « ™ d H .000 U b i c i n i r e p r o d u c e d the results of the O t t o m a n census w i t h a p p a r e n t l y o n l y m i n o r a d j u s t m e n t s .3 4. 1850s.309 Asia West and Central Anatolia and Cyprus East Anatolia (Erzurum Kurdistan.000 1 ^ 0 0 13. the census material.000 700.905 171.000 2. se. V i d i n .000. economic.906.000. r o m t h e T u n a P r o v i n c e y e a r b o o k s of 1869 a n d ^ n c l u d e d n t h e statistical a p p e n d i c e s . Yemen Total Africa Tunisia. r e g i s t e r i n g t h e o c c u p a t i o n s a n d properties of the r e s p o n d e n t s i n a d d i t i o n to the usual data ( a l t h o u g h females still w e r e n o t r e g i s t e r e d ) . ı (Seattle: University of W « h i n t o n P ^ s g WM). H e was the chief source for m a n y O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n studies t h a t i n t u r n s u p p l i e d m a t e r i a l for. as clearly i n d i c a t e d b y the establ i s h m e n t of n a t i o n a l c h u r c h e s a n d t h e e m e r g e n c e of nationalist m o v e m e n t s (see C h a p t e r 3).160.M u s l i m s l i v i n g i n villages a n d t o w n s w o u l d take f o u r to f i v e m o n t h s . w h i c h c o u l d t h e n be u s e d to register changes i n a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s status.700. Tirhala. T h e Porte d e b a t e d at l e n g t h w h e t h e r the expenses of the census s h o u l d be c o v e r e d f r o m the general treasury. E. a n d „ t h a t t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of t h e D a n u b e p r o v -> o >Tr T m l n o n p'eorple.000 4 000. or O t t o m a n i d e n t i t y c a r d . w h i c h became the a g r i c u l t u r a l sector of the e m e r g i n g capitalist o r d e r . 1862). H . the econ o m i c status of the C h r i s t i a n s . See BA (I)/(D)/14855.487. i m p r o v e d r a p i d l y after the 1830s.M u s l i m s a n d p r e p a r e d the g r o u n d for the e m e r g e n c e of the n e w e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l g r o u p s w h i c h . for the g o v e r n m e n t t r i e d also to c o u n t the n o m a d i c tribes.erseiie de 1867 (Paris.645 39. C o n t r a r y to a v a r i e t y of u n i n f o r m e d o p i n i o n s . d o.692 56. P r e p a r a t i o n s w e r e made to p r i n t a n d d i s t r i b u t e 5 m i l l i o n c a r d i n the T u n a vilayet a n d . « m U t M n l ' s own noi.907. thanks to special p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s created at first by the T a n z i m a t r e f o r m s i n 1839 a n d t h e n r e i n f o r c e d b y the F e r m a n of 1856. 1867). p a r t i c u l a r l y the Bulgarians. E m i l e Isambert.000 284. Niş (Serbia). including Crete but not Cyprus Serbia Wallachia-Moldavia Total 234.000 900. 3 vols.000 Q 5.000 40. 3.< m a t e r i a l i n d e t a i l .000 Total 7 9 8 of 1285 (1868) and c e n s u s ^ « e » Hie no. a n d the a m o u n t of tax collected.100. w i t h the p u r p o s e of r e f o r m i n g the tax system. T h e e c o n o m i c i m p r o v e m e n t experienced by v a r i o u s C h r i s t i a n e t h n i c g r o u p s w a s a c c o m p a n i e d by v i t a ! c u l t u r a l a n d p o l i t i c a l c h a n g e s t h a t increased their n a t i o n a l consciousness.000. W .273 17. t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s . and La Bulgarie danubienne et le Balkan: Etudes de voyages.: sions of the O t t o m a n s t a t e . each c o n s i s t i n g of one M u s l i m a n d one C h r i s tian o f f i c i a l p l u s a secretary. : « » (London: Variorum Reprints. O f f i c i a l s w e n t f r o m house to h o u s e to note the n u m b e r of people i n a h o u s e h o l d .H . 1.510 410. a m e m b e r of the B u l g a r i a n A c a d e m y .s . the n u m b e r of d w e l l i n g s .223. T h e census of 1866 i n T u n a ( D a n u b e ) P r o v i n c e (a partial census was carried o u t also i n Iraq) w a s r e q u i r e d because of the p r o f o u n d changes w h i c h h a d t a k e n place i n the ethnic. I .000 2. 210-14. Donau-Bulgarien and der Balkan. T . of the o r i g i n a l s u r v e y s c o u l d y i e l d a d d i t i o n a l clues •f K 4 at n w e accurate ( a n d p o s s i b l y h i g h e r ) f i g u r e s £ * e w h o l e p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s i m p o r t a n t p r o v i n c e . v o n B o e h n .he ( i r s . under the serial number PC 79/8. M u l t i p l e registers w e r e u s e d . Tthe Oriental Section of the National Library of Bulgana m Soda. m a r i t a l status. R e d e n .000 3. the gove r n o r . M i c h e l s e n .M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n was o r d e r e d i n 1862. as p u b l i s h e d by U b i c i n i a n d Bore. i n fact. C a r r i e d o u t o v e r the p e r i o d f r o m 1866 to 1873 u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n of M i t h a t Paşa. Rumelia Bosnia Yanina and Salonica Islands. The census of the n o m a d i c tribes i n these t w o p r o v i n c e s was carried o u t by a r m y officers b e l o n g i n g to the u n i t s s t a t i o n e d i n the a r e a .505 175.2. H i s figures have been used. F. a n d t h e i r t o t a l incomes. this census was p r o b a b l y the m o s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e of all O t t o m a n censuses.689 25.000 80.000 ~^fm Muslims Chr^m _l2ttyer£ 1 . L . o t h e r s t u d i e s . d S d .M u s l i m subjects of the Porte.0 o n l y s l i g h t l y f r o m . t h e edict accelerated the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a capitalist e c o n o m y a m o n g t h e n o n . Table ° * n t f .000 1. H . a n d others w h o s e w o r k s s e r v e d as sources of i n f o r m a t i o n for a v a r i e t y of almanacs a n d o t h e r p o p u l a r p u b l i c a t i o n s .R o m a n i a ) .458 149. po p U A T I 0 m o n o p o l i z e the i n t e r n a l a n d external t r a d e .) 833 391 434 711 453 252 549 3623 10. is found in the Oriental Section of the National Library of Bulgaria i n Sofia.087.

this was the case w i t h the D a n u b e census of 1866 ( w h i c h gives extremely l o w f i g u r e s f o r i m m i g r a n t s ) .561. i m m i g r a t i o n .) T h e o r i g i n a l census. A s was p o i n t e d o u t i n C h a p ter 1 . w h i c h increased the p r e of s m a l l i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r p r i s e s a n d services m o s t l y the g r o w i n g u r b a n areas. scholars w h o accepted the data i n the saluâmes a n d o t h e r o f f i c i a l f i g u r e s as s o u n d a n d reliable. (2) T h e E u r o p e a n s . 1830-1914 14 porui-ATioN D I S T R I B U T I O N A N D T H E E V O L U T I O N O F O T T O M A N C E N S U S E S 27 Jews. a n d the rest Jewish and others. see chapters 4 a n d 5) to the cities. See my article. 3. 38. '' B e g i n n i n g in 1862. large n u m b e r s of nomadic t r i b e s m e n were settled t h r o u g h o u t A n a t o l i a . a n d during the p e r i o d f r o m 1774 t o 1783 t h e T u r k i c peoples h a d immigrated t o O t t o m a n l a n d s f r o m C r i m e a a n d s o u t h e r n Russia as these areas w e r e a n n e x e d b y Russia). T h e O t t o man g o v e r n m e n t recruited m a n y i m m i g r a n t Çerkeş for m i l i t a r y a n d p o l i c e d u t i e s — t h e zaptiye ( p o l i c e m e n ) i n t o w n s were o f t e n Ç e r k e ş — b u t t h i s w a s a c h i e v e d i n m a n y i n stances t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y of the leaders of t h e tribes rather t h a n t h r o u g h c o n s c r i p t i o n based o n the p o p u l a t i o n registers. ed. vol. A t t h a t conference the R u s s i a n delegates p r o d u c e d p o p u l a t i o n tables compiled by "expert statisticians. a n d . i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e y w e r e . By the late 1890s s o m e O t t o m a n officials a n d B r i t i s h agents began t o r e p o r t t h e p o p u l a t i o n of an area b y c i t i n g . s u p p o r t e r of the G r e e k s . a l t h o u g h i n m o s t cases p e r s o n s i n t h e latter t w o categories w e r e n e i t h e r c o n s c r i p t e d n o r t a x e d . c o n s i d e r e d e t h n i c or n a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of n o i m p o r t a n c e a n d d i d n o t r e c o r d i t . stated otherw i s e .r e l i g i o u s d i s t r i b u t i o n of the B a l k a n p o p u l a t i o n h a d already become the basis f o r p r o p o s e d " r e f o r m s . Syria.000.000 Circassians w e r e settled i n E u r o p e a n d 413. L e a v i n g aside a great n u m b e r of w o r k s o n the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n p u b l i s h e d f r o m 1860 to 1 8 7 8 . to a large extent. and tribesmen remained unregistered despite the p r o v i s i o n d e s i g n e d to r e s u l t i n the i n c l u s i o n of t h e itinerant p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e registers. t h e r e f o r e . Serbians a n d B u l g a r i a n s e m i g r a t e d to A u s t r o . 1877). but l o w e r for A s i a a n d A f r i c a . of w h i c h the m o s t notable representatives w e r e S a l a h e d d i n Bey a n d Reclus. First published by Ernst Behm and H . w e r e a w a r e of t h e effect'of i n t e r n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l m i g r a t i o n a n d strove to take this factor i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . at the I s t a n b u l c o n f e r e n c e of D e c e m b e r 1876 the e t h n i c . h o w e v e r . P r i m a r i l y the Greeks. n o w called the m i l i t a r y tax.H u n g a r y a n d t o the area n o r t h of D a n u b e . the E n g l i s h statistician. and "Bevölkerung der Türk e i . o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o c o l l e c t i v e l y as Ç e r k e ş (Circassians). T h e y r e g a r d e d the O t t o m a n official figures as b e i n g rather l o w . Paris. a L E v a l u a t i o n of O t t o m a n Censuses a n d Statistics o f 1831-1878 O n e can c o n t i n u e f o r m a n y pages c i t i n g a u t h o r s w h o s h o w e d great interest i n the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the p e r i o d f r o m 1865 to 1878. 1874).M u s l i m s i n t h e i r t a b u l a t i o n s . London. i n separate c o l u m n s . w h o . See La Turquie à 1'Exposiiion. 40. 36 g r a p h i c data h a d a r a t h e r b e n e f i c i a l effect o n O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n studies. a n d setfcnient.6). I n a d d i t i o n . C h r i s t i a n s . I t is t r u e that once t h e i m m i g r a n t s became e n g a g e d i n p r o d u c t i v e occupations t h e y w e r e subject to r e g i s t r a t i o n . came to the rescue. These r e p o r t s w e r e i n c o m p l e t e but nevertheless s h o w e d that some O t t o m a n officials. for w h i c h . Wagner.512. a l t h o u g h t e n d i n g to t h r o w l i g h t o n the e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n of s o m e areas i n the Balkans. were forced b y t h e Russians to leave t h e i r ancestral l a n d s . Steinhouser. J e w s .. a n d of i m m i g r a n t s . b u t t h e y f a i l e d to present a reliable yardstick for correcting t h e m . H e l l e v o n Sa mo's statistics f o r 1872 a n d 1874 are r e p r o d u c e d i n the statistical appendices (1. s u c h as those of U b i c i n i . because p e r s o n a l taxes w e r e assessed against C h r i s t i a n s . 37 3 8 m the m i n d s of s o m e i n s i d e r s of the i m p o r t a n t d e m o g ' "i^c factors of i n t e r n a l m i g r a t i o n . t h e i r i n quiries centered o n the e t h n i c d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e C h r i s t i a n p o p u l a t i o n a n d . The O t t o m a n o f f i c i a l statistics f a i l e d f o r m o s t p a r t t o reflect p r o m p t l y t h e presence of the i m m i g r a n t s a n d t h e n e w l y settled p o p u l a t i o n . 37. Rayenstein.26 O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N . 35. T h e y e s t i m a t e d the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n as r a n g i n g bet w e e n 8 a n d 10 m i l l i o n i n E u r o p e a n d b e t w e e n 9 a n d 15 m i l l i o n i n A s i a . to make a total of 16. M u s l i m a n d n o n M u s l i m . The o u t c o m e w a s to d e p e n d o n the e t h n i c a n d r e l i g i o u s allegiances of the p o p u l a t i o n .000 i n Asia M i n o r . and see Carl Sax. once t h e cen¬ ca. and Paul Dumont .325. w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n of t h e O t t o m a n state largely f o r p o l i t i c a l reasons. C o n s e q u e n t l y . which lay b e t w e e n the Black a n d the C a s p i a n seas. Much of Kutschera's work was published in the Österreichische Monatsschrift für den Orient of the years 1875 to 1878. w i s h i n g o n l y t o r e g ister its m a l e p o p u l a t i o n for p u r p o s e s of tax assessment a n d m i l i t a r y c o n s c r i p t i o n . T h i s p o l i t i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n of d e m o g r a p h i c a n d e t h n o - B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n censuses taken i n the last q u a r t e r o f the c e n t u r y . H i s w o r k stands as s o m e of the best of its k i n d ." including Heinrich K i e p e r t . H e l l e v o n Samo. u s i n g the m a i n l i t e r a t u r e available at the t i m e . gave the total p o p u l a t i o n of E u r o p e a n T u r k e y as 9. he c l a i m e d that 595. 1877) and Dus Vdajet der Inselen das Weissen Meeres. are too n u m e r o u s a n d too i n c o m p l e t e to be of use for this s t u d y . a n d o t h e r s . i n s o m e cases. T h e p o p u l a t i o n statistics of 1844 s h o u l d be read i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h these figures. Synvet. M o r e o v e r . 36. If o n e c o n s i d e r s t h e fact t h a t these f i g u r e s w e r e p u t f o r t h i n 1867—that is. w h o c o m p i l e d a series of statistics based o n the O t t o m a n p r o v i n c i a l yearbooks for 1871-1876. special mention should be made of A. T h e n u m b e r of i m m i g r a n t s a n d e m i g r a n t s w a s not p r o p e r l y reflected i n the records. chiefly those I h a v e called m a x i m a l i s t .008. b u t t h e C h r i s tians objected a n d w e r e e x e m p t e d . w e r e fast a p p r o a c h i n g a s h o w d o w n i n the Balkans. i n c l u d e d the l e a d i n g experts o n the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n . c h i e f l y . w h i c h g i v e the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the O t t o m a n e m p i r e as 40. " Österreichische Monatsschrift für den Orient. Ritter z u r H e l l e v o n Samo. a n d c o n t i n u i n g t h r o u g h t h e first decade of the twentieth c e n t u r y . i n c l u d i n g recent a r r i v a l s f r o m C r i m e a . (The f e w E u r o p e a n statisticians w h o m e n t i o n e d the Circassians p l a c e d t h e i r m a x i m u m n u m b e r at 200. h a d c o m p i l e d his statistics strictly i n accordance w i t h Russian w i s h e s . Bosnia) w e r e subjected t o census o n l y after the scope of c o n s c r i p t i o n w a s e x t e n d e d t o cover t h e m . o n the E u r o p e a n p r o v i n c e s — t h a t is.e t h n i c d i s t r i b u t i o n .000. S o m e M u s l i m areas (Syria.) 4 0 T h e m a x i m a l i s t s c h o o l . w e l l before the Caucasian i m m i g r a t i o n e n d e d — t h e n t h e e n o r m o u s i m p a c t of t h i s d e m o g r a p h i c factor becomes clearly e v i d e n t . the n u m b e r s of the established r e s i d e n t s . f o r e x a m p l e . i t is essential to elucidate the inconsistencies i n v a r i o u s p o p u l a t i o n figures issued i n the p e r i o d f r o m 1844 to 1878. w h i l e t h e d u t y of m i l i t a r y service w a s d e m a n d e d of M u s l i m s . T h e y o f t e n i n f l a t e d the n u m b e r of the n o n . immigrants. T h e p o p u l a t i o n of r e g i o n s s u c h as A r a b i a t h a t d i d n o t s u p p l y troops was n e v e r subject t o a f u l l census c o u n t . à o C c h e C 3 estimate of the n u m b e r of Circassian n e w c o m e r s i n the O t t o m a n state. These are reproduced by Mikhov in great detail and need not be repeated here.4S3. und das selbständige Mutessarflik Cypren (Kybris) (Vienna 1878). 3 3 M o r e c o m p l e t e a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e t h a n the t a b u l a t i o n of S a l a h e d d i n Bey w a s the w o r k of A . See Die Volker des osmanischen Reiches (Vienna. A considerable n u m b e r of t h e seasonal w o r k e r s . b u t t h i s d i d not take place f o r a considerable p e r i o d of t i m e .111. t h e areas w i t h t h e h e a v i e s t C h r i s t i a n c o n c e n t r a t i o n w h e r e r i s i n g e t h n i c n a t i o n a l i s m w a s expected to c u l m i n a t e in political independence. the E u r o p e a n p o w e r s that s t o o d r e a d y to e x p l o i t w h a t Russia h a d secured b y the s w o r d . p r i v i l e g e t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o p a y the çiziye. a n d came t o settle a n d s w e l l the p o p u l a t i o n of O t t o m a n l a n d s i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a n d I r a q a n d b e g a n to f a r m the l a n d w h i l e still m a i n taining. The reports of these officers. Ethnographische Karte der europäischen Türkei und ihrer Dependenzen zur Ziel des Kriegsausbruches im Jahre 1877 (Vienna. U b i c i n i a n d Y a k s h i t y stated t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 43 percent of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e Balkans w a s M u s l i m . n o m a d s . Die Bevölkerung der Erde (Gotha. das Priviligirte Beylik Santos(Syssain). The Europeans generally s h o w e d n o interest i n the n u m b e r a n d t h e u l t i m a t e fate of the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n i n the Balkans. H o w e v e r . b u t it w a s n o t the usual practice t h r o u g h o u t the r e a l m . no. factors o v e r l o o k e d b y the official registers. E. S a l a h e d d i n Bey w a s the first to g i v e a r a t h e r accurate 39. "Population Movements i n the Ottoman State in the Nineteenth Centurv: A n O u t l i n e " in Contributions à l'Histoire Économique et Sociale de l'Empire Ottoman. w h o s e n u m b e r w a s a r o u n d 100. w h i c h I call minimalist a n d maximalist. However.856 the' e x p a n d i n g capitalist r e l a t i o n s . t h u s s u p p o r t i n g a n d l e g i t i m i z i n g the Russian e f f o r t to establish a large B u l g a r i a n state b o r d e r i n g o n the Aegean Sea. "The Populations of Russia and T u r k e y . T h e i r f i g u r e s ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of those of Reclus) are h i g h e r f o r E u r o p e t h a n those of the m i n i m a l i s t s . 1872). G . at o d d s w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d p o p u l a t i o n . 54 percent C h r i s t i a n . ( A d e c i s i o n h a d b e e n m a d e t o i n c l u d e t h é C h r i s t i a n s i n the a r m y after general c o n s c r i p t i o n w a s i n t r o d u c e d i n 1855. o n e can d i v i d e the tabulations a n d the o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d b y t h e c o m p i l e r s i n t o t w o g r o u p s .868 for the e n t i r e ' r e a l m . Y a k s h i t y . c l a i m i n g t h a t M u s l i m s a c c o u n t e d for o n l y 20 to 30 percent of the t o t a l . a n d . Serious s t u d e n t s . A f t e r '. u n s t a b l e .000 (exc l u d i n g the a r m y ) a n d t h a t of Asia ( i n c l u d i n g the A r a b i c s p e a k i n g areas) as 6. l a r g e l y because these p e o p l e d i d not at once b e g i n t o p a y taxes or p r o v i d e m e n f o r t h e a r m y but a p p e a r e d to be t r a n s i t i o n a l . n o t o n l y f o r its critical h a n d l i n g of the data i n the saluâmes a n d o t h e r sources b u t also f o r its b r o a d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the O t t o m a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d p e o p l e s . 1983). H e m e n t i o n e d a total of 1. it t u r n e d o u t . delegating several of her officers t r a i n e d i n c a r t o g r a p h y to conduct field i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a m o n g the p o p u l a t i o n of the Balkans.u n a w a r e o f the m a g n i t u d e of t h i s migration. g y p s i e s . o n the o t h e r h a n d . a t t r a c t e d large n u m b e r s of bcIflis (single males. D u r i n g those years the O t t o m a n state a n d Russia a n d . chapter 3. The m i n i m a l ist g r o u p i n c l u d e s p r a c t i c a l l y all of the O t t o m a n i m p e r i a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l y e a r b o o k s a n d t h e t a b u l a t i o n s based on t h e m . which are numerous. i n s o m e i n stances. Collection Turci- The status of p o p u l a t i o n censuses a n d estimates before the B e r l i n C o n g r e s s i n 1878 can be s u m m a r i z e d as f o l l o w s : (1) The O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t itself. came close to an a g r e e m e n t a b o u t the t o t a l O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n b u t they d i f f e r e d o n the details of its d e m o g r a p h i c . T h e differences b e t w e e n the m i n i m a l i s t s a n d m a x i m a l i s t s m a y i n fact i n d i c a t e k n o w l - 34. Synvet's much-cited Traité de géographie générale de l'Empire ottoman (Istanbul.Y a k s h i t y c l a i m e d that he had w o r k e d w i t h i n f o r m a tion and documents obtained directly f r o m O t t o m a n adm i n i s t r a t o r s i n E u r o p e . m o r e t h a n 3 m i l l i o n p e o p l e o f Caucasian stock. 7 (1877). K u t s c h e r a ( w h o was A u s t r i a n c o n s u l i n R u s ç u k ) . except for a f e w persons such as Reclus a n d R a v e n s t e i n w h o p u r s u e d special p r o f e s s i o n a l ends. External m i g r a t i o n s m e a n w h i l e became a m a j o r factor (as it h a d been i n earlier t i m e s : i n the s e v e n t e e n t h a n d e i g h t e e n t h enturies. it m u s t be e m p h a s i z e d . h a d separate categories f o r M u s l i m s . b u t also Albanians a n d o t h e r M u s l i m s w h o felt t h r e a t e n e d bv the prospect of i n c l u s i o n i n a G r e a t e r Bulgaria-. E n g l a n d . (3) T h e O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n w a s c o n s i s t e n t l y u n d e r c o u n t e d . r e l i g i o u s d i s t r i b u t i o n w a s i m p o r t a n t . " i n c l u d i n g a u t o n o m y for the v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s . Some lists of statistics occasionally h a d a c o l u m n f o r i m m i g r a n t s (muhacir). for e x a m p l e . These E u r o p e a n m i n i m a l i s t s . " journal of the Royal Statistical Soclet}/ 40 (1877): 449. at the B e r l i n C o n g r e s s i n 1878 Engl a n d used these r e p o r t s o n t h e p o p u l a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n of the Balkans i n her a r g u m e n t i n f a v o r of l i m i t i n g Bulgaria's t e r r i t o r y a n d w a s s u c c e s s f u l i n g e t t i n g M a c e d o n i a and Thrace ( g i v e n to B u l g a r i a u n d e r the San Stefano treaty s i g n e d j u s t three m o n t h s earlier) d e t a c h e d f r o m the new state. the A u s t r i a n m i l i t a r y attaché i n I s t a n b u l . as w e l l . These Russians p o n s o r e d statistics p u r p o r t e d to s h o w t h a t m o s t of the eastern a n d central p a r t of the B a l k a n p e n i n s u l a was i n h a b i t e d by B u l g a r i a n s . t h e i r p a s t o r a l h a b i t s . see also later editions of this work. jean-Louis Bacque-Gramont (Istanbul. e n g a g e d in a frantic r e b u t t a l of the Russian a n d B u l g a r i a n figures t h r o u g h the p u b l i c a t i o n of their o w n p o p u l a t i o n statistics.000.000.

T h e basic register (esas defter) w a s to list all males l i v i n g i n villages a n d t o w n quarters (the V i l a y e t L a w of 1871 d e f i n e d a t o w n q u a r t e r as a cluster of at least f i f t y h o u s e s ) . M o n t e n e g r o a n d Greece t o o k sections of 41. while discussing the population figures for the Balkans. to abate the Turkish nuisance . these registers c o n t a i n entries c o n c e r n i n g b i r t h s a n d deaths. a n d i n 1881/82 it e n g i n e e r e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a General P o p u l a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Niifus-u Umumi ldaresi) attached to t h e M i n i s t r y of I n t e r i o r ( w h e r e it r e m a i n e d u n t i l the e n d of the e m p i r e ) . "The Muslim Population of Anatolia. h a d already bec o m e f u l l y i n d e p e n d e n t ) . u p o n the n u m b e r of w o m e n . l e a v i n g t h e O t t o m a n state a n o v e r w h e l m i n g l y M u s l i m c o u n t r y w h o s e m a i n t e r r i t o r y l a y i n Asia M i n o r and the M i d d l e East.5 m i l l i o n p e o p l e w i t h these c e d e d t e r r i t o r i e s . a n d the census c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s w e r e i n s t r u c t e d to see " w i t h t h e i r o w n e y e s " even n e w b o r n babies. O f f i c i a l s i n each kaza w e r e o b l i g e d to send copies of t h e registers of M u s l i m males t o the r e g i o n a l a r m y offices a n d to serve as the r e p o s i t o r y of all v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n registers. he i n d u l g e d i n subjective c r i t i c i s m . 47. article 2. Each f a m i l y h a d to be registered as a u n i t . u p d a t i n g . t h a t the best s o l u t i o n was to c o n d u c t a n e w census a n d to establish n e w registers to cover the e n t i r e c o u n t r y .. not conducive to health. he believed that this census would ı meet a need for better and more complete statistics. their life will naturally be shortened. T h u s the majority of the C h r i s t i a n p o p u l a t i o n w a s r e m o v e d f r o m O t t o m a n c o n t r o l . as ment i o n e d . 438 of 21 Cemaziyulevvel 1298 (21 April 1881) in BA (I)/(SD)-3148 and in a letter of 7 Safer 1268 (2 December 1851) in BA (1)/(D)/14855. and the immoral practices carried on there. . T i r n o v a . 49. a n d o t h e r d e m o g r a p h i c data. for a s h o r t p e r i o d . T h e r e s u l t i n g roster of the v i l l a g e census w a s to be v e r i f i e d b y the elders' c o u n c i l a n d a copy of it g i v e n to the p o p u l a t i o n office at t h e kaza center. 695 of 29 Zilhice 1290 (17 February 1874). a n d his a s s i s t a n t . the M i n i s t r y of P r o p e r t y Records (Defter-i Hakani). i t w a s i n s t r u c t e d to act w i t h tolerance a n d respect t o w a r d villagers a n d to refuse a n y g i f t o f f e r e d b y i n d i v i d u a l s . "Tahrir-i Nüfus için İttihaz Olunacak Uç Türlü Defterin Suret-i İstimalini Mübevvin Tarifnamedir" [Information concerning the use of the three registers to be created for conducting the population census]. ) T h e s h o r t c o m i n g s of the O t t o m a n censuses results m a y easily be r e m e d i e d t h r o u g h a critical s t u d y of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n registers f o u n d i n v a r i o u s p r o v i n cial centers. arts. to s t u d y each c l a i m to e x e m p t i o n f r o m m i l i t a r y service. 42. T h e census i n s t r u c t i o n s c o n t a i n e d a series of p r o v i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the r e g i s t r a t i o n of those absent f r o m the l o c a l i t y . By 1839 the census r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w e r e d e c e n t r a l i z e d . 4 4 8 T h e census c o m m i t t e e w a s e m p o w e r e d to use force to b r i n g before t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n officials t h o s e w h o refused to appear. a n d Prevesa. T i r h a l a . h a d to appear before this c o m m i t t e e a n d the v i l l a g e c o u n c i l of elders (ihtiyar meclisi) to r e g i s t e r t h e i r ages. the p r o m u l g a t i o n of the V i l a y e t L a w of 1864 a n d i t s ' a m e n d ment i n 1870/71 h a d l e d to t h e a b o l i t i o n of t h e p o s i t i o n s assigned to p o p u l a t i o n officials a n d t o t h e d i v e r s i o n of t h e f u n d s f o r m e r l y a l l o c a t e d f o r t h e i r salaries t o o t h e r p u r poses.e. to m y k n o w l e d g e . The second register. i s s u i n g r e p o r t s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s t h r o u g h its T a n z i m a f b u r e a u or its g e n e r a l c o u n c i l . Shaw. Justin McCarthy. respectively. c o n s i s t i n g of W a l l a c h i a a n d M o l d a v i a . a n d the t h i r d dealt w i t h t h e a p p o i n t m e n t of p o p u l a t i o n o f f i c i a l s . Boys under the age of three. pp. as has b e e n p o i n t e d o u t . i n c l u d e d c o l u m n s f o r r e g i s t e r i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s age a n d changes i n h i s military' a n d p e r s o n a l status. T h e peace treaty itself d e p r i v e d the state of its m a j o r possessions i n E u r o p e . T h i s p r o d u c e d f u r t h e r d i s o r d e r i n the d e t e r i o r a t i n g situation of the p o p u l a t i o n registers a n d u n d e r m i n e d t h e collection of taxes a n d c o n s c r i p t i o n . f r o m w h i c h one m a y e x t r a p o l a t e f e r t i l i t y rates. the data in the hands of the government and Christian clergymen being so unsatisfactory that both sides wanted a new census. 446). A f t e r 1870. T h e o l d vilayet of T u n a w a s p a r t i t i o n e d b e t w e e n Serbia ( w h i c h t o o k Niş) a n d the p r i n c i p a l i t y of B u l g a r i a ( w h i c h w a s created o u t of the f i v e sancaks of R u s ç u k . (This m a y have m e r e l v been a reflection of the census takers' i n a b i l i t y to register all the w o m e n p r o p e r l y or it m a y have revealed a real i m p a c t of factors such as w o r k c o n d i t i o n s . census t a k i n g a n d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an accurate. See BA (I)-'(MM)'2086. i n t h e second colu m n . ' O l d p o p u l a t i o n registers w e r e to be used w h e n possible. f a m i l y sizes. 1830—19h POPULATION D I S T R I B U T I O N A N D T H E E V O L U T I O N OF O T T O M A N CENSUSES 29 Işkodra (Scutari i n A l b a n i a ) . diss.. t h e B e r l i n C o n g r e s s h a d expressly charged the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t w i t h the c a r r y i n g o u t of r e f o r m s i n the eastern p r o v i n c e s i n h a b i t e d b y A r m e n i a n s ." p. f i r s t to the O f f i c e of P r o p e r t y S u r v e y s (Tahrir-i Emlak idaresi) a n d t h e n . Population 1831-1919. 48. Obviously the author was influenced by the western vision of a "decadent Orient" mired in sex and general debauchery and thus ripe for cleansing reform—i. University of California at Los Angeles. a n d special p h y s i c a l disabilities " w h i c h w i l l n o t fade w i t h a g e " .. to t h e M i l i t a r y A f f a i r s O f f i c e . T h e first r e g u l a t i o n c o n c e r n e d the census m e t h o d s . e s t a b l i s h e d t h e O f f i c e of P o p u l a t i o n Registers (Ceride-i Nüfus Nezareti) as p a r t of the M i n i s t r y of I n t e r i o r . he wrote. 46. as in an Oriental harem. 45 T h e P o p u l a t i o n R e g i s t e r S y s t e m . This register. These officials w e r e o r i g i n a l l y a t t a c h e d to the O f f i c e of Population Registers i n the c a p i t a l . For example. n i c k n a m e s (künye).H u n g a r y . except f o r H e j a z a n d Y e m e n . Council report no. the latter t w o g r o u p s b e i n g listed i n special registers. to be k e p t b y the o f f i c i a l i n t h e kaza center. 4 6 The census w a s to be taken by a c o m m i t t e e established i n each kaymakamlik (kaza. I n 1874 the C o u n c i l i n t r o d u c e d a series of measures for t a k i n g a census a n d e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e g i s t r a t i o n system. "Tahir-i Nüfusun Suret-i Icraiyyesini Mutazammin Talimattir" [Instructions concerning the conduct of the population census]. h o w e v e r . Ibid. 1878 to 1927" (Ph. a n d the C o u n c i l agreed. a n d to see to it t h a t n o b o d y r e m a i n e d " h i d d e n " a n d u n r e g i s t e r e d . he sought to explain the discrepancy between the number of males and females by saying. . the sick. n u m b e r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s consecutively i n t h e first c o l u m n a n d . T h e O t t o m a n officials c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the successful i m p r o v e m e n t of m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n the country r e q u i r e d a t h o r o u g h k n o w l e d g e of i t s h u m a n a n d natural resources. or d i s t r i c t ) .28 sus began to register w o m e n as w e l l as m e n . " The Geographical Magazine 3 [1876|: 259). all the reports concerning the census of 1874 are in one folio. Some information on the history of Population Administration is found in Council report no. Ravenstein showed his strong anti-Turkish bias elsewhere also. Vari o u s o f f i c i a l s — i n s p e c t o r s o f p o p u l a t i o n (nüfus nazırı). T h e y o p t e d eventually for the t o t a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n registers and the m e t h o d s of census t a k i n g a n d i n i t i a t e d the first compreh e n s i v e O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n census of 1881/82-1893. 44. a n d Sofia) a n d R o m a n i a ( w h i c h received Tulça [Tulçu]. a n d c o r r e c t i o n of the e x i s t i n g p o p u l a t i o n registers w o u l d take a v e r y l o n g t i m e . V i d i n . e.b o r n n o n . b u t i n s t e a d of p r o p o s i n g measures for c o r r e c t i n g O t t o m a n figures. Ibid. 50.M u s l i m s w h o h e l d passports f r o m E u r o p e a n p o w e r s a n d s e r v e d as n a t i v e p r o t é g é s a i d ing f o r e i g n interests (mahmi) a g g r a v a t e d f u r t h e r t h e w o e s of the r e g i s t r a t i o n s y s t e m . r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g d i r e c t e d tow a r d s m a i n l y c o s m e t i c c h a n g e s i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i t i c a l spheres. 41 4 2 O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N .. b u t the census w a s to be c o n d u c t e d m a i n l y b y g o i n g to each village a n d t o w n q u a r t e r (mahalle) i n the area. w h i c h w o u l d c o n v e y the lists to the u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y at the center. etc." International journal of Middle East Studies 91 (1978): 325-36. o w i n g to a v a r i e t y of internal causes. A f t e r the C o u n c i l of State (Suray-i Dcvlet) w a s established i n 1867. must lead to the same result" ("The Populations of Russia. Bosnia a n d H e r z e g o v i n a (except for the N o v i b a z a r sancak) w e r e o c c u p i e d b y A u s t r o . t h e s u m m a r y (icmal). as attested b y t h e i r f r e q u e n t o r d e r s to t h e offices concerned. See.. the c o m m i t t e e reco m m e n d e d . Ibid. it a s s u m e d j u r i s d i c t i o n of all p o p u l a t i o n m a t t e r s . D u r i n g this p e r i o d i n t e r e s t i n t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f the registers Ian-' 44 43. color o f eyes a n d c o m p l e x i o n . In 1874 the C o u n c i l issued an o r d e r a n d three r e g u l a t i o n s for the c a r r y i n g o u t of a n e w census a n d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a n e w r e g i s t r a t i o n s y s t e m . See BA (])-(MM)'2089. 4 9 A census s y s t e m based o n t h e use of t h r e e t y p e s of p o p u l a t i o n registers w a s e n v i s a g e d . so t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d be c o n c e n t r a t e d in the m o s t d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d areas. It has brought about a state of things which will force Christendom. " ("Distribution of the Population in the Part of Europe Overrun by T u r k s . the kaza o f f i c i a l i n t u r n w o u l d send a c u m u l a t i v e list of the n u m b e r of males i n his district to the s u p e r i o r a d m i n i s t r a tive u n i t . one n o n M u s l i m c h o s e n f r o m a m o n g c o m m u n i t y leaders. 4 3 guished. given originally to some of the land and population registers. p o p u l a t i o n o f f i c i a l s (nüfus memuru). "The intervention of little Serbia [in the war i n 1878] was as wise as it was chivalrous. this office w a s s o o n a b o l i s h e d a n d the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n offices w e r e r e a s s i g n e d . 1978). f a m i l y size. M o r e o v e r . f u r t h e r m o r e . as h a d b e e n t h e c u s t o m since the Tanzim a t edict of 1839. A s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t of the vilayet of E d i r n e ( A d r i a n o p l e ) became an a u t o n o m o u s p r o v i n c e u n d e r t h e n a m e E a s t e r n R u m e l i a . 8-10. V a r n a . it c o m m e n t e d t h a t t h e i n f l u x of bona f i d e f o r e i g n e r s (ecnebi) a n d the r a p i d increase i n t h e n u m b e r of O t t o m a n . Henry D. l i s t i n g the families a n d t h e i r respective m e m b e r s . T h e C o u n c i l of State a p p o i n t e d a special c o m m i t t e e to s t u d y the p o s s i b i l i t y of taking a n e w census a n d e s t a b l i s h i n g a n e w register system. a n d o f " p r o t e c t e d " p e o p l e . for very shame. . the second p r o v i d e d for the establishment of a system based o n three t y p e s of registers. 1 Rebiyülevvel 1291 (18 April 1874)." The name ceride-i nüfus (population register) was later changed to nüfus sicili and nüfus kütüğü to indicate its role as the source of all population information. and generally speaking amongst most Orientals.. listed t h e total n u m b e r of people f o u n d i n the villages a n d t o w n s of the kaza. age of m a r r i a g e . a n d Russia o c c u p i e d i m p o r t a n t sections of the Caucasus. a secretary-. " W h e n females lead a life of seclusion and ease. a British consular official in eastern Ana-1 tolia. r e v i v i n g o n l y w i t h the r e n e w e d concern for p o p u l a t i o n censuses i n t h e late 1860s. b u t .. 235-36. Barnham. A l l male i n h a b i t a n t s . reported in 1880 that a census was planned for the Armenian-' inhabited Diyarbekir Province. T h e c o m m i t t e e w a s to consist of o n e g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l (a M u s l i m ) . a n d i n 1885 i t w a s a n n e x e d b y the p r i n c i p a l i t y of B u l g a r i a . of foreigners.g. T h r o u g h o u t the vears w h e n o f f i c i a l interest w a s l a c k i n g t h e y h a d suffered f r o m neglect. p e r m a n e n t r e g i s t r a t i o n s y s t e m became a m a t t e r of p r i o r i t y f o r b o t h the s u l t a n a n d t h e office o f t h e p r i m e minister. "The Ottoman Census System and. I n the later 1880s a statistical office attached to the M i n i s t r y of T r a d e a n d C o n s t r u c t i o n (later reorganized as the M i n i s t r y of T r a d e a n d A g r i c u l t u r e ) w a s established. the O t t o m a n statistics c o n s i s t e n t l y s h o w e d m e n to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e n u m e r o u s t h a n w o m e n . came later to mean "newspaper. The r e f o r m s m a d e after 1878 b y A b d u l h a m i d I I w e r e concentrated o n the p r a c t i c a l . T h e great m o v e m e n t s of p e o p l e i n t o and w i t h i n the r e a l m h a d gone u n r e c o r d e d . It was estimated t h a t the O t t o m a n state lost a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4. The c o m m i t t e e r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n . 1831-1878: Effects of the B e r l i n T r e a t y T h e B e r l i n C o n g r e s s of 1878 w a s a w a t e r s h e d i n the hist o r y of the O t t o m a n state. T u n i s i a (1881) a n d E g y p t (1882) s p u r r e d the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t to i n s t i t u t e r e f o r m s i n its e f f o r t to s u r v i v e . Ravenstein was the o n l y E u r o p e a n w h o . The actions of the F r e n c h a n d the B r i t i s h i n o c c u p y i n g . See Stanford J. and others who had valid excuses could be registered by proxy. a n d registrars (mukayyid)—were a p p o i n t e d to t h e p r o v i n c e s a n d smaller a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s a n d c h a r g e d w i t h r e c o r d i n g births a n d deaths a n d p e r i o d i c a l l y c o m p i l i n g lists (cedvels) indicati n g the t o t a l n u m b e r of p e o p l e i n each d i s t r i c t . Romania. a n d it 30 45. i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n . occupation by "civilized" Europeans. i t i s s u e d p o p u l a t i o n statistics o n t h e basis of information supplied by the Population A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . See HCAP 100/44 (1881). m e n t i o n e d these d e m o g r a p h i c aspects o f the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n studies carried o u t d u r i n g his t i m e .D. These officials r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the o l d p e r m a nent p o p u l a t i o n registers h a d b e c o m e useless. The name ceride. I n t h e 1830s t h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t h a d . C o n s e q u e n t l y .

u r g e n t . h a v e t h e m s u i t a b l y t r a n s l a t e d . " ' The regulation was debated a n d a p p r o v e d b y the general c o m m i t t e e of t h e C o u n c i l a n d p r o m u l g a t e d b y the s u l t a n i n 1 8 8 1 . T h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e officials of the census a n d register system p l a n n e d i n 1874 i n c l u d e d a p o p u l a t i o n m i n i s t e r inspector (nüfus naziri) at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . a r e g i s t e r i n g official (mukayyid) at the kaza l e v e l . 57 See BA (I)/(SD)/3148.3 f o l l o w i n g t h i s chapter. published bv the General Directorate of Statistics are available in their entirety for the period 1878-1900 and .4 f o l l o w i n g t h i s chapter. The statistical s y s t e m w a s f o r m e d i n 1879 o n the r e c o m mendation of K ü ç ü k Sait Paşa f o r t h e p u r p o s e of p r o v i d i n g central a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h s o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r decision m a k i n g . "Sıcill-ı Nüfus Nizamnamesi of 8 Şaban 1298 (5 July 1881). These officials registered all the births.H e r z e g o v i n a i n 1875. 5 3 5 4 L Indeed. O n e c o l u m n i n the s u m m a r y register p r o v i d e d for the l i s t i n g of C h r i s t i a n s accordi n g to their millet (religious a n d e t h n i c a f f i l i a t i o n ) a n d f o r the separate r e c o r d i n g of M u s l i m s . 3 3 Cox w h o as the c h a i r m a n of t h e census c o m m i t t e e w a s he i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p a s s i n g the census l e g i s l a t i o n i n the U n i t e d States C o n g r e s s . t h e d i s a s t r o u s w a r w i t h Russia of 187/-1878 a n d the r e s u l t i n g loss of t e r r i t o r y s u b s t a n t i a l l y upset O t t o m a n i n t e r n a l o r d e r .M u s l i m s A s m e n t i o n e d . a n d essential f o r us to a c c o m p l i s h this i m p o r t a n t task [census a n d r e g i s t r a t i o n ] m a perfect fashion. e v e n t u a l l y . B u l g a r i a n s A r m e n i a n s . H e w a s a n x i o u s as to its costs. Surevva of 21 Cemazivulevvel 1303 (25 February 1886). a n d that he h a d issued a n o r d e r to carry o u t his i n t e n t i o n . b e g m to p u b l i s h s o m e statistical i n f o r m a t i o n a n d e v e n t u a l l y establishing a separate statistics office. H e w a s t o l d t h a t an actual census (the o n e u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n here) was b e i n g c o n d u c t e d . the C o u n c i l b o l d l y a f f i r m e d t h a t it w a s necessary t o l o o k at t h e practices of other c o u n t r i e s i n E u r o p e a n d A m e r i c a a n d to take t h e m as m o d e l s . 1874) ' b i d A n e w census was clearly necessary. a n d c h a n g e s i n a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s m i l i t a r y s t a t u s . secretaries and registrars to be appointed in the localities of the realm where census has been decreed].M u s l i m s was h i g h e r t h a n i n d i c a t e d i n the tax rolls. 6 0 I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e basis for the n e w s y s t e m it d e e m e d desirable. although the k n o w l e d g e gained i n devising it was v e r y u s e f u l i n p l a n n i n g t h e n e w one. A s u s u a l . a n d the m o d u s o p e r a n d i of special experts. A t h i r d register.n less complete form for 1900-1913. I n a r e p o r t o n the census the C o u n c i l stated: It is a d u t y to m e n t i o n before e v e r y t h i n g else t h a t t h e interest of a g o v e r n m e n t i n the c o m p i l a t i o n of systematic p o p u l a t i o n statistics does n o t s t e m solely f r o m m i l i t a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . H o w e v e r . a n d b l a n k s for r e t u r n s . c o m p r e h e n d s t h e i r [the census data's] u t i l i t y . a r n i n e l r a t n e The keen i n t e r e s t of the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t i n the a d o p t i o n of m o d e r n statistical m e t h o d s a n d its w i l l i n g n e s s to l o o k to o t h e r c o u n t r i e s f o r g u i d a n c e w a s s h o w n also d u r i n g a r e c e p t i o n g i v e n for the A m e r i c a n ambassador i n 1886 A m b a s s a d o r Samuel S u l l i v a n Cox ( w h o replaced i n that p o s t G e n e r a l L e w i s Wallace. the s u l t a n issued an o r d e r for a n e w census. deaths. especially f o r the assessing of the tax instead o f m i l i t a r y service (bedelat-i askeriyye) o n n o n . Statistics o n f o r e i g n d e w e r e c o m p i l e d r e g u l a r l y b e g i n n i n g m 1878 (R. l o w h i c h I r e s p o n d e d t h a t . c o n f i r m s t h i s s t o r y . the C o u n c i l p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a " c e n s u s s h o w s the size o f the p o p u l a t i o n at a g i v e n m o m e n t . i n c l u d i n g census t a k i n g . A c o p y of the registers k e p t i n areas i n h a b i t e d b y M u s l i m s w a s to be sent to the p r o p e r m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s . . a n d i n r e p l y to h i s c u r i o s i t y as to the m i r a c u l o u s g r o w t h of o u r o w n l a n d i n p o p u l a t i o n a n d resources. " " I n o t h e r w o r d s . and responsibilities of the population inspectors. The S u l t a n w i t h i n t e l l i g e n t g r a s p . p r o p e r t y safeguards.that as the c o u n t r y d i d n o t possess registers i n d i c a t i n g the exact n u m b e r of soldiers available for'aetive a n d reserve d u t i e s he c o u l d n o t carry o u t a p l a n n e d reorg a n i z a t i o n of the a r m y . hence the q u a l i t y of the statistics. deaths. the i n s t r u c t i o n s to s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s . e n u m e r a t o r s . the i n f l u x of large n u m b e r s of M u s l i m refugees f r o m t h e Balkans i n 1877/78 a n d . T h e s u l t a n t o l d the ambassador t h a t he was g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n s u c h w o r k s a n d p o i n t e d o u t t h a t it w a s h i s h i g h h o p e to have c o m p i l e d a c o m p l e t e a n d systematic statistical r e c o r d of the entire p o p u l a t i o n i n his r e a l m . K i a m i l Pasha to o r g a n i z e a c o m m i s s i o n to b e g i n t h e w o r k . see BA (1)'(D)77419. T h e l a w . d a i l v events (yevmiye vukuat).. b u t the census a n d r e g i s t r a t i o n s y s t e m d e v i s e d i n 1874 c o u l d n o t be c a r r i e d o u t . a n d the s u l t a n t h e n asked h i m f o r a statistical r e v i e w a v a i l able i n the A m e r i c a n embassy. 26 May 53. I n his m e m o i r s writes: I n s o m e m e e t i n g s w h i c h I h a d w i t h the S u l t a n . E v e n t u a l l y .m i n d e d o f f i c e . t h e s u l t a n w a s p r e s e n t e d later w i t h copies of the U n i t e d States census data a n d c o n c l u d e d that w i t h such data available f o r use i n f o r m u l a t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s . thereafter. 3 9 J w u „ T Mahnısa-i Şahanede Tahrir-i Nüfus icra Kılınan Mahallerde istihdam Olunacak Nüfus Nazirlari ve Katipleri de Mukayyit erin Suret-. a n d I h a v e c o m p i l e d t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a list given as A p p e n d i x B. 1939). Council report no. d u r i n g t h e 1870s the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t be¬ e i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r e s t e d i n m o d e r n statistics. deaths. a n d m u n i c i p a l o r d e r a n d s e c u r i t y . b u t as the n u m b e r of n o n . . "Şuray-i Devlet U m u m i Heyeti Mazbatası" ot 8 Şaban P98 (5 July 1881). 438 of 21 Cemazivulevvel 1246 (¿1 April 1881). The revolts i n B o s n i a . if t h e President d i d n o t object. letter from the sultan's private secretary. w h e n the c o m m i s s i o n was f o r m e d . only two voted against the proposal. a n d o t h e r changes as r e p o r t e d to t h e m b y the local leaders o n special i n f o r m a t i o n certificates (ilmuhabers) s u p p l i e d by the g o v e r n m e n t . BA (I)/(D)/65276. 56 These statistics. to the O f f i c e of I m p e r i a l Registers (Defter-i Hakanı Nezareti— the n e w n a m e g i v e n i n 1871 to the o l d Defterhane) i n the c a p i t a l . 5 2 I n a d d i t i o n t o e x p r e s s i n g s t r o n g l y t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y of o b t a i n i n g accurate p o p u l a t i o n statistics. H e asked m e if I w o u l d aid it b y m y a d v i c e . see Osmanlı İmparatorluğunun Ticaret Muvazenesi. 1887). consistent w i t h m y d u t i e s to m y c o u n t r y a n d h e a l t h . v . r e p r o d u c t i o n s a n d t r a n s l a t i o n s of t h e s e m o d e l r e g i s t e r s are p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x B. T h e statistics office w o r k e d m collaboration w i t h the G e n e r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P o p u l a t i o n a n d came to be h e a d e d l a r g e l y b y h i g h . 3 1 T h e Census a n d R e g i s t r a t i o n S y s t e m of 1881. . T h o s e f a i l i n g to r e p o r t b i r t h s . E v e r y six m o n t h s . T h e E u r o p e a n States attach great a n d c o n t i n u o u s care to the c o l l e c t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n o n the [ e n t i r e ] p o p u l a t i o n I t is i m p e r a t i v e . Jews. 1 w o u l d d o so. 55. He c o m p l a i n e d t h r o u g h his secretary. the C o u n c i l no l o n g e r r e g a r d e d the census as a s u f f i c i e n t goal i n itself. A m o d e l for each of the newregisters w a s d r a f t e d b y the C o u n c i l . 1830-1914 POPULATION D I S T R I B U T I O N A N D T H E E V O L U T I O N OF O T T O M A N CENSUSES 31 was to be c o m p i l e d o n the basis of i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m village a n d mahalle registers. T h e p o p u l a t i o n officials w e r e o b l i g e d to take t r i p s i n t o the c o u n t r y s i d e to s t u d y the situat i o n o n the spot a n d to r e p o r t all changes to t h e i r s u p e r i o r s a n d . I t o l d h i m t h a t the o n l y w a y i n w h i c h he c o u l d p o s s i b l y u n d e r s t a n d our a d v a n c e m e n t w o u l d be to take the salient p o i n t s o u t of o u r C e n s u s r e p o r t s . 1310) a n d 1916 ( H . p o p u l a t i o n r e g i s t r a t i o n . d e b a t e d the issue a n d came o u t w i t h a series of r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e based i n large m e a s u r e o n t h e 1874 r e g u l a t i o n s . the d e g r e e of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m a m o n g the collectors of statistics a n d the i m p o r t a n c e attached to such data a n d . The Council recognized that population statistics w e r e u s e f u l f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e as w e l l as for m i l i tary p u r p o s e s . 1294). a n d the need of t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to h i s o w n c o u n t r y . I n a d d i t i o n . 438 of 21 Cemazivülevve! 1298 (21 April 1881). a n d a d m i n i s t r a tive o r g a n i z a t i o n . Ibid. a n d a p p l y t h e m to his o w n l a n d .'Of the twenty committee members w h o participated in the debate. the a u t h o r of Ben Hur) m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e U n i t e d States h a d c o m p i l e d n e w p o p u l a t i o n statistics w h i c h w e r e of great use to his c o u n t r y a n d s u g g e s t e d t h a t such statistics w o u l d be u s e f u l also to the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t . The i m p o r t a n c e of statistical data was s t r o n g l y emphasized. order of 15 Recep 1297 (23 June 1880) 54..r a n k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s . officials i n the M i n i s t r y of I n t e r i o r w e r e to c o u n t the n o n . I believe. nos. all the three non-Muslims voted tor it. all reports and correspondence concerning the census of'1881/82 are in one folio. 6 l ' See Diversions via Dsr>mi "> Turkey (New York. p. it is necessary to device a s o u n d basis. T h e p o p u l a t i o n changes b e i n g c o n t i n u o u s a n d . " C ° r r e S p 0 n d e n c e o t 8 < 9 Rebiyülahir 1291 (25. Yearbooks p u b l i s h e d between 1892 ( H . t h e A m e r i c a n s c o u l d n o t be o t h e r t h a n prosperous. Council report no. To k n o w the exact n u m b e r of its o w n p o p u l a t i o n is a great a c h i e v e m e n t m m a t t e r s of order a n d r e g u l a r i t y f o r a g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r e s t e d m l a w . 123-73 (Ankara. . a n d o t h e r s . there was a sign i f i c a n t loss of r e v e n u e . m i g r a t i o n s i n t o or o u t of the d i s t r i c t . a n e w s y s t e m w h i c h w o u l d r e c o r d a l l p o p u l a t i o n changes a n d t h u s d e r i v e the u t m o s t benefit f r o m a c e n s u s . 58 Ibid. many of w h o m w e r e n o n . a n d t h e need to settle t h e m . 1878-1913. Ibid. Tertip ve Tayinler. T h e C o u n c i l a c k n o w l e d g e d that the census of 1874 c o u l d n o t be c a r r i e d o u t because of i n t e r n a l problems. the p r o c l a m a t i o n o f a c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d accession to the t h r o n e of S u l t a n A b d u l h a m i t I I i n Î 8 7 6 a n d . n a t u r a l . w e r e f u l l y d e t a i l e d b y the p r i n t e d papers i n the envelopes w h i c h w e r e i n the box. t h e a b d i c a t i o n a n d suicide of S u l t a n A b d u l a z i z . was to be k e p t i n the kaza f o r the r e c o r d i n g of b i r t h s . the ambassador sent w i t h the i n t e r p r e t e r of the embassy t w o v o l u m e s of the r e v i e w f o r t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o T u r k i s h . ile Vazifeleri Hakklnda Talimattır [Instructions concerning the organizations.82 A s soon as the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s t a b i l i z e d . a n d especially t h e T e n t h C e n s u s (1880).M u s l i m s or f o r e i g n e r s . t h e C o u n c i l p r o p o s e d to u n i f y a n d c o n s o l i d a t e all the e l e m e n t s i n v o l v e d i n p o p u l a t i o n m a n a g e m e n t . the tax h a d b e e n l e v i e d i n the past as a l u m p s u m o n each c o m m u n i t y w i t h o u t a s c e r t a i n i n g the exact n u m b e r of its n u m b e r s . a n d t w o secretaries f o r each o f f i c i a l . These envelopes he sealed w i t h his 60 For the sultan's orders concerning the American statistics. a n d changes i n p e r s o n a l status w e r e subjected to v a r i o u s penalties. the issue w a s r e f e r r e d to the C o u n c i l of State This m o d e r n . I n 1891 the Statistical C o u n c i l of the S u b l i m e Porte w a s created. so once m o r e t h e n g o v e r n m e n t e n d e a v o r e d to p u t the c o l l e c t i o n of the h e a d tax o n the i n d i v i d u a l basis t h a t w a s p r e s c r i b e d by Islamic l a w . 6 T h e i n s t r u c t i o n s issued b y the C o u n c i l w e r e s u b m i t t e d b y Premier H ü s e y i n A v n i Paşa to the s u l t a n . appointment. These r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d the r e s u l t i n g regulations ( w h i c h were b r o a d e r m scope a n d d i f f e r e n t i n essence f r o m the sultan's directives) became the basis f o r the census a n d r e g i s t r a t i o n system used after 1881. G r e e k s . The degree'of c o n t i n u i t y of d i r e c t o r s a n d t h e i r r a n k i n d i c a t e s . w h o a p p r o v e d t h e m a n d issued a special o r d e r f o r t h e i r e x e c u t i o n Prepar a t i o n s w e r e m a d e . A l l p r o v i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the census a n d registration s v s t e m w e r e t h e r e f o r e c o m b i n e d i n t o a single "Regulation for P o p u l a t i o n R e g i s t e r s .30 OTTOMAN POPULATION. b u t n o w c o n s i d e r e d i t a p r o v i s i o n a l m e a s u r e necessary to the establ i s h m e n t of the statistical f o u n d a t i o n for a p e r m a n e n t register s y s t e m to r e c o r d c o n t i n u o u s l y all b i r t h s a n d deaths a n d to p r o v i d e g e n e r a l s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n o n the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n . I n 1881 the Palace c h a r g e d the War M i n i s t r y w i t h the d u t y of c o u n t i n g M u s l i m males. A c c o r d i n g to C o x . 1334) g i v e the n a m e s and r a n k s . the total n u m b e r of these " d a i l y e v e n t s " w a s ' t o be entered i n the icmal register. T h e n he r e m i n d s m e of o u r c o n v e r s a t i o n about a census for h i s o w n c o u n t r y a n d said that he h a d d i r e c t e d his G r a n d V i z i e r . f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y . I t stressed also the necessity of p r o v i d i n g each O t t o m a n c i t i z e n w i t h a n i d e n t i t y c a r d (tezkere) to be used i n the increasingly frequent contacts between the g o v e r n m e n t and individuals. e s p e c i a l l y . crea t e d d e m o g r a p h i c p r o b l e m s n o t f o r e s e e n i n 1874 ' T h e census was therefore d e l a y e d u n t i l these p r o b l e m s w o u l d be w o r k e d o u t .M u s l i m s . BA (1)/(SD)/3148. H e w o u l d t h u s see w h a t a n a d v e r t i s e m e n t a g o o d census w o u l d be of the vast resources of his o w n e m p i r e . I t agreed w i t h the m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t the d i v i s i o n of the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n i n t o age g r o u p s w a s a m a t t e r o f v i t a ! practical i m p o r tance. 59. eager to a d o p t a d v a n c e d techniques of o r g a n i z a t i o n .

A special section (arts. m o s t of L e b a n o n . See 1UKTY 89 and BA (I). o n 5 Safer 1311 (17 A u g u s t 1893). the i d e n t i t y card r e q u i r e m e n t . letter from premier's office. the register s y s t e m i n t e n d e d to be c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d p e r m a n e n t . marriages (arts. r e l i g i o n . BA (1). The regulat i o n p r o v i d e d f o r f i n a n c i n g the register s y s t e m b y charging small s u m s f o r r e g i s t e r i n g b i r t h s a n d i s s u i n g travel certificates. before b e i n g accepted i n a n o c c u p a t i o n or p r o f e s s i o n . for instance. Ibid. A n y o n e w h o h a d failed to register in o r d e r to a v o i d m i l i t a r y service was to be i m m e d i a t e l y conscripted. U n l i k e earlier general p o p u l a t i o n statistics. the census p r o g r e s s e d r a t h e r s l o w l v . It is i m p o s s i b l e at t h i s stage t o state p r e c i s e l y w h e n the census e n d e a v o r t h a t began i n 1881/82 e n d e d . a list of a l l i n h a b i t a n t s i n his d i s t r i c t a n d to send it to t h e p r o v i n c e c a p i t a l . a n d especially t h e local p o p u l a t i o n o f f i c i a l s . BA (1)/(D)/760006. Each c o m m i t t e e consisted of o n e m e m b e r f r o m the kaza a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o u n c i l . w e r e n o t c o u n t e d at a l l . w i t h certain e x p a n s i o n s a n d m o d i f i c a tions. T h e loca! leaders a n d kaza p o p u l a t i o n officials w e r e m a d e responsible for the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p e r m a n e n t r e g i s t e r s y s t e m . as this w a s to be t h e i r first experience w i t h the r e g i s t r a t i o n s y s t e m . which includes the first census (1830) of the city. w a s decreed late i n 1884. e v e n the city of I s t a n b u l . t h e p o p u l a t i o n officials h a d to file t h e i r y e a r l y r e p o r t s . a n d r e m a i n e d i n effect t h r o u g h o u t the rest of the existence of t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e . 67 bS 69 63. m i g r a t i o n s . M a n y p r o v i n c e s a p p a r e n t l y d i d n o t complete t h e i r censuses or establish their register systems u n t i l 1886/87. Dairev-i Sadaret. each o f these was assisted by a p o p u l a t i o n secretary a n d his a s s i s t a n t . A report giving some estimates for 1882 by the head of the census committee (niififs talmr komisyonu) indicated that this was the fifth census of the city but that the lists for the first two censuses could not be found. The latter in t u r n w e r e o b l i g e d to f o r w a r d the a n n u a l s u m m a r y (icmal) of the village a n d mahalle p o p u l a t i o n r e p o r t s — a f t e r d u e i n spection a n d a p p r o v a l b y the kaza a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o u n c i l — to the s u p e r i o r offices n o t later t h a n A p r i l 1 of each year. 63 64 POPULATION D I S T R I B U T I O N A N D T H E E V O L U T I O N OF O T T O M A N CENSUSES 33 The system of r e g i s t r a t i o n . 27-29). 30-31). 64.p r o d u c t . p. i f . So that p r o b a b l y T u r k e y m a y . Ministry of Trade and Construction. Amedi Divan-i Hümayun. 15-22). a n d a u t h e n t i c i t y of the result w a s to be c e r t i f i e d b y the imam. the r e g i s t r a t i o n of all t h e i n h a b i t a n t s in the villages a n d t o w n q u a r t e r s a n d the issuance o f t h e i d e n t i t y d o c u m e n t s — t o o k far l o n g e r t h a n expected because of p h y s i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s s u c h as lack of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d bad w e a t h e r . 333. the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of n e w p r o v i n c e census teams. The figures i n these statistics w e r e c o n s i d e r e d d e f i n i t i v e a n d reliable a n d w e r e used as a basis for o f f i c i a l statistics c o n c e r n i n g the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n a n d f o r subsequent a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m e a s u r e s . 5).. was g i v e n great a t t e n t i o n . if a n y . C e z a y i r . a n d m i g r a t i o n s (arts. These p o p u l a t i o n records issued i n 1893 r e p r e s e n t t h e m o s t c o m plete a n d reliable O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s c o m p i l e d i n the n i n e t e e n t h century'. 71 See 1UKTY 9184. I n s p e c t o r s w e r e sent to H ü d a v e n d i g a r (Bursa).. Palace letter of 9 Rebiyüiahir 1304 (5 January 1886). 66 ]y q u a l i f i e d teams of inspectors t o c o n t r o l the census results. part i c u l a r l y the n o m a d i c tribes. the r e g u l a t i o n treated the census as an ad hoc project. A list of p e o p l e r e a c h i n g m i l i t a r y age t o g e t h e r w i t h the [descript i o n ] o f t h e i r i d e n t i t y w i l l be c o m p i l e d a n d f o r w a r d e d to the M i l i t a r y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " (art. I t is safe to assume t h a t t h e censuses of m o s t of the O t t o m a n t e r r i t o r i e s i n the Balkans. T h e P o p u l a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of a centra! a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h a d i r e c t o r g e n e r a ! a n d a secretariat attached to the I n t e r i o r M i n i s t r y (Dahiliye).o n e c o u l d register for an absent p a r t y . b u t l e g i t i m a t e e x c e p t i o n s w e r e recogn i z e d . n d the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o m u l g a t e d i n 1881/82 r e i m p l e m e n t e d . and the indications are that it took much longer than that. c o n s t i t u t i n g e i g h t sections. or i n h e r i t i n g p r o p e r t y . 11-12). In 1886 the vilayet of Halep (Aleppo) demanded at least nine more months to finish its census. besides b e i n g v i r t u a l l y u n a b l e to c o n d u c t business. A b o u t three m o n t h s later. T h e kaza p o p u l a t i o n o f f i c i a l was o b l i g e d to c o m p i l e . T h e Palace s h o w e d constant interest i n the census a n d issued d e a d l i n e s for its c o m p l e t i o n a n d t h e d r a f t i n g of e m p i r e . T h e r e still r e m a i n e d a f e w p e o p l e n o t r e g i s t e r e d . late i n 1885. 68.i B a h r . E v e n t u a l l y . to be c a r r i e d o u t b y c o m m i t t e e s established in each kaza. w h i l e the special d i s t r i c t s had p o p u l a tion a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (nüfus naziri). I n a d d i t i o n . 32-39) established procedures f o r the c o n t r o l a n d s u p e r v i s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n registers ( t h u s a s s u r i n g a c o n s t a n t u p w a r d f l o w of i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m the villages to the s u p e r i o r p o p u l a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s ) . a p o p u l a t i o n secretary a n d his assistant a c c o m p a n i e d the c o m m i t t e e (arts. i n d e e d . b u t w e r e e s t i m a t e d o n the basis of i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d b y tribal leaders a n d local officials. b a r e l y c o m p l e t e d its n e w census by 1 8 8 5 . I n the kazas t h a t h a d v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s . The card had to be s h o w n to t h e a u t h o r i t i e s before b u y i n g . Sivas. w e r e d e v o t e d to the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the register s y s t e m . t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f f i c i a l . n o t i n g the d i s t r i c t s a n d r e g i o n s w h e r e the census w a s n o t c o m p l e t e d a n d p r o v i d i n g estimates f o r t h e areas n o t s u b j e c t e d to i n d i v i d u a l census a n d r e g i s t r a t i o n . deaths. T h e first r e s u l t s f r o m the m o r e accessible areas came i n d u r i n g 1884/85. S o m e of these p r e l i m i n a r y statistical results w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n v a r i o u s places. (The t a k i n g of a census u n d e r this n e w e s t lawwas a p p a r e n t l y b e g u n i n 1321 [1903/4]. age. 1316 [1898]). a v e 0 I m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the 1881/82 P o p u l a t i o n C e n s u s and Registration T h e r e g u l a t i o n c o n t a i n e d o t h e r d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s conc e r n i n g the r e g i s t r a t i o n o f b i r t h s (arts.i Sefid ( A e g e a n I s l a n d s ) . A l a w issued i n 1318 (1900T) b r o a d e n e d c o n s i d e r a b l y the r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s f the r e g u l a t i o n of 1881/82 a n d w a s i n t u r n s u p e r s e d e d i n 1320 (1902/3) b y a n o t h e r l a w w i t h a c c o m p a n y i n g r e g u l a tions t h a t f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d t h e process of census t a k i n g a n d registration. this measure was abandoned and then revived after the Crimean War. called kol. see the f o l l o w i n g section.'(D)/80019. as some non-Muslim community leaders could not speak Turkish and consequently faced difficulty in filing the birth certificates. . assembled u n d e r the h e a d i n g " p r o v i s i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n " (ahkam-i muvakkate).e i g h t articles. w i t h i n three m o n t h s after the e n d of the census. T h e regi s t r a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n was to i n c l u d e the r e s p o n d e n t ' s name and n i c k n a m e .f o u r h o u r s o r as l o n g as o n e m o n t h ) if he c o u l d not present to the c o u r t a n acceptable excuse f o r his lack of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (art. a n d the c o m m u n i t y c o u n c i l . the population officers sent to these areas should be selected from those w h o spoke the native languages. no. It appears that these were conducted after 1265 (1848) when the government empowered the ihtisah (the Office of the Censor of Morals—later becoming first the Zaptiye [gendarmerie] and then the Interior Ministry) to maintain population lists to be completed every year according to the deaths and births occurring in the country. a n d c i v i l status. or for c o n d u c t i n g a n y o f f i c i a l business. it ever a c t u a l l y e n d e d at a l l . to c o m p i l e general p o p u l a t i o n statistics. a n d for c o r r e c t i n g the registers' s h o r t c o m i n g s . a n d Palestine) w e r e a l m o s t f i n i s h e d b y 1888/89. 63 Because of t h e t i m e n e e d e d f o r p r e p a r a t i o n . a n d o n l y r e c e n t l y . f o r o b t a i n i n g travel d o c u m e n t s . I n accordance w i t h the C o u n c i l ' s p r e v i o u s l y discussed r e a s o n i n g . Each registered i n d i v i d u a l was issued a n o f f i c i a l " p o p u l a t i o n b u l l e t i n . 20 Zilkade 1302 (31 August 1885). o n e f r o m the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l . 44. T r a b z o n . the census and r e g i s t r a t i o n c o m m i t t e e s established at kaza l e v e l w e r e unable to b e g i n t h e i r w o r k u n t i l s o m e t i m e i n 1882. s u c h as the saluâmes. ( T h i s p r o v i s i o n a p p a r e n t l y w a s i n t e n d e d to excuse w o m e n f r o m a p p e a r i n g before the census c o m m i t t e e . c o m p l e t e n e s s . T h e census p r o p e r was to consist essentially of registrat i o n i n the sicil. a n d marriages o c c u r r i n g i n the villages a n d mahalles after the census w e r e to be recorded by the muhtars i n one of f o u r types of s t a n d a r d i n f o r m a t i o n certificate (ilmühaber) i n accordance w i t h the instructions issued b y the p o p u l a t i o n o f f i c i a l (arts. a n d Karesi (Balikesir). if peace p r e v a i l . the muhtar. General Directorate of Statistics. b u t they have been used by o n l y a few w r i t ers. Bab-i A l i . T h e census i t s e l f — t h a t is. p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s . to send special66. w h i l e its b y . w h o h a d so c o n s i s t e n t l y pressed for t h e i r accurate c o m p l e t i o n . Dcvlet-i Aliye-i O&namyyenm Binüçyüzoııüç Senesine Mahsus Istatıstik-i Unmmiyyesi [General statistics of the Ottoman State for the year 1313] (Istanbul. I n o r d e r to e x p e d i t e the w o r k . these gave precise a n d d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n the p o p u l a t i o n of all areas. a n d Syria ( i n c l u s i v e of J o r d a n . correspondence between Porte and Palace and the sultan's orders. h a v e a census of her o w n . 23-26). 1830-1914 o w n h a n d . T r a b z o n i n f o r m e d the g o v e r n m e n t t h a t it h a d c o m p l e t e d its census. 7 Şevval 1298 (1 September 1881) and 8 Şevval 1298 (2 September 1881). A p e r s o n w i t h o u t s u c h a card. s e l l i n g . w h i c h had c o n d u c t e d f i v e censuses d u r i n g t h e c e n t u r y a n d w a s g i v e n p r i o r i t y i n t h i s o n e . Ibid. correspondence of 19 Cemaziyülevvel 1303 1303 and 25 Cemaziyülahır 1303 (23 February' 1886" and 31 March 1886). 69. a n d to take w h a t e v e r m e a s u r e s s e e m e d necessary t o e n s u r e a c o n t i n u o u s a n d accurate r e g i s t r a t i o n of all p o p u l a t i o n c h a n g e s . p u n i s h e d by a stiff fine a n d a jail t e r m ( w h i c h m i g h t be t w e n t y .M u s l i m g r o u p . w a s 62. The accompanying letter states that the register was prepared by the Population Administration following the sultan's orders and that it included the number of the Muslim and nonMuslim population and of the foreigners. P r e m i e r Cevat P a ş a s u b m i t t e d the census records i n a b o u n d m a n u s c r i p t to the s u l t a n . o c c u p a t i o n or p r o f e s s i o n . I n a f e w inaccessible areas t h e p o p u l a t i o n s . 70. dealt w i t h the census itself. "Sicill-i Nüfus Nizamnamesi" of 8 Şaban 1298 (5 July 1881). Each kaza had a p o p u l a t i o n o f f i c i a l . w h i l e the last t w e l v e . N o n .w i d e p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s .'(D)/ 24 and 402. electoral status. " or i d e n t i t y card (nufus tezkeresi) g i v i n g a l l the relevant register i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the bearer ( i n t h e R e p u b l i c t h i s c a r d came to be k n o w n as the nufus ciizdani—"population c a r d " ) . C o m p l i a n c e w i t h the census r e g i s t r a t i o n w a s e n s u r e d i n the f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r . his or h e r father's n a m e . w h o o r d e r e d their i m p l e m e n t a t i o n as s o o n as p o s s i b l e . the accuracy. A n a t o l i a . a n d i n s u c h cases a t h i r d p e r s o n a c c o m p a n i e d byt w o witnesses o v e r the age of t w e n t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y . even i n the areas w h e r e t h e census w a s declared t o be c o m p l e t e . and Section III of the statistical appendices. the language of the administration. a n d i t w a s p l a c e d i n t h e category of the first-class vilnyets. see BA (Y)-(P)'11S 311 215. one a d d i t i o n a l m e m b e r w a s selected f r o m the m o s t n u m e r ous n o n . A l l these p r o p o s a l s w e r e accepted b y the s u l t a n . In other words. this publication was compiled by the statistical office on the basis of i n formation supplied by the Population Administration. the r e p o r t s f r o m a l l the vilayets reached the capital: " T h e copies of the r e g i s t r a t i o n s r e a c h i n g the M i n i s try of I n t e r i o r w i l l p r o v i d e the G e n e r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P o p u l a t i o n w i t h [statistical d a t a ] necessary to c o m p i l e the a n n u a l general statistics a n d w i l l be p r e s e r v e d intact. See also Chapter 5. h a d the d o u b l e task of c o n d u c t i n g t h e census i n villages a n d of k e e p i n g u p to date t h e registers of districts i n w h i c h the census w a s already c o m p l e t e d . " ' The p o p u l a t i o n census a n d r e g i s t r a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n issued by the C o u n c i l of State consisted of f i f t y articles d i v i d e d i n t o n i n e sections. instead of compelling the citizens to learn Turkish.32 OTTOMAN POPULATION. d e a t h s (arts. 7 0 71 67. a n d gave t h e m d i r e c t i o n at once. T h e first t h i r t y . the g o v e r n m e n t d e c i d e d . the Ottoman government sought at this date to get its o w n officials to speak the regional languages. see BA (1)/(D)'77419. w h i c h sent it u l t i m a t e l y to the G e n e r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P o p u l a t i o n (Niifus-u Umumiyye Idaresi). ) A t the e n d of the census o f a village or t o w n q u a r t e r . for r e g i s t e r i n g those m i s s e d d u r i n g the o r i g i n a l census. this custom remained long in practice. H o w e v e r . 63. 1 4 ) . A d a n a . 39-40).) T h e basic e l e m e n t s of t h e s y s t e m s u r v i v e to the present d a y i n a v a r i e t y of f o r m s i n T u r k e y a n d o t h e r places in the M i d d l e East. a n d his address. E d i r n e .M u s l i m s w e r e registered i n a separate register so as to facilitate the tax levy. T h e i n f o r m a t i o n w a s to be s u p p l i e d d i r e c t l y b y the p e r s o n i n v o l v e d . a n d a r e s e r v e militaryofficer (redif). A s the w o r k i n some of the vilayets a p p e a r e d near c o m p l e t i o n . During the debates in the Council of State the general committee suggested that. Births. I n 1881/82 the census c o m m i t t e e s . BA (I)/(SD)/3148.

" s u e d » r . C o m p a r a t i v e Statistics of P o p u l a t i o n of Sivas P r o v i n c e ChristianMuslim Muslims Christians Ratio 62. Total 142. ! / ) • 143.4 1:3.35 34 The final c o n c e r n is the m a r g i n of e r r o r . undertake . T h e p o l i t i c a l reason f o r t h . b y f o r e i g n e r s . Serbians ^ P ^ .818 873.1 1:3.682 a n d place the C h r i s t i a n . ^ t t e i t K T u W n o be I t e d a n d t h e e t h n i c g r o u p i n the m a j o r - w l to be e n h t l e d to a p p o i n t the p r i e s t (or " d e s p o t . v a s memorandum c h u r c h it m e a n t t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l or g r o u p h a d d e e d e d o be " G r e e k . M v o w n v i e w . b u t e v e n here the n e e d f o r tax revenues a n d for p e r s o n n e l for the a r m y f o r c e d the g o v e r n m e n t to be as t h o r o u g h as possible. I u n d e r t a k e n f o r reasons b o t h technical a n d p o l i t i c a l .000 A r m e n i a n s .598 pt.113 w e r e C h r i s t i a n a n d 766. See Vedat Eldem. 1880. T h e r e m a i n i n g seven estimates. The p o p u l a t i o n i n s o m e areas s u c h as I§kodra (Scutari) i n A l b a n i a o p p o s e d t h e c e n s u s f o r r e l i g i o u s reasons.676 t r e a s u r y T h u s t h e O t t o m a n officials are s h o w n to b ' e t a k e n h I census d u t i e s seriously a n d b e e n c o n n e d to correct t h e i r e r r o r s . m a y g i v e a p i c t u r e of the O t t o m a n state d i f f e r e n t f r o m the stereotype h i t h e r t o p r e s e n t e d . 1880. w h e n p r o p e r l y used. and BA W ^ ) i n L i ' l h e . w e have a n u m b e r of estimates o n the p o p u l a t i o n of v a r i o u s i m p o r t a n t vilayets i n A n a t o l i a a n d R u m i l i . is t h a t the m a r g i n of e r r o r for established c o m m u n i t i e s located i n the r e l a t i v e l y d e v e l o p e d areas w i t h reasonably g o o d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s is l o w . the " s u p p l e m e n t a r y statem e n t " attached to t h e census (see the statistical a p p e n dices. T h e O t t o m a n statistical office w a s c a r e f u l to m e n t i o n the specific vilayets.000 201. a n d b y O t t o m a n officials a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . exclusive of 50. ^ o S t d d e f t o S n i s h the c e L u s i n three m o n t h s u t t o m a h w a Zrur n or t r a v e l card. ™ t n c a r r y o u t a n e w census s t e m m e d f r o m t h e ! n W i s t s r u l i e " L n g G r e e k s . the census r e p o r t .562 p e r s o n s actuall y c o u n t e d . * e S S wa r e r n a i n e d unregistered and Table 2. w e get a t o t a l O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n i n E u r o p e . statistics obtained by doubling the males Supplied by unknown to LieutenantColonel Wilson. Jan. T h e r e is n o quest i o n t h a t the O t t o m a n officials d i d t h e i r u t m o s t to p r o d u c e the best p o p u l a t i o n r e c o r d p o s s i b l e u n d e r t h e c i r c u m stances p r e v a i l i n g at the e n d of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .3 (he also c l a i m e d t h a t there w e r e 10.166 714. 1880 Supplied by the Armenian Bishop of Sivas to Lieutenant Chermside.M u s l i m ratio at f r o m 1:3. d o n o t d i f f e r g r e a t l y f r o m the figures o b t a i n e d b y the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t i n 1893. The m a r g i n of e r r o r i n r e m o t e areas p r o b a b l y increased to b e t w e e n 6 a n d 12 percent. 1970). e n l i s t i n g he sup1 one aeciu port a C r r e D r peninsula. See HCAP 100/44. total p o p u l a t i o n of Sivas as 926. n g ^ 1 8 4 * was e s t i m a t e d t h a t the census w o u l d cost 4. see Syrie. For i n stance. w h i l e the O t t o m a n f i g u r e w a s o n l y 3. can be u s e d . Aug. Studies on Palestine during the Ottoman Period (Jerusalem: Magnes Press.0 729.3 1:3. the n o m a d i c tribes i n eastern A n a t o l i a r e m a i n e d . possibly betw een 2 a n d 5 percent. the B r i t i s h consulate collected e i g h t d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n estimates for the p o p u l a t i o n of Sivas. A n a t o l i a .682 895.562.000 Circassians. 73.r.264 567. the basic statistical table does n o t s h o w the n u m b e r of w o m e n or the n o m a d i c tribes l i v i n g i n Basra a n d Baghd a d . " n ^ It 143. O n e of these w a s t h a t issued b y the A r m e n i a n p a t r i a r c h . T h e s e statistics. I n s u m . T h e need f o r a n i n d i v i d u a l to p r o d u c e an i d e n t i t y card i n all his dealings w i t h the g o v e r n m e n t forced practically e v e r y o n e i n such areas to register. h o w e v e r .431 d e t r i m e n t a l b o r n to the M u s l i m cause a n d t e s e n t a t ves of the local e results t h u s o b t a i n e d Source of Statistics Supplied by the Armenian Patriarch to Majesty's Ambassador Supplied by the Armenian Bishop of Sivas to Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson. envelope 72. The A r m e n i a n Catholic Patriarch H a s s o u n IX s h o w e d the C h r i s t i a n s to be 62. some of the p o p u l a t i o n i n s o m e vilayets c o u l d n o t be registered f o r a v a r i e t y of i n t e r n a l reasons.7. the first c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d r e l a t i v e l y s o p h i s t i cated O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n s u r v e y .563 /Ui M " d tezkeresi. 73 72. n t h e Balk a m w h e r e m o s t of t h e O r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n s l i v e d . folder 4. 99. " as r o t o m a n s called h i m j ' l n cases w h e r e ethnic c o m m u m t h e a p p o i n t its o w n priest.000 i n n u m b e r to the M u s l i m s ' 80. For some information on the population of Palestine. C ) m u s t be' read i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h .388. " regardless of l a n g u a g e a n d b a c k g r o u n d .048 892. These v a r i o u s estimates are s h o w n i n Table 2 . B u l g a r i a n s . It is i m p o s s i b l e to p r o v i d e a d e f i n i t i v e a n s w e r .9 1:4.. e l u sive. F o r t u n a t e l y .488. I .000 895. Osmanli Imparatorlugunun Iktisadi Sartlari Hakkinda Sir Tetklk (Ankara. T h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y s t a t e m e n t also reveals t h a t a n e s t i m a t e d 3 m i l l i o n p e o p l e l i v i n g i n v a r i o u s vilayets u n d e r direct O t t o m a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w e r e left o u t of the census.174 1:4. 9/2631. 1 8 i . T h e g o v e r n m e n t figures^ w h i c h i n c l u d e d b i r t h s registered after 1880. Ld'an et Palestine: geographic administrative. 1830-19U k ™ r F V O I I ' T I O N OF O T T O M A N CENSUSES P O P U L A T I O N D I S T R I B U T I O N A N D T H E E\ O L L T I O .732 1:5. a n d I r a q i n 1893 of 20. t h e last O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n c o u n t . gave the.432 1:4. G r e e k . Jan.4 to 1:5. t h e census of 1881/ 82-1893. 1905/6 The census of 1905/6. Vital Cuinet also seems to have relied on that source. 72 T h e Last O t t o m a n C e n s u s . descriptive et raisonnee (Paris. the s u p p l e m e n t a r y s t a t e m e n t gives the estim a t e d total of w o m e n a n d n o m a d s i n Basra a n d B a g h d a d as 900. T h e v a l i d i t y of the census results c o m p i l e d i n 1893 can be tested against s o m e o t h e r reliable f i g u r e s . a n d tribes left o u t o f the c o u n t a n d to g i v e p o p u l a t i o n estimates f o r these areas.872 711.778 136. statistics obtained by doubling the males According to Baker Pasha. The p a t t e r n of a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n i n f o r m e d a n d relativel y u n b i a s e d estimates a n d the O t t o m a n statistics is m o r e or less the same f o r o t h e r vilayets. w h o s e f i g u r e s w e r e grossly w r o n g f o r b o t h M u s l i m s a n d n o n . The b r e a k d o w n of the u n i v e r s a l O r t h o d o x c o m m u n i t y m the age of n a t i o n a l i s m h a d m a d e n a t i o n a l i t y a m a t t e r o i n d i v i d u a l preference. statistique.000. a n d Serbian c o m m u n i ¬ es centered o n t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n statistic " h each side c l a i m i n g to possess n u m e r i c a l s u p e r i o n over the o t h e r . 8 . T h e fierce s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n t h e n a h o n a £ t £ d « of the B u l g a r i a n . t h u s i n c r e a s i n g t h e percentage of M u s l i m s to s l i g h t l y above 80 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l .1880 Supplied by Abedine Pasha to Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson. ed. 1880. 1896). However.245 201. 2632. Syria. m a d e b y the A r m e n i a n b i s h o p i n Sivas. Aug. w i t h m i n o r a d j u s t m e n t s .000 694.850 708. T h e overw h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y of those l e f t o u t of t h e r e g u l a r c o u n t w e r e M u s l i m s . t h a t is. T h e fiercest s t r u g g l e t o o k place . 160. . as u s u a l .604 727.M u s l i m s . 49-65. statistics obtained by doubling the males Sivas Almanac for 1878. » 0 der to p u t an e n d to this battle of p o p u l a t i o n statistics. Jan.245 1:1. statistics obtained by doubling the males Supplied by Government to Lieutenant Chermside. for a C h r i s t i a n M u s l i m ratio of 1:1. a n d reg a r d e d as a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of. the n u m ber of u n r e g i s t e r e d p e o p l e i n the statistical tables f o r 1881/ 82-1893.000. A d d i n g this f i g u r e to t h e t o t a l of 17.550 and 17. statistics obtained by doubling the males Source: HCAP 100-44. 7 .4 80.0 584.671. a n d u n d a t e d .586 140. s t e m m i n g i n p a r t f r o m i n s i g h t s g a i n e d by w o r k i n g w i t h such m a t e r i a l s .437 694.01. For e x a m p l e . the o t h e r e s t i m a t e s of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of Sivas i n 1881 r u n f r o m 708. the Porte d e r i d e d to c o n d u c t a n e w census. p. see Moshe Ma'oz. 99.558 M u s l i m . pp. these — n t s ate m C n d e d a m o n g the statistical a p p e n d i c e s (1.16. h o w e v e r . sancaks. as a s o u n d q u a n t i t a t i v e basis i n s t u d y i n g O t t o m a n d e m o g r a p h y .550 to 895. p. Eldem mentions the fact that the Ottoman government took a census in 1882-84 but does not elaborate further. The e n d p r o d u c t of t h e i r e f f o r t s c o m p a r e s f a v o r a b l y w i t h the statistics p r o d u c e d b y s o m e of the technically m o r e a d vanced c o u n t r i e s . of w h o m O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N . 1975).176 131.052).2 578.

794 — 2. member of the ulema) Divan-i hümayun kaleminden ibrahim Nabi Efendi Dıvan-i hümayun Mühımme nüvısanindan Naili Efendi Oivan-i hümayun Mühımme nuvisanindan Ata Efendi Divan-i hümayun keîebesinden Tayfur Bey Divan-i hümayun ketebesınden Tahsin Efendi Müderrisinden Sıtkizade damadi Arif Efendi Hacegandan Osman Efendi Seyit Mehmet Ragıp Efendi Ruznamçe-ı evvel Arif Efendi Mevaliden Ahmed Efendi Mektubi hulefasinden Sadullah Efendi Kapicibaşi Sirri Bey Kapicibaşilardan Hakki Paşazade İzzet Bey Müderrisinden Seyit Mehmet Raşid Efendi Remzi Paşazade İzzet Enver Bey Hacegandan Osman Ferit Efendi Hacegandan Ragip Efendi Mektubi Hulefasindan Haci Ahmed Efendi Bursa muhtesibi Hafiz Ağa ve şeriki Hüseyin Bey Reaya sayimini yapan Mevall-i devriyyeden Hüsnü Efendi Mevaliden Mustafa Paşazade Osman Bey Mevali-i devriyyeden llyaszade Seyld İbrahim Efendi Müderris Ahmed Nazif Efendi Mevaliden sabik Belgrat kadisi İbrahim Efendi ^ B ' ' 3 g ^ S ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ S u ^ m». usually the latter would be 22 to 27 percent of the total. S o m e 1831 Census Officials (Member of the imperial secretariat) (Imperial secretariat.117 7.711 466 2. or roughly 3.ons where . As this register was designed for the use of the military in the draft system. subtotals in col. 36 .133 148 55 747 544 629 238 569 303 5.148 6. where there are no entries in the original. "The totals exclude several hundred people subject to a variant of the ciziye. 'The official taking the census indicated that 305 Christians of all ages had come to Kesriye from otherfetzas.898 738 2." commonly translated family. only 250 had previously paid the head tax. Figures for newcomers are given for several other teas too.3.While I have sought to make the English translations as literal as possible.589 268 122 (2. 2 show the number ot nersons m each ot the numbered households.709 6.732 — 4. 44 were working outside the locality.Of the new arrivals. Note: "Taxpayers" are those found to possess receipts for the head tax.C A p p e n d i x B. There is no correlation between the numbers of taxpayers and non-taxpayers and the numbers in the three wealth columns.131 children and 3. only 3 had previously paid the head tax.a and lines 4-12 in Appendix B. indicating the existence of a certain degree of demographic mobility.425 175 2. it is not translated in the column headings of Appendix B.3.475 1.445 Tikves Berkofga" Sofia Uzuncaabat.3. "nontaxpayers" are those who did not have receipts.:. the word "fiane. N u m b e r and Economic K a z a Status of S o m e Christians i n R u m i l i i n 1831 Rich ( a / a ) Middle (evsat) 2. The last figures in cols.593 777 subject. J Z « some awkwardness.697 2.124 12. e s as "person" or "individual. to save repetition.101 169 — — 14 4.024 6.2.797 4. and Sultanyeri Radovişte Vardar Perzinek Avrathisar Donice Radomir Ivraca Perlepe Köprülü Kesriye 1 0 d e 131 234 1.^." or simply "number . or religious establishment) (Bureau chief) (Probably same rank as above) (Chief finance official in charge of daily accounts) (High ranking ulema: mevali is the plural of molls) (Correspondence clerk) (Chief of the imperial guard) (One of the chiefs of the imperial guard) (High ranking ulema) (Member of the Ottoman bureaucratic aristocracy) (Bureau chief) (Bureau chief) (Correspondence clerk) (Weights and measures clerk of Bursa) (High ranking ulema in charge of Christians' census) (High ranking ulema) (High ranking ulema) (High ranking ulema) (Former judge of Belgrade.163 280 5.369 5. ' ° W e J l s l a .b. l .794 Poor Non(edna) Taxpayers Taxpayers 1. 1 668 not subject to çiziye) 2." as that is Cose. is .600 people.975 taxable persons.050 231 2. important affairs) (Secretary of the imperial secretariat) (Secretary of the imperial secretariat) (High ranking member of the ulema. Of the 1. It should be noted that the numbers of taxpayers in the "middle" and "poor" categories are equal.614 3. to the sense in which it was used in these I n the translated versions of the registers I have conserved space by deleting lines j . and 2 0 1 APPendix B.Appendix B . Hasköy.Pri for sense For example. only males are noted. °The numbers for Sofia contain some error which could not be corrected because of b our inability to find the actual material used to compile this figure.957 11. 1 and 3 when registration was complete would b tal of persons and households in Petrig.ed as household.428 934 _ _ Source: Compiled from the register of the 1831 census (but not exhaustive of all such figures in the register).379 15.c.593 — 6.589 persons in the "rich" category. . 0f the 234 persons in the "rich" category in Berkofca. important affairs) (Imperial secretariat. 7 5 Note that persons and households are numbered consecutively m cols 1-3 of Appendix B 3.435 1.066 — 1. have also given guile free trans at. "Tikve? is shown to have had a population of 2.978 12.839 — — 4.

son uzun boylu of Mehmed tali beyaz benizli white complexion 38 1255 1839-40 1285 1868 6 1 2 Damad o / m u s . ibrahim 1285 1868.47 1285 1868 69 3 3 Diğer oğlu Süleymanuzun boylu ûtherson. Height. Became son-in-law 2 Şubat 89 2 February 1269 (1872) .25 Aded-i deftet-i yevmiye Daily register number 1 Numara-i umum yevmiye General daily number Vefat edenlerin ve OlVSr-l Sria'c (Jluciııcıııı Melhuzat j• . Ali orta boylu medium height siyah gözlü black eyes beyaz benizli white complexion 2 2 1263 1846. 3 ^ ^ DEFTER-I NÜFUS R E G I S T E RO FP O P U L A T I O N Vilayet Province / / . of those dying or moving to other places n Şerif oğlu Muştala kısa boylu bin Ali short ela gözlü Şerif oğlu Mustafa. Ibrahim Hafidi Mahmud veled-i AH nephew Mahmud.69 Velali death 3 Şubat 89 3 February 1289 (1872) 1 Hafidi Abdürrezzak mavigöziü veled-i AH blue eyes nephew . son of Ali brown eyes beyaz benizli white complexion Oğlu AH sen. SsüHl aded P a g e N u m D e r Sample Register of Population (continued) A p p e r x d i x B . eye color Sakat ve nakis-ulaza mahal-i is. complexion.fe dahii olduğu oldugu sene sene Year of Year of reaching reaching first second reserve age reserve a g e M usta fh iz silkine Muvazzaf dan redife dahil dahil olduğu olduğu sene sene Year ol Y e a r ol joining transfer militia to first reserve ita-i hizmetle ifirac oldugu sene Year of discharge from duty of service 1285 1868'69 MaluHyyeti cihetiyle ihrac olduğu sene Yeaı of disability discharge Aded-i Numara-i Doğan ve ahar mahalden dettee-i gelenlerin tarih-i umum veladet ve vürudlari yevmiye Daily Dates ol birth and General arrival of those coming register daily number from other places number Tenzilat Subtractions Hane Household (number) 1 Şöhret ve esami-i nüfus Title and name of pcrsons Sene-ı veledat Birth year 1240 1824.69 Merkum Halil Dere kan/e» olup buraya damad ulmağla serh venidı T ne atoıementıoned Halil ıs Iram Deıekay village and was married here 39 Çoban oğlu Halil ela gözlü veled-iMehmed brown eyes Cobanoğiu Hali!. son of Ali siyah gözlü black eyes beyaz benizli white complexion mavi gözlü blue eyes beyaz benizli while complexion 1265 1848 49 1283 186667 4 4 1281 1864-64 bir eli cpklakdir one hand crippled 5 5 1285 1868. Süleyman mavigöziü blue eyes esmerce somewhat dark ela gözlü brown eyes esmer-ülevn dark complexion 1289 1872 73 1 Veladeti birth 2 Şubat 89 2r-ebıuary 1289 (1872) 1260 1844 1284 1867 E 1282 1865-66 Diğeri Ibrahim other son.A p p e n d i x B. Süleyman tail siyah gözlü black eyes Beyaz benizli white complexion Diğeri Ibrahim other son.-*5 nlri&nlprin tatih-t vefat ve hareketlenRemarks n-i-n 4 Hnnth a n H ripnarture Dates ot oeaın anu usyouun. son white complexion of Alt Katib oğlu Yusuf orta boylu veled-i Süleyman medium height Katıpoğlu Yusuf.a.areti Serious defects and missing limbs. f.3. beyaz benizli Abdul-Rezzak. location of stigma esnan-i askeri olduğu sene Year of reaching military service age Kura isabet eylediği sene Year ol selection by lottery [for conscription] Esnam İhtiyata tecavuz'e dahil rsd. son mavigöziü of Süleyman blue eyes bğday benizli wheat-colored (iight brown) complexion Oğlu Süleyman son.V a ••strict Kaza Township Sehir City Kasaba Town Malazie town Quarter Karye Village çıfthk Farm Aşiret Tribe Cemaat Community Bad-et-tahnr olan Vukuat E vents after registration Varidat Add tions Additions Aded-i umum nut us General popularon number 1 Beher haneye mahsus numara Number per household 1 Eskali-i mahsusa Boy ve levn ve gözdür Personal description.

son ot Ali 1 Umum General 6 Umumi General number Neler Neler Number ot Number of persons persons 3 Şubat 1289 3 February 1872 Timurhisar kazasından from Timurhisar township ela gözlü brown eyes uzun boylu tall beyaz benizli white complexion 1 redil sene reserve year 1285 1868/69 vandal arrival Çooar? oğlu Halil veled-i Mehmed Çobanoğlu Halil. the {new] those arriving and_ and the departed destination of . . kasaba ve karye City.. Siroz district.. Township of Petriç Müslim Muslim Zam tenzil hAA Q ı Thtrart A Û G û U U U O l j Keler Neler Number ot Number ot persons persons 1 Zam Add Gayr-i Muslim Non-Muslim Tenzil Subtract Sifat-i Askeriyyesi Military status Nev~i Vukuat Type ot event Esami N a m e s Melhuzal Vukuat-i niitus ve makule delatir ve Remarks umuma naklolunmustui The register ang general register where the population events were noted Delter Register mevlud birth Abdurrezzak veleö-ıAlı Abdurrezzak. Sample D a i l y Events Register (continued) /—" <>>: \ I Ï fi ' M \. son of Mehmed Sıtoz sancağı kazalaıindan Timurhisar kazasında Dere karyesinden mekum Halil bu mahallenin ikinci hanesinde mukayyed Katıpoglu Yusula damad olmuştur The atoremenlioned Halil from the village of Derekoy. : .A p p e n d i x B.. m * S A V V \ -«• . ^ \ * 4.3.i 1 \ w. . V \ 1 ^ 1 i- i 1 ! i . .^. registered in the second household ot this ouaner 2 10 3 Şubat 1289 3 February 1872 keza same 1285 1868 69 1 velat death Şenloglu Mehmed veied-t Ali ISentoîu Mehmed. . became the son-in-law of Katipoğlu Yusut.b.3. ! j ¡ 1 i ! i ! İ l ! ! : 1 j i Al YEVMIYYE-I VUKVAT-I NÜFUS DAILY P O P U L A T I O N E V E N T S Sahife aded 1 P a g e Number 1 Tarih-i yevmiyye Date of the day Şehir. Sample Daily Events Register Appendix B..40 6 Hane Household 1 Gelenlerle giden ve vefat Gelenlerin nereden edenlerin atiyk numara vegeldiği ve giden haneleri nereye gittiği Families and old number of Place of origin of the deceased. 1 ~ i . : j i . Timurhisar township. : i ! i .' m .i.. i : i 1 I 1 1 1 1 L\u ! 1 i ! 1 I 1 i ! i 1 \ * «s 1 ! 1 . eyes coior Kaza-i Petric. .i \ i ! i i i ! : .b. son ol Alı 40 41 .. town.i Y: * ' V. complexion.i T » -ı : .^ • i .the departed Numara Hane Number Household Eskal Boy levn ve gözdür Marks: height. i j . and village Liva-i Siroz District of Siroz Tevellüd eden ve gelenlerin sene-i veladet ve cedid numara ve haneleri (New) births and birth dates of new arrivals and their arrivals new numbers and families Sene-i veladet Numara Birth year Number 1 2 Şubat 1289 2 February 1872 Petriq 1289 kasabasında 1872 73 Emirler mahallesi Quarter of Emirler in the town of Petriç keza same 1255 1839.. . .

500 5. 3 months 7.3.500 2 Nefer 2.C.250 00 Hane Household Dahil-i esnan-i askeri Those in military service Kura isabet Those selected by lottery Redif First reserve İhtiyat Second reserve Musteh faz Local militia lia-yi hizimetle ihraç Discharged on completion of service Nefer 7.250 500 0 500 500 0 500 750 0 750 750 0 750 500 0 500 500 0 500 150 0 250 Be/ mucıb-i yevmıyye-ı vukuat tenzil Daily events subtraction as required Mevcuti Ha gaye-1 Şubat Total at end ol February keza same 42 43 .500 00 2.500 000 Nefer 5.000 00 Nefer 100 0 Neler 150 00 Neter 500 00 Neter 500 00 Neter 750 00 Neter 750 00 Nefer 500 00 Neter 500 00 Malutiyetiyle irhac Released (from obligation) of service on account of Bsami-i kura ve disability kasabat N a m e s of towns and villages Neter 250 00 Petriq kasabasi Town of Petrç Ber musib-i yevmiyye-i vukuat zam Daily events addition as required Melhuzat Remarks An ibttda-i Kanun-i evvel ila gaye-i Subat ba-itibar 3 mah From the beginning of December to the end of February.502 01 7.A p p e n d i x B.c.000 100 00 too 150 00 150 3.000 00 2.250 0 3.3. S a m p l e S u m m a r y Register ( c o n t i n u e d ) * \ \ [ V 1 i İCMAL S U M M A R Y Vilayet-i Selanik Province of Salónica lcmal-i umum nüfus Summary ot genera population Millet-i Islam Muslim community Liva-i Siroz Oistrict of Siroz Millet-i Rum Greek communıty Millet-i Bulgar Bulgarian community Millet-i Ermeni Armenian community Millet-i Yehud ve saire Jewish and other communities K a z a / Peine Township ot Petrig Islamdan sıfat-i askenyyeyi haiz olanlar Muslims qualifying for military service SiniN askeriye tiaiz oianiarin icmali Summary (ol classifications) of those qualified for military service Neter 3. Sample Summary Register appendix B.000 2 Neler 250 00 Nefer 2.501 2.002 01 5.001 250 00 250 2.

c h i e f l y after 1868. s h o w s t h e effect of the use o f biased a n d p u r p o s e l y false i n f o r m a t i o n about the size of the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e Balkans. and for eleven of those years. despite considerable a g r e e m e n t about the total size (10 to 14 m i l l i o n ) of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the Balkans.4.'' The p r o b l e m of n a t i o n a l i t y i n the O t t o m a n state acquired a n e w d i m e n s i o n after 1878 as the n e w i n d e p e n d e n t or a u t o n o m o u s states i n the Balkans—Serbia. T h e y are g e n e r a l l y i n agreement that M u s l i m s constituted an o v e r w h e l m i n g majority i n A s i a . 2. to s h o w t h a t the M u s l i m s i n the Balkans ( e x c l u d i n g Bosnia) c o n s t i t u t e d a b o u t 43 p e r c e n t of (he t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . especially. Miladi or A. Yevmiye Kalibi Mehmet Behiq Tarafindan Tanzim Olunan Istatistik Defteri. f r o m 9 to 16 p e r c e n t . This n e w source o f d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n w a s used p r o p e r l y o n l y b y the serious a n d i m p a r t i a l E u r o p e a n scholars a n d s t a t e s m e n . b e g a n to p r o v i d e . R o m a n i a . he was foreign also. u s i n g sources of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t are h i g h l y suspect a n d f i g u r e s t h a t w e r e a p p a r e n t l y i m a g i n a r y . the director was a non-Muslim. Table 3 . the A r m e n i a n s . 3. T h e r i s i n g f e e l i n g of n a t i o n a l consciousness formation.M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n . a l t h o u g h issued s o m e w h a t i r r e g u l a r l y . who served first as assistant director and then as general director and came to be a good statistician in his own right. 45 1. to w h i c h t h e y c l a i m e d to h a v e h i s t o r i c a l r i g h t s . the A l b a n i a n s i n the Balkans. A m o n g the t h i r t v . 20 (20 May 1878): 393-116. Despite the absence of a n y actual c o u n t of e t h n i c g r o u p s . T h e r e p o r t p r e p a r e d b v H e i n r i c h K i e p e r t for the use of Russian delegates at the I s t a n b u l conference i n 1876 r e l i e d m a i n l y o n Slavic sources a n d o n B i a n c o n i ' s false statistics a n d o v e r e s t i m a t e d the Slavic p o p u l a t i o n to the d e t r i m e n t o f all o t h e r g r o u p s . without regard for the authenticity or accuracy of the i n 44 . the K u r d s ( w h o i n habited m o r e or less the same areas as those c l a i m e d bv the A r m e n i a n s ) . Rober (Robert) Efendi was apparently an American. solid data o n the e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n of C h r i s t i a n g r o u p s . Some M u s l i m s — e . sources d e a l i n g w i t h the e t h n i c a n d r e l i g i o u s d i s t r i b u t i o n of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the Balkans there is a s t o u n d i n g v a r i a t i o n . Sources of i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the e t h n i c a n d r e l i g i o u s dist r i b u t i o n of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the A s i a n p r o v i n c e s are f e w e r t h a n f o r the Balkans. 1983). g . Ravenstein. the figures of other "authorities. f o r e x a m p l e . F. no. Fethi Bey apparently was Jewish. H o w e v e r . a n d the A r a b s i n Syria—began also to advance d e m a n d s for a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t o n o m y . B u l g a r i a . a l o n g w i t h general p o p u l a t i o n statistics f o r the i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c e s . i n accordance w i t h t h e i r n a t i o n a l interests a n d subjective preferences. "Distribution of the Population in the Part of Europe Overrun bv T u r k s . Europeans divided and subdivided t h e ' n o n . sought their o w n independence. Ethnographic el statistique de la Tunpiie d'Europe ct de la Grece (Paris. 1310-1334 (1892/93—1915/16). s o m e o f w h i c h relied o n O t t o m a n d a t a . a n d so o n . 1308-1332) Hicri 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 General Director of Statistics Nuri Bey Fethi Bey Fethi Bey Fethi Franko Bey Fethi Franko Bey Migirdiç Sinabyan Efendi Migirdiç Sinabyan Efendi Migirdiç Sinabyan Efendi Migirdiç Sinabyan Efendi Migirdiç Sinabyan Efendi Migirdiç Sinabyan Efendi Rober Efendi Rober Efendi Rober Efendi Rober Efendi Rober Efendi Mehmet Behiç Bey Mehmet Behiç Bey Mehmet Behiç Bey Mehmet Behiç Bey Mehmet Behiç Bey Mehmet Behiç Bey Mehmet Behiç Bey Assistant to the General Director 3 T H E R E L I G I O U S OF A N D E T H N I C T H E D I S T R I B U T I O N O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N : A N O V E R V I E W . see IUKTY 9075. f r o m 11 to 24 percent. . See Das Aiisland. T h e f i g u r e s g i v e n f o r the p r o p o r t i o n of Bulgarians i n the E u r o p e a n p r o v i n c e s r a n g e f r o m 24 to 39 percent. the manner in which he treated Bianconi as a great authority on the Ottoman population. especially i n areas subject to p o l i t i c a l claims. of Greeks. M o n tenegro. a l t h o u g h there is s o m e d i s a g r e e m e n t as to the exact ratio of M u s l i m s to C h r i s t i a n s . See Justin McCarthy. O t h e r C h r i s t i a n g r o u p s . c h i e f l y the C h r i s t i a n s . of T u r k s . One of his publications giving demographic. t h e o t h e r s c o n t i n u e d to r e l y o n f a u l t y — o f t e n w h o l l y f i c t i t i o u s — d a t a . D 1892 1393 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1091 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1915 O f f i c e . 1892-1916 (R." and i r i s interesting to see in this article what in general were the sources that Kiepert drew upon and. F o r e x a m p l e . 50 ff. It is interesting to observe the effort made by these officials to disseminate information about statistics. Directors of the O t t o m a n Statistical Year Rumi or Mali 1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332 . e n c o u r a g e d b y t h e success o f t h e B a l k a n Christians i n achieving statehood. 1 . pp. placed t h e M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n at a mere 16 p e r c e n t . a n d G r e e c e — s o u g h t to a c q u i r e i a d d i t i o n al t e r r i t o r i e s . " The Geographical Magazine 3 (1876): 260. B i a n c o n i . It was common practice for "authorities" on Ottoman population simply to copy. Migirdig Sinabyan Efendi was an Armenian who had served as assistant director of trade from 1892 until he assumed the statistics post in 1897 and who after 1902 returned to the trade ministry as assistant minister (the statistical office was placed under the jurisdiction of the trade ministry in 1910). d e s p i t e occasional a l l u s i o n s to ethnic g r o u p s (as i n t h e 1831 census). Notes: It should be noted that for fifteen out of the twenty-three years for which precise information is available. E. Mehmet Behiç Bey Mehmet Behiç Bey Mehmet Behiç Bey Mehmet Behiç Bey Mehmet Behiç Bey Mehmet Behiç Bey Mehmet Behiç Bey Mehmet Behiç Bey Mehmet Behiç Bey Mehmet Behiç Bey Introduction U n t i l the census o f 1881/82. economic. Mehmet Behiç Bey. T h u s . 4. f o r o b v i o u s reasons. despite h i s o u t s p o k e n s v m p a t h v f o r the C h r i s tians. O t t o m a n o f f i c i a l statistics classified t h e p o p u l a t i o n o n l y a c c o r d i n g t o r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n — e x c e p t f o r a f e w e t h n i c categories i n c l u d e d i n s o m e of the p r o v i n c i a l sahinmes. Muslims and Minorities: The Population of Anatolia at the End oi the Empire (New York: New York University Press. G . 1877). financial. after 1868 p r o v i n c i a l y e a r b o o k s (vilayet salnamcleri). w h i c h c o m p a r e s the f i g u r e s g i v e n by Ravenstein a n d b y K i e p e r t a n d B i a n c o n i . These states h a d e m e r g e d d e s p i t e the M u s l i m prep o n d e r a n c e i n areas such as D o b r u c a a n d t h e sancaks of eastern Bulgaria. and other data for the Ottoman state in 1310 (1894) begins with a general introduction discussing the meaning and importance of statistics. produced several works. again i g n o r i n g the w i s h e s o f the o v e r w h e l m i n g M u s l i m m a j o r i t y . used statistics f r o m several sources.t h r e e 1 2 3 : Source: Salnames of H. the p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s p r e s e n t e d b v those w h o i g n o r e d O t t o m a n statistics v a r i e d g r e a t l y f r o m the f i g u r e s g i v e n b y the m o r e c o n s c i e n t i o u s r e p o r t e r s .A p p e n d i x B.

B o t h the English and French. ed.000 750. i n c l u d i n g a b o r t i o n a n d . a n d .114. 1 0 T h e rise of a G r e e k m e r c h a n t elite i n the O t t o m a n state.135.M u s l i m 150. Ethnographie et statistique de la Turguie d'Europe et de la Grèce (Paris. w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n the economic role w h i c h a n i n d e p e n d e n t Greece c o u l d plav i n d i s t r i b u t i n g to the East g o o d s m a n u f a c t u r e d b y their i n d u s - 5.000 Herzegovinians a n d prestige to a degree u n k n o w n e v e n d u r i n g the h e y d a y Serbians (in Bosnia) 550. which continued to publish articles on Ottoman population.000 3. A s late as the 1840s the O t t o m a n g o v e r n Armenians 110. and aided b y a p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n i n the O t t o m a n hierarchy. A v d i n a n d m a n y other places b e n e f i t i n g f r o m the Greekm a n a g e d e c o n o m i c b o o m .46 OTTOMAN POPULATION.G r e e k W a r of 1919-1922.000 100. 2 . a p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n u n s u r p a s s e d Number Number Christians Muslims by a n y other e t h n i c g r o u p — i n c l u d i n g the T u r k s .000 1. w h o h a d d i s c o v e r e d the c u l t u r a l r o o t s of the West i n the ancient c i v i l i z a t i o n of Greece.000 723. Thrace a n d w e s t e r n A n a t o l i a — became the b a t t l e g r o u n d of c o n f l i c t i n g n a t i o n a l a m b i t i o n s .000 p e o p l e . c o n s c i o u s l y or n o t . free of m i l i t a r y obligations a n d p a y i n g i n s i g n i f i c a n t taxes i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r i n c o m e s . T h r e e m a j o r a r e a s — M a c e d o n i a . M a c e d o n i a . h a r d p r e s s e d by e c o n o m i c d i f f i c u l t i e s . . ed. a n d easte r n R u m e l i a . P o p u l a t i o n statistics w e r e the f i r s t w e a p o n s i n the battle that was later carried f o r w a r d w i t h g u n s a n d b u l l e t s . m a n y m i g r a t e d to w e s t e r n A n a t o l i a a n d settled t h e r e . A good source was the Österreichische Monatsschrift für den Orient. 388.000 Croatians (in Bosnia) 75. Paris. A .000 144. Greeks f r o m the i n t e r i o r m o v e d to the seaports of T r a b z o n a n d G i r e s u n to create i n these cities a s m a l l economic r e v o l u t i o n based o n free e n t e r p r i s e a n d f o r e i g n t r a d e . n a t i o n a l . The British r e m a i n e d i n t e r e s t e d i n p o p u l a t i o n figures for the provinces of eastern A n a t o l i a w h e r e A r m e n i a n s claimed to be a large p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n because of t h e i r responsibility for r e f o r m s there. the Greeks also settled i n t h e i n t e r i o r t o w n s s u c h as M a n i s a . h a d been r e m o v e d b y the B e r l i n treaty: the " E a s t e r n Q u e s t i o n " h a d a l w a y s been essentially a " C h r i s t i a n P o p u l a t i o n Q u e s t i o n .5 to 58. Because of t h e favorable c o n d i t i o n s created b y t h e edicts of 1839 a n d 1856.000 Bosnians i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m p r o m o t e d b y the s u l t a n . e v e r y w h e r e i n western Anatolia the Greeks replaced t h e T u r k s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r : A G r e e k arrives i n a M u s l i m v i l l a g e a n d c o m m e n c e s life as a small t r a d e s m a n . 18/6-18/ S According to Ravenstein Total Population Number Turks (Tatars) Circassians Arabs Greeks Albanians Romanians Bulgarians Serbians Russians Armenians Jews Gypsies Foreigners Total V.000 Total the first to be g i v e n p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the h i g h O t t o m a n Sources: E. The i n f l u x of Greek colonists was not c o n f i n e d to seashore t o w n s s u c h as A y v a l i k ( w h i c h i n a m a t t e r of t h i r t y years h a d b e c o m e a m a j o r G r e e k c u l t u r a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l center i n h a b i t e d b y 40.031.585. Princeton University (Princeton. B u l g a r i a n . all s c h e d u l e d for i n c l u s i o n i n B u l g a r i a . T h e deficiency 3 100 I n d e e d .6 to 12. A k ş e h i r . Research Monograph no. G. the p r o p o r t i o n of the T u r k i s h p o p u l a t i o n is also s h o w n to h a v e decreased: i n Ç e ş m e . m e r c h a n t s ." The Geographical Magazine 3 (October 1876): 260: F. " W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Felix K a n i t z ' s studies a n d a f e w others. 283. 1973). w h o a f e w years ago w e r e comparatively wealthy m e n / 7 22 12 p l a n of c o l o n i z a t i o n ( a l t h o u g h such a scheme d i d e v e n t u a l l y take shape) b u t m e r e l y the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t y .120. a n d t h e y became its m a i n p r o p o n e n t s a n d beneficiaries. or schoolmasters to s t i m u l a t e o t h e r s by t h e i r e x a m p l e . a m o n g C h r i s t i a n s a n d M u s l i m s after 1878 s t e m m e d essenAccording to Sianconi and Kiepert t i a l l y f r o m e t h n i c a n d l i n g u i s t i c a t t a c h m e n t s . 9. HCAP 100 44 (1881). caused an increase i n the size of the G r e e k . r i c h Greeks sent t h e i r c h i l d r e n f o r e d u c a t i o n to h i g h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s of l e a r n i n g f r o m w h i c h these y o u n g m e n r e t u r n e d as d o c t o r s . T h e y w e r e n o t subject to c o n s c r i p t i o n or v a r i o u s other h e a v y o b l i g a t i o n s . Ravenstein. D u r i n g t h e same n i n e t e e n year p e r i o d a n d i n t h e same area. 1983). f r o m . 39. t h e Greeks Albanians and Greeks 170.000 39 4 1 20 — — — — — 1 i n E u r o p e a n . T h e p o p u l a t i o n statistics w a r p r o d u c e d a mass of i n f o r m a t i o n n o t o n l y a b o u t the size of v a r i o u s e t h n i c .000 72.000 3. a n d to speak o n b e h a l f of.000 3. The p u b l i c a t i o n Gobi w a s able. or R o m a n s .000 Total 1. i n s o m e cases.000 — — 52. The svllogues w e r e ostensibly l i t e r a r y a n d 8. A f t e r 1878 the E u r o peans' interest i n the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n slackened c o n siderably. a n d i n Seferihisar. from Millets to Xations. A s t h e beneficiaries of t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l . i n n e a r l y every t o w n M o s l e m s are now to be f o u n d .000 8.861. see mv An Inquiry into the Social Foundations of Nationalism in the Ottoman State: Trow.p r o d u c e d figures was f u l l v c o m p e n s a t e d for bv the i m p r o v e m e n t i n the q u a l i t y a n d coverage of the O t t o m a n s ' o w n statistics after 1881 a n d bv the field reports of British consular agents a n d special m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l w h o v i s i t e d each area a n d c o m p i l e d v o l u m i n o u s data. . A s a n e t h n i c g r o u p .000 442.000 of B y z a n t i u m . a n d .9 to 24.000 m e n t still r e f e r r e d to all the C h r i s t i a n O r t h o d o x i n the r e a l m 90. 3.000 200. e m p l o y i n g statistics f r o m O t t o m a n o f f i c i a l s o u r c e s — m a n y u n p u b l i s h e d u n t i l n o w — a n d f r o m the special B r i t i s h reports on Ottoman population. W h i l e t h e M u s l i m .6 p e r c e n t i n S e f e r i h i s a r . London.000 1.000 G r e e k s to 41. see my "Population Movements in the Ottoman State in the Nineteenth Century: A n Outline.000 Orthodox Christendom in Europe a n d Asia. f r o m 34. i f the present m o v e m e n t c o n t i n u e s f o r a n o t h e r f i f t y years. The d i s p l a c e m e n t of M u s l i m s b y G r e e k m i g r a n t s c h a n g e d the e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n of e n t i r e t o w n s a n d villages i n a f e w years' t i m e i n a process w h i c h i n v o l v e d no p r e d e t e r m i n e d 7. "XIX Yuzyilda Urla Yarimadasinda Nüfus H a r e k e t l e r i . first as Overrun by Turks. I n 1830 t h e p o p u l a t i o n of I z m i r was e s t i m a t e d to have consisted of 80.000 38. i n U r l a .e x p a n d i n g m i d dle class w h i c h .000 % 17 2 — 14 13 2 35 13 Muslims Number 1. 8 — 1 1 1 1 — M e a n w h i l e . w h o s e 3. U n a b l e to f i n d e m p l o y m e n t . Before the m i d d l e of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y the G r e e k p o p u l a t i o n of A n a t o l i a a p p a r e n t l y w a s r a t h e r i n s i g n i f i c a n t in size. Svnvet d i d n o t t r u s t the c o m m u n i t y registers because t h e y gave o n l y the n u m b e r of houses a n d the n u m b e r of m a r r i e d people a n d because. a n d f r o m 64. i n fanticide. eastern A n a t o l i a . t h r o u g h m a n y sensational a r t i cles.000 104. I n t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t of Asia M i n o r . For bibliographical references. the q u e s t i o n of the fate of the B a l k a n C h r i s t i a n p o p u l a t i o n . c o u l d a f f o r d t o raise large f a m i l i e s .B e r l i n C o n g r e s s statistics d e s i g n e d to s h o w t h a t G r e e k s f o r m e d a large p a r t of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n of T h r a c e . "Distribution of the Population in the Part of Europe bureaucracy w i t h o u t h a v i n g to c o n v e r t to I s l a m . a n d M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n s of b o t h E u r o p e a n d Asia. to a s o m e w h a t lesser extent.000 Circassians 200.000 Pure Greeks Turks and Tatars claims to n a t i o n a l s u p r e m a c y h a d l o n g since been subGreeks-Albanians 630.s p e a k i n g p o p u l a t i o n a n d o f g r o u p s t h a t i d e n tified w i t h the G r e e k Patriarchate. as the c h i e f s t i m u l u s of this interest. See Tuncer Baykara. a n d e c o n o m i c forces.1 p e r c e n t of the p o p u l a t i o n of Ç e ş m e to o n l y 16 percent. a p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n of the h i g h e s t i n t e r e s t a n d i m p o r t a n c e w i l l arise f o r s o l u t i o n . the G r e e k s w e r e able to create a f a s t . The G r e e k i m m i g r a n t s w e r e f a v o r e d b y e c o n o m i c c o n d i tions. t h e Greeks w e r e 8. The Orthodox Albanians (Catholic) 80. Collection Turcica. FO 78 2784. a n d d o t t e d w i t h h o s p i tals a n d schools a n d h a r b o r i n g 2. 6 tries. e c o n o m i c . a n d c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n of the O t t o m a n E m p i r e i n general.r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s b u t also a b o u t the social. The w e s t e r n i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h ancient Greece t h u s sprang n o t o n l y f r o m historical r o m a n t i c i s m b u t also f r o m strong e c o n o m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . p. some t h i r t y .000 5.000 Pomaks 140." in Contributions i ! I'Histoire Econotuique et Sociale de l'Empire Ottoman. 1877). h o w e v er.000 Bulgarians (Catholic) 100. the Greeks. for a more detailed view of this process.000 ships)." Österreichische Monatsschrift 8 [1882]: 149-52).000 T u r k s ( M u s lims). T h e i n f l a t e d statistics s u b m i t t e d to the B r i t i s h to s h o w the size of t h e G r e e k p o p u l a t i o n as c o m p a r e d w i t h t h a t of o t h e r r e l i g i o u s . T h e G r e e k p o p u l a t i o n of t h e O t t o m a n state i n the p e r i o d f r o m 1860 t o 1870 w a s e s t i m a t e d at a b o u t 1 m i l l i o n i n E u r o p e (Greece p r o p e r excepted) a n d a b o u t 1 m i l l i o n also i n A n a t o l i a .1 2 to 10.000 Greeks-Wallachs 70. t h e M u s l i m s w e n t f r o m 19. there w e r e m a n v people w h o a v o i d e d such r e g i s t r a t i o n i n o r d e r n o t to p a v taxes to the ecclesiasts. v o l . H e g r a d u a l l y g r o w s r i c h w h i l s t the peasants b e c o m e p o o r .410. the entire Albanians (Orthodox) 290. no.207.000 i 144. . became i n t e r e s t e d i n its o w n numerical strength. 1 .9 p e r c e n t . f r o m 82. e v e n t u a l l y he is j o i n e d b y f r i e n d s or relatives a n d t h e p o v e r t y of the peasant increases.f i v e years later the success of the G r e e k migration into Anatolia culminated in invasion by Athens a n d the b l o o d y T u r k o . S y n v e t c o n d u c t e d a s u r v e y of the G r e e k p o p u l a t i o n based p a r t l y o n the G r e e k c o m m u n i t y registers b u t m o s t l y o n the p o p u l a t i o n statistics a c c u m u l a t e d b y the svllogues. k e p t h i s f a m i l y s m a l l b y e v e r y possible m e a n s .000. 389-90 (Wilson to Goschen). i n a p e r i o d of n i n e t e e n years f r o m 1305 to 1326 (1887-1908). pp.000 10.000 2. i n a state of p o v e r t y . T h e Greeks were ff.000 over a p e r i o d of n o t q u i t e t w e n t y years. Social Estates to Classes. I n this chapter I s u r v e y the G r e e k . T h e y h a v e a n a r d e n t love a n d y e a r n i n g for l i b e r t y . r e s u l t e d f r o m e c o n o m i c forces g e n e r a t e d b y the e x p a n d i n g E u r o p e a n c a p i t a l i s m .000 60.n a t i o n a l g r o u p s i n the E u r o p e a n d o m a i n s of the O t t o m a n state are r e p r o d u c e d i n Table 3 . T h e o p p o s i t e was t r u e for t h e p r e . Okyar and Halil Inalcik (Ankara. " i n Social and Economic History of Turken 1071-1910.000 T u r k s a n d 20. pp. a n d its v i t a l role i n the e m e r g e n c e of a secular f o r m of h e l l e n i s m ( w h i c h came i n t o c o n f l i c t s h a r p l y w i t h the Istanb u l Patriarchate's r e l i g i o u s d r e a m of a B y z a n t i n e n a t i o n a l revival).000 m e r g e d b y M u s l i m u n i v e r s a l i s m a n d the O t t o m a n .000 Patriarchate. Bianconi.000. A B r i t i s h c o n s u l a r agent e s t i m a t e d i n 1880 that the n u m b e r of these m i g r a n t s w a s as h i g h as 200. Each e t h n i c g r o u p . 9 — 100 The Greeks The H e l l e n e s i n the O t t o m a n state e n j o y e d .1 to 74 p e r c e n t .000 Vlahs (Romanians) as R u m . s h i e l d e d b y O t t o m a n m i g h t . many written by pre-1878 authors such as Hugo Kutschern (see his "Geographisch-ethnographische Ubersicht. u n t i l the Greek u p r i s i n g of 1821. O. 50 interpreters a n d t h e n . For e x a m p l e . A c c o r d i n g t o a B r i t i s h consular r e p o r t . as r u l e r s ( k n o w n as phanariots) of W a l l a c h i a a n d M o l d a v i a . Jean-Louis BacqueGramont and Paul Dumont (Istanbul. that is. a deep-seated intolerance of f o r e i g n r u l e . the C h r i s t i a n p o p u l a t i o n of the Aegean I s l a n d s h a d b e g u n to increase r a p i d l y . f r o m 20.388. also the f i r s t to embrace the E u r o p e a n capitalist system.: Heinrich Kiepert.000 came to represent.7 percent. i n 1860 there w e r e 75. Because of their 3. 6.4 p e r c e n t i n U r l a . Das Ausland. Ethnic D i s t r i b u t i o n of the O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n i n the Balkans.000 1. to c o n v i n c e the B r i t i s h that t h e G r e e k s w e r e a b o u t to suffer a great i n j u s t i c e . t h e f i g u r e for E u r o p e w a s o b v i o u s l y s o m e w h a t l o w . regardless of t h e i r e t h n i c origins. u n t i l a succession of b a d h a r v e s t s forces t h e m to p a r t w i t h t h e i r l a n d s a n d m o v e f u r t h e r i n l a n d . A r m e n i a n . HCAP 100 44 (1881). A m o n g s t t h e w e a l t h y M o s l e m s the process is m u c h t h e same . f r o m 1711 to 1821. Center of International Studies.000 — 790. T h i s p a t t e r n p r e v a i l e d t h r o u g h o u t m o s t of the kaza. 287 (Wilson to Goschen). 20 (20 May 1878): 393-416. I n t o w n s near I z m i r the p r o p o r t i o n of M u s l i m s decreased c o n s i d e r a b l y .000 Greeks. 10. i n t u r n . the v o l u m e a n d q u a l i t y of E u r o p e a n w o r k s o n O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n after 1878 is scarcelv c o m p a r a b l e w i t h that p u b l i s h e d just p r i o r to t h e B e r l i n C o n g r e s s .000 Bulgarians (Orthodox) h i s t o r i c a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e P a t r i a r c h a t e . 1980). p. 1830-1914 T H E R E L I G I O U S A N D E T H N I C D I S T R I B U T I O N OF T H E O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N 47 Table 3 . i n a d d i t i o n . e n j o y e d p o w e r 140.

These r e p o r t s are available i n the B r i t i s h P u b l i c R e c o r d s . the census f i g u r e s for 1914. Materials on the Danube Province [m Bulgarian] (Sofia. b e n e f i t ting f r o m t h e i r p r o x i m i t y to the O t t o m a n capital a n d f r o m the r e f o r m s i n t r o d u c e d b y t h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t (these include a v a r i e t y of measures c o n c e r n i n g l a n d t e n u r e ) .000 1.2. (Sofia. ( A n o t h e r total f i g u r e of 2.000 M u s l i m s a n d u p r o o t e d m o r e t h a n a m i l l i o n w h o w e r e l i v i n g i n a n area s t r e t c h i n g all the w a y f r o m the D a n u b e to I s t a n b u l . came to s u d d e n f r u i t i o n i n 1877/78 after Russia. Greek P o p u l a t i o n i n the O t t o m a n State i n 1878 ( A c c o r d i n g to S y n v e t ) 728. FO 78/2787 (Recchioli to Barker. T h e h e l l e n i z a t i o n p r o cess came to a s t a n d s t i l l after the B u l g a r i a n c o m m u n i t y i n I s t a n b u l . Rusçuk.097. l e d b y m e r c h a n t s a n d w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l of the s u l t a n . o r r o u g h l y a b o u t 9 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of t h e O t t o m a n state. H . Serbia (Yugoslavia after 1918). Bulgarization—at t i m e s C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n — a n d t h e i r M u s l i m names w e r e c h a n g e d to C h r i s t i a n n a m e s . Southeastern Europe Under Ottoman Rule. M o r e o v e r . the B u l g a r i a n c o m m u n i t i e s u n d e r w e n t a p r o f o u n d i n t e r n a l economic a n d d e m o g r a p h i c r e v o l u t i o n . E p i r .332. c h u r c h a f f i l i a t i o n a n d n a t i o n a l i t y h a v i n g c o m e to coincide. M e a n w h i l e . first i n t o t h e v a l l e y s (a p r o cess that h a d b e g u n earlier i n the R h o d o p e s . Serres. 8 H o w e v e r . after a p e r i o d of f r i e n d s h i p w i t h the Czar. A c t u a l l y they were p o l i t i c a l . t h e B u l g a r i a n c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e free to choose the Exarchate or to r e m a i n w i t h the Greek Patriarchate. See Les Crees de I'Empire ottoman (Paris. u Table 3. a n d G . A L „ n u m b e r of B u l g a r i a n s i n the R h o d o p e M o u n t a i n s h a d aep' s i x t e e n t h centuries b u t t i n u e d to speak t h e i r n a t i v e t o n g u e .234.000 the B r i t i s h vice-consul Stanislas Recchioli h a d alreadv rep o r t e d t h a t i n 1878 the D r a m a sancak h a d a p o p u l a t i o n of 314. By the 1870s t h e B u l g a r i a n s h a d a w e l l r o u n d e d m i d d l e class of m e r c h a n t s a n d p r o d u c e r s w h o d i d not relv solely o n the exchange of g o o d s a n d a little m a n u f a c t u r i n g . Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Méditerranée 31 (1981): 119-37.657 ( u n a d j u s t e d f i g u r e s ) . I (London. C a n i k (Sams u n ) . Naseleniento na Turtsii i Bulgarii prez XVI1I-XIX v. See FO 424/99. T h e u p r o o t i n g of the M u s l i m s f r o m t h e D a n u b e a n d E d i r n e p r o v i n c e s i n 1877/78 is described i n the g r i m m e s t d e t a i l i n the r e p o r t s of the B r i t i s h c o n s u l a r agents s t a t i o n e d i n P h i l i p p o p o l i s . K n o w n as P o m a k s ("Helpers").3. declared w a r o n t h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e czarist a r m i e s s w e p t across the Balkans.48 OTTOMAN POPULATION. s t a n t i a l p a r t of the B u l g a r i a n . T h i s f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t e d the m i g r a t i o n of B u l g a rians f r o m m o u n t a i n o u s areas. ottoman et de ses marges du X V " au XIX siècle: Bibliographie (1941-1980) et bilan provisoire. b u t c h i e f l y o n the p r o d u c t i o n a n d exchange of t h e i r o w n p r o d u c t s . s t o p p i n g at the gates of I s t a n b u l . h a v i n g b e e n caused i n i t i a l l y b y the K i r j a l i r e v o l t s ) a n d t h e n i n t o t h e t o w n s . (Soon m a n y o t h e r B u l g a r i a n s w e r e to s h i f t their r e l i g i o u s a n d also n a t i o n a l allegiance to the Exarchate. M a n astir.964. a n d I s t a n b u l . 1 5 A g a i n d i f f e r i n g f r o m the G r e e k s . Synvet. w h i c h at first h a d a l i m i t e d f o l l o w i n g i n B u l g a r i a .860 617. a n d t h e O t t o m a n s . i s c i e n t i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e s i g n e d to p r o m o t e e d u c a t i o n a m o n g the Greeks.747 (males a n d females). T h u s . Z o g r a p h o s . 14. Peter Sugar. 226.s p e a k i n g Muslims. 1977). (This process s t i l l continues a n d has b e e n e x t e n d e d to the T u r k i s h . 1354-1804 (Seattle.369 Thrace Macedonia Epirus Tessaly Other European areas Aegean Islands Asia Syria Greek Catholics Total The O t t o m a n census of 1881:82-1893 gave the first t r u l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e account of the G r e e k p o p u l a t i o n still l i v i n g in the O t t o m a n state. T h e r e w a s an exchange of p o p u l a t i o n . h a d o p t e d for the p a t r o n a g e of the B r i t i s h . b e c o m i n g u r b a n a n d d e v e l o p i n g a m e r c h a n t elite w h i c h became active in I s t a n b u l a n d even i n Russia.".729.343 ( u n a d j u s t e d ) .000 724.720 1878 Macedonia (Salónica.776 70. o v e r 50 percent) was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the vilayets o f E d i r n e . p. T r a b z o n . after B u l g a r i a became i n d e pendent a n d a c q u i r e d m o s t o f the areas i n h a b i t e d b y t h e Pomaks. w h i c h w e r e t h e m o s t prosperous a n d c o m m e r c i a l l y active p r o v i n c e s (see the statistical a p p e n d i c e s . etc. .094 125. K a r e s i .000 1. as d i d m o s t of t h e Greeks i n A n a t o l i a .000 4. It s h o w e d .225. w h o s e statistics d r e w sharp r e b u t t a l . F i n a l l y . A t o t a l of 67. H e n c e f o r t h . chiefly Edirne vilayet) Greeks Bulgarians Muslims Others Foreigners Total Source' F O 78 2784.520 558.377. the ethnicc h a r a c t e r of the l a t t e r b e i n g d i s p u t e d b y Serbians a n d G r e e k s . 1878). Drama. M a c e d o nia.042 Bulgarians h a d already o p t e d f o r the n e w established (1870) B u l g a r i a n Exarchate. 21 A p r i l 1887). i n c l u d i n g s u c h p r o m i n e n t O t t o m a n financiers as C h r i s t a k i E f e n d i . after the G r e e k i n v a s i o n of A n a t o l i a was re-'p e l l e d i n the b l o o d y w a r of 1919-1922. M a n a s t i r . p. after Y a n y a ( J a n i n a ) . V a r n a . Monastin 705. T h e f i n a l page i n the b o o k o f T u r k i s h .d e v e l o p i n g B u l g a r i a n m i d d l e class l i v e d o n l a n d s w h i c h t h e y h a d i n h a b i t e d c o n t i n u o u s l y a n d to w h i c h t h e y h a d h i s t o r i c a l c l a i m s .122 J e w s . the B u l g a r i a n s w e r e o f f i c i a l l y recogn i z e d as h a v i n g n u m e r i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y i n the a u t o n o m o u s B u l g a r i a n p r i n c i p a l i t y a n d i n eastern R u m e l i a (the latter w a s a n n e x e d i n 1885 i n o u t r i g h t v i o l a t i o n of t h e t r e a t y ) . E d i r n e . there w a s n o t m u c h a t t e n t i o n p a i d to the M u s l i m s . A g r o u p of cattle m e r c h a n t s ( k n o w n as jelcp) h a d been active as earl}' as the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n s u p p l y i n g meat a n d d a i r y p r o d u c t s to t h e m a r k e t s i n I s t a n b u l . i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e there emerged a n a t i v e p e t t y l a n d l o r d class (sometimes r e f e r r e d to as Çorbaci) c o n s i s t i n g of c o m m u n a l leaders a n d notables w h o b o u g h t u p m u c h of t h e l a n d h e l d b y M u s l i m peasants a n d l a n d l o r d s . as t h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t r e g a r d e d t h e m as p a r t of the O r t h o d o x millet a n d d i d n o t classify t h e m as a separate e t h n i c g r o u p u n t i l the second h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( a l t h o u g h the census of 1831 occasionally refers to t h e m b y t h e i r e t h n i c n a m e ) .747 587. The People of Turkey.641 females. a m i l i t a r y officer sent especially by the B r i t i s h embassy i n I s t a n b u l to f i n d o u t the exact n u m b e r of the M a c e d o n i a n p o p u l a t i o n . see Nikola V. Burgas. E d i r n e . a n d the I s l a n d s w e r e lost to Serbia a n d Greece (1912-1913) a n d A l b a n i a h a d b e c o m e i n d e p e n d e n t .043 A l b a n i a n s ( w h o also r e c o g n i z e d the Greek Patriarchate i n I s t a n b u l ) . ) Later the O t t o m a n official p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r 1895 s h o w e d t h a t the Greek p o p u l a t i o n h a d risen to 2. w h i l e the peasants secured. 1 3 . w i t h o u t real cause. a n d o t h e r O r t h o d o x C h r i s tians. t h e B u l g a r i a n s l i v e d m o s t l y i n a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s b u t also e n g a g e d i n trade a n d crafts i n the towns. correspondence for 1S77-1879. University of Washington Press. 50.300 223. A y d i n ( I z m i r ) . the G r e e k s i n h a b i t i n g I s t a n b u l a n d t h e M u s l i m s of w e s t e r n Thrace w e r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s e x c h a n g e . as w e l l as i n the D a n u b i a n p o r t s i n R o m a n i a .487 persons. first.) T h u s . m a n y of w h o m h a d b e e n e d u cated i n M o s c o w a n d o t h e r Russian c i t i e s — o f t e n as the recipients of special f e l l o w s h i p s established by the Russian Pan-Slavists.892 247.G r e e k p o l i t i c a l rela¬ tions i n v o l v i n g issues r e l a t e d to p o p u l a t i o n was w r i t t e n i n 1926—that is.549 Christians. 1830-1914 T H E R E L I G I O U S A N D E T H N I C D I S T R I B U T I O N OF T H E O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N 49 Table 3.666. It also s h o w e d t h a t the G r e e k p o p u l a t i o n was spread t h r o u g h o u t the O t t o m a n d o m a i n s . T h e m o v e m e n t c u l m i n a t e d i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a B u l g a r i a n Exarchate i n 1870. the total n u m b e r of C h r i s t i a n s (males) l i v i n g i n M a c e d o n i a w a s 425. d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o m e sections of the B u l g a r i a n p o p u l a t i o n w e r e t r a n s f o r m e d . 1915-1968). People s p e a k i n g a dialect of B u l g a r i a n r e m a i n e d u n d e r O t t o m a n r u l e i n M a c e d o n i a after 1878 a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y became the subject of d i s p u t e s b e t w e e n B u l g a r i a . a n d i n the nineteenth c e n t u r y the B u l g a r i a n m i d d l e classes. a c c o r d i n g to S y n g e ..s p e a k i n g p e o p l e w i t h T u r a n i c r o o t s . T h e O t t o m a n s ceased to be a p a r t y to t h e d i s p u t e i n 1913.165 of these b e i n g e t h n i c T u r k s ) a n d o n l v 43. M o s t of the 16. See FO 78 and 242. a n d D r a m a a m o u n t e d i n 1878 to o n l y 166. w h o . w a s closed i n 1767 (largely t h r o u g h the efforts o f the O r t h o d o x Patriarchate i n I s t a n b u l ) . "La population de i'Empire B e g i n n i n g i n the second h a l f of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . D u r i n g this m a r c h R u s s i a n soldiers a n d B u l g a r i a n b a n d s k i l l e d o u t r i g h t s o m e 200. of w h o m 88. Thrace. a n d I s t a n b u l . m a k i n g i n effect a p o l i t i c a l declaration of B u l g a r i a n or Greek n a t i o n a l i t y . w h i c h ext e n d e d s o u t h w a r d to T h r a c e a n d to M a c e d o n i a . its heaviest c o n c e n t r a t i o n s b e i n g i n the vilayets of Y a n y a . see also Stanley Lane Poole.000 to 300. as w e l l .628 was o b t a i n e d b y r o u n d i n g o f f the total for females a n d a d d i n g 8 percent f o r e r r o r .330.w o r k i n g a n d frugal people w i t h strong group loyalties. stated i n a p r e l i m i n a r y rep o r t t h a t the t o t a l G r e e k m a l e p o p u l a t i o n of Selanik. 1980). t h e y w e r e r e g a r d e d b y t h e O t t o m a n s as p a r t of e M u s l i m g r o u p . T h u s the O t t o m a n D a n u b e p r o v i n c e c o n t a i n e d a 1 4 As u s u a l .) 16 W i t h the s i g n i n g of the B e r l i n treaty i n 1878. as against 310. S y n v e t .500 140.441 M u s l i m s a n d 28. A c t u a l l y U . 5 vols.8 a n d 14). For bibliographical references. developed r a p i d l y a n d a c q u i r e d considerable e c o n o m i c p o w er. The statistical h i s t o r y of the B u l g a r i a n s is a r a t h e r p e c u l iar o n e . i n i t i a t e d i n the 1850s a m o v e m e n t f o r a n a t i o n a l c h u r c h . Z a r i f i . S y n g e . gave the total n u m b e r o f Greeks i n the entire O t t o m a n r e a l m as over 4 m i l l i o n . Thr2ce (including Istanbul.620 w e r e T u r k s a n d the rest w e r e Greeks a n d B u l g a r i a n s . T r a b z o n . Selanik. d i r e c t l y a n d i n d i r e c t l y . and Daniel Panzac. as agajnst 116. s h o w t h a t t h e G r e e k s s t i l l n u m b e r e d 1. c o n trol of m u c h of the l a n d .000 132. 743. w a s 2. 1. The t o t a l Greek p o p u l a t i o n . A t t h a t t i m e m o s t o f t h e G r e e k ' p o p u l a t i o n (that is.500 349. w h i l e massive g o v e r n m e n t m i l i t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e i n the area a d d e d to its p r o s p e r i t y . b u t later.000 35. Serez.191. T h e Pan-Slavic m o v e m e n t o r i g i n a t i n g i n Moscow f o u n d ready adherents a m o n g t h e Bulgarian n a t i o n a l i s t i n t e l l i g e n t s i a .324. Serbs. 1878).152 V l a h s (Romanians).550 males a n d 1. that Svnvet's statistics w e r e w r o n g . the Bulgarians became subject to i n t e n s i v e h e l l e n i z a t i o n e f f o r t s by the Greek schools a n d c h u r c h e s . rut e a a e d I s ! a m i n t h e f i f t e e n t h a n d o n tri Source: A.s p e a k i n g p o p u l a t i o n . the G r e e k s of A n a t o l i a b e i n g exc h a n g e d f o r the T u r k s of t h a t p a r t of M a c e d o n i a w h i c h became p a r t o f Greece (Salonica) a n d of eastern Thrace.000 100. see Table 3 . A f t e r the c h u r c h of O h r i d a . t h e y w e r e c o n s i d e r e d " B u l g a r i a n s " a n d subjected to a massive process of " n a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 3 .972. the s o u t h e r n slopes of those m o u n t a i n s . R o m a n i a n s . " t h a t is. 1 2 The Bulgarians A S l a v i c . c o n s i d e r e d to be the s y m b o l of B u l g a r i a n i d e n t i t y . the Bulgarians i n h a b i t e d c h i e f l y a q u a d r a n g l e of t e r r i t o r y s a n d w i c h e d b e t w e e n the D a n u b e a n d the B a l k a n M o u n t a i n s a n d . O f f i c e . (See also C h a p t e r 4. m u c h of t h i s f a s t . vol.000 35.900 315. of w h o m 270. h a v i n g b e e n defeated i n the B a l k a n W a r a n d r e l i n q u i s h e d a u t h o r i t y over M a c e d o n i a a n d m o s t of Thrace. c o n s i s t i n g o f 1. T h i s w a s d e s p i t e t h e fact that travelers i n t h e Balkans i n the p r e v i o u s centuries h a d repeatedly r e f e r r e d to the B u l g a r i a n s as a separate n a t i o n a l i t y . T h e p r o g r e s s i v e measures i n t r o duced b y M i t h a t Paşa i n t h e D a n u b e p r o v i n c e d u r i n g t h e second h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y increased a g r i c u l t u r a l production and i m p r o v e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . w h i c h occ u r r e d after t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t of the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n .000 1.188. C r e e k P o p u l a t i o n i n E u r o p e a n T u r k e y . a l t h o u g h Synge r e p o r t e d t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n of D r a ma consisted of 112.024 B u l g a r i a n s . the B u l g a r i a n s f r o m the b e g i n n i n g p i n n e d t h e i r hopes o n Russia.) A h a r d . t h e y w e r e s u p p o r t e d by rich Greek merchants. and my review in' American Historical Review 84 (1979): 798-80. Les Grecs de l'Empire ottoman (Paris. Mikhov. .l i t e r a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a i m e d at a w a k e n i n g a n a t i o n a l consciousness a m o n g G r e e k s a n d at p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t f o r the Patriarchate's endea v o r to h e l l e n i z e the Bulgarians. The literature on the Bulgarians during the Ottoman era is too rich to be cited in detail. the A e g e a n Islands. 1878) 12.' a n d 25. T h e n a t i o n a l m o v e m e n t .998 w e r e M u s lims (249. 15 See Slavka Draganova. p 8 13. Greece.

000 to 9.767 700 67. The Christian p o p u l a t i o n of S e l a n i k .) A s one w o u l d expect. and E. The scarcity of p o p u l a t i o n statistics o n A r m e n i a n s .000 to 400. Edition Georges Cres et Cie. " T h e R o m a n i a n .911 18.375.000 -j 924. 11 April 1878. o n e can use this salname to estimate that the t o t a l n u m b e r of m a l e B u l g a r i a n s i n T u n a Province was 490. Etudes de voyages (Paris. Ravenstein.147 8. see the excellent study by Fikret Adanir. There w e r e also a f e w C a t h o l i c C r e e k s a n d B u l g a r i a n s .000 370. M o s h n i n .5.244.162 652.000 1. ( B a t u m . for the controversy over' nationality. see also Helle von Samo.892 a n d of M u s l i m s at 412. those c h o o s i n g the Exarchate w e r e b u l g a r i z e d . a l t h o u g h it d i f f e r e d i n scope a n d i n t e n s i t y . T h e s e w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d c h i e f l y i n t h e provinces of E d i r n e .000 as the total n u m b e r of B u l g a r i a n s i n the O t t o m a n state (exclusive o f M a c e d o n i a ) i n 1878. Armenian.154. I t is c e r t a i n t h a t the o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y of the O r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n s l i v i n g i n the T u n a vilayet w e r e Bulgarians: the Salname of 1285 (1868) p l a c e d t h e t o t a l n u m b e r of C h r i s t i a n s (males) i n t h i s p r o v i n c e at 610.s p e a k i n g B u l g a r i a n s . O n e m a y a t t e m p t to d e t e r m i n e the t o t a l n u m b e r of the Bulgarians b y t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c a l dist r i b u t i o n . of w h o m the m a j o r i t y m u s t h a v e been A r m e n i a n s . 26 September 1878). " International journal of Middle East Studies 6 (1975): 276-99.467. FO 424/70 (Musurus Paşa to Salisbury.000 25. as o p p o s e d to 359. w h o w e r e a c o m p o n e n t of t h e M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n i n the area.000 Ethnic Groups Turks (including many non-Turkish Muslims) ? Bulgarians Greeks Albanians Vlahs (Romanians) Serbs Jews Gypsies Others Total Turks Pomaks Muslims • Tatars Circassians Gypsies Jews Bulgarian Catholics Bulgarian Exarchists Greek Bulgarians Greeks Greek Viahs Greek Albanians Armenians 210.000 1. 2 1 The O t t o m a n census of 1881/82-1893 p u t t h e t o t a l n u m ber o'f B u l g a r i a n s s t i l l l i v i n g i n the O t t o m a n state at 962. S'alaheddin Bey.Bulgarians p e a k i n g p o p u l a t i o n also l i v e d i n E d i r n e . the B r i t i s h s o u g h t to revise the Treaty of San Stefano to g i v e t h e m s e l v e s the r e s p o n s i - Christians Source: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace." Revue de géographie 5 (1879): 86-91. Tulca. a n d Sofia b u t w e r e i n the m i n o r i t y i n R u § c u k .000 to 220. Varna. O f these.60 i n the kazas of V i d i n . 7 j .017 332. w a s l a r g e l y . M a n a s t i r . 1914). T h e socio-economic d e v e l o p m e n t of the A r m e n i a n s i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y f o l l o w e d i n t h e m a i n a course s i m i l a r t o t h a t of t h e Greeks a n d B u l g a r i a n s . especially i n Thrace. Enquête dans les Balkans (Paris: Centre Européen de la Dotation Carnegie.400 57. 1914).000 1. w h i l e a n i n d e p e n d e n t Greek C h u r c h w a s established i n Greece itself. these areas (except for Tulca) w e r e all m a d e p a r t of B u l g a r i a .000 a n d those i n A s i a at 2 m i l l i o n (at that date.000 1. and (no author). L I B R A F. the Greeks. 9-10. The report notes that there was great loss of life during war and that a large group'of Muslims fled.000. l a r g e l y i n o r d e r n o t t o antagonize b o t h t h e G r e e k s a n d t h e B u l g a r i a n s .048.000 8. the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t d i d n o t classify this p o p u l a t i o n as M a c e d o n i a n . Édition Georges Crès et Cie. s i g n e d u n d e r Russian pressure. f o r a g r a n d t o t a l of 3.000 7. D i y a r b e k i r .500 2:870. Sivas. Elaziz. Batzaria: The Young Turks and N a t i o n a l i s m . I n K o s o v a t h e B u l g a r i a n s w e r e far m o r e n u m e r o u s t h a n t h e G r e e k s b u t d e f i n i t e l y fewrer t h a n t h e Muslims.000 to 30. The census s h o w e d t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n of Bulgaria p r o p e r was 2. Selanik. A s the p o l i t i c a l battle f o r M a c e d o n i a i n t e n s i f i e d . b e i n g o u t n u m b e r e d i n each case b y t h e c o m b i n e d t o t a l of M u s l i m s and G r e e k s .058 w e r e M u s l i m s . 117. pp. a l t h o u g h v e r y u s e f u l . For the population of Macedonia.288 (figure a d j u s t e d ) . pp. T h e S a l n a m e o f 1295 gave the p o p u l a t i o n of the areas t h a t became p a r t of Bulgaria p r o p e r 18.820 Table 3.193.372.s p e a k i n g M u s l i m s n u m b e r e d 607. C o n s e q u e n t l y . 4 . t h e O t t o m a n o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s are the best source. La Turquie l'exposition universelle de 1867. o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . t h e n c h a n g e d i n 1876/77.000 6. r e s p e c t i v e l y . e v e n t u a l l y . gave the total C h r i s t i a n p o p u l a t i o n of the Sivas.000 to 90. especially i n the n o r t h e r n section also k n o w n as eastern R u m e l i a .453.130. 1882). a n d B a t u m p r o v i n c e s h a d n o t yet been lost t o Russia).s p e a k i n g p o p u l a t i o n of the Balk a n s — b o t h i n B u l g a r i a a n d o u t s i d e i t — a t the e n d of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s a b o u t 3. 20.326. See Donau-Bulgarien and der Balkan (Leipzig. t h e Patriarchate came t o represent c h i e f l y the Greeks i n the O t t o m a n state. R o u g h l y 65 p e r c e n t of the C h r i s t i a n s l i v i n g i n E d i r n e P r o v i n c e c o u l d be c o u n t e d as Bulgarians. 1 7 Source: F O 424/75 (Drummons-Wolff to Salisbury. 19 Reliable i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e B u l g a r i a n p o p u l a t i o n w a s provided b y a n official census c o n d u c t e d b y the B u l g a r i a n government itself i n 1888.417. For e s t i m a t i n g the n u m b e r of 18 A f t e r r o u n d i n g o f f the n u m b e r of males a n d a d j u s t i n g for error.000 to 2. Die makedonische Fragc (Wiesbaden: Skiner.711 80. w h i c h became the subject of political d i s p u t e after 1878. These f i g u r e s are i n l i n e w i t h the earlier estimates based o n O t t o m a n f i g u r e s . does n o t rest o n a n actual p o p u l a t i o n c o u n t except i n s o f a r as he used official O t t o m a n s o u r c e s . I s l i m i y e .) T h e A r m e n i a n p a t r i a r c h ' s statistics p u r p o r t i n g t o s h o w t h e A r m e n i a n s as a substantial p r o p o r t i o n . Some Bulgarians p e a k i n g g r o u p s . 810. B u l g a r i a n s .645 28.000 B u l g a r i a n . r e m a i n e d w i t h the Patriarchate i n I s t a n b u l a n d w e r e r e g a r d e d as " B u l g a r i a n speaking Greeks. the i n d e p e n d e n c e of A r m e n i a . See FO 424/75 (Drummons-Wolff to Salisbury. Die Volkcr des osmanischen Retches (Vienna. 9-10.304.000 to 24. p.000 1. "Greek A l b a n i a n " means a Christian Orthodox Albanian recognizing the Patriarchate in Istanbul. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. V a n . of the p o p u l a t i o n there of eastern A n a t o l i a w e r e soon c h a l lenged a n d exposed as false by B r i t i s h agents s t a t i o n e d i n the area. A n estimate g i v e n i n a B r i t i s h c o u n s u l a r r e p o r t o n the p o p u l a t i o n of eastern R u m e l i a before a n d after the w a r of 1877-1878 is r e p r o d u c e d i n Table 3 . b u t t h e m o r e reasonable f i g u r e s d i d n o t d i f f e r t o o m u c h f r o m the O t t o m a n official statistics. a n d A r d a h a n .730 3.840 54. 1-14 and bibliography.000 to 25.000 to 300. r e l y i n g o n w h a t statistics he c o u l d f i n d i n 1878.352 i n 1878).000 to 380. I n 1867 S a l a h e d d i n Bey placed the t o t a l n u m b e r o f A r m e nians i n E u r o p e at 400.000 8. there was a great deal of c o n f u s i o n in national and religious identification. K a r s . o n e reaches a n e s t i m a t e o f a b o u t 1.000 to 9.000 380. A l e n g t h y a n d d e t a i l e d Ottoman m e m o r a n d u m p r e p a r e d f o r the B e r l i n C o n g r e s s e d the registers of the B u l g a r i a n Exarchate ( c o u n t i n g f i v e people per h o u s e ) a n d also t h e t o t a l f i g u r e s g i v e n b y t h e Russian T e p l o v t o e s t i m a t e t h a t B u l g a r i a n s w e r e i n the majority i n a p r o p o r t i o n of 2:1.4. b u t t h e i r heaviest c o n c e n t r a t i o n w a s i n the six eastern p r o v i n c e s : E r z u r u m . 1979).000 20. 17.000 24. w h i c h c o m m a n d e d the h i g h l a n d s f r o m w h i c h a descent u p o n the Persian G u l f c o u l d easily be m a d e . had i n c l u d e d a p r o v i s i o n (art. only few of whom subsquently returned to their homes. i n a d d i t i o n there w e r e at least 200. a n d K o s o v a .665 2. A r d a h a n .000 to 25. T h u s i t is shown t h a t t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f e t h n i c Bulgarians i n Bulgaria p r o p e r a n d eastern R u m e l i a i n 1888 w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2.294 w e r e C h r i s t i a n s a n d 503. The statistics o n the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n i n A s i a M i n o r p r i o r t o 1878 are too f e w a n d too general to be of m u c h use. t h e T u r k i s h ." while a few Greek-speaking groups o p t e d for the Exarchate a n d became " G r e e k .000 to 2.000. f e e l i n g t h a t an A r m e n i a n g o v e r n m e n t c o u l d n o t w i t h s t a n d the attacks of the K u r d s .) T h e C h r i s t i a n p o p u l a t i o n of these six vilayets. the n u m ber of the M u s l i m s is g r o s s l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d because most of the 200. Ni§. V.000 to 8. 19. Ritter z u r H e l l e v o n Samo as 1.000 20. P o p u l a t i o n of Eastern R u m e l i a before a n d after the W a r of 1877-1878 Before the War After the War 80. b u t n o t e x c l u s i v e l y .600 69.907 M u s l i m s .000 to 30.50 OTTOMAN POPULATION. for a t o t a l O t t o m a n A r m e n i a n p o p u l a t i o n of 872. In s u m . ( A f t e r m o s t of the B u l g a r i a n s h a d chosen t o a f f i l i a t e w i t h their n a t i o n a l c h u r c h .600 Greek Statistics (excluding Kosova) 634.336 228.000 5.000 5.000 25. Despite the E n g l i s h liberals' desire to p r o m o t e the a u t o n o m y a n d .000 to 10.000 to 35.000 to 2.685 1.000 to 9.800.s t a t e . M a n a s t i r . "The Populations of Russia and Turkey.140 165. V l a d i m i r Tep l o v .000 to 16. t e n years after a u t o n o m y .700 128. a n d D i y a r b e k i r vilayets i n 1874 (before t h e y w e r e d i v i d e d u p i n t o six p r o v i n c e s ) as 601. See A . a n d " o t h e r s . 58. Enquête dans les Balkans (Paris: Centre Européen de la Dotation Carnegie. If o n e excludes Niş ( i n w h i c h a g o o d p a r t of the p o p u l a t i o n was Serbian) a n d the a p p r o x i m a t e l y 21.000 to 2.101 not indicated 53.222 Seroian Statistics 231.000 8. list transmitted by Safvet Paşa). a n d P h i l i p p o p o l i s . w h o were mostly Albanians.000 to 8.407 2. 21.000 15.000. M a c e d o n i a n P o p u l a t i o n ( A c c o r d i n g to V a r i o u s N a t i o n a l Statistics) Bulgarian Statistics 499. T h e y did n o t f o r m a m a j o r i t y i n a n y of these areas. O r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n s i n T u n a P r o v i n c e a n d close to t w o t h i r d s of those i n M a c e d o n i a o p t e d for the Exarchate. (The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o u n d aries of these p r o v i n c e s w e r e established d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1864 t o 1870.434—an increase of 9. so d i d the e f f o r t to issue p o p u l a t i o n statistics exaggerated so as t o be favorable t o t h e p o s i t i o n of e a c h of t h e n a t i o n a l g r o u p s . A r m e n i a n s c o u l d be f o u n d i n all O t t o m a n areas. N .000 24.258. i f n o t the m a j o r i t y . 1877). b e f o r e 1878 was m o r e t h a n c o m p e n s a t e d f o r b y the f l o o d o f i n f o r m a t i o n generated after t h e B e r l i n C o n g r e s s b y the s t r u g gle b e t w e e n Russia a n d E n g l a n d f o r i n f l u e n c e i n eastern A n a t o l i a .000 Greeks i n V a r n a . t h u s g i v i n g Russia a legal excuse t o i n t e r f e r e t h e r e . w i t h s h a r p d i f f e r ences b e t w e e n r e f i n e d u r b a n g r o u p s a n d t h e s i m p l e r u r a l f o l k .941. 26 September 1878). already h a d g o n e to Russia.724.797 not indicated 25. the British g o v e r n m e n t d i d n o t p u s h t h i s cause. . E r z u r u m .000 to 2. these statistics are r e p r o d u c e d i n Table 3 .181. Kars. H e l l e v o n Samo.000 to 35. a n d Kosova w a s o f f i c i a l l y described as c o n s i s t i n g c h i e f l y of Greeks a n d B u l g a r i a n s .000 to 2. Tjrnovo. a s u S 2 0 The A r m e n i a n s The A r m e n i a n s i n the O t t o m a n state w e r e at the h e a d of the millet b e a r i n g t h e i r n a m e a n d e n j o y e d a p r i v i l e g e d status t h a t w a s e n h a n c e d after 1821 w h e n t h e y b e g a n to replace the Greeks i n the g o v e r n m e n t ' s o p i n i o n as t h e m o s t reliable C h r i s t i a n g r o u p i n the state. to deserve detailed s t u d y . 5 ." Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 55 (1892): 674-75. a n d K i e p e r t ) are too subjective.320 64.s p e a k i n g M u s l i m s . "La Principauté de Bulgarie. K a n i t z ' w o r k .100. G.200 a n d 760.000 25.638 ( w i t h o u t a d j u s t m e n t ) .600 201. the t o t a l B u l g a r i a n . The A r m e n i a n s w e r e g e n e r a l l y m o r e t r a d i t i o n a l i n t h e i r social o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d c u l t u r a l o u t l o o k . Some p r o B u l g a r i a n sources ( s u c h as A . e s t i m a t e d t h e n u m b e r of A r m e n i a n s i n E u r o p e a n d Asia to be 112. R a v e n s t e i n . t h a t is. even t h o u g h t h e y d o n o t d i s t i n g u i s h ethnicn a t i o n a l g r o u p s b u t refer o n l y to O r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n s .557 16. " 162. Ubicini.000 to 10. hut n o t Serbians. the m e r c h a n t s . 1875) and La Bulgarie danubienne et le Balkan.'p. pp. 16) that c h a r g e d t h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c a r r y i n g o u t r e f o r m s i n the strategic area s e p a r a t i n g Russia f r o m the Persian G u l f . ) A sizable . The San Stefano treaty. see my "The Memoirs of N . T h i s c o n f u s i o n a n d c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r the n a t i o n a l i t y of the O r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n s i n M a c e d o n i a was m a n i f e s t e d i n the three d i f f e r e n t sets o f statistics s u b m i t t e d to the C a r n e gie m i s s i o n c h a r g e d w i t h i n v e s t i g a t i n g the atrocities of the Balkan W a r of 1912-1913. t h e i r figures b e i n g too greatly exaggerated a n d l a c k i n g scientific bases (as is recogn i z e d t o d a y b y s o m e B u l g a r i a n scholars). a n d B i t l i s . 1830-1914 RELIGIOUS A N D E T H N I C D I S T R I B U T I O N or THE O T T O M A N POPULATION 51 Table 3.4 p e r c e n t over the t o t a l shown i n the 1881 c e n s u s — w h i l e t h a t of eastern R u m e l i a was 960.200. of the total p o p u l a t i o n of this p r o v i n c e ( g i v e n b y A . "Population of Bulgaria.s p e a k i n g V l a h s l a r g e l y rem a i n e d w i t h the Patriarchate a n d w e r e i n g o o d p a r t h e l l e n i z e d ." Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 40 (1877): 456.204 1. The exact n u m b e r o f the B u l g a r i a n p o p u l a t i o n for the p e r i o d f r o m 1800 to 1878 p r o b a b l y w i l l n e v e r be k n o w n because of the e x t r a o r d i n a r y circumstances a c c o m p a n y i n g the emergence of the B u l g a r i a n n a t i o n .000 Circassians a n d C r i m e a n m i g r a n t s w h o w e r e settled a l o n g the D a n u b e i n the p e r i o d f r o m 1862 to 1878 w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m the c o u n t . a n d the c r a f t s m e n . w h o w e r e classified i n accordance w i t h t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c a f f i l i a t i o n . ( I n fact.000 1.

a c c o r d i n g to o f f i c i a l s t a t e m e n t s the relative n u m b e r of male C h r i s t i a n s a n d M o s l e m s i n the p r o v i n c e s of E r z u r o u m a n d V a n are as f o l l o w s : E r z u r o u m . 2 4 Trotter a n d W i l s o n . b u t I a m i n c l i n e d to believe t h a t the v i l l a g e K u r d s are s o m e w h a t u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . p. t h e i r o w n observations f r o m v i s i t s to all t h e m a j o r c o m m u n i t i e s . t h e A r m e n i a n p a t r i a r c h a n d b i s h o p s .000 649. w h e r e a s the M u s l i m s n u m b e r e d 694. " *~ I n the case of Sivas the p a t r i a r c h c o m p l e t e l y reversed h i m s e l f . as. T h e i r sources for t h i s i n formation w e r e . t r i e d to devise the best possible m e t h o d ' f o r r e a c h i n g r e l i a b l e e s t i m a t e s of t h e population i n eastern A n a t o l i a . the A r m e n i a n s a n d " O s m a n l i s " ( T u r k s ) . r e s p e c t i v e l y . G e o r g e G o s c h e n w a s s e n t to I s t a n b u l to replace H . T r o t t e r rejected A r m e n i a n claims: I cannot h o w e v e r a d m i t the accuracy of the statistics s h o w n i n the i n c l o s u r e w h i c h are the same. Ibid. b u t at t h e same {• e it elucidates the p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n the t a k i n g of a census i n t h e O t t o m a n state a n d is w o r t h e x a m i n i n g i n some d e t a i l . I n exchange f o r her p r o m i s e of p r o t e c t i o n .y e a r . w h i l e M r . he advocated c h a n g i n g the title of his o w n office to "Consulate of T u r k i s h A r m e n i a . w h o w e r e p r o b a b l y m o r e t h a n 8 0 . 10 September 1880). as a g a i n s t 134.c o u n s u l i n A d a n a . I n J u l y of 1879 he w a s n a m e d C o n s u l of K u r d i s t a n .52 büıty for the six eastern p r o v i n c e s . D i a r b e k i r a n d K h a r p u t : Turks 442. T h e y u s e d a c o m p a r a t i v e analysis of all t h e population i n f o r m a t i o n available. n u m b e r e d t h e M u s l i m s at 327. f o r m a n y years C o n s u l in these p r o v i n c e s . I n e x p l a n a t i o n Nerces w r o t e t h a t he " h a d i n v i e w o n l y the A r m e n i a n p a r t of t h e v i l a y e t s u c h as the [ c i t y ] of Sivas. . o n the q u e s t i o n of populat i o n . 30 sion of the M u s l i m s . . Britain received the i s l a n d of C y p r u s .o l d G l a d s t o n e — t h e s w o r n e n e m y of the T u r k s — t o o k o v e r . 158. " f r o m w h i c h . a l t h o u g h . the last t w o g r o u p s w e r e also e t h n i c a l 26. Ibid. It is i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e that W i l s o n rejected even the r e v i s e d figures f r o m the p a t r i a r c h . T h e n u m b e r of A r m e n i a n s i n these tables is p r e t t y f a i r l y r e c k o n e d . W i t h o u t e n t e r i n g i n t o details. 144. . h o w e v e r . " H e accepted the fact t h a t i n s o m e areas 3 3 6 29. " " H o w e v er. " " T r o t t e r .000 Kizzilbas Moslems Christians 200. 172 (Nerces to Goschen). 36. Ibid.n o m a d i c ] K u r d s are c o n s i d e r a b l y s o . T a y l o r . E n g l a n d felt that she h a d to assume.500 A r m e n i a n s a n d 150. i n the vilayets of E r z u r o u m .980 a n d the C h r i s t i a n s at 3 3 . s i g n e d after the Congress of B e r l i n . or o f f i c i a l T u r k i s h estimates [ f o r V a n a n d E r z u r u m ] I h a v e g o o d reason to s u p p o s e that an a d d i t i o n of a b o u t 40 p e r cent. Ibid. rest Muslims.000 C h r i s t i a n s . i n his m e m o r a n d u m a d d r e s s e d to the Congress ( s u b s e q u e n t l y u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y b y v a r i o u s w r i t ers) Patriarch Nerces placed the n u m b e r of A r m e n i a n s i n E r z u r u m . 28. T h e B r i t i s h q u e s t i o n e d also the figures s u p p l i e d b y the A r m e n i a n C a t h o l i c p a t r i a r c h .208. . The B r i t i s h officers' second source of i n f o r m a t i o n w a s t h e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s i n the O t t o m a n o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . e x c l u d i n g refugees a n d i m m i g r a n t s . i n c l u d e d a p r o v i s i o n (art. I u n d e r s t a n d .000 w e r e T u r k s . p. G o s c h e n set o u t to secure e n f o r c e m e n t of the clause m a n d a t i n g r e f o r m s i n the eastern p r o v i n c e s .000 M u s l i m s . a n d L i e u t e n a n t C h e r m s i d e . w h i l e the " n o m a d i c K u r d i s h e l e m e n t that lives in the m o u n t a i n s a n d descends i n t o the p l a i n s i n h a b i t e d by C h r i s t i a n s o n l y i n o r d e r to create d i s t u r b a n c e s .245. p.M o s l e m s 55. f u r t h e r m o r e . 35. T h i s v i e w became o v e r t ' p o l i c y after Beaconsfield's g o v e r n m e n t fell i n A p r i l of 188Ü a n d the liberals. T h u s . a m o n g these w e r e C o n s u l T a y l o r . Ibid. It is interesting to note that up until as late as 1912 the Armenian Patriarchate listed the Kizilbas. T h e c o m prehensive r e p o r t e v e n t u a l l y p r e p a r e d f r o m t h i s i n f o r m a tion is p r o b a b l y the best of its k i n d . FO 424/86. A n t o i n e Pierre I X H a s s o u n of C i l i c i a . of course. T r o t t e r also d e p l o r e d the a t t i t u d e of the c o m m i t t e e f o r m e d b y the representatives of the b i g powers to supervise e n f o r c e m e n t of the r e f o r m s . 389-90 (Wilson to Goschen. D i y a r b e k i r . the B r i t i s h f o u n d themselves b u r d e n e d w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of seeing t h a t the desired changes w e r e carried o u t — a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y that w a s seen as necessary. . 94 (Chermside to Goschen. . the f o r e i g n secretary. a n d the p a t r i a r c h t h e n h a d to change his o r i g i n a l f i g u r e s . C h e r m s i d e f o u n d the g o v e r n m e n t statistics " m o s t v a g u e a n d unsatisfactory as are all those i n the possession of t h e T u r k i s h g o v e r n m e n t . 30. 109. 7 September 1880). d i r e c t l y or b v p r o x y . i n a d i s p a t c h to the M a r q u i s of Salisbury. . M o s l e m s 197. and the Tchareklis as groups belonging to "other religions. 22 September 1880). T h e total n u m b e r of M u s l i m s i n these areas. pp. 25.i n h a b i t e d p r o v i n c e s . HCAP 100/44 (1881). 123 (Trotter to Goschen. a n d l o r C h r i s t i a n s . 9 August 1880). H a r p u t . a n d T ü r k m e n . hence the O t t o m a n British a g r e e m e n t o n the r e f o r m s i n eastern A n a t o l i a is called the C y p r u s C o n v e n t i o n . M o s l e m s 126. Ibid. p. w a s o n l y 201. 2 S The B r i t i s h officers i n charge of p o p u l a t i o n statistics w e r e so u p s e t b y these i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s t h a t t h e y p e r s u a d e d A m b a s s a d o r G o s c h e n to ask the A r m e n i a n p a t r i a r c h to exp l a i n his m e t h o d of c a l c u l a t i o n . a c c o r d i n g to the p a t r i a r c h . Ibid. VV. . 0 0 0 . i n d i c a t e d that t h e official lists w e r e c o m p i l e d f r o m the records e x i s t i n g i n the v a r i o u s local g o v e r n m e n t s . f o r e x a m p l e T o k a t . a n d . O t t o m a n officials a n d p u b l i s h e d y e a r b o o k s . respectively.500 Kurds 848. o n the o t h e r h a n d . D i v r i t a n d its e n v i r o n s " a n d stated that he h a d o m i t t e d " a l l the s a n d j a k s of sudest w h i c h are n o t p a r t of A r m e n i a . s h o u l d not be i n c l u d e d i n t h e census b y w h i c h the m a j o r i t y of the i n h a b i t a n t s of each v i l l a g e w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d . p. V a n . 98 (Wilson to Goschen. v i z . The n e w treatv. 3 September 1880). second. w h o was attached to the R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n b u t s t a t i o n e d i n Sivas. h e a d e d b v the s e v e n t y . 33. H o w e v e r . 23 August 18S0).000 E RELIGIOUS A N D E T H N I C D I S T R I B U T I O N OF T H E O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N 2 53 jttee u r g e d t h a t t h e r e f o r m s " s h o u l d i n c o m m o n Jusextended to the n u m e r o u s N e s t o r i a n s " ( i n h a b i t a n t s tire e central a n d s o u t h e r n p a r t s of the area). 7 8 0 . 61) c a l l i n g for r e f o r m i n the A r m e n i a n . H e e n j o y e d the h i g h e s t c o n f i d e n c e o f the g o v e r n m e n t b o t h as its r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a n d as a statistician.. p.. M e a n w h i l e . 23. the lists of m e n w h o are liable to c o n s c r i p t i o n are d r a w n u p . n o n . s e c u r i n g the f r i e n d s h i p of the A r m e n i a n s for B r i t a i n . e . 3 1 3 3 34 A major c o n t r o v e r s y arose over the f i g u r e s s u b m i t t e d to the Berlin C o n g r e s s . It w a s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t f o r Sivas C h r i s t i a n s l i v i n g i n areas o u t s i d e the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e borders of the p r o v i n c e h a d b e e n c o u n t e d b u t that M u s l i m s i n some areas w i t h i n the vilayet h a d n o t . of m a i n t a i n i n g O t t o m a n t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y against Russian e x p a n s i o n h a d f a i l e d . This partia t t i t u d e a p p e a r e d to be s u c h a flagrant v i o l a t i o n of the ciples of fairness t h a t M a j o r T r o t t e r felt called u p o n t o 'jnt out to A m b a s s a d o r G o s c h e n t h a t t h e e f f o r t to l a y ^ess o n A r m e n i a n claims m i g h t " p r o p a g a t e the false n o that H e r M a j e s t y ' s g o v e r n m e n t is o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e velfare of the C h r i s t i a n subjects of t h e Porte to the exclucom n ) l b e 0 2 6 pr 5 n ly T u r k s .. to the n u m b e r o f C h r i s t i a n s w o u l d g i v e a r e s u l t a p p r o x i m a t e l y the truth.800 C h r i s t i a n s . HCAP 100 44. t h o s e i n t h e possession of the g o v e r n m e n t are the b e s t .043. a n d M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n s of Thrace a n d M a c e d o n i a .555 ( i n c l u d i n g at least 20." although thev all were Muslim. " 2 2 2 3 OTTOMAN POPULATION. the B r i t i s h i n d u c e d the s u l t a n to p r o m i s e to carry o u t u n s p e c i f i e d r e f o r m s . p. 27. Ibid. T h e d i s m a n t l i n g of the O t t o m a n territories i n Europe w a s p r o o f that Palmerston's p o l i c y . a n d H a l e p at 780. p. n o n . see also ibid. a n d e c o n o m i c s . Ambassador Goschen reported that " C o l o n e l W i l s o n a n d M a j o r T r o t t e r are closely e x a m i n i n g the figures g i v e n b y A b e d i n e Pasha a n d b y the A r m e n i a n Patriarch r e s p e c t i v e l y b y the a i d of s u c h data as t h e v have collected at v a r i o u s t i m e s . m a n y o t h e r B r i t i s h officials also l e n t t h e i r efforts to the a t t e m p t to collect a l l of the available p o p u l a t i o n data. Sivas.640.000 N e s t o r i a n s ) . the f o r m e r B r i t i s h v i c e . T r o t t e r w a s to t a k e a n a c t i v e p a r t i n imp l e m e n t i n g the r e f o r m s there a n d . the p r o p o r t i o n of M u s s u l m a n s t o A r m e n i a n s is considerably larger t h a n that g i v e n b y the A r m e n i a n Patriarch .768. the figures d i d n o t i n c l u d e K u r d s a n d Circassians. the c o n s c r i p t i o n list a n d an i m p o r t a n t tax are d e p e n d e n t o n t h e m .. beg a n to press for e x e c u t i o n of the c o n d i t i o n s of the T r e a t y of Berlin. c a r t o g r a p h y . It is to the credit of these officials that t h e y s o u g h t to d o a careful and i m p a r t i a l j o b a n d w e r e o f f e n d e d b y devices e m p l o y e d by some i n t e r e s t e d parties to bias the statistics i n a gross manner. as those s u b m i t t e d to the C o n g r e s s of B e r l i n . because he i n f l a t e d the n u m b e r of the Catholics to the d e t r i m e n t of o t h e r s . w h o s u p p l i e d f i g u r e s m a n i p u l a t e d so as to maxim i z e the n u m b e r of C h r i s t i a n s w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g the n u m ber of M u s l i m s . p. w h o a p p a r e n t l y w e r e t r a i n e d m statistics. b u t l i s t e d as M u s l i m s o n l y t h e T u r k s . f o r a total of 1. w h i c h w e r e to be agreed u p o n at a later d a t e . w i t h which t h e y h a d a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r i z e d t h e m s e l v e s . the Zazas. V a n ( M u ş a n d Siirt i n c l u d e d ) . a m o u n t e d to a m e r e 770. a n d available m e a n s f o r t e s t i n g the statistics w h i c h have been p u t i n b y v a r i o u s p e r s o n s . 31. ibid. G r e e k .. D i y a r b e k i r . of w h o m o n l y 199. a n d t h e y t h e m s e l v e s p r o m i s e d to oppose by a r m s f u t u r e e n c r o a c h m e n t s of Russia u p o n O t t o m a n t e r r i t o r y .000 a n d the n u m b e r of Syrians ( i .000 a n d . L a y a r d ( u n j u s t l y c o n s i d e r e d a T u r k o p h i l e ) as ambassador. " T h e p a t r i a r c h gave t h e p o p u l a t i o n of A d a n a as c o n s i s t i n g of o n l y 86. . because statistics s u p p l i e d b y the A r m e n i a n b i s h o p of Sivas i n d i c a t e d that the total n u m b e r of C h r i s t i a n s there. i n c l u s i v e of t h e Greeks. various i n d i v i d u a l e s t i m a t e s . a n d V a n — t h e area c l a i m e d b y the 22. i n the same b r e a t h i n w h i c h it a d v o c a t e d the exclusion of n o m a d i c K u r d s f r o m the scope of the i n t e n d e d r e f o r m s . T h i s committee i n s i s t e d that t h e census p r o p o s e d b y the O t t o m a n governm e n t (the census o f 1881/82) s h o u l d c o u n t o n l y the settled p o p u l a t i o n . A m b a s s a d o r G o s c h e n beg a n b y a s k i n g several of the v e r y capable B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y m e n ( n o w consuls) s t a t i o n e d i n the eastern p r o v i n c e s to c o m e to I s t a n b u l to discuss i n p e r s o n " t h e relative n u m e r i cal p r o p o r t i o n s of the d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s i n h a b i t i n g Asia M i n o r . Soon after a r r i v i n g i n the O t t o m a n capital o n 28 M a y 1880. C a p t a i n Casper. as a n a n t i c i p a t e d divi d e n d thereof.a n d K u r d i s t a n " as a concession to A r m e n i a n s e n t i m e n t . 61 (Goschen to Granville. f i n a l l y . HCAP 100/44 (1881).. the. H a r p u t . t h i r d . 171 (Nerces to Goschen. " Those s u m m o n e d to the capital i n c l u d e d L i e u t e n a n t C o l o n e l C. Ibid.065.245 w e r e A r m e n i a n s . e s t i m a t e d the total p o p u l a t i o n of the vilayets n o w u n d e r m y j u r i s d i c t i o n as f o l l o w s . 32. 145. the rest b e i n g K u r d s .000. The figures s u b m i t t e d b y the A r m e n i a n p a t r i a r c h w e r e regularly c h a l l e n g e d . w h i l e o t h e r A r m e n i a n sources i n V a n i t self s u p p l i e d a list s h o w i n g t h a t t h e actual n u m b e r s of A r m e n i a n s a n d M u s l i m s w e r e 138. or Syriacs) a n d G r e e k s at 251. that is. W i l s o n and Major H e n r y Trotter.. 94 (Chermside to Goschen. H e a d d e d t h a t a l t h o u g h these tables c o m e f r o m a n A r m e n i a n source. 9 August 1880). I m a y state that. f o r the M u s l i m s .056. a n d I feel p r e t t y sure that the ashiret [ t r i b a l .25. C a p t a i n E m i l i u s C l a y t o n i n V a n .M o s l e m s 97.. w h o seemed to h a v e d e v e l o p e d a k e e n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n matters ( a l t h o u g h he w a s v e r y critical of the O t t o m a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d ) . 158. p. s h o w i n g the actual n u m b e r of i n h a b i t a n t s of that p r o v i n c e to be 605. A l t h o u g h the chief r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of reliable p o p u l a t i o n estimates f e l l u p o n T r o t t e r a n d Colonel W i l s o n . c o n t r o l of the areas m o s t v i t a l to her strategic i n terest. It w a s he w h o h a d b e e n a s s i g n e d to o b t a i n reliable figures a b o u t the B u l g a r i a n . T h e m e t h o d t h e y a d o p t e d produced the reasonable estimates d e s i r e d . a n d s o o n after the n e w g o v e r n m e n t came to p o w e r G e o r g e G r a n v i l l e . '.559 a n d 109. p. A r m e n i a n s . p.000 M u s l i m s . i n i t i a t e d i n 1841. A s a r e s u l t of these m a n i p u l a t i o n s . f i r s t . T h e y w e r e c o n s t a n t l y c r i t i c a l of the A r m e n i a n Patriarch Nerces. the 24. " 2 / To the f i r s t ..431. . V a n . the n u m b e r s f o r w h o m the m i l i t a r y e x e m p t i o n has to be p a i d . M u ş . 34. of w h o m o n l y 320.000. 162. f these N e s t o r i a n s also w e r e n o m a d s . A s the enforcem e n t of the r e f o r m s d e p e n d e d first a n d f o r e m o s t u p o n accurate i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t d e m o g r a p h i c a n d e t h n o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s i n eastern A n a t o l i a . .. m M a j o r H e n r y T r o t t e r w a s u n i q u e l y v a l u a b l e to the B r i t i s h g o v e r n m e n t ' s e f f o r t to secure reasonable p o p u l a t i o n estimates. A s s y r i a n s . p. C l a y t o n w r o t e to A m b a s s a d o r G o schen i n I s t a n b u l that the p a t r i a r c h h a d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n of V a n c o n s i s t e d of 252. w h i c h i n c l u d e d the vilayets of E r z u r u m . Kizilbaş.

E r z e r u m . g . arid the Balkans w h o h a d settled i n A n a t o l i a (and to some extent i n Syria a n d Iraq) b v 1908 w a s about 5 m i l l i o n . a n d A d a n a ( i n c l u d i n g K a y s e r i . refugees. a n d i m m i g r a n t s . Kir§ehir. The O t t o m a n state s o u g h t to r e m a i n . Contested Viiayets Van Bitlis Diyarbekir Erzurum Mamuretüiaziz Sivas Total 400.233. V a n . Beyrut. w h i c h was i n t i m a t e a n d p r o b a b l y q u i t e reliable. the s e m i . u n p a r a l l e l e d i n the statistical h i s t o r y of the O t t o m a n state. The rebellious areas h a p p e n e d to be those i n h a b i t e d p r i n c i pally by M u s l i m s — n o m a d i c K u r d s a n d T ü r k m e n — b u t also bv C h r i s t i a n \ e s t o r i a n s .000 1. t h u s setting i n m o t i o n a process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n .000 Empire. I believe the o f f i c i a l lists to be c o m p a r a t i v e l y accurate .402 Muslims and 566.437.000 835. A l t h o u g h t h e C h r i s t i a n s b e g a n to be d i v i d e d i n t o e t h n i c g r o u p s u n d e r the p r e s s u r e of v a r i o u s n a t i o n a l i s t claims based u p o n n u m e r i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y . a l t h o u g h at t h i s t i m e t h e r e w a s m a j o r i m m i g r a t i o n n o t o n l y f r o m Bulgaria b u t also f r o m the C a u c a u s u s . Ministry of Trade and Construction. R o m a n i a . b u t a s u b s t a n t i a l n u m b e r of m i g r a n t s w h o w e n t d i r e c t l y to villages a n d t o w n s w h e r e t h e i r relatives w e r e already l i v i n g or w h o settled w i t h o u t b e i n g r e g i s t e r e d w e r e o v e r l o o k e d i n t h e official c o u n t s . of w h o m a b o u t 2.6. a n d Yozgat) h a d been a d d e d to that for the east A n a t o l i a n vilayets.488. m a n y of these g o v e r n m e n t s ( e . 39. i n c l u d i n g practically all of the Circassians. 1913).088. T h e i r f o u r t h s o u r c e was t h e i r o w n k n o w l e d g e .000 p e o p l e f r o m B u l garia. the E u r o p e a n s w o u l d s u b d i v i d e t h e M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n i n t o smaller e t h n i c or l i n g u i s t i c factions so that it m i g h t be asserted that t h e M u s l i m s d i d n o t c o n s t i t u t e a single m a j o r i t y g r o u p i n d i s p u t e d areas. ) A l t h o u g h still u n d e r s t a t i n g the n u m b e r of M u s l i m s . A n O t t o m a n official estimate gives the t o t a l of i m m i g r a n t s i n the O t t o m a n t e r r i t o r i e s i n the n i n e t e e n years b e t w e e n 1877 a n d 1896 as 1.000 150.75 m i l l i o n M u s l i m s (see the statistical a p p e n d i c e s . despite the fact that a sizable p o r t i o n h a d either m i g r a t e d to Russia or h a d been d e t a c h e d f r o m the O t t o m a n state a l o n g w i t h the territories lost to o t h e r c o u n t r i e s i n the p e r i o d f r o m 1897 to 1913. .o f f i c i a l O t t o m a n statistics g i v e t h e total n u m b e r of i m m i g r a n t s w h o entered t h e c o u n t r y i n t h a t same vear as o n l y 18.5 m i l l i o n w e r e M u s l i m s .165. w h i l e the fact that m a n y m o r e A r m e n i a n s w e r e l i v i n g i n other O t t o m a n p r o v i n c e s w a s i g n o r e d . Chief Statistical Office. i n the c o m p a r a t i v e l y settled districts. "La diminution de la population turque de la principauté de Bulgarie. Cuinet failed to list his sources and did not indicate why his figures differed from those of the Ottoman government.267 w e r e A r m e n i a n s . the British reported that the population of the six provinces consisted of 1.000 a n d the n u m b e r of M u s l i m s as a b o u t 1. and this percentage increased steadily thereafter. see also K. O f f i c i a l B u l g a r i a n statistics. a n d especially the A r m e n i a n . 4 vols. Statistics f o r later years i n d i c a t e that the A r m e n i a n p o p u l a t i o n u n d e r w e n t c o n s i d e r a b l e g r o w t h a n d that by 1914 their t o t a l n u m b e r h a d reached 1. was caused by the i m m i g r a t i o n of M u s l i m s . 566. o v e r 5 m i l l i o n . a n d tor such areas considered that the p o p u l a t i o n figures h a d to be raised b v 20 or 25 percent to account for the u n r e g i s t e r e d .335 M u s l i m s e m i g r a t e d f r o m Bulgaria to t h e O t t o m a n state. c o u p l e d w i t h the m a j o r m o v e m e n t of C r i mean a n d Caucasian M u s l i m s i n t o v a r i o u s E u r o p e a n p r o v 40. M a n y w e s t e r n e r s . W e s t e r n s t u d e n t s of t h e O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n . The general t e n d e n c y of the West E u r o p e a n s . indicates that the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e area h a d r i s e n b y t h a t y e a r to 3. a p p a r e n t l y . Greece.M u s l i m s i n the area a n d over 2.660. these statistics p r o v i d e f a i r l y accurate i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o p o r t i o n of n o n . the lists are v e r y m u c h m o r e carefully c o m p i l e d t h a n others.M u s l i m s i n eastern A n a t o l i a at the t i m e . H o w e v e r . IUKTY 9184. such as the sanjaks of K a r p u t . Baiburt. 43. & Kastamonu Syria.000. T h e O t t o m a n census of 1881/82-1893 h a d g i v e n the n u m b e r of A r m e n i a n s i n these p r o v i n c e s to be a b o u t 540. . T h e t o t a l n u m b e r of M u s l i m i m m i g r a n t s f r o m t h e C r i m e a . 1316 |1K98J). O f t e n they were labeled s i m p l y " T u r k s . In 1890. Table 3. D u r i n g the last q u a r t e r of the c e n t u r v . I I . I I . tribes. Konya.000 10. w h e n e v e r it a p p e a r e d e x p e d i e n t . La Question arménienne à la lumière des documents (Paris: A Challamel. Bv 1880 the A n a t o l i a n p o p u l a t i o n was a l r e a d y 80 p e r c e n t M u s l i m . w h i l e i n t h e second h a l f of the c e n t u r y the p r o p o r t i o n g r e w to at least 43 p e r c e n t .159. l i k e t h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t itself. w h i l e aware of e t h n i c a n d l i n g u i s t i c d i v i s i o n s a m o n g t h e M u s l i m s . there w e r e 697. Estimates i n s o m e e i g h t e e n sources s h o w that the M u s l i m s c o n s t i t u t e d a b o u t 35 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l B a l k a n p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g m o s t of the f i r s t h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r v . despite o v e r w h e l m i n g i m p a r t i a l o p i n i o n i n s u p p o r t of the m e r i t of the O t t o m a n o f f i c i a l statistics. ' 3 OTTOMAN POPULATION.M u s l i m s ( m o s t l y A r m e nians) i n the vilayets of E r z u r u m .000. 3 ) . h o w e v e r ." Journal de la société de statistique de Paris 46 (1905): 347. 50-59. G. c h a n g i n g the p o p u l a t i o n balance i n t h e Balkans i n the favor of the M u s l i m s .000 Source: Marcel Léart [Kirkor Zohrap].54 b o t h M u s l i m s a n d C h r i s t i a n s failed to r e p o r t their exact n u m b e r s i n o r d e r to a v o i d c o n s c r i p t i o n a n d taxes. 1906). not p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d . s h o w t h a t i n 1893 a total of 11.000 The O t t o m a n o f f i c i a l p o p u l a t i o n records d i d n o t d i v i d e the M u s l i m s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r e t h n i c or l i n g u i s t i c a f f i l i a t i o n . c a r r i e d f o r w a r d a n d s t r e n g t h e n e d b y the r i s i n g t i d e of n a t i o n a l i s m . See 1UKTV 9184. for example.000 60.372. w e s t e r n R u m e l i a . Russia. General Directorate of Statistics. was a series of c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d d e t a i l e d c o m p a r a t i v e tables of the p o p u l a t i o n i n eastern A n a t o l i a ( r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y w i t h o n l y a f e w e d i t o r i a l changes i n the statistical a p p e n dices. a M u s l i m state.630. i n districts w h i c h are i n a c h r o n i c state of r e b e l l i o n a n d s e m i . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d .075 and of non-Muslims as 512. for a l t h o u g h i n b o t h t h e Balkans a n d t h e M i d d l e East the M u s l i m e t h n i c g r o u p s l i v e d p a r t l y i n t e r - 41.598 n o n . GRANO TOTAL 2. A n e w c o m p a r i s o n . A m u c h . The n u m b e r of n o n . 38 (White to Salisbury. A s the O t t o m a n statistics d o not d i vide the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n into ethnic and linguistic g r o u p s . r e g a r d e d I s l a m a l m o s t as a n a t i o n a l i t y a n d therefore w e r e r e a d y to place all the M u s lims i n one category. The M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n of t h e same ten -vilayets n u m b e r e d . I I . T h i s increase i n M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n a p p a r e n t l y was caused b y a slight increase i n the b i r t h rate. The O t t o m a n government derived information about immigrants f r o m special registers of i m m i g r a t i o n . parad o x i c a l l y e n o u g h . D i y a r b e k i r . w h i l e s h o w i n g the M u s l i m s to be 2. the statistics are m u c h less r e l i a b l e . a n d H a r p u t was g i v e n as a b o u t 567. c o m p i l e d b y the B r i t i s h i n 1896.o f f figures w e r e u s e d for females). the s e t t l e m e n t of n o m a d i c 37. a n d the rest w e r e o t h e r n a t i o n a l i ties (see the statistical a p p e n d i c e s . 1913). C e n t r a l A s i a . a n d o t h e r u n s p e c i f i e d places e n t e r e d t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e . The total n u m b e r of such m i g r a n t s i n the p e r i o d f r o m 1853 to 1878 r e a c h e d an e s t i m a t e d 700. A special O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n a b o u t 1897.015.297 non-Muslims. A f t e r a c q u i r i n g p o w e r . La Question arménienne à ta lumière des documents (Paris: A Challamel. to m i n i m i z e t h e n u m b e r of M u s l i m s as far as possible i n o r d e r to s t r e n g t h e n their o w n claims of n a t i o n a l interest a n d t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s . Bitlis.000 195.179. s h o w n i n b o t h B r i t i s h a n d O t t o m a n estimates. O b v i o u s l y . I n d i v i d u a l estimates w e r e a t h i r d source of i n f o r m a t i o n . the differences were minor. its l a n g u a g e s . In some districts. 26 May 1890).000 65. T h e census of 1881/ 82-1893 s h o w e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e 1. f o r m a l l y at least. Bosnia. A. e x c l u d i n g n o m a d s . T h e n u m b e r s of M u s l i m s i n O t t o m a n t e r r i t o r y m o u n t e d c o n t i n u o u s l y u p w a r d i n s u c h a w a y as to t r a n s f o r m t h e e m p i r e i n t o a p r e d o m i n a n t l y M u s l i m state after 1878. the ethnol i n g u i s t i c categories d e v i s e d b y t h e O t t o m a n officials still c o n f o r m e d closely to the c o n f e s s i o n a l d i v i s i o n s t h a t h a d e m e r g e d after t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the classical millet syst e m . its p o p u l a t i o n . Musul. and Cuinet's La Turquie d'Asie. 4 inces.000 50. Dcvlc!-i Aliye-i Osmamuyewn. Baghdad.000 to 800. its c u s t o m s . a n d the e m i g r a t i o n of some A r m e n i a n s a n d Greeks to Russia a n d to o t h e r parts of A n a t o l i a . and i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h far-reaching social and p o l i t i c a l effects. b y some c o n s e r v a t i v e estimates. pp. a n d B o s n i a .076. began e m i g r a t i n g to A n a t o l i a . & Basra İzmit [sancak) Total 280. 1890-1894). generally d i d n o t m a k e a n y serious effort to ascertian the exact n u m b e r of each g r o u p .000. a researcher can o n l y rely o n the y a r d s t i c k of geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n for his estimates. w a s . see HCAP 96/49 (1890).000 120.000 100.000 280.c i t e d s o u r c e . 38 39 Excessive a t t e n t i o n w a s p a i d to the size of the C h r i s t i a n . a n d especially of the B a l k a n C h r i s t i a n nationalists.000 1896 at 651. of the area.000 120. b u t the British officers w e r e careful to accept figures o n l y f r o m persons w h o m t h e y k n e w to have s o u n d k n o w l e d g e of the area a n d its p e o p l e a n d c o n s i d e r e d to be o t h e r w i s e t r u s t w o r t h y . . Statistique de l'émigration de la principauté dans les pays étrangers de 1S93 à 1902 (Sofia. " I f the f a i r l y large total of A r m e n i a n i n habitants i n the p r o v i n c e s of T r a b z o n . 41 4 2 43 The M u s l i m s 40.000 270. pp.000 250. The net result of this a r d u o u s team e f f o r t . a n d .000 280. T h a t the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t ' s estimates w e r e l o w can be seen f r o m a q u i c k c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r f i g u r e s . 1830-1914 T H E R E L I G I O U S A N D E T H N I C D I S T R I B U T I O N OF T H E O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N 55 Table 3. 1 ) . 50-59. See Dr. .000 ( r o u n d e d . A c c o r d i n g to the later of the t w o estimates (made b y the C o n t r o l C o m m i s s i o n ) .908 (figures r o u n d e d for females) A r m e n i a n s l i v i n g i n O t t o m a n lands a n d that areas such as A n k a r a a n d T r a b z o n h a d large p o p u l a t i o n s of A r m e n i a n s .015.432. t h e n the g r a n d t o t a l for the ten p r o v i n c e s that c o n t a i n e d the b u l k of t h e A r m e n i a n p o p u l a t i o n w o u l d h a v e a m o u n t e d to a b o u t 939. the total M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n w o u l d have c o m e to n e a r l y 3 m i l l i o n . M u s l i m s f r o m the Balkans. O t h e r statistics s h o w t h a t i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1880 to 1900 a total of 239. T h e c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r the size of the A r m e n i a n p o p u l a t i o n c o n t i n u e d .q u o t e d G e r m a n p u b l i c a t i o n t h a t u s e d V i t a l C u i n e t ' s rather p u z z l i n g statistical w o r k as a basis p u t the n u m b e r of A r m e n i a n s i n the six east A n a t o l i a n provinces i n 38. Ibid.000 50. a v a r i e t y of other p r o v i n c i a l statistics s h o w that i n 1897 at least 65.i n d e p e n d e n c e . H a l e p .6 reproduces the figures s u p p l i e d b y the A r m e n i a n p a t r i a r c h as these were issued again as late as 1913 b y a n o f t e n . Serbia a n d Bulgaria) cited t h e i r o w n biased statistics as j u s t i f i c a t i o n for d r i v i n g o u t all or a l m o s t all of t h e i r M u s l i m subjects.134. gave estimates of the M u s l i m a n d n o n M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n i n the six eastern A n a t o l i a n p r o v i n c e s i n 1890 a n d 1896. for e x a m p l e . 6 ) . h o w e v e r . w a s accelerated b y the rise of e t h n o l i n g u i s t i c n a t i o n a l i s m a m o n g its M u s l i m subjects. however.460 e m i g r a n t s f r o m that c o u n t r y a l o n e w e n t to T u r k e y . u n t i l its f i n a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n — w h i c h . (If the last g r o u p h a d b e e n i n c l u d e d . Petermann's Mitteilungen aus Justus Petcrke's geograpliischcr Anstall 24 (3878): 8. p. " for " M u s l i m " a n d " T u r k " h a d become s y n o n y m o u s .000 Europe Istanbul and vicinity Edirne Other areas Total 135. as w e h a v e p o i n t e d o u t . I n d e e d . the Caucasus. Crete. Dcvlet-i Aliye-i Osmaniuvenin Bmiiçvfiztvttic Senesine Mnhsus lstatistik-i Ummniyyesi (Istanbul. A r m e n i a n P o p u l a t i o n of the O t t o m a n 18S2 ( A r m e n i a n Patriarchate Figures) Asia Adana (Cilicia) Aleppo Trabzon Bursa Aydin (Izmir) Ankara. Popoff. 42. O t t o m a n o f f i c i a l statistics issued after 1881/82 h a d so i m p r o v e d i n consistency a n d r e l i a b i l i t y that t h e B r i t i s h came to rely o n t h e m a n d t h e y w e r e accepted b y m o s t of the foreigners w i t h o n l y m i n o r r e s e r v a t i o n s .000. a s s i m i l a t i o n . p o p u l a t i o n i n the six east A n a t o l i a n p r o v i n c e s d e s i g n a t e d b y the B e r l i n treaty as ref o r m areas a n d as the t e r r i t o r y of an i n d e p e n d e n t A r m e n i a . o t h e r subjective a n d u t t e r l y false i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the A r m e n i a n p o p u l a t i o n cont i n u e d to be p u b l i s h e d a n d r e p u b l i s h e d as v a r i o u s "exp e r t s " c o n t i n u e d to use s u c h data.000. The relative change i n the p o p u l a t i o n ratio. Marcel Léart [Kirkor Zohrap]. while the Porte's o w n statistics gave the number of Muslims as 1. a n y estimate of the exact n u m e r i c a l size of various M u s l i m e t h n i c a n d l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p s can be o n l y tentative u n t i l m o r e d e t a i l e d studies o n m i g r a t i o n a n d settlem e n t are c o m p l e t e d . T h a t y a r d s t i c k is a fairly reliable one. (Paris.

t h r o u g h o u t the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t succeeded i n s e t t l i n g large n u m b e r s of K u r d i s h . Pomaks. dialect. A f t e r the o c c u p a t i o n of Crete b y Greece. t h e i r heaviest c o n c e n t r a t i o n s b e i n g i n the w e s t . " w h i l e t h e n o m a d i c a n d s e m i nomadic g r o u p s . the SerboC r o a t i a n . w h i c h I h o p e to c o m p l e t e i n the n e a r f u t u r e . b o t h C h r i s t i a n a n d M u s l i m . 1970). at least i n the i n t e r i o r .500 860.s p e a k i n g M u s l i m s . a l o n g the H e j a z r a i l r o a d . the Gagauz. t h e K u r d i s h elites o f t e n u s e d Persian as t h e i r l a n g u a g e of w r i t t e n c o m m u n i c a t i o n .s p e a k i n g M u s l i m s . 7 . U n d e r this n e w f o r m of p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I l i m i t m y s e l f here to a f e w general o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t e n d e d to t h r o w s o m e i n t e r p r e t i v e l i g h t u p o n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n the appendices.100 520. thesis. T h e r e w e r e social d i f f e r e n c e s among the T u r k s . Racial.O t t o m a n c o m m u n i t i e s . 82. decreased accordingly. see also Ernest Dottain. s o m e of T u r k i s h o r i g i n b u t m o s t l y of Caucasian stock. Muslims in European Provinces.800 430. These territories w e r e o c c u p i e d by A u s t r i a i n 1878. t h a t is. e m i g r a t e d a n d settled a l o n g t h e s o u t h e r n shores of A n a t o l i a . the m a i n M u s l i m g r o u p of T u r k i c o r i g i n s t i l l s p e a k i n g a dialect v e r y close to T u r k i s h . T a h t a c i . central. T h e situation i n t h e m o u n t a i n o u s areas w a s s o m e w h a t m o r e complex. o r g a n i z a t i o n s . most h a d their o w n special districts a n d regions of concentration.) 45. a n d s o u t h e r n A n a t o l i a w h e r e v e r there w a s available l a n d . I n d e e d . Kızılbaş (Shiites). i n h a b i t e d a l m o s t exclusively Bosnia a n d H e r z e g o v i n a . w h i c h consisted of the r e m a n e n t s of T u r k i c m i grants w h o h a d first c o m e i n t o the t e r r i t o r y as early as the sixth c e n t u r y . p. T h e m a j o r i t y of the Balkan T u r k s were S u n n i M u s l i m s . w e r e o n l y t e m p o r a r i l y settled i n the Balkans bet w e e n 1862 a n d 1878 a n d n e e d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a m o n g the n a t i v e g r o u p s . 8y Ethnic Total* Turks Albanians Bosnians Circassians Others Total 2. Ç e ç e n . A s u m m a r y p u b l i s h e d b y t h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t s h o w s that the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n increased f r o m 19. see Appendix 1. E g y p t . I n that area t h e r e w e r e n o n . H a r p u t . w a s raised m a i n ly b y the p o w e r f u l forces e m b o d i e d i n the O t t o m a n p o l i t i c a l a n d ' c i v i c c u l t u r e . i n the A l e p p o a n d B a g h d a d areas. The K u r d s w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o t w o g r o u p s — t h e smaller Zaza a n d the l a r g e r K i r m a n j i — a n d also i n t o a S u n n i m a j o r ity a n d a Shiite m i n o r i t y . Y ö r ü k . a n d Kars w e r e c e d e d to Russia. T h e c o n t e n t i o n that m i g r a t i o n s p e e d e d u p the-Tslamizat i o n a n d T u r k i f i c a t i o n of A n a t o l i a is s u p p o r t e d b y statistical evidence. a n d m a n y K u r d i s h tribes. l i v e d i n t h e area c o m p r i s i n g w h a t is n o w southeast T u r k e y . The o v e r l a n d i m m i g r a t i o n of v a r i o u s Caucasian g r o u p s after 1853 b e g a n t h e process. T h e Caucasus M u s l i m s . a n a t i o n is f o r m e d w h e n the o l d f o r m s of association d i s i n t e grate a n d p e o p l e are c o m p e l l e d to i n t e g r a t e i n t o n e w e r a n d larger social u n i t s w i t h a n e w p o l i t i c a l a n d social o r i e n t a t i o n a n d a n e w collective i d e n t i t y . T u n a . P e r s i a n . and Religious C o m p o s i t i o n " ( M . u n t i l the m i d d l e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y o n l y a f e w s m a l l 45 4 6 It is r e l a t i v e l y easy to d e t e r m i n e the e t h n o . a c c o r d i n g to figures g i v e n b y several of the m o s t reliable sources. T h e O t t o m a n state h a d created á s t r o n g c u l t u r a l u n i t y a m o n g v a r i o u s M u s l i m e t h n i c g r o u p s subject to its i n f l u e n c e i n the areas a d m i n i s t e r e d d i r e c t l y a n d i n t e n sively b y the central a u t h o r i t y — t h a t is. The Ottoman government. l i v i n g i n these areas.384.500 Number 342. w h i l e the sancak of N o v i b a z a r w a s placed u n d e r a j o i n t O t t o m a n . s t r e t c h i n g f r o m the sea of M a r m a r a to E r z u r u m i n t h e east a n d to the A d a n a ." Revue de géographie 3 (1878): 152. T u r k i s h . t h e p r o p o r t i o n of n o n T u r k i s h e l e m e n t s . b o t h sedentary' a n d n o m a d i c . A . D a g h i s t a n i s . were settled i n D o b r u c a a n d parts of eastern a n d n o r t h e r n Bulgaria. H e l l e v o n Samo Source: Engin Akarli. i n a d d i t i o n to Turks.500 4.000 1.s p e a k i n g M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n p r e v a i l e d . Muslims and Minorities. a small number of Crimeans. the Bulgarians c l a i m e d i n c o r r e c t l y that t h e y w e r e o n l y l i n g u i s t i cally T u r k i f i e d a n d classified t h e m as B u l g a r i a n s ' T h e M u s l i m T u r k s w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the p r o v i n c e s of the E d i r n e .14). it w a s a m e l d i n g of all the v a r i o u s I s l a m i c . t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s w e r e able to m a i n t a i n t h e i r i n h e r i t e d s o c i o .000 N u s a i r i s ( A l a w i t e s ) w h o l i v e d a l o n g the S y r i a n seaboard.600 141. a n d the s o u t h e r n parts of Syria a n d I r a q . a n d a l o n g t h e S y r i a n s e a b o a r d . The d e m o g r a p h i c structure of A n a t o l i a was f u r t h e r c h a n g e d t h r o u g h the s e t t l e m e n t . k n o w n also as Skipetars a n d A r n a v u t . The Kosova a n d Işkodra vilayets w e r e i n h a b i t e d largely b y A l b a n i a n M u s l i m s . were Christians. w e r e o r i g i n a l l y i n h a b i t e d b y T u r k s . u n t i l d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .000 400. the 200.200 264.8 m i l l i o n i n 1875 to 24. of n o m a d i c tribes. c o n s e q u e n t l y . a n d t h e 150. By Ethic Group Ethnic Group Turks. Çetni.000 Y e z i d i s ( f i r e w o r s h i p e r s ) f o u n d c h i e f l y i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t s of A l e p p o a n d M o s u l . 82.5 m i l l i o n i n t h e 1880s. Its Territorial. A n a t o l i a h a d b e e n r e l a t i v e l y h o m o g e n e o u s . n o n . they were Seljuki T u r k s w h o settled i n the Balkans i n the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d c o n v e r t e d to the O r t h o d o x r e l i g i o n b u t m a i n t a i n e d their T u r k i s h language. R u m i l i a n d A n a t o lia. s t e m m i n g f r o m t h e i r d i f f e r i n g occupations a n d s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s . w h e r e they a c q u i r e d t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e i r p r o t e c t o r s . i n h a b i t e d t h e i r o r i g i n a l h o m e i n the R h o d o p e M o u n t a i n s i n the vilayets of E d i r n e a n d Selanik.000 600.400 80. T h e Shiite K u r d s ' r e l i g i o u s beliefs w e r e i d e n t i c a l w i t h those of the Shiite T ü r k m e n . T u r k i c . a n d t h i s i n d u c e d m a n y E u r o peans to classify t h e sedentary' f o l k . w h i c h became the place of e n c o u n t e r f o r A r a b i c . w h o h a d b e g u n to settle i n v e r y small n u m b e r s i n central a n d w e s t e r n A n a t o l i a as early as the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . especially the Shiites. T h e m a j o r T u r k i s h s e t t l e m e n t i n the Balkans o c c u r r e d i n the S e l j u k i a n d O t t o m a n p e r i o d s i n the t h i r teenth t h r o u g h the s i x t e e n t h centuries. a n d tribe. A s early as the 1880s a small g r o u p of K u r d i s h leaders r e g a r d e d these areas as t h e i r f u t u r e n a t i o n a l h o m e l a n d . b u t t h e r e also t h e n o m a d i c g r o u p s w e r e p r e d o m i nantly of T u r k i s h s t o c k . b o t h v o l u n t a r y a n d i n v o l u n t a r y . 4 4 OTTOMAN POPULATION. T h e average d i s t r i b u t i o n of M u s l i m s i n the E u r o pean p r o v i n c e s i n the p e r i o d f r o m 1864 to 1877. was a c h e c k e r b o a r d o f v a r y i n g languages a n d social 44. A s the i m m i g r a t i o n s of the years 1862-1900 increased t h e size of the T u r k i s h p o p u l a t i o n i n A n a t o l i a . but it came to p r e s e n t a n e x t r e m e l y c o m p l e x ethnol i n g u i s t i c p i c t u r e after the M u s l i m i m m i g r a t i o n t o o k place.T u r k i s h M u s l i m s such as Bosn i a n s . o u t of w h i c h t h e architects of the e m e r g i n g T u r k i s h n a t i o n a l state d r e w t h e necessary m a n p o w e r to o p p o s e the c o n t i n u o u s o n s l a u g h t s of E u r o p e f r o m 1897 to 1922 a n d .384. i n c l u d i n g the T u r k s .l i n g u i s t i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n i n A n a t o l i a needs a l e n g t h y a n d d e t a i l e d s t u d y . a n d p a r t s o f t h e m w e r e c e d e d to M o n tenegro.500 'O 57 39 45 23 49 36 56 47 40 50 44. B a t u m .56 m i x e d . H o w e v e r .5 m i l l i o n i n 1885 a n d to 27. a g o o d part of w h i c h w a s n o m a d i c or p a s t o r a l . Lazes. L a t e r . except for the Kizilbaş. University of Wisconsin-Madison. 1970). t h e i r c u l m i n a t i o n w a s the s y n t h e s i s e m b o d i e d i n t h e T u r k i s h n a t i o n . T h e t o t a l O t t o m a n K u r d i s h p o p u l a tion. to a f f i r m t h e i d e n t i t y of their new nation. The largest M u s l i m g r o u p i n the Balkans w a s the T u r k s p r o p e r . in its drive to register the entire population.000 D r u z e s w h o i n h a b i t e d the Leban o n . T h u s . Selanik. w e r e placed i n d i f f e r ent e t h n i c categories. i d e n t i t y . T h e t w o processes w e r e i n fact c o m p l e m e n t a r y a n d w e r e r o o t e d i n the O t t o m a n c u l t u r e .600 154. the t e r r i t o r y i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t of Syria a n d the h i g h l a n d s of I r a q . a n d the m a j o r i t y w e r e T u r k i s h . " The government accepted this demand lest the Yezidis become subject to conversion bv some Christian missionary groups and cause trouble. 'Approximate totals. of D e l i o r m a n a n d n o r t h e r n D o b r u c a ( m a n y f r o m the latter area b e i n g f o l l o w e r s of Baba Ishak. i n t o a n e w f o r m of p o l i t i c a l a n d social o r g a n i z a t i o n — t h e n a t i o n a l state." journal of Muslim Minorities 1 (1980). 1860-1878 A. and McCarthy. (For Ottoman ligures. k n o w n as C i r cassians. a n d D i y a r b e k i r . p. Racial. that is. University of Wisconsin-Madison. O n e g r o u p .200 597.' T h e B o ş n a k . a n d p a r t of Syria. found that the Yezidis agreed to register only if their nationality was specified as " y e z i d i . "Ottoman Population in Europe in the 19th Century. Y a n y a . See my "The Status of Muslims under European Rule: The Eviction of the Circassians from the Caucasus and Their Settlement in Syria.6 Albanians and Turks (small groups only) Bosnians Turks Total groups of n o n . T h e Zaza a n d K i r m a n j i languages w e r e n o t w r i t t e n . a n d K u r d i s h tribes. . Its Territorial.l i n g u i s t i c classification of the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n i n N o r t h A f r i c a . Thus the political events that triggered the M u s l i m e m i g r a t i o n f r o m the Caucasus a n d the Balkans c o m p l e t e d b o t h the I s l a m i z a t i o n a n d the T u r k i f i c a t i o n of A n a t o l i a . w e r e settled t h r o u g h o u t w e s t ern. These settled tribes w e r e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y M u s l i m . w h e n t h e n o r t h ern p r o v i n c e s of A r d a h a n . a n d m a n y other M u s l i m g r o u p s .300. t h e fact t h a t t h e y w e r e of t h e same linguistic g r o u p b e i n g e n t i r e l y i g n o r e d . s u c h as t h e T ü r k m e n .000 48. a social rebel). To p a r a p h r a s e K a r l D e u t s c h . the A r a b i a n p e n i n s u l a . Z e y b e k . T h i s p o p u l a t i o n increase (about 40 percent i n t w e n t y years) was d u e chiefly to i m m i g r a t i o n a n d the s e t t l e m e n t of tribes and was a u g m e n t e d o n l y s l i g h t l y b y an increase i n t h e b i r t h rate (seemingly o n l v about 1 percent a n n u a l l y ) . T h e e t h n o . a n d after 1878.c u l t u r a l characteristics b u t were provided w i t h a new national identity and were assured of f u t u r e s u r v i v a l . T h e C r i m e a n s . i n lesser n u m b e r s . The eastern p a r t of A n a t o l i a h a r b o r e d . and Albanians Vilayets Istanbul Edirne Tuna Sofia Selanik Yanya Manastir (Kosova) Işkodra Bosnia and Herzegovina Crete Islands B. M i g r a t i o n a n d settlement p l a y e d a m a j o r role i n c r e a t i n g a large g r o u p o f p e o p l e w i t h s i m i l a r b a c k g r o u n d s .. t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d themselves Persian. thesis. The p l a i n s of the e n t i r e area. a n d A r a b tribes i n A n a t o l i a ( n o r t h e r n I r a q b e i n g u n s u i t a b l e for a g r i c u l t u r e ) . such as the a p p r o x i m a t e l y 150.T u r k i s h M u s l i m s c o u l d be f o u n d t h e r e . w h o r e g a r d e d m o s t of the same area as the t e r r i t o r y of a f u t u r e i n d e p e n d e n t A r m e n i a .100 945. came to settle i n eastern A n a t o l i a . e v e n t u a l l y . and Religious Composition" (M. 1830-1914 THE R E L I G I O U S A N D E T H N I C D I S T R I B U T I O N OF T H L O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N 57 m a i n l y T u r k s b u t also s o m e large Table 3. M e a n w h i l e large g r o u p s of M u s l i m i m m i g r a n t s f r o m the Balkans. G e o r g i a n s . 46. as " O s m a n l i " or " r e a l T u r k s . T h e r e w e r e large g r o u p s of e t h n i c T u r k s .000 4. t h e latter w a s d e s c e n d e d p r o b a b l y from t h e T u r k i s h Kizilbaş tribes t h a t h a d rebelled against the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d sought r e f u g e i n t h e d o m a i n s of the K u r d i s h l o r d s . T h e y i n h a b i t e d eastern Bulgaria a n d w e r e classified b y the O t t o m a n s as C h r i s t i a n s . T h i s c h e c k e r b o a r d became m o r e c o m p l e x as Circassians a n d o t h e r M u s l i m i m m i g r a n t s w e r e settled a r o u n d B e i r u t . w h o w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o v a r i o u s g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g to r e g i o n .T u r k i s h M u s l i m i m m i grants i n t o the T u r k i s h m a j o r i t y w a s n o t t r u l y " a s s i m i l a t i o n " i n the o r d i n a r y sense of t h e w o r d : r a t h e r .2 m i l l i o n i n 1895 (see t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a p p e n d i c e s .000.000 84.A u s t r i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( r e s u l t i n g i n a large e m i g r a t i o n f r o m Bosnia to the O t t o m a n state). I n a d d i t i o n t h e i m m i g r a t i o n total w a s steadily a u g m e n t e d b y t h e constant i n f l u x of C r i m e a n M u s l i m s . I have relied on the calculation made by Engin Akarli. I n the s e c o n d h a l f of t h e n i n e t e e n t h century' t h e n o r t h eastern p a r t of A n a t o l i a u n d e r w e n t massive e t h n i c c h a n g e . a l t h o u g h stirred p a r t l y b y a sense of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . 1. S u n n i a n d Shiite K u r d s b o t h sedentary a n d n o m a d ic. i n c l u d i n g t h e h i g h lands of D e r s i m . n o n S u n n i s — s o m e t i m e s n o t c o n s i d e r e d g o o d M u s l i m s ) . r u r a l a n d u r b a n .A y i n t a p r e g i o n i n the s o u t h . a n d p a r t of ' M a n a s t i r . the T u r k i s h national consciousness. a n d s p i r i t . A l b a n i a n s also came to settle i n A n a t o l i a . consisting m a i n l y of e t h n i c T u r k s f r o m Bulgaria a n d eastern Rumelia a n d of Circassians. g r o u p s of G r e e k . " O t t o man Population in Europe in the 19th Century. "La Turquie d'Europe d'après le Traité de Berlin. w h i c h t h e y t r i e d to secure against the claims of o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s — p a r t i c u l a r l y against t h e A r m e n i a n s .o r t h o d o x g r o u p s ( t h a t is. I n d e e d . P o m a k s l a n d . T h e Bulgari a n . e s t i m a t e d to be a b o u t 1.A.s p e a k i n g M u s l i m s . the P o m a k s . Çerkeş. the a s s i m i l a t i o n of t h e n o n . for i n these areas a n A r a b i c . etc. the M u s l i m s there.7. is s h o w n i n Table 3 . I r a q .

L i s t e d are a large n u m b e r of b a n k e m p l o y e e s (there w a s o n l v one small O t t o m a n . the t r a d i t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e r e s t i n g o n a g r i c u l t u r e — a n d the t o p lavcr of beneficiaries of the n e w o r d e r . a n d p r o b a b l y are. A l t h o u g h m a n y t r a d i t i o n a l p r o fessions s u r v i v e d . of the t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n s .58 i n d i c a t e d o n the basis of data f r o m the p r o v i n c i a l salnames that i n 1874 the A s i a n p r o v i n c e s ( A r a b i a excepted) h a d a p o p u l a t i o n of 10. after the acceptance of the L a t i n s c r i p t i n T u r k e y i n 1928 there w a s a t e n d e n c y to c o n s i d e r " l i t e r a t e " a n d to register as s u c h o n l y the p e o p l e w h o c o u l d read the Latin script. issued b a r e l y t w e n t y years later. 48. O n e can t h e r e f o r e state t h a t the d e m o g r a p h i c transf o r m a t i o n of the O t t o m a n state i n the second half of the nineteenth century was accompanied by economic g r o w t h a n d social changes as w e l l as b y p o l i t i c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n . t h e 3 The p r o f e s s i o n s associated w i t h the n e w o r d e r w e r e i n timately related to the m a r k e t . For e x a m p l e . T h e reason for this can be f o ^ n d .8 m i l l i o n n o n M u s l i m s .e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t w o u l d exp l a i n the p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . the statistics o n the v o l u m e o f p r o d u c t i o n a n d the price of some a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m o d i t i e s ( I V . c o n s i s t i n g of the representatives of E u r o p e a n capital (there w e r e large n u m b e r s of f o r e i g n citizens i n I s t a n b u l ) a n d of a r a p i d l y g r o w i n g n a t i v e m i d d l e class. despite the loss ( i n 1878) of n o r t h e a s t e r n A n a t o l i a to Russia. statistical a p p e n d i c e s ( I V . A g o o d m a n y of these enterprises w e r e t h e subsidiaries of large E u r o p e a n f i r m s or the d i s t r i b u t o r s of goods m a n u f a c t u r e d b y E u r o p e a n i n d u s 50. that is. d o present a p i c t u r e of O t t o m a n state q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m the d i s m a l p o r t r a i t of the " s i c k m a n " o f f e r e d b y m a n y E u r o p e a n w r i t e r s . a n d the O t t o m a n society d e v e l o p e d a n e w p o l i t i c a l a n d social awareness. and Ezel Kural Shaw. b u t also.000—less t h a n t h e total n u m b e r of v a r i o u s categories of servants. h a d d w i n d l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . O n the other h a n d . The material has been used in part by some other scholars. indicates a b o v e all the r a p i d p r o l i f eration of n e w professions a n d o c c u p a t i o n s a n d the d i s appearance. i n c l u d i n g the r e v o l u t i o n o f the Y o u n g T u r k s i n 1908. Osmanli imparatorluğunun iktisadı Şartlari Hakkında Bir Tetkik (Ankara. T h e first list. ulema) i n t h e i r c o u n t r i e s of o r i g i n . i n t h e s t r u c t u r e of the O t t o m a n e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . M o r e o v e r .and Modern Turkey.o r i e n t e d . or a total of a b o u t 14 m i l l i o n p e o p l e — a f i g u r e accepted b y m o s t observers as c o r r e c t . 68. eleven vears after the m a j o r w a v e of i m m i g r a t i o n f r o m the Balkans h a d been absorbed. 1902). T h u s the q u e s t i o n of the literacy rate m u s t be exp l o r e d w i t h d u e c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the specific educational c o n d i t i o n s a n d the p r e v a i l i n g d e f i n i t i o n of a " l i t e r a t e " person i n the O t t o m a n state at a g i v e n t i m e . "La Turquie d'Europe. 9 a n d 10) are of c o n s i d e r a b l e significance. tries. T h e statistics r e l a t i n g to literacy ( I V . the m i g r a t i o n was a c c o m p a n i e d by a transfer o f c a p i t a l a n d skills. See IUKTY. 1977). T h e O t t o m a n e c o n o m y h a d b e c o m e i n fact a dependent "service" economy whose developing " m o d e r n " laver served as i n t e r m e d i a r y b e t w e e n the p r o d u c t i v e sector—that is. A p p a r e n t l y this statistical b o o k was the result of a j o i n t e f f o r t c a r r i e d o u t u n d e r the s u p e r v i s i o n of the h i g h e s t a u t h o r i t i e s i n the statistical office. d e s c r i b i n g the o c c u p a t i o n a l scene i. See Pretextat Lecomte.4). History of the Ottoman Empire. 1970). c h i e f l y C r e e k s a n d A r m e n i a n s . T h e r e w a s d o u b t l e s s a real s l o w d o w n i n g r o w t h at t h a t t i m e d u e to a v a r i e t y of causes. m i g r a t i o n . 1830-1914 T H E R E L I G I O U S A N D E T H N I C D I S T R I B U T I O N OF T H E O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N 59 The p a t t e r n of g r o w t h of the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n . 2 (New York: Cambridge University Press." 209-16. see Vedat Eldem. H a l f a c e n t u r y of p e r s e c u t i o n a n d m i s t r e a t m e n t of M u s l i m s b y Russia a n d the n e w l y established states of the Balkans f i n a l ly f o r c e d a l m o s t all of t h e m to seek n e w h o m e s a n d a n e w p o l i t i c a l existence i n A n a t o l i a — a search t h a t u l t i m a t e l y res u l t e d i n the emergence o f m o d e r n T u r k e y . and Stanford J. T h e s t u d e n t s of O t t o m a n h i s t o r y m a y better u n d e r s t a n d t h e rise a n d d o w n fall of t h i s p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y if t h e y can a p p r o a c h its s t u d y w i t h some d e t a i l e d factual k n o w l e d g e a b o u t its society. I n s u m . the section o n T u r k i s h m a n u s c r i p t s . the p u b l i c debt w a s s t a b i l i z e d . or A g r i c u l t u r a l B a n k ) a n d secretaries. these social statistics. b u t t h a t v i e w is n o t s u p p o r t e d by o t h e r e v i d e n c e . I n fact. " T h e s e c o n d list. the p r o f e s s i o n s associated w i t h the " m o d e r n " order b e i n g m o r e p r e s t i g i o u s . of the t r a d i tional s o c i e t y : a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f these p r o f e s s i o n s should i n d i c a t e the level of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n taste a n d l i v i n g reached b y t h e O t t o m a n society as w e l l as r e v e a l i n g t h e structure of its c o m p l e x crafts o r g a n i z a t i o n . Die Viilker des osnianischen Reiclws. d i r e c t o r of the O t t o m a n Statistical Directorate (see C h a p t e r 2 a n d A p p e n d i x B. 15) g i v e rates that appear. D u r i n g this p e r i o d the n u m b e r of C h r i s t i a n s i n creased o n l y s l i g h t l y . T h e y are taken f r o m m a t e r i a l i n the l i b r a r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of I s t a n b u l . b u t the t r a d i t i o n a l religious schools still s u r v i v e d i n large n u m b e r s a n d p r o d u c e d their o w n graduates f o r a l o n g p e r i o d of t i m e . Recent d o c u m e n t a r y research o n the O t t o m a n e c o n o m y b v a n u m ber of y o u n g scholars has i n d i c a t e d that i n the p e r i o d f r o m 1870 to 1900 a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n increased. t e n d e d to replace t h e o l d . the n u m b e r of M u s l i m s i n A n a t o l i a h a d increased to over 15 m i l l i o n . because b i r t h a n d d e a t h registrations w e r e n o t satisfactorily carried o u t s o m e of the decrease i n the rate o f . a l t h o u g h m o r e general and w i d e r i n scope. les Arts et metiers de la Turquie et de VOrient (Paris. The latter w e r e essentially r e l i g i o u s schools a n d c o u l d be f o u n d e v e n i n v i l l a g e s . 117. i n d i c a t i n g that the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of capital a n d of business h a d g a i n e d p r i o r i t y over man}. k n o w its b a c k g r o u n d . T h e s y s t e m c o n s i s t e d i n the second half of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y of b o t h g o v e r n m e n t f i n a n c e d a n d c o n t r o l l e d " m o d e r n " schools a n d t r a d i t i o n a l classrooms s u p p o r t e d b y vakifs ( p i o u s f o u n d a t i o n s ) .i Istanbul i n 1878/79. g r o w t h w a s a p p a r e n t rather t h a n actual. r a t h e r h i g h . a n d a p e r s o n g r a d u a t i n g f r o m one of these schools c o u l d be called literate. 229) bears the name of that M e h m e t Behic w h o w a s assistant d i r e c t o r a n d . see also Dottain. m a i d s . Social C o n d i t i o n s M a n y of the tables i n Section I V of the statistical a p p e n dices at the e n d of t h i s b o o k c o n t a i n statistics t h a t are i n fact social i n d i c a t o r s d e s c r i b i n g t h e O t t o m a n state's socioeconomic p o s i t i o n at the e n d of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t o w a r d s w h i c h the g o v e r n m e n t officials s h o w e d a strong bias. w h a t e v e r their degree of accuracy. A seal m a r k o n one of the i n t e r i o r pages ( p . t h e s e statistics. 4 4 OTTOMAN POPULATION. for a considerable n u m b e r of the i m m i g r a n t s b e l o n g e d to w e l l . railroads m a d e the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of c o m m o d i t i e s to the markets easier a n d m o r e e f f i c i e n t . there is n o i n d i c a t i o n of the m e t h o d used i n c o m p i l i n g the figures.3 m i l l i o n M u s l i m s a n d 2. t h o u g h steady. t h e y t a u g h t c h i l d r e n h o w to read a n d w r i t e . besides p r o v i d i n g factual i n f o r m a t i o n . There is n o q u e s t i o n t h a t the s e t t l e m e n t of i m m i g r a n t s h a d b r o u g h t n e w a g r i c u l t u r a l lands i n t o c u l t i v a t i o n a n d increased f a r m p r o d u c t i o n . i n c l u d i n g losses i n the w a r w i t h Greece i n 1897 a n d the B a l k a n W a r of 1912-1913. ' I n 1885. b o t h i n n u m b e r s a n d i n p r o p o r t i o n . suggest the existence of forces that s h a p e d t h e u l t i m a t e d e s t i n y of the O t t o m a n E m p i r e . " N e v e r t h e l e s s . e d u c a t i o n a l facilities e x p a n d e d . at least i n p a r t . as w e l l as the e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e . the total n u m b e r of f a c t o r y w o r k e r s w a s o n l y 186. vol.o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s . h i g h officials. 9184 and 365. c a p i t a l . western-style enterprises a n d c o r p o r a t i o n s that h a d b e g u n to c o n t r o l t h e O t t o m a n e c o n o m y . a n d one m u s t have reservations a b o u t accepting at face value some of the i n f o r m a t i o n w h e n one does n o t 4 8 47. later. i l l u m i n a t e s the m o d e of life a n d social habits. this process g a i n e d n e w m o m e n t u m w i t h the mass i m m i g r a t i o n of m o s t of the r e m a i n i n g e t h n i c T u r k s f r o m the Balkans as a consequence of the w a r o f 1912-1913.d o g r o u p s ( l a n d l o r d s .o w n e d b a n k — t h e Ziraat Ban¬ kasi. T h e relative s l o w i n g o f the rate of p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h d i d not r e t a r d the i s l a m i z a t i o n a n d T u r k i f i c a t i o n of A n a t o l i a . c o n t i n u e d after 1885 b u t w i t h out s h o w i n g the large increases p r e v i o u s l y r e c o r d e d . 18-23) suggest the existence of the t y p e of s o c i o . T h e y o f f e r n e w i n s i g h t i n t o — i n fact. I t is t r u e that the m o d e r n schools. a n d secretaries. T h e t w o lists of p r o f e s s i o n s a n d professionals g i v e n i n 49. T h u s the official O t t o m a n statistics p r o b a b l y p a i n t a reasonable likeness of the true circumstances i n the O t t o m a n state. a p r o f o u n d l y n e w vista o f — t h e O t t o m a n society a n d its i n t e r n a l d y n a m i c s . pp. T h i s m i g h t be seen as an i n d i c a t o r of s t r o n g e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . or at least the f a d i n g a w a y to i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . Dev!et-i Aliye-i Osmaniyyenm. t h e y became r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t a n d u n p o p u l a r . the statistics s h o w e d the o v e r a l l O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n to have increased by o n l y a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l n u m b e r i n the p e r i o d f r o m 1885 to 1914. . h o w e v e r .t o .i n t e n s i v e . I n a n y case.

eds. r a t h e r .M u s l i m s increased i n n u m b e r s a n d developed i n t o a p r o s p e r o u s m i d d l e class. a l t h o u g h t h e r e w a s also some o u t w a r d m o v e m e n t .e c o n o m i c factors m u s t be g i v e n t h e i r d u e c r e d i t f o r i n c r e a s i n g the scope of econ o m i c i n f l u e n c e or f o r c r e a t i n g t h e i r o w n spheres of interact i o n . a n d p o l i t i c a l factors p l a y e d a large part i n the d e m o g r a p h i c changes i n t h e O t t o m a n state i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Syria. "Sociology of M i g r a t i o n .. w e r e n o t u n a w a r e t h a t the territories t h e y d e f i n e d as t h e i r f u t u r e n a t i o n s w e r e i n h a b i t e d b y v a r i o u s peoples. e t h n i c .o r i e n t e d p o l i t i c a l v i e w s of the Russian pan-Slavists rather t h a n those of the 60 liberal West. Wrigley. a n d relied o n Russia to f u r t h e r their. Jackson. d e m o g r a p h i c c h a n g e .For some efforts to assess the role of demography i n history. See also ] . a n d l i n g u i s t i c change d u r i n g the years i n w h i c h m i l l i o n s of p e o p l e m o v e d f r o m E u r o p e to the A s i a n territories of the O t t o m a n E m p i r e a n d f r o m Asia to E u r o p e . t h e relationship between politics and ethno-demographic change is n o t m u c h m e n t i o n e d .: Free Press. See Daedalus 97. and E. Spengler and Otis D . A Textbook of Readings (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. I n t h i s c h a p t e r I present o n l y an o u t l i n e of some of the m i g r a t i o n s that so p r o f o u n d ly affected the O t t o m a n society. Research in the Politics of Population (Lexington. and Richard Startup.. a n d the A l b a n i a n s w e r e the exceptions). the c o n g r e g a t i o n of peoples o f the same e t h n o . t h e i r n a t i o n a l i s m o f t e n expressed the c o n s e r v a t i v e . " American Historical Review 75 (1970): 1065-75. w h i c h o n l y later became a m o d e l for r e f o r m . T h e s o l u t i o n called f o r the e r a d i c a t i o n or f o r c e d exile to A n a t o l i a o f a l l " T u r k s . ed. Population and History (London:"Wiedenfeld and Nicolson. 2. T h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s remained w e l l i n t e g r a t e d . Gembloux. s o m e of the leaders of these nationalist m o v e m e n t s . Hollingsworth.e t h n i c n a t i o n a l i s m . to e m p h a s i z e t h a t u n d e r certain c o n d i t i o n s s o m e n o n . t h e r e p l a c e m e n t of o n e ethnic g r o u p b y a n o t h e r . I t is a p p a r e n t . diss. i m m i g r a t i o n . I . Consequently. g o a l of i n d e p e n d e n c e . Mendels. N. see T. F. . d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t a m o n g t h e m w e r e m a n y Slavics p e a k i n g g r o u p s . T h u s . J. or R o m a n i a n s . a n d f e r t i l i t y . not o n l y i n o r d e r to s t r e n g t h e n the c o h e s i o n of their f o l l o w e r s .p o l i t i c a l considerations. T h e i m p a c t of these d e v e l o p m e n t s o n t h e character of the B a l k a n p o p u l a t i o n w a s p r e d i c t a b l e . . N e v e r t h e l e s s . 1968). 1878 to 1927" (Ph. Family and Migration in Nineteenth-Century Black Sea Provinces of the Ottoman Empire. Every facet of O t t o m a n d e m o g r a p h y was affected b y these vast m i g r a t i o n s . Heer. The literature in this field is extensive. See also Justin McCarthy. V. Clinton and R. Glass and Roger Revell. T h e b u l k of t h e w e s t e r n l i t e r a t u r e o n h i s t o r i c a l d e m o g r a p h y deals m o s t l y w i t h f e r t i l i t y a n d m o r t a l i t y rates. University of California at Los Angeles.s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s . 1969). J. 1969). I n a d d i t i o n there w a s a m o v e m e n t o f m o u n t a i n a n d desert tribes i n t o the f e r t i l e areas of A n a t o l i a ." International Journal of Middle East Studies 10 (1979): 309-23. M u s l i m s . see "The Treatment of Population i n History Textbooks. A . w h i c h has b e e n d e f i n e d as t h e 1 2 policies. 3 vols. h a d m a d e plans f o r b r i n g i n g a b o u t t h e d e s i r e d c u l t u r a l a n d e t h n i c h o m o g e n e i t y b y s o l v i n g the " p r o b l e m " of the T u r k ish p o p u l a t i o n . Charles B. M e a n while. See Richard L. f a m i l y size. r e l i g i o u s . and ethnic e n v i r o n m e n t that generated. Population and Society. had been an i m p o r tant c o n d i t i o n i n peace treaties s i g n e d w i t h A u s t r i a a n d Russia since 1718. T h i s w a s a n a p t title. (Louvain: Publications Universitaires de Louvain. ed. and F. t h e n . a l t h o u g h s o m e e f f o r t s i n this d i r e c t i o n have b e e n m a d e . e t h n i c i t y . Historical Demography (Ithaca: Cornell'University Press. a n d p o r t i o n s of t h e A r a b i c . f a m i l y size. "The Muslim Population of Anatolia. 23-45. 1970). H . 1971). A n a t o l i a . drastically a l t e r e d the e t h n i c . M i g r a t i o n s cons t i t u t e d t h e b u l k of these p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t s . the fact that the O t t o m a n a r m y w a s m a d e u p c h i e f l y of T u r k s : the l o n g wars w i t h Russia b e t w e e n 1768 a n d 1829 t h u s caused w i d e s p r e a d European p o w e r s . t h a t p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t s i n the O t t o m a n state i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y are related to e t h n i c a n d c u l t u r a l factors. T h u s c o n c e p t s d e v e l o p e d i n E u r o p e s h o u l d be a p p l i e d w i t h e x t r e m e c a u t i o n t o t h e s t u d y of O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t s i n general a n d of m i g r a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r .. 111. T h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w i t n e s s e d the g r a d u a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e a n d the emergence of i n d e p e n d e n t or a u t o n o m o u s states i n the Balkans t h a t c l a i m e d s t a t e h o o d a n d n a t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y o n the basis of o f t e n exa g g e r a t e d c l a i m s of h i s t o r i c a l g r a n d e u r . a n extensive a n d d e t a i l e d s t u d y of t h i s t o p i c m u s t be reserved f o r a n o t h e r v o l u m e . Clifford J. see].. r e l i g i o n . introduction à la démographie historique: Les miles d'Europe du XIV au XVlil siècle. S. as d e m o g r a p h i c c h a n g e — t h a t is. "Les Mouvements m i gratoires en France . i n a d d i t i o n to n a t u r a l calamities a n d e p i d e m i c s . "Recent Research in European Historical D e m o g r a p h y . T h e leaders stressed the C h r i s t i a n identity a n d religious/cultural peculiarities. t h e y a d o p t e d a m o d e r n educational s y s t e m a n d h e a l t h services. i n this reference 1 list only a few major works and bibliographies. Duncan. b u t also i n o r d e r to d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e m f r o m the r u l i n g a u t h o r i t y def i n e d as T u r k i s h or M u s l i m . m o s t o f the studies made of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g this p e r i o d w e r e called " e t h n o g r a p h i c " s t u d i e s . T h e m i g r a t i o n s a f f e c t i n g the O t t o m a n e m p i r e w e r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y i m m i g r a t i o n s . this series. I n fact. m e a n w h i l e the d e m a n d f o r f o o d s t u f f s a n d r a w m a t e r i a l s w a s i n c r e a s i n g apace. Roger Mois. approches pour une synthèse. C h r i s t i a n i t y became the f o u n d a t i o n of n a t i o n h o o d i n the Balkans. and d e t e r m i n e d t h e course of. A n excellent.POPULATION M O V E M E N T S I N THE O T T O M A N STATE 61 " s t u d y of the i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s . Migration: Ein Beitrag zu einer soziologischen Erklärung (Stuttgart: Enke. Readings on Population (Englewood Cliffs. a n d " s o c i a l " e v e n t s s u c h as e c o n o m i c diff e r e n t i a t i o n a n d the rise of certain social classes i n the O t t o m a n state. r e l i g i o u s . 1972) and Political Science in Population Studies (Lexington. T h e T r e a t y of E d i r n e i n 1829 h a d freed W a l l a c h i a a n d M o l d a v i a f r o m t h e o b l i g a t i o n to sell t h e Porte some of t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e . f o r m e d e i t h e r the m a j o r i t y or a strong m i n o r i t y . s u c h as the B u l g a r i a n G e o r g e R a k o w s k i . Mass.: Prentice-Hall. a n d b i r t h a n d d e a t h rates t h a t are c o n s i d e r e d p u r e l y d e m o g r a p h i c — i s b o u n d to be i n c o m plete w i t h o u t a s t u d y ' a l s o of e m i g r a t i o n a n d . spoke Slavic languages (the V l a h s . Large areas'of f e r t i l e l a n d r e m a i n e d u n c u l t i v a t e d . Jansen. 1955-2962 (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press. the relative decline i n the n u m b e r of the T u r k i s h a n d M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n i n the Balkans a n d A n a t o l i a at the e n d of the e i g h t e e n t h a n d the b e g i n n i n g of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m a y be a t t r i b u t e d to.J. Mangalam. 4. 19/2).f i v e years of existence. T h e leaders of the n a t i o n a l m o v e m e n t s . a n d social c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e Balkans. i n t h e e a r l y phase of n a t i o n f o r m a t i o n the Balkans a d o p t e d the c e n t u ries-old v i e w ( w h i c h w a s the v i e w h e l d b y the O t t o m a n s t a t e ) t h a t r e l i g i o u s ties w e r e p r i m a r y b o n d s . It is not m y i n t e n t i o n to d e n y the i m p o r t a n c e of e c o n o m i c factors i n d e m o g r a p h i c change b u t . r e l i g i o u s . I n fact. 1978) and "Age. ed. 1956). 1969). written before the Second World War (and many others written after) give little or no space to population problems. " deals p r i m a r i l y w i t h the g o v e r n m e n t a l p o p u l a t i o n policies or w i t h the effect of p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h o n 3 mortality a m o n g M u s l i m males of r e p r o d u c t i v e age. source on historical demography is the Annales de démographie historique. f r o m the r a p i d l y i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g c o u n t r i e s of w e s t e r n E u r o p e . or i n some cases o t h e r C h r i s t i a n g r o u p s . a n d o t h e r s i m i l a r t o p i c s . Editions J. T h e B a l k a n M u s l i m s w e r e a b o u t to suffer the same fate as h a d been i n f l i c t e d o n t h e i r coreligionists i n Sicily a n d S p a i n c e n t u r i e s earlier. b o t h because of the d i s a r r a y i n the l a n d t e n u r e s y s t e m a n d because of p o l i t i c a l .A. religious.. . eds. 2 (1968). c h i e f l y of Syrians e m i g r a t i n g to the A m e r icas a n d of Greeks a n d A r m e n i a n s w h o w e n t to Russian t e r r i t o r y ." Annales de démographie historique (Paris: Sirey. especially. These d e m a n d s came m o s t l y f r o m a b r o a d .D. Population and Social Change (New York: Crane Russak. t h e s t u d y of p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t s i n the O t t o m a n state i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m u s t a d o p t c o n cepts a n d u t i l i z e a m e t h o d o l o g y capable of t a k i n g i n t o account n o t o n l y d e m o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s b u t also t h e cultural. I n s u m .: Lexington Books. Demographic Analyses (Glencoe. pp. 1. the n o n . a n d language—a v i s i o n t h a t w a s e n t i r e l y false. a n d since the m a j o r i t y of O t t o m a n C h r i s t i a n s i n E u r o p e b e l o n g e d to the O r t h o d o x c h u r c h . t w o t e r m s t h a t came to be r e g a r d e d as s y n o n y m o u s .: Lexington Books. " t h a t is. 1972).r e l i g i o u s a n d l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p w i t h i n the same t e r r i t o r y a n d the a d o p t i o n of measures necessary to increase the b i r t h rate a n d l o w e r the d e a t h rate of t h e chosen g r o u p — was affected by e t h n o . t h e r e f o r e . f r e e d o m of trade! n o t a b l y f r e e d o m to p u r c h a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l commodities f r o m O t t o m a n territories. despite the existence of a variety of o t h e r forces. ' 1 Ottoman I m m i g r a t i o n . The n e w l y d e v e l o p i n g f i e l d of p o l i t i c a l d e m o g r a p h y . 1968). T h e s t r u c t u r e of O t t o m a n society u n d e r w e n t e n o r m o u s social. These p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t s . David M . H r a u i i Migration: A Guide to Migration Literature in English. no. published since 1964. a l t h o u g h i m b u e d w i t h f e r v e n t relig i o u s . I n v i e w of t h i s . Kenneth G o d w i n . T h e shapers of these n e w B a l k a n e n t i t i e s e n v i s a g e d t h e i r " n a t i o n s " as h o m o g e n e o u s i n r e l i g i o n . and even of world civilization. it is i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h e n a t u r e a n d the scope of p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t s i n the O t t o m a n state be d e f i n e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e forces that e n g e n d e r e d t h e m a n d c o n d i t i o n e d t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t . a m o n g w h o m the M u s l i m s . C u l t u r a l . The work of Louis Henry also contains useful insights. 1970). published by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique i n Paris. s t r o n g e n o u g h to h o l d the c o m m u n i t y t o g e t h e r a n d c o n f e r u p o n it a c u l t u r e a n d an i d e n t i t y .. ed. and Jean-Pierre Poussou." in D.m i l i t a r y p o l i c y . For general reference to migration. a n d h a d been s t i m u l a t e d g r e a t l y b y the C r i m e a n W a r (1853-1856). a n d t h e y e n j o y e d P O P U L A T I O N M O V E M E N T S I N I N T H E O T T O M A N STATE assistance of C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s the a n d the s u p p o r t of government T H E N I N E T E E N T H C E N T U R Y Introduction A n y s t u d y of the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the n i n e t e e n t h a n d t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s — e v e n of such q u e s t i o n s as age. Policy T h e O t t o m a n state w a s faced at t h e b e g i n n i n g of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w i t h t h e p r o b l e m of scarcity of p o p u l a t i o n . N a m . " The Sociological Quarterly 12 (1971) 177-90. e v e n " p u r e " d e m o g r a p h i c d e v e l o p m e n t s s u c h as b i r t h a n d d e a t h rates. Mass. 1954-1956). a n d I r a q . A . therefore. 1967). especially the i m m i g r a t i o n s . f o r c i n g the P o r t e to 3. has nine volumes. Readings in the Sociology of Migration (Oxford: Pergamon Press. hence it is essential that t h e y be t h o r o u g h l y c o n s i d e r e d i n p o p u l a t i o n studies of the e m p i r e d u r i n g its last s e v e n t y .. David Landes pointed out that most of the genera] books on the history of Europe. Hans-Joachim Hoffman N o w o t n y . and probably the most extensive. can c l e a r l y be l i n k e d to c u l t u r a l a n d e t h n i c causes. Migration ( C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press. even before independence was a c h i e v e d . For e x a m p l e . Indeed. Duculot.

A f t e r the f o r m a l e m e r g e n c e of p o l i t i c a l " Z i o n i s m i n 1897. A n u m b e r of families f r o m T u s c a n y s h o w e d i n t e r e s t i n m i g r a t i n g a n d a s k e d for i n f o r m a t i o n . A l i Paşa. 3 6 O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N . respectively. m i n i s t e r s . 20. 13 The n e w s a b o u t O t t o m a n l a n d g r a n t s a r o u s e d i n t e r e s t even across the ocean i n A m e r i c a . especially Syria a n d Palestine. FM (Id) 587. l i k e others of its k i n d c o n c e r n i n g settlement i n N o r t h A f r i c a a n d Palestine. A f t e r w a r d s . T h i s request. See also Stanford J. 2 (New York: Cambridge University Press. now under Romanian or Soviet rule. a n d n o t a b l y after 1882 w h e n t h e presecution of Jews b y the czarist g o v e r n m e n t i n t e n s i f i e d . the O t t o m a n c o n s u l i n N e w Y o r k . 52-72. m o r e t h a n 18. may be found in A .' E u r o p e a n response to the decree w a s o v e r w h e l m i n g . w h o left Russia i n o p p o s i t i o n to Peter the Great's r e f o r m s . N e v e r t h e l e s s . a n d h a d to ask the g o v e r n m e n t for details a n d precise i n s t r u c t i o n s . despite his b r o t h e r ' s insistence o n t a k i n g o v e r the p r o j e c t . .000 doniims of l a n d o n the i s l a n d for the s e t t l e m e n t of 300 I r i s h f a m i l i e s . FM (Id) 1804]'8. T h e p r o h i b i t i o n w a s f o r m a l i z e d i n a letter s i g n e d b y the p r i m e m i n i s t e r i n 1 9 0 6 . T h e g o v e r n m e n t s o u g h t to r e m e d y the e c o n o m i c s t a g n a t i o n a n d to. i n q u i r e d a b o u t l a n d o n w h i c h to establ i s h F r e n c h colonies i n the O t t o m a n state s i m i l a r to the G e r m a n c o l o n i e s f o u n d e d i n Jaffa a n d " C a i p h a " . a n d consuls i n L o n d o n . 11. 7 December 1858. a dönüm consisted of 1. e i t h e r f o r t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e f a m i n e or p e r m a n e n t l y . 3). a n d p o s s i b l y h a l f o f the G e r m a n colonies located i n s o u t h e r n Russia. 13. " O t t o m a n Practice as Regards Jewish Settlement in Palestine. a n d as a former m e m b e r of the p e n a l c o u r t . vol. p r i n c i p a l l y Jews a n d B u l g a r i a n s . 28 November 1866. F M (Id) 177. Türkiye 'de Göç ve Göçmen Meseleleri (istanbul.000 families of G e r m a n o r i g i n l i v i n g i n Bessarabia i n f o r m e d t h e O t t o m a n c o n s u l a t e i n Odessa t h a t t h e y d e s i r e d to settle i n T u r k e y ." A good but incomplete collection of British consular reports on the "Jewish question. 4 .: Medina University Press International. T h e H a g u e . A . he i n s i s t e d that the g o v e r n m e n t was f i r m i n its d e c i s i o n to i m p l e m e n t its original decree. FM (Id) 177. a thriving community inhabited by over 3. Paris. settled i n D o b r u c a i n the localities of Jurilofca. 1 9 O t t o m a n ambassadors. w o u l d c o m e to the O t t o m a n s t a t e . a n d Tulça. . O x f o r d S m i t h . Reports s u b m i t t e d bv a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p e r t s — i n c l u d i n g I o n l o n e s c u . t h e b e s t arable l a n d s o w n e d b y the t r e a s u r y a n d to e x e m p t t h e m f r o m all taxes a n d m i l i t a r y service f o r six years. a s u b s t a n t i a l n u m b e r of families w e r e t r a n s p o r t e d first to I z m i r a n d t h e n to D a m a s c u s . A p p a r e n t l y the use of I z m i r as a c l e a r i n g p o i n t caused considerable d i f f i c u l t } ' . the f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r . 32420 12. a R o m a n i a n c o n s i d e r e d to be a n expert o n l a n d t e n u r e — a v e r r e d t h a t O t t o m a n a g r i c u l t u r e c o u l d be i m p r o v e d a n d state revenues increased substantially o n l y if a d d i t i o n a l l a n d was b r o u g h t u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n .000 Swiss. a n d to respect the c o u n t r y ' s l a w s . P h i l i p p O l k o n s k i f r o m L o d z asked about m i g r a t i o n to Palestine. 17 November 1859. w a s o p e n to s e t t l e m e n t b y O t t o m a n subjects. 8. 6. and each archine consisted of 7 square centimeters. 11 May 1872. ed. i n c l u d i n g Palestine. D o r m a n n G a s p a r i n i . h o w e v e r ." including the issue of migration to Palestine. " S m i t h also i n q u i r e d " w h e t h e r p e r s o n s of c o l o u r w h o are n a t i v e s of t h i s c o u n t r y or o t h e r s are i n c l u d e d i n t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . a n d a l o n g t h e n o r t h e r n b r a n c h of the Danube (the Kilia) in the t o w n of Periprava and elsewhere. FM (Id) 177. i f t h e y can o b t a i n l a n d a n d be p r o t e c t e d i n t h e c u l t i v a t i o n of it . or L i p o v a n s . h a v i n g h e a r d t h a t the " e m p e r o r " of T u r k e y o f f e r e d l a n d a n d t r a v e l expenses to those w h o w a n t e d to settle i n t h a t c o u n t r y . increase revenues b v first r e v i t a l i z i n g a g r i c u l t u r e . FM (Id) 587. L t d . H e w r o t e t h a t t h e r e w e r e " m a n y i n d u s t r i o u s . See also Israel Margalith. The British Consulate in Jerusalem: 1838-1914. T u r i n . A l e x a n d r e Baggio of T u r i n asked f o r a concession of l a n d i n A l b a n i a . T h e O l d Believers. For a general view of Jewish migration. Goldston. 1957). f o r b a d e mass J e w i s h m i g r a t i o n t o a n d settlement i n Palestine. In a recent visit to Jurilofca. if t h e i r d e m a n d s w e r e received f a v o r ably. 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 13 14 domains e n v i s i o n e d large-scale m i g r a t i o n . 10059/99. A g r o u p of 2. w h o s u b m i t t e d official papers to p r o v e h i s status as a c i t i z e n of the c a n t o n of St. C. H o w e v e r . 50. a n d C o r f u . 17 1 8 T h e l i b e r a l i m m i g r a t i o n p o l i c y of t h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t w a s e v e n t u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d . w h i l e still a l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s to i m m i g r a t e . Ibid. A portion of the following material on Ottoman immigration policies has appeared in my article. Brussels. . 4 June 1876. h a d m a n a g e d to i m m i g r a t e a n d settle i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the e m p i r e .. Eren.350 francs) w a s r e q u i r e d f o r i m m i g r a t i o n (art. B r i t i s h c o n s u l in Larnaca. 60786/214. see my "Ottoman Immigration Policies. the Committee h a d already established colonies i n Algeria. Galle. 5. h a v i n g established a c o m p a n y a n d e v e n a c q u i r e d a s h i p to carry the a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m o d i t i e s p r o d u c e d o n his l a n d to E u r o p e a n m a r k e t s . 21. Some still live there. 2097 and are dated. p a r t i c u larly the area of Palestine. T h u s . 1830-1914 POPULATION M O V E M E N T S I N THE O T T O M A N STATE 63 f a m i n e i n 1871 a n d 1872. 23 March 1859. I was told bv one of the communal leaders the historv of the settlement as transmitted orally from generation to generation. no. 6885/36. 1 (1975): 33-46.B r a d . 2 vols. if t h e y settled i n R u m e l i a . t h e g r a n d v i z i e r gave i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e m i grants to be t r a n s p o r t e d d i r e c t l y to a n d p o s s i b l y settled i n the vilayet of S y r i a . 1977). FM (Id) 177. 12. FM (Id) 24971796 . 1881-1908. after r e c e i v i n g a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m the g o v e r n o r of Jerusalem. The communications w i t h Smith are in FM (Id) 177. 2 March 1872. 111. d e m a n d e d s o m e 130." Middle Eastern Studies 11. " 1 6 T h e s e t t l e m e n t decree w a s t r a n s l a t e d a n d p u b l i s h e d i n the m a j o r E u r o p e a n j o u r n a l s so t h a t a large n u m b e r of people w o u l d become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the O t t o m a n i m m i g r a t i o n p o l i c y . as a n officer i n the Swiss a r m y . b u t the p r o j e c t f a i l e d to m a t e r i a l i z e because he d i d n o t have s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l . 2283. the soil a n d a g r i c u l t u r e of o n e of the m o s t i m p o r t a n t p r o v i n c e s w o u l d pass to f o r e i g n e r s — a d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t w o u l d be d e t r i m e n t a l to the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . at t h e t i m e of the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e B r i t i s h consulate i n Jerusalem ( w h i c h w a s the f i r s t E u r o p e a n representation i n the H o l y C i t y ) . A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p e r m i s s i o n to settle i n certain p a r t s of the e m p i r e w e r e less freely g r a n t e d . a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n d e p e n d e n t u p o n there b e i n g e n o u g h t r a i n e d m a n p o w e r for a g r i c u l t u r e . h a d b e e n f o r m u l a t e d t w o a n d o n e . h o w e v e r . it b e i n g f e a r e d t h a t s u c h m i g r a t i o n s w o u l d alter the e t h n i c a n d r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e o f t h e area. H e p r o p o s e d v a r i o u s schemes of settlem e n t to be a d o p t e d .000 f a m i l i e s . FM (Id) 177.000 Old Believers. to b e c o m e his subject. and Neville ] . T h o m a s L a m e s . FM (Id) 127. steady m e n w h o w o u l d l i k e to take u p t h e i r residence i n t h a t l a n d . I t declared t h a t m i g r a t i o n i n t o the O t t o m a n state w a s o p e n to a n y o n e w h o w a s w i l l i n g to g i v e his allegiance to the s u l t a n .62 make u p the d e l i c i e n c v i n g r a i n p r o d u c t i o n b v b r i n g i n g v i r g i n lands u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n . 1939-41). T h e C o m p t e d'Haussv i l l e . O n 9 M a r c h 1857 (5 C e m a ziyülahır 1272) the h i g h c o u n c i l of T a n z i m a t issued a decree o n m i g r a t i o n a n d s e t t l e m e n t t h a t was s a n c t i o n e d also b y the s u l t a n . a d v i s e d t h e m that some measures s t i l l h a d to be t a k e n before the decree c o u l d be i m p l e m e n t e d . thus a dönüm amounted to 1. Each f a m i l y d e s i r i n g to settle i n O t t o m a n d o m a i n s w a s asked to c o m p i l e a list of the n a m e s a n d professions o f its m e m b e r s a n d to i n d i c a t e the capital or w e a l t h it possessed. h o w e v e r . pp. P e t e r s b u r g . a n d he g u a r a n t e e d the m i g r a t i o n of 2. w a s h i t by d r o u g h t a n d 15. . L i v o r n o . It is i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the decree of 1857 d i d n o t excite i m m e d i a t e interest i n m i g r a t i o n a m o n g t h e Jews of E u r o p e . rejected t h e s e t t l e m e n t p e t i t i o n because t h e p u r p o s e of t h i s m i g r a t i o n w a s " e v i d e n t l y to colonize a p a r t of the E m p i r e a n d b e c o m e o w n e r s of its s o i l . 13). I t s t i p u l a t e d f u r t h e r t h a t settlers w o u l d be p r o t e c t e d against a n y i n f r i n g e m e n t of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s observances a n d w o u l d e n j o y r e l i g i o u s f r e e d o m l i k e all o t h e r classes of the e m p i r e ' s subjects (art. T h e m i g r a n t s c o u l d n o t sell t h i s l a n d for t w e n t y years. . Ibrahim Abu-Lughod and Bahu Abu-Laban (Wilmette. 17 August and. the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t . (The equivalent usually given is 919 square meters. if t h e y settled i n A s i a (arts. He said that the community had obtained the permis- . FM (Id) 127. 18. Slava. a n d those w h o d e c i d e d to leave the c o u n t r y w o u l d have to ret u r n t h e l a n d to the g o v e r n m e n t . Berlin. w h e n N o r t h A f r i c a . i n 1869 a n u m b e r of f a m i l i e s f r o m t h e i s l a n d of M a l t a asked p e r m i s s i o n t o s e t t l e at T r i p o l i i n N o r t h A f r i c a a n d p o s s i b l y e l s e w h e r e . 20 The Bulgarian M i g r a t i o n The g o v e r n m e n t a d o p t e d a p r o t e c t i v e p o l i c y t o w a r d all Slavs a n d C h r i s t i a n s a t t e m p t i n g to get a w a y f r o m Russian rule b y m i g r a t i n g to O t t o m a n l a n d s . the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t w&s subjected t o d e m a n d s h o t o n l y f r o m t h e Jews of Russia b u t also f r o m those f r o m as far a w a y as C e n t r a l Asia a n d Y e m e n f o r p e r m i s s i o n to settle i n Palestine. If the l o c a l i t y i n w h i c h the m i g r a n t s established themselves d i d n o t have chapels or c h u r c h e s f o r t h e i r rites. Le Baron de Rothschild el la colonisation juive en Palestine (Paris: Libraire M . 17. (London: Published for the Society by E.200 square meters and was 200 square meters larger than a hectare. " The O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t reasoned that if this i n i tial settlement w e r e to be f o l l o w e d b y a d d i t i o n a l m i g r a t i o n s of its k i n d . t h e y c o u l d request a n d o b t a i n f r o m the i m p e r i a l g o v e r n m e n t p e r m i s s i o n to b u i l d the chapels t h e y n e e d e d . Riviere. the B r i t i s h began m a k i n g stren u o u s efforts to s t i m u l a t e J e w i s h s e t t l e m e n t i n Palestine. The p o p u l a t i o n p o l i c y a d o p t e d b y the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t s h o r t l y after 1856 w a s d e s i g n e d to meet t h i s n e e d . 14 A p r i l 1857. M . 10. The g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y o n i m m i g r a t i o n to Syria. "Ottoman immigration Policies and Settlement in Palestine. m o r e o v e r . T h e g o v e r n m e n t p r o m i s e d to g i v e the s e t t l e r s .c o n d i t i o n for e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t as w e l l as for a s t r o n g defense against o u t s i d e enemies. or f o r t w e l v e years. 2384/19. 90-115.600 archines. p r e s i d e n t of the C o m m i t t e e f o r the P r o t e c t i o n of the Alsace-Lorrainers. especially the d i s t r i c t of T r i p o l i . 9. According to an official pronouncement of the high council of Tanzimat. as far as blacks w e r e c o n c e r n e d . 1966) pp. A m i n i m u m f a m i l y c a p i t a l of 60 mecidiye (about 1. T h i s is especially s i g n i f i c a n t i n v i e w of t h e fact t h a t as early as 1839. h a v i n g b e e n e n c o u r a g e d to d o so b y A z i z Paşa. Others give the size of the dönüm (or dulum) as one-third of an acre. and 2 Februarv 1859. " Fuat Paşa stated i n r e p l y t h a t . w i t h o u t a n y c h a r g e . M a d r i d . Mandel. a b o u t w h i c h he h a d r e a d notices i n t h e European Times. asked i n several letters f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e l i b e r a l i m m i g r a t i o n p o l i c y of t h e g o v e r n m e n t . 4 February 1864." in Settler Regimes in Africa and the Arab World. 1974). N a p l e s . In Turkey today the official size is one-tenth of a hectare. T h e officials asked f o r i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m the g o v e r n m e n t . G o v e r n m e n t representatives a b r o a d received n u m e r o u s i n q u i r i e s a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y .6 ) . the list w a s to be s u b m i t t e d to the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t t h r o u g h its legations a n d c o n sulates a b r o a d . the gove r n o r of C y p r u s .) 14. J. V i e n n a . . For e x a m p l e . Hyamson. w h i c h . i n a letter of 9 D e c e m b e r 1857 to the Some of those w h o i n q u i r e d a b o u t s e t t l e m e n t i n O t t o m a n 7. his d e a t h p u t a n e n d to these p l a n s . F M (Id) 177. as " t h e i m p e r i a l g o v e r n m e n t d o e s n o t r e c o g n i z e a n y d i f f e r e n c e of color. 9 June 1869.h a l f years earlier (1886) w h e n O t t o m a n officials rep o r t e d f r o m Jerusalem t h a t a g r o u p of a b o u t f o r t y A m e r i c a n families (there is no i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e i r r e l i g i o u s o r ethnic a f f i l i a t i o n ) h a d l a n d e d i n Jaffa w i t h the express i n t e n t i o n of f o r m i n g a c o l o n y a n d s e t t l i n g p e r m a n e n t l y i n Palestine. H e w a s o f f e r e d l a n d near Silistre on the D a n u b e . St. 16. also s h o w e d interest i n m i g r a t i n g to O t t o m a n t e r r i t o r y : he e x p r e s s e d the v i e w t h a t Turkeyw a s a r i c h c o u n t r y t h a t d i d n o t have g o o d c u l t i v a t o r s of l a n d . I n quiries a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s came f r o m e v e r y p a r t of the contin e n t — f r o m as far to t h e n o r t h e a s t as Prussia a n d to the n o r t h w e s t as I r e l a n d a n d f r o m all p o i n t s s o u t h . d e p e n d i n g u p o n w h e t h e r he h a d gove r n m e n t s u p p o r t or n o t . d i d n o t receive a f a v o r a b l e a n s w e r . after D o b r u c a w a s ceded to Roma21 Syria. b u t n o t before s o m e large g r o u p s . C y p r u s . 19. and Ezel Shaw History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. i n response to a m e m o f r o m the T r i p o l i g o v e r n o r . T h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t came to believe t h a t a large p o p u l a t i o n w a s the p r e . but he asked t h a t the t e r m of the p r o h i b i t i o n against s e l l i n g the l a n d be s h o r t e n e d . t h e y w o u l d have t h e same r i g h t s as a n y o n e else. the c u l t i v a t i o n o f cotton is o n e p r i n c i p a l object i n v i e w .

R e a n o v i ç . or O l d Cossacks) m o v e d back to Russia after 1910. t h e Calliope. 22. sent vessels t o carry t h e m a w a y . . i n A n a t o l i a . A . l e f t o v e r f r o m the 1853-1856 w a r w i t h Russia. but actually s u p p o r t e d . the letters s i m p l y ¿0 not s o u n d p a r t i c u l a r l y nationalistic. Baroviç. a n d Y a n y a a n d i n Bursa i n A s i a after t h e y agreed to become O t t o m a n subjects a n d to s u b m i t to the e m p i r e ' s l a w s . Diadoghieutsza. correspondence of 1910-1913. this document states that only 6. " A series of o t h e r letters i n the same v e i n . O r e n b u r g . Ibid. w h i t h e r t h e y h a d flown). 2 2 OTTOMAN POPULATION. o r the p r o v i n c e o f V i d i n i n w e s t e r n Bulgaria. each m a k i n g several t r i p s . A s early as the e n d of 1856 a n d the b e g i n n i n g of 1857 an issue arose c o n c e r n i n g the s e t t l e m e n t o f soldiers f r o m the second regi m e n t of Cossacks. a f t e r w a r d s t h e y w e r e t a k e n to V a r n a . b e c a m e the greatest leftist poet of T u r k e y . but he p r o n o u n c e d them i n accordance w i t h Slavic phonetics. the letter was signed by the migrants' representatives. I n a d d i t i o n . "Türkiyede Slav Muhacirleri" and "Türkiyeden Rusya ve Amerikaya Göç Eden islav Muhacirleri. w a s d e s i r o u s of i n d u c i n g the Bulgarians t o e m i g r a t e t o Circassia to take t h e i r place. O n e m a y believe t h a t t h e B u l g a r i a n s ' expression of a desire to r e t u r n to t h e i r n a t i v e villages w a s p a r t of a p l a n n e d n a t i o n a l i s t u p r i s i n g i n B u l g a r i a a n d that t h e representatives w h o s i g n e d the letters w e r e i n t r u t h agents w o r k i n g h a n d i n h a n d w i t h the Russians. Several t h o u s a n d of these B u l g a r i a n s came o r i g i n a l l y f r o m the villages of Bela. H e r M a j e s t y ' s A m b a s s a d o r at the Porte." and F. t h e y a p p e a l e d t o t h e E n g l i s h consular b o d y a n d t o t h e T u r k i s h g o v e r n m e n t . Ignat Bralieff. w a s a c o n v e r t e d Pole. w a s a g e n t l e m a n w h o r e s i d e d for some years i n a n official capacity at Galatz. and Ostrokapci. w h e r e w e f i n d o u r s e l v e s d e s p i t e ourselves w i t h o u t a g u i d e like a lost sheep . a n d [ t h u s ] regain the lost h a p p i n e s s . and 56-92. C. T h i s is a p r e t t y g o o d p r o o f of Russia's s o l i c i t u d e f o r the B u l g a r i a n C h r i s t i a n s . c h i e f l y because the m e n faced d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f i n d i n g marriageable g i r l s of t h e i r o w n relig i o n a n d language. u n s h a v e n . w h i l e some seem t o have b e e n established i n northern Dobruca. Vertok. the leader still referred to various points around the community by their Turkish names. Five s h i p s (the Alma. M a h m u d C e l a l e t t i n Paşa ( C o n s t a n t i n e B o z n e c k y ) . 121-36.m i n e d [sic] b e i n g s are still l e d t o believe t h a t Russia is n o w w i l l i n g to be t h e i r benefactor. 11 October 1861. o u t of their h o m e l a n d w a s p r o b a b l y t h e first M u s l i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o the O t t o m a n state. A c c o r d i n g t o o n e d o c u m e n t . A t Galatz t h e y w e r e t r a n s h i p p e d i n t o t w o steamers b e l o n g i n g t o Messrs M o r t o n a n d B e l l . e v e n t u a l l y . a n d he narrates the h i s t o r y f r o m his o w n p e r s o n a l knowledge. so t h a t I speak f r o m p e r s o n a l k n o w l e d g e . conseq u e n t l y . sixteen vessels a l t o g e t h e r . indicate a rather general desire a m o n g B u l g a r i a n s t o r e t u r n to their o r i g i n a l h o m e s i n O t t o m a n l a n d s . 1935). T h e fact t h a t the Russian a u - M o s t of these Bulgarians w e n t b a c k to t h e i r n a t i v e villages i n V i d i n . Belapole.s p e a k i n g M u s l i m s of the R h o d o p e M o u n t a i n s i n the 1877-1878 w a r against Russian a n d B u l g a r i a n t r o o p s . 2 4 2 3 P O P U L A T I O N M O V E M E N T S I N THE O T T O M A N STATE 65 settled i n Circassia a n d t h e i r relatives left b e h i n d . w h e r e t h o u s a n d s o f t h e m d i e d f r o m disease a n d d e s t i t u t i o n . Vuetcek. a n d t h u s d e p a r t f r o m this strange l a n d [Russia]. the Alexandre a n d the Ajios Gherasimov) w e r e c h a r t e r e d b y the Porte a n d soon docked i n t h e p o r t s of Feodosia (Kaffa) and E u p a t o r i a . I t is e s t i m a t e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80. a n d t h e y w e r e expected t o take the place o f t h e Circassian serfs. see also Findikoğlu. . a n d is n o w Russia's representative i n Persia. or the Tatars. D o b r u c a . across the Black Sea—the B l a r n e y b e i n g the n a m e of o n e of t h e m . Visiloviç. a n d P o l i s h officers a n d regulars f o u g h t a l o n g s i d e the S l a v i c . W h e n these emigrants arrived i n Theodosia they were marched into the i n t e r i o r . . s o m e v a g u e a l l u s i o n s to " d a n g e r o u s " persons—possibly i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d Russian a g e n t s — d i s s e m i n a t i n g n a t i o n a l i s t ideas. a n d d i r t y . (The published figures o n m i g r a t i o n f r o m Crimea d o not usually i n c l u d e the m i g r a n t s f r o m the area n o r t h of the P e r k o p [ O r k a p i ] i s t h m u s . Russia h a v i n g beaten the Circassians o u t of Circassia ( h u n d r e d s of w h o m I saw p a r a d i n g the streets of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . a n d m a n y f o u n d i m m e d i a t e e m p l o y m e n t o n the f a r m s of the G r a n d V i z i e r Reşit Paşa i n the p r o v i n c e of T i r h a l a . a n d c u l t u r a l life of T u r k e y .f i l e Christians. 56477. i n d e e d . a l t h o u g h t h e y do c o n t a i n s o m e e v i d e n c e of r e l i gious differences a n d . a n d . the head of each f a m i l y s h o u l d be g r a n t e d a c e r t a i n s u m of roubles (about 51. e s p e c i a l l y after i t became i m p e r a t i v e t o a d o p t measures l i k e l y t o s t i m u l a t e d e m o g r a p h i c g r o w t h . such as K a z a n . a n d slept i n t h e i r clothes f o r w e e k s at a t i m e . It is k n o w n . Z.s e v e n f a m i l i e s s t a y e d o n .. B a y r a k t a r m a h a l l e . Three Turkish sources on Slavic migration are Mehmet Eroz. n o n e of t h e documents r e l a t e d t o migration p r i o r t o 1870 i n d i c a t e s t h e presence of s t r o n g nationalist feelings a m o n g r a n k . A m o n g o t h e r Slavs w h o m i g r a t e d a n d s e t t l e d i n the O t t o m a n state there w e r e m a n y P o l i s h p o l i t i c a l leaders a n d their f o l l o w e r s w h o h a d been i n v o l v e d i n the u p r i s i n g s o f 1 8 4 8 . t h r o u g h the i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y of t h e late L o r d D a l l i n g ( t h e n Sir H e n r y B u l w e r ) .000 Tatars left C r i m e a i n the year 1783/84 alone a n d settled i n Bessarabia a n d D o b r u c a a n d . Polovitza. Those w h o settled i n w e s t e r n T u r k e y a r o u n d Lake M a n y a s c o n t i n u e d their o l d life. although they were p u t into quarantine and not allowed to l a n d o n t h e t o w n side of the r i v e r . K r i v o b a r a . FM (Id) 587.a n d . m o s t l y revolutionaries led by Koschutz. occasionally. w o r k e d . Verba. T h e Russian agent for t h i s p u r p o s e w a s B a r o n O f f e n b u r g . t h a t w h e n t h e y a r r i v e d i n Circassia ( w h e r e t h e y w e r e t a k e n free of expence). T h e O t t o m a n c o n s u l a t e i n Odessa gave the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o n the n u m b e r of Bulgarians m i g r a t i n g f r o m his a r e a : 2 8 M i g r a n t s sent t o Galatz M i g r a n t s e m b a r k e d for r e p a t r i a t i o n u n d e r the C o n s u l a t e ' s care: Men Women M a l e c h i l d r e n (less t h a n 10 y r s . and Dimitri Christoff. T h e y b r o u g h t w i t h t h e m s m a l l . or c o w s u p p l i e d t h e m . S o m e t h o u s a n d s of B u l g a r i a n s came d o w n the D a n u b e i n " s c h l e p p e s . 736. m i l i t a r y . o l d ) Female c h i l d r e n (less t h a n 10 y r s .500 other B u l g a r i a n s t o n o r t h e r n D o bruca a n d to B u l g a r i a proper. 25. n o m o n e y . a n d n o r t h e r n K u b a n . f u l l of praise f o r the s u l t a n a n d c r i t i c a l of the Russians a n d the m e t h o d s t h e y h a d u s e d to i n d u c e e m i g r a t i o n . FM (Id) 177. a s m a l l p o r t o n t h e middle b r a n c h of t h e Danube at its j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Black Sea. "Türkiyede islav Muhacirlerine Dair. w h i c h gives i n a n u t s h e l l t h e s t o r y of the B u l g a r i a n m i g r a t i o n . 1-30. ) T h e m i g r a t i o n i n t e n s i f i e d after the T u r co-Russian W a r of 1812. communications nos. a m a n against w h o m n o one c o u l d say a w o r d . t h e disease spread t h r o u g h o u t the t o w n . and that the settlers had developed fishing into a major industry. as he w a s a m o s t p o l i s h e d g e n t l e m a n a n d a most distinguished official. Interestingly enough. w h e r e I w a s s t a t i o n e d .000 Bulgarians eventually remained in Crimea. ( R e p r o d u c t i o n s of some of these letters are i n c l u d e d as A p p e n d i x C f o l l o w i n g this chapter). t h e y came dressed i n t h e i r s h e e p s k i n c l o t h i n g . u n w a s h e d . 834 and 856 of 16 and 21 June and of 30 June and 12 July 1862. "Türkiyede islav Muhacirleri ve Kazaklar Etrafında Bazı Kaynaklar. 1830-1914 T h e y t r a v e l e d o n a s h i p called the Tahrir-i Bahnt to Salonica. B e i n g d e s t i t u t e . 23. a n d t h e y l i v e d .64 nia i n 1878 several h u n d r e d L i p o v a n s left t h e i r villages to j o i n their co-religionists l i v i n g i n T u r k e v p r o p e r . It is a p p r o p r i a t e to conclude t h i s section w i t h a q u o t a t i o n f r o m a letter. 2 6 2 7 •horities d i d n o t o p p o s e . f r o m w h i c h the B u l g a r i a n s e m b a r k e d . H u t l o m . F u r t h e r m o r e . M e t k o viç. w h o . I believe. so m a n y arcres [sic] of g r o u n d . a n d p l a y e d i m p o r t a n t parts i n the p o l i t i c a l . T h e i n d u c e m e n t s for t h e Bulgarians t o e m i g r a t e w e r e . See FM (Id) 177. c h a n g e d t h e i r names. N a z i m H i k m e t R a n . a d i s p a t c h f r o m the O t t o m a n f o r e i g n m i n i s t r y to Bucharest o r d e r e d its representative there to p e r m i t 200 f a m i l i e s of L i p o v a n s a n d N e m o l i a k s to m i g r a t e to T u r k e y . O t h e r s h i p s . T h e w r i t e r . The s u l t a n r a p i d l y acceded to t h e B u l g a r i a n s ' request f o r repatriation. M o s t of these Cossacks w e r e f a r m e r s a n d f a r m w o r k ers. B u l g a r i a . I t began s h o r t l y after C r i m e a w a s i n c o r p o rated i n t o Russia. pp. t o w h i c h I w a s m y s e l f a v i c t i m . Dzieji emigracji polskiej w Turcji (1831-1878) (Warsaw. T a t a r m a h a l l e . the Plodd. U f a . t h e i m p r e s s i o n derived f r o m r e a d i n g these letters—the fact t h a t t h e y were w r i t t e n i n B u l g a r i a n a n d addressed d i r e c t l y t o the sultan i n l i n e w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l petitioning p r o c e d u r e used by subjects i n a d d r e s s i n g t h e i r grievances t o the s u l t a n . the n a m e of the o t h e r I f o r g e t . By 1861/62 t h e y h a d b e c o m e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r life i n Russia a n d expressed the desire to r e t u r n to the O t t o m a n state. t o G a l a t z . Findikoğlu. These i m m i g r a n t s w e r e p a r t of a larger c o n t i n g e n t of f o r m e r O t t o m a n subjects w h o h a d e m i g r a t e d to Russia earlier i n the c e n t u r y to replace the o u t g o i n g Tatars a n d Circassians. a b o u t 12. a l t h o u g h after the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the republic m o s t of t h e m r e t u r n e d to t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d or m i grated to the U n i t e d States. a l t h o u g h at least t w e n t y . Hristo Ilieff. several f u n e r a l s t a k i n g place d a i l y for a m o n t h or t w o .p o x . a c o w . t h a t some of these soldiers w h o h a d settled i n the villages of M a i n o s (its T u r k i s h n a m e w a s Eskikazaklar. w e r e c h a r t e r e d to t r a n s p o r t a b o u t 7. Makrice. of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e .). i n d e e d . a n d c o n t i n u e d u n t i l m a j o r f i g h t i n g was r e s u m e d i n 1853. respectively. For e x a m p l e . w e r e i l l a d v i s e d b y malicious p e o p l e w h o k n o w i n g t h e i r a t t a c h m e n t to t h e i r forefathers' r e l i g i o n d e c e i v e d t h e m to believe t h a t a l o n g e r stay i n T u r k e y w o u l d m a k e t h e m lose t h e i r f a t h e r s ' f a i t h " . b y w h i c h m e a n s t h e y h o p e d t o Russianise t h e feelings of the B u l g a r i a n s i n t h e i r f a v o u r . a n d f r o m there w e n t o v e r l a n d . T h e b i l l s of h e a l t h a n d o t h e r papers to these vessels w e r e i s s u e d b y m e . He was afterwards made C o n s u l . m i g r a t e d 24. A P o l i s h a r m y w a s f o r m e d i n T u r k e y d u r i n g the C r i m e a n W a r .G e n e r a l at Bucharest. However. 26. The largest w a v e of Slavic m i g r a t i o n i n t o the O t t o m a n lands i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s the B u l g a r i a n i m m i g r a t i o n . t h e y c l a i m e d t h a t t h e y . 6 November 1856. the t h e n R u s s i a n C o n s u l at Galatz. the rest having died of "nostalgia and misery. Dimitri Ilieff. a n d Bastoin i n thé district of L o r n . Some of these c o n v e r t e d to I s l a m . 10 November 1879. w h o d i d n o t w a n t to r e t u r n t o Russia. T h e y w e r e p e r m i t t e d to settle i n the E u r o p e a n p r o v i n c e s of Selanik. for. 1964). FM (Id) 177." in Sosyoloji Konferanstan (istanbul. There is no i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the fate of these Cossacks w h o established themselves i n w h a t is t o d a y n o r t h e r n Greece. i n o r d e r to b r i n g a b o u t a u n i o n of f e e l i n g a n d s e n t i m e n t b e t w e e n the é m i g r é s t h u s to be 28. M r . S k o m a . I n a l o n g letter ( i n B u l g a r i a n ) a d d r e s s e d to the s u l t a n . See A d a m Lewak. Mlodin Tzvetkoff. . a n d Asia M i n o r ) . large g r o u p s of M u s l i n s f r o m f u r t h e r n o r t h a n d f r o m areas i n eastern Russia. p u b l i s h e d i n the Morning Post of 18 O c t o b e r 1876. his g r a n d s o n ." 27. " b e i n g f o r the m o s t p a r t illiterate persons w i t h o u t e d u c a t i o n . 23 There w a s also an i m m i g r a t i o n of M a g y a r s .000 Bulgarians w e r e settled i n C r i m e a o n the l a n d l e f t vacant by the Tatars ( w h o w e r e m o v i n g i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n tow a r d s s o u t h e r n Bessarabia. The liberal p o l i c y t o w a r d s Slavic i m m i g r a t i o n w a s p u r sued for s o m e t i m e i n the second h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . D e C r e s p i g n y . M e d o v i ç . " or barges. Turtzina. p a c k e d like sheep. The M u s l i m M i g r a t i o n s : The C r i m e a n a n d Circassian I m m i g r a t i o n The m i g r a t i o n of the C r i m e a n s . T i r h a l a .i s that these B u l g a r i a n s h a d a genuine desire n o t based on any u l t e r i o r p o l i t i c a l m o t i v e t o return to t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d . h o w e v e r . w h o s e w r i t i n g s a n d service to the s u l t a n i n the latter's r e l a t i o n s w i t h E u r o p e w e r e i m p o r t a n t i n the process of m o d e r n i z a t i o n . Other villages mentioned as the migrants' places of origin in Bulgaria were Golovitza." İktisat Dergisi (January-March 1966): 39-55'. a n d yet these p o o r s i m p l e . E v e n tually t h e y a l l w e r e landed i n S u l i n a . FM (Id) 177. t h e y asked the s u l t a n n o w to " a l l o w us to enter o u r o w n hearths. o l d ) Children born during migration People d e a d d u r i n g m i g r a t i o n People left i n villages 2 2 430 8 3 3 7 9 4 979 972 122 1820 5 0 0 sion to settle and to fish in Lake Razelm from the "Sultan of Turkey" in the eighteenth century. l a n d . t h e r e p a triation of the Bulgarians tends t o sustain such a v i e w .

I n a d d i t i o n . 1854-1866" (Ph.000. By 1862 Circassia w a s o c c u p i e d . S o m e settled d i r e c t l y i n the A n a t o l i a n c o u n t r y s i d e . "Transcaucasia.731 20. a n d especially.m u r i d i s t revolt of Sheik S h a m i l against Russian o c c u p a t i o n . 36. diss. t h e y w e r e s i m p l y f o r c e d to m i g r a t e ." p. I n the area b e t w e e n Eskişehir a n d A n k a r a there still are a s u b s t a n t i a l n u m b e r of villages i n h a b i t e d b y Tatars. f o r c i n g t h e p o o r l y a r m e d Circassians to flee tow a r d s the sea or i n some cases. the report is translated from the Russian press. Yalıud Tatar Hicretleri (Simferopol. a n d i n Eskişehir itself." "Çerkeş. 30." Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 40 (1877).452 61. vol. A s early as 1859 the Russian g o v e r n m e n t c o n tacted the T u r k i s h a u t h o r i t i e s a b o u t a c c e p t i n g a n u m b e r of the Circassians. a l t h o u g h sporadic f i g h t i n g against the Russians c o n t i n u e d to the e n d of the decade. 1-23. free peasants. 35. F. and Brian D. A c c o r d i n g to Russian estimates. I n the p e r i o d f r o m 1861 to 1864 the C r i m e a n m i g r a t i o n f u r t h e r i n t e n s i f i e d . H o w e v e r . many M u s l i m s originally from A n a t o l i a . FM (Id) 687. " g ö ç " [migration]. E v e n t u a l l y . despite b e i n g f o r c e d to p a y h e a v y taxes a n d passport dues. (The c o n t i n u o u s p e r s e c u t i o n of the C r i m e a n M u s l i m s c u l m i n a t e d f i n a l l y i n 1944 i n the t o t a l u p r o o t i n g of the Tatar p o p u l a t i o n . 2d ed. under the same subject heads. G. W h e n the Circassians r e f u s e d to accept t h i s p r o g r a m a n d c o n t i n u e d to f i g h t the Russian i n v a d e r s . although covering a restricted period of time. o n e s o u r c e g i v e s t h e t o t a l of e m i g r a n t s as 227. 1908). a n d serfs to t r u l y d e m o c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s u n d e r chosen leaders. a n t i . a f o r m a l i m m i g r a t i o n a g r e e m e n t seems to have b e e n s i g n e d n o t too 3 4 I n 1877 a n d 1878 a large n u m b e r of Tatars l e f t D o b r u c a a n d Bulgaria a n d settled i n A n a t o l i a .754 20. t h e y m a k e u p a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of the T h e Circassians w e r e o n e of the m a j o r . 21 December 1880. O r g a n i z e d i n tribes w i t h social structures r a n g i n g f r o m rigidly d i f f e r e n t i a t e d strata of p r i n c e s .800. 32. Fisher. " Russia s o u g h t to " c i v i l i z e " t h e m b y settling t h e m o n the s w a m p y p l a i n s n o r t h of the K u b a n (and g i v i n g t h e i r l a n d s to the Cossacks). See A.000 a d d i t i o n a l " t a x able p e r s o n s " a n d s o m e 46. "Vyselenie Gortsev s. 1 (1983).T u r k i s h g r o u p s i n h a b i t i n g the r e g i o n a l o n g the Black Sea a n d i n the A p s h e r o n Peninsula o n the w e s t e r n coast of the Caspian Sea. 38. h a d settled i n the C r i m e a . t h e o n l y a g r e e m e n t at that t i m e w a s a p p a r e n t l y a special " u n d e r s t a n d i n g " c o n c e r n i n g the m i g r a t i o n of some t r i b e s . also has a series of excellent articles and bibliographical references on the Circassians. f r e e d o m of trade a n d n a v i g a t i o n o n t h e Black Sea. s o u t h w a r d s o v e r l a n d . For the text of the order establishing the commission. the s u p r e m e t e m p o r a l leader i n charge of t h e M u s l i m c o m m u n i t y .000 N o g a i Tatars h a d e m i g r a t e d . T h e e v e n t a t t r a c t e d w o r l d . See Feyzi Gozaydin. 1979). 3 (Moscow. There is little e v i d e n c e t h a t the Russians p l a n n e d d u r i n g this early p e r i o d to force all the Tatars o u t of their ancestral h o m e s . 3 3 p o p u l a t i o n . w h i c h is v e r y close to A n a t o l i a n T u r k i s h . 37. r e l i g i o u s . 1862.000 i n 1970 a n d a m a j o r c o m m e r c i a l center i n central A n a t o l i a . the g o v e r n m e n t expected that the m i g r a n t s w o u l d h e l p to ease t h e m a n p o w e r shortage." Ruskaia Starına (January-February 1882). These w e r e settled m o s t l y i n D o b r u c a . N a h c i v a n . a n d l i n g u i s t i c a f f i n i t i e s to t h e A n a t o l i a n T u r k s .s p e a k i n g g r o u p s i n h a b i t i n g the Caucasus r e g i o n as w e l l ." "Mürid.reached the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s : ' 3 6 37 8 Taman Anapa Novorosine Toupasse Sotcha Adler.000 people. pp. H o w e v e r . see A. a n d by 1865 the m a j o r resistance i n t h e m o u n t a i n s also w a s p u t d o w n ." and "Dağıstan. see Eren. 6513 139. 122. a n d r e l i g i o u s c o m p o s i t i o n of the O t t o m a n state. T h e Russians t h e n advanced a l o n g t h e coast of A n a p a to N o v o r o s s i y s k a n d d o w n to S u k u m k a l e .For new material that leads to an upward revision of the figures on Crimean emigration. b u t i n a more l i m i t e d w a y after I s m a i l Gaspirali. w i t h the egalitarian social p h i l o s o p h y t h a t u n d e r l a y i t . m o s t l y i n the villages. pp. 31. "Demographic Warfare. a n d f i n a l l y w o n A n a p a a n d P o t i i n 1829 i n the T r e a t y of A d r i a n o p l e s i g n e d w i t h the P o r t e . Green and Co. t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n this m i g r a t i o n is therefore r i c h . 8.D. a somewhat lower figure is given by Marc Pinson in "Russian Policy and Emigration of the Crimean Tartars to the Ottoman Empire. Kaukaza. see also John F. K. T h e t o t a l n u m b e r of Tatars w h o m i g r a t e d to O t t o m a n t e r r i t o r i e s b e t w e e n 1783 a n d 1922 w a s p r o b a b l y a b o u t 1. "The Populations of Russia and Turkey.000. . 55-56. a n d it h o p e d to e m p l o y t h e m i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of roads. p l a y e d a m a jor role i n t h e c r e a t i o n of a c o m m o n i d e n t i t y f o r the Circassians a n d o t h e r M u s l i m s i n n o r t h e a s t e r n Caucasia a n d i n mobilizing them around it. s u c h as t h e K a b a r d i n i a n s a n d A b k h a zians.d a y T u r k e y are n o t available. Silver (New York: Pergamon Press. w h e r e t h e i r c u l t u r e h a d d e v e l o p e d u n d e r the i n fluence of the S e l j u k i a n d O t t o m a n T u r k s . D u r i n g the C r i m e a n W a r the e m i g r a t i o n became a mass m o v e m e n t t h a t r e a c h e d a p e a k i n t h e t h r e e . and Turkey. a n d Circassia remained u n c o n q u e r e d u n t i l the c a p t u r e of Sheik S h a m i l i n 1859 b r o k e t h e back of t h e resistance. The Circassians a n d t h e i r t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w e r e l o o k e d u p o n as " p r i m i t i v e . The earliest C r i m e a n m i g r a t i o n s w e r e o f t e n t h e ' r e s u l t of i n d i v i d u a l decisions to m o v e . a n d Eskişehir. ( I n fact. the t e r m " T a t a r " is u s e d m a i n l y b v Russians. The Russians o c c u p i e d Circassia f o r t h e g o o d m i l i t a r y a n d strategic reasons of the defense a n d s e c u r i t y of t h e Caucasus." Güney-Doğu Avrupa Araştirmaları Dergisi 1 (1972): 47.627. is Marc Pinson. 1938).000. a n d it h o p e d to b r i n g t h e m i n t o the c o u n t r y i n a n o r d e r l y a n d g r a d u a l f a s h i o n .350 257. to direct all m a t t e r s related to m i g r a t i o n . Turkey in Europe. The fullest and best-documented account in English. 39 34. 1925). F r o m the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y o n w a r d s s o m e m a j o r Circassian g r o u p s .000 to 50.. s. w h e r e m o r e t h a n half d i e d . and Ahmet Özenbaşli. a l t h o u g h m o s t o f the sources do n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n Circassian a n d T u r k i s h tribes. a n d T a l i s h i n 1828 t h r o u g h the Treaty of T i i r k m e n c a y s i g n e d w i t h I r a n . for most of the Tatars became f u l l y a s s i m i l a t e d . Türkiye 'de Göç ve Göçmen Meseleleri. Hoso O n T u r k i s h ships 27. V a r i o u s estimates place the present T u r k i s h p o p u l a t i o n of Tatar e x t r a c t i o n at s o m e w h e r e b e t w e e n 1 a n d 3 m i l l i o n . i n c l u d i n g 101. Universal'noe opisanie Kryma. 1854-1862. 23 September and 3 October 1864. 33.337 16.995 63. W. a n d i n the c u l t i v a t i o n of c o t t o n . 29. M y o w n extensive research on the Circassian migrations from the Caucasus and the Balkans to Anatolia from 1850 to 1914 will be included in another study under preparation. a n d b y c o n v e r t i n g t h e m to C h r i s t i a n i t y . s. See also James Barker.. d e s p i t e the h o s t i l e . i t expected t h a t o n l y the 40. h o w e v er.002 m e n . a n d i n 1863 t h e y a d v a n c e d i n t o the Circassian m o u n t a i n e e r s ' s t r o n g h o l d s . a n d the n e e d f o r safe r a i l w a y c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n the Black a n d C a s p i a n seas a n d Persia. The Russians o c c u p i e d the k h a n a t e s of B a k u a n d K u b a i n 1796. On population specifically. 1830-1914 POPULATION M O V E M E N T S I N THE O T T O M A N STATE 67 m u c h later. t h e g o v e r n m e n t established i n 1860 (7 C e m a z i y ü l a h i r 1276) t h e G e n e r a l M i g r a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C o m m i s s i o n Udare-i Umumiyye-i Muhacirim Komisyonu) u n d e r H a f i z Paşa. The m i g r a t i o n c o n t i n u e d u n t i l the e n d of the c e n t u r y . Baddeley. about 300.. T h e y h a d close c u l t u r a l ." in Soviet Asian Ethnic Frontier. 3 3 lim Circassians c a m e to r e g a r d t h e s u l t a n as the C a l i p h . Harvard University. o n l y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200. of the n o n . i n 1860 L o r i s M e l i k o v w a s n e g o t i a t i n g the issue o n b e h a l f of the czarisl g o v e r n m e n t . H o w e v e r .449 46.000 to 50. l a r g e l y because of t h e p r e a c h i n g of the N o g a i mullets f r o m the n o r t h w h o h a d t h e tacit b a c k i n g of O t t o m a n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n A n a p a . Dziejon Krymu (Warsaw. 96-113. accepted I s l a m .000 to 50. 1978). and "The Crimean Tatars. p. See also n. See Turk Ansiklopedisi. T h e f o r c e d mass m i g r a t i o n of the Circassians f r o m the Caucasus i n t o the O t t o m a n d o m a i n . the C r i m e a n n a t i o n a l i s t e d u c a t o r a n d p u b l i s h e r of the Tercüman. 1859. HCAP for 1860-1878. FM (İd) 175. urged his c o m p a t r i o t s to stay o n i n t h e i r n a t i v e places a n d raise their c u l t u r a l a n d e c o n o m i c s t a n d a r d s . D e p a r t u r e s f r o m v a r i o u s Russian p o r t s i n the w i n t e r a n d s p r i n g of 1864. b y 1862 t h e Cossack t r o o p s w e r e m o v i n g t o w a r d s the sources of t h e K u b a n . the t o t a l n u m b e r of i m m i g r a n t s to T u r key w o u l d n o t be m o r e t h a n 40. See the telegram sent from the Ottoman foreign ministry to the embassy in Si. especially a l o n g the l i t o r a l . s u c h as the one i n 1803." Journal Asiatique 217 (1930).000. 1948). The Crimean Tatars (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press. t h a t ¡5. the Circassians h a d n o t i n the nineteenth century developed a c o m m o n national political i d e n t i t y . See Alan W. H o w e v e r . Russian sources indicate that the total n u m b e r of Circassians m i g r a t i n g i n 1858. the M u s l i m s t r o n g h o l d i n the m o u n t a i n s successfully resisted t h e Russians.605 w o m e n a n d 126. Çarlık Hükümetinde Kirim Faciası. Statistics o n the total p o p u l a t i o n of C r i m e a n o r i g i n i n p r e s e n t . The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus (London: Longmans. 84.000 p e o p l e w e r e e x p e l l e d to Siberia. chap. w a s a m a j o r p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t t h a t r a d i c a l l y affected the social. Jr. Berzhe. 1875). nobles. M o r e o v e r . g a i n e d E r i v a n . D u r i n g the early 1850s s o m e Circassians m i g r a t e d v o l u n tarily o n t h e i r o w n i n i t i a t i v e or w e r e p e a c e f u l l y p e r s u a d e d to m o v e . 1970). Petersburg in 1880 after the extent of the migration became an issue in contention. w i t h sporadic p e r i o d s of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n i n 1877-1878 a n d again f r o m 1890 to 1908. t h e g o v e r n o r of T r a b z o n . " ) Furthermore. 8 and 21 December 1862. (London. or s o m e w e r e the consequence of a R u s s i a n . O. ed. a n d i n the s u m m e r of 1863 came to 80. "Kaukas. Ravenstein. By 1860 s o m e 100. See FM (Id) 177..y e a r p e r i o d f r o m 1862 to 1865 a n d l i n g e r e d o n i n t o t h e 1920s. Extensive information on Circassia may be found in the Islam Ansiklopedisi. and also V. Kirim Türklerinin Yerleşme ve Göçmeleri. a c c o r d i n g to one source. no. Forcible e v i c t i o n became state p o l i c y o n l y after 1856 w h e n the Russian o f f i c i a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s its m i n o r i t i e s t o o k o n a d i s c r i m i n a t o r y b e n t . and E." "Abaza. "Demographic Warfare: A n Aspect of Ottoman and Russian Policy. a n d she r e g a r d e d I s l a m as the i n f e r i o r c u l t u r a l s y s t e m of a people she h a d defeated a n d w a s r u l i n g w i t h a n i r o n h a n d . the M u s - I n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m s that w o u l d be created b y the i m m i g r a t i o n . others settled i n large cities such as I s t a n b u l a n d I z m i r or i n smaller t o w n s s u c h as i z m i t . P. Z. see my article in International Journal of Turkish Studies 3. Kendaraki. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d there w e r e a n u m b e r of T u r k i s h . T h e l o n g (1830-1859) f u n d a m e n t a l i s t .66 a n d settled i n the O t t o m a n state t h r o u g h o u t the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y (a subject n o t t h u s far s t u d i e d ) . V. the C r i m e a n s o f t e n r e f e r r i n g to themselves as " C r i mean T u r k s . s t r o n g i d e o l o g i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s d e r i v i n g f r o m Russia's messianic self-image s p u r r e d the c o n q u e s t and e x p u l s i o n of t h e Circassians f r o m t h e i r l a n d s ." and i n the Encyclopedia of Islam.M u s l i m a t t i t u d e of some g o v e r n o r s . a n d oldest. e t h n i c . the USSR. i n the a r m y .068 29. The Caucasian Review. c o n t i n u e to speak the C r i m e a n d i alect. 1877). 60852/216. Soysal.v. T h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t debated the issue a n d d e c i d e d t h a t it c o u l d not refuse h o s p i t a l i t y to the Circassians w h o w a n t e d to settle i n its d o m a i n s i n o r d e r to escape t h e pressure of Russian t r o o p s . Ibid. ) D u r i n g a n d after the C r i m e a n W a r . 2 9 3 0 31 3 2 OTTOMAN POPULATION. The O t t o m a n gove r n m e n t r e g a r d e d its a g r e e m e n t w i t h Russia as a l i m i t e d one.000 Circassians m e n t i o n e d b y the Russians w o u l d be m i g r a t i n g . a city of about 200. There w a s n o f o r m a l a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n the Russians a n d the Porte c o n c e r n i n g the m i g r a t i o n of M u s l i m s f r o m Crimea a n d the Caucasus i n 1856. b y s u b j e c t i n g t h e m to taxes a n d m i l i t a r y service. B a n d i r m a . McCagg. v. Minorsky. (istanbul.O t t o m a n agreement. M a r c P i n s o n states that the t o t a l n u m b e r of p e o p l e e m i g r a t i n g f r o m eastern Circassia alone i n t h i s p e r i o d a m o u n t e d to 522. the s u l t a n felt t h a t his basic d u t y as c a l i p h w a s to e x t e n d h o s p i t a l i t y a n d p r o t e c t i o n to all his subjects w h o h a d m a i n t a i n e d allegiance to h i m even after o c c u p a t i o n b y a f o r e i g n p o w e r . The m i g r a t i o n became a mass e x o d u s . 0 0 0 . Russia claimed to possess a s u p e r i o r O r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n c u l t u r e .w i d e a t t e n t i o n because of its m a g n i t u d e a n d because of the coercive means used b y the Russians to achieve i t . b e g i n n i n g i n 1862/63. i n e g ö l . the Russians began to suspect the Tatars of d i s l o y a l t y a n d the Tatars began to fear R u s s i f i c a t i o n as w e l l as forcible resettlem e n t i n o t h e r a r e a s . published in Munich. w h i l e i n the s p r i n g of 1864 alone the n u m b e r w e n t u p to n e a r l y 4 0 0 . w h i l e it w a s p a r t of the e m p i r e . 39.

000 Circassian f a m i l i e s i n Thessaly.375 Landed at Samsun assian-Abkazians (trom the Caucasus) Circassians trom Rumelia Tatars (Caucasus) Georgians (Caucasus) Turks of Batum Circ Total 12.877 T a k i n g i n t o account all the q u a l i f y i n g factors. " O t t o m a n Colonization of the Circassians in Rumili after the Crimean War. 233/78." journal of Muslim Minorities 2 (1980). says t h a t 493.028 4. c o u l d b e c o m e a b a r r i e r against the p r e d a t o r y tribes f r o m the s o u t h . " presented to the House of Commons on 6 June 1864. e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n 1864—-that is. a n d as far w e s t as the area a r o u n d Niş a n d Sofia (some 12. w i t h b o t h M u s l i m s a n d C h r i s t i a n s m i g r a t i n g to areas w h e r e t h e i r c o . a c c o r d i n g to a r e p o r t f r o m the O t t o m a n c o n sul i n K e r c h . the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of t h e C i r c a s s i a n s w a s e n t r u s t e d to d u l y r e g istered O t t o m a n . report of 23 May 1864. . the paper includes fifteen reports by British consuls in the Caucasus area. ) 43 J. the Russians. Wilson. see ibid. u s i n g l a n d routes a n d apparently w i t h o u t b e i n g r e g i s t e r e d . 24 September 1865.r e l i g i o n i s t s a p p e a r e d to be i n the m a j o r i t y . t h e s u l t a n h a d asked that restrictions o n m i g r a t i o n be l i f t e d . and S a m s u n .000 a n d t h a t . ) F i f t h . I n fact.500. it seems reasonable to estimate that a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 m i l l i o n Caucasians. and (Sofia. w h e r e they had caused great u n r e s t a n d b e e n the source of c o m p l a i n t s f r o m the n a t i v e M u s l i m s a n d C h r i s t i a n s . a Circassian general c o m m a n d i n g six cavalry b a t t a l i o n s c o m p o s e d of Circassians. f o u g h t o n the O t t o m a n eastern f r o n t . m o v e d to A n a t o l i a and Syria. I n d e e d . FM (Id) 175.000 Circassians w o u l d have to be carried to Samsun w i t h i n the next four years. Serez. and Kostenje a n d t h e n i n the s o u t h a r o u n d V a r n a a n d a l o n g the D a n u b e i n R u s ç u k (Russe). HCAP 63/32 (1864). H o w e v e r . 3 (1972): 71-85.000 to 4. 42. 45.) A t t h i s t i m e the Russians b e g a n i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h e i r m i g r a t i o n a g r e e m e n t w i t h the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t was a general one c o v e r i n g the e n t i r e M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n of the Caucasus. 1924). U b i c i n i . a n d the Russian c o n s u l i n T r a b z o n r e p o r t e d t h a t 600 C h r i s t i a n families w e r e r e a d y to m i g r a t e a n d settle i n the C a u c a s u s . 41. 1830-1914 The figures available i n o f f i c i a l statistics u s u a l l y refer o n l y to those w h o e m b a r k e d at p o r t s . 4 teille. Naseleniento ml i Butgani prez XVUI-XIX v. such as t h e A n e z e a n d S h a m a r s . a l o n g the E u p h r a t e s i n the B i r e c i k a n d R a k k a areas. The transportation of immigrants had become a lucrative business. the report is signed Fuat A m i n .594 91 34. as early as A p r i l 1863 the Russians had published a notice to shipowners in Kerch that 200. 47. First. a m a j o r e n t r y p o i n t . ' 4 9 Source: FM (S) 122. W. C o u n t S u m a r k o f f . I t is n o t clear w h e t h e r a n o t h e r a g r e e m e n t h a d been s i g n e d after 1860. S a m s u n . 13 and 25 July 1869. a n d to use t h e m to d e v e l o p a m o d e r n a g r i c u l t u r a l s y s t e m there to t r a n s f o r m A l e x a n d r e t t a o n t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n i n t o "a t r u e n a t u r a l sea o u t l e t f o r T u r k e y w h i c h w o u l d m a k e Odessa less i m p o r t a n t if n o t obliterate i t . B e r z h e . 49. 21 December 1880. o b j e c t e d to t h e p l a n n e d settlement o f 8. T h e D a n u b e p r o v i n c e alone is r e p o r t e d to have received s l i g h t l y o v e r 40. The R u s s i a n g o v e r n m e n t m a d e i t clear t h a t the C i r c a s s i a n s s h o u l d be settled " a t a considerable distance f r o m o u r f r o n tiers a n d i n all cases n o t closer t h a n t h e l i n e E r z i n c a n . s o m e T u r k i s h . For e x a m p l e . A f t e r d e f e a t i n g the O t t o m a n forces. People w h o h a d ships transported m i g r a n t s across t h e Black Sea f o r a fare of a b o u t f o u r dollars a p e r s o n .472 1. report by C. O t h e r sources p u t the t o t a l n u m b e r of m i g r a t i n g Circassians at u p to 1. w h e r e some 3. Ş u m u ( K o l a r o v g r a d ) .. FM (Id) 175. 23 January 1880. 1876).000 r u b l e s to pay for the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of G r e e k f a m i l i e s f r o m C r i m e a back to S a m s u n . I n 1869 t h e G r e e k s addressed a letter to the s u l t a n a s k i n g f o r p e r m i s s i o n a n d assistance for t h e i r r e t u r n to T u r k e y . 29 May 1869. a n d Boğazköy (Çernavoda).538 Sent on to Angora or Sivas 7.668 964 881 25 6. vol. mostly on the initiative of the French and a few English residing in Istanbul. FM (Id) 587. a n d . M e a n w h i l e t h e B r i t i s h . Mikhov. w h o w a s closely f a m i l i a r w i t h the d e m o g r a p h i c s i t u a t i o n i n the O t t o m a n state. Sew York Times. d e s p i t e h i g h m o r t a l i t y . A l r e a d y m a n y Greek C h r i s t i a n families f r o m A n a t o l i a h a d a r r i v e d i n C r i m e a w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of s e t t l i n g there.000 a c t u a l l y s u r v i v e d a n d w e r e settled o n O t t o m a n d o m a i n s . h a d agreed to a l l o w all C h r i s t i a n s of T r a b z o n to m i g r a t e a n d settle i n Russia. w h e n the Russians seemed to be s t e m m i n g the f l o w of m i g r a n t s . Ubicini and Pavet de CourEtat présent de l'Empire ottoman (Paris. A n u m b e r of w e a l t h y Circassians c h a r t e r e d ships a n d landed i n I s t a n b u l or at p o r t s o n the Black Sea w i t h o u t checking i n w i t h a n y officials." Etudes balkaniques.000 y o u n g Circassians w h o h a d l a n d e d i n T r a b z o n . it was a n e x c h a n g e p o p u l a t i o n of the sort that e v e n t u a l l y became a m e t h o d f o r s e t t l i n g n a t i o n a l d i s putes. as already m e n t i o n e d . taken f r o m a r e p o r t g i v i n g the n u m b e r of refugees i n S a m sun i n 1 8 8 0 . T h i r d . as the Circassians f r o m the Caucasus once more l a n d e d i n T r a b z o n ." 46. 60. F M (Id) 587. 367 17. Silistre. w h o w a s the h a t m a n of the K u b a n Cossacks a n d the g o v e r n o r of Caucasia. the total n u m b e r o f d e a t h s at t h e e n d of 1865 w a s 53.824 1. c o n s i d e r e d to be the c l i m a x of Russia's pan-Slavist. a n d m i g h t force the n o m a d i c tribes to settle. see Marc Pinson. "Vyselenie Gortsev S. V i d i n . S i n o p or D o b r u c a . o f t e n l a n d i n g t h e m at obscure p o r t s . the O t t o m a n state a l r e a d y h a d a n u m b e r of Circassian s e t t l e m e n t s before the Russian exodus b e g a n i n 1860.000 families w e r e settled i n t h e last area alone). a n d i n T r a b z o n . i f o r g a n i z e d i n special u n i t s . but the projected "assistance"—actually a loan—did not materialize because the Ottoman government refused to guarantee repayment or the payment of any interest on the loan. 52. Turtsii vol. t h e i r n u m b e r h a d reached 1 m i l l i o n b y 1866. HCAP 63'32 (1864). T w o C i r c a s s i a n c o n t i n g e n t s l a n d e d at A d l e r a n d G u d a u t i a n d w e r e j o i n e d there b y local i n s u r g e n t s . Eventually a Comite Internationale de Secours Aux Refugies des Provinces de l'Empire Ottoman was formed. e x p r e s s i n g the v i e w p o i n t of the G r e e k g o v e r n m e n t . t h e f i g u r e s i n c l u d e d s o m e non-Circassians also.O t t o m a n e x c h a n g e of p o p u l a t i o n . A m a s y a . 46 T h e w a r of 1877-1878.000 i n Istanbul alone.116 6. 44. In England an attempt was made to form an aid committee. w h o c o n d u c t e d his s t u d y based o n Russian sources. I n A s i a .000. a n o t h e r 3. in 1879 it stated that there were 80. B u r g a s ) to be e m b a r k e d o n ships for t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to A n a t o l i a a n d Syria. before the first e x o d u s w a s c o m p l e t e d — t h e t o t a l n u m b e r of Circassians i n the O t t o m a n d o m a i n s came to a b o u t 700. I n 1865. T h e estimates of the n u m b e r s i n v o l v e d i n the Circassian m i g r a t i o n range f r o m 700. ( E v e n t u a l l y . Tokat. t h u s a s s u r i n g t h e safety of the entire B a g h d a d p r o v i n c e . 60852/216. FM (Id) 176. 16 February 1874. l e f t Russia i n the p e r i o d f r o m 1859 to 1879 "but t h a t o n l y a b o u t 1. a n d L a r i s s a . w e r e settled first i n n o r t h e r n a n d central D o b r u c a a r o u n d Tulça. p o s s i b l y a b o u t 20 percent of the t o t a l .000 Circassians s e t t l e d i n the Balkans alone. 47.Refugees f r o m Russian L a n d s i n S a m s u n i n 1880 Settled in Samsun or . W.252 14.000 f a m i l i e s h a d b e e n settled earlier. S e c o n d . Others were settled i n Macedonia and Thrace a r o u n d Salonica. h a d d e c i d e d to u p root all the tribes that r e f u s e d t h e i r " c i v i l i z i n g " m i s s i o n a n d resisted e n r o l l i n g i n the Russian a r m y .000 to over 1 m i l l i o n . f o r e x a m p l e . m o s t l y Circassians. K u n d u k o v . T h e size of the post-1878 w a v e of i m m i g r a 4 4 4 5 Several p o i n t s a f f e c t i n g the v a l i d i t y of these estimates should be m e n t i o n e d . " The report suggests t h a t the colonists. 2 (Sofia. 265. O n e u n d a t e d r e p o r t advises the g o v e r n m e n t to settle the Circassians i n s o u t h e r n T u r k e y .838 13. 48. p. the report quoted being dated 13 A p r i l 1864.s p e a k i n g g r o u p s i n D a g h i s t a n a n d o t h e r r e g i o n s o f the C a u c a s u s . F r o m 1881 u n t i l 1914 there w a s a f u r t h e r e m i g r a t i o n f r o m Russia o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f a m i l l i o n m o r e Circassians. the Circassians p r e v i o u s l y s e t t l e d i n the Balkans. a n d Russian s h i p s . see also A . p. 50.535 91 26.68 OTTOMAN POPULATION. the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t was prevented f r o m s e t t l i n g the Circassians w h e r e v e r it t h o u g h t suitable. A n e w w a v e of m i g r a t i o n e n s u e d .200. T h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t h a d d r a f t e d i n t o the a r m v 18. the statistics u s u a l l y d o n o t i n c l u d e m a n y of t h e m i g r a n t s w h o came o v e r l a n d or e n t e r e d t h e c o u n t r y w i t h o u t b e i n g r e g istered. Babadağ. 23 January 1880. B i a n c o n i claims t h a t b y the e n d of 1876 there w e r e 600.1. for a detailed account of the settlement of the Circassians. no. tion m a y be e x t r a p o l a t e d f r o m t h e f i g u r e s i n Table 4 .000 m o r e Chechenes w e r e expected to a r r i v e b y t h e same r o u t e s a n d to be sent s o u t h to the p r o v i n c e s of M u ş a n d D i y a r b e k i r . e m i g r a t i o n to T u r k e y is the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e a l l o w e d to those m o u n t a i n e e r s w h o refuse to transfer t h e m s e l v e s to the K u b a n steppes a n d c o n t r i b u t e p e r i o d i c a l l y to the militia. "Papers Respecting the Settlement of Circassians. 41 4 2 the O t t o m a n state. T r a v e l w a s d i s o r g a n ized. FM (Id)'l77. " 3 0 3 1 A b o u t h a l f o f t h e Caucasian r e f u g e e s . a n u m b e r of the Greek m i g r a n t families c h a n g e d their m i n d s a n d d e c i d e d to r e t u r n to T u r k e y ." 4 0 There are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the m i g r a t i o n b e g a n to acquire t h e f e a t u r e s of a s m a l l R u s s i a n . a large n u m b e r of m i g r a n t s f r o m Caucasia. IJLATION M O V E M E N T S I N THE O T T O M A N STATE O P 69 fable 4. i n p a r t i n react i o n to the Circassians' actions d u r i n g the w a r .000 s o u l s . "Papers Respecting the Settlement of Circassian Emigrants in T u r k e y . E v e n t u a l l y the O t t o m a n consulates i n C r i m e a w e r e allocated 12. (It is i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t i n 1861. after the w a r b r o k e o u t . t h e y w i s h e d to p r e s e r v e the l a n d f o r G r e e k i n h a b i t a n t s a n d to avoid "disorder and d e m o r a l i z a t i o n . w h i l e some of the r e m a i n i n g tribes i n Circassia a n d A b k h a z i a p r e p a r e d to reb e l . see also my "The Status of Mulsims under European Rule: The Eviction of the Circassians from the Caucasus and Their Settlement in Syria. 27 June 1867.194 people left Russia's Black Sea p o r t s i n the 1858-1866 p e r i o d . 51. V a r n a . the f i g u r e s u s u a l l y o m i t those w h o d i e d o n b o a r d ship or w h o t r a v e l e d o n t h e i r o w n . g a v e n e w m o m e n t u m to Circassian m i g r a t i o n . Wilson. b u t m a n y of these craft w e r e lost at sea.964 Died at Samsun 420 450 471 34 1.000 f a m i l i e s — a quarter of a m i l l i o n C i r c a s s i a n s — d u r i n g this p e r i o d . F o u r t h . The committee occasionally indicated the number of refugees at a particular place. Kaukaza. t h e m i g r a n t s 32 43. the British c o n s u l i n S u k u m k a l e r e p o r t e d t h a t the U b i k h a n d Fighett tribes w e r e fast e m b a r k i n g f o r T r a b z o n because "after their l a n d h a v i n g b e e n l a i d waste b y fire a n d s w o r d . as i n the case of the B u l g a r i a n s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d . N i c o p o l i s . e x c l u d i n g those w h o m i grated o v e r l a n d s o u t h w a r d s or w e s t w a r d s o n h o r s e b a c k or i n w a g o n s a n d those w h o e m b a r k e d i l l e g a l l y o n scores of p r i v a t e l v o w n e d s m a l l boats. and 113/3719. and Europe was outraged by the situation. I t was r e p o r t e d t h a t i n 1864-1865 the d e a t h rate i n S a m s u n was 120 to 150 p e r s o n s a d a y . a n d Bulgaria (Kostenje. r e l i g i o u s l y m o t i v a t e d p o l i c y t o w a r d s 40. 7 May 1874. report by C. ( I n a d d i t i o n . " T h e Russians i n s i s t e d t h a t the Circassians be established i n Syria a n d i n the i n t e r i o r of Asia M i n o r . F r e n c h . T h e p r o b l e m of w h e r e to settle t h e Causasian refugees was a m a j o r o n e a n d gave rise to c o n s i d e r a b l e debate w i t h i n the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t . It w a s clear t h a t the Russians. 2. FM (Id) 177. 4 7 48 H o w e v e r . 1915). w h o h a d already b e g u n d i s t r i b u t i n g the Circassians' l a n d to the Cossacks.000 C h e c h e n e s came to K a r s with their horses a n d cattle." The European newspapers of the period contained ample information on the subject.. d i e d of m a l n u t r i t i o n a n d disease. t h e y u s e d certificates issued b y t h e i r local priests a n d legalized b y the R u s s i a n c o n s u l as t r a v e l d o c u m e n t s . t u r n e d their w r a t h once m o r e u p o n t h e Circassians a n d A b k h a z i n a s rem a i n i n g i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l h o m e s .000 Circassians f r o m the same city v o l u n t a r i l y j o i n e d the O t t o m a n a r m v to f i g h t the Russians. Janlk Sandjak 4. See figures reproduced in Nikola V. the O t t o m a n s averred t h a t t h e i r a g r e e m e n t c o n c e r n e d o n l y a l i m i t e d n u m b e r of Circassian tribes a n d . those Circassians a n d A b k h a z i a n s w h o a r r i v e d i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1863 to 1865. FM (S) 122. 1 . b u t i n a n y case. some i n fact r e t u r n e d i l l e g a l l y to S i n o p . 76/6. a p p a r e n t l y . B r i t i s h . 12 and 24 A p r i l 1867. a l o n g w i t h a large n u m b e r of M u s l i m s f r o m K a z a n a n d the U r a l s . he does n o t g i v e the n u m b e r of Circassians w h o left Russia after 1866 or estimate the n u m b e r of those w h o traveled by l a n d r o u t e s .

: w e r e settled i n the p r o v i n c e s of Dıyarbekir. K o u r g o k a u . Naseleniento na Turtsii. s o m e d e f i n i t e practical c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Tatarlar ve Evlad-i Fatihan (istanbul. G r o u p s of M u s l i m T u r k s a n d Greeks p e a k i n g M u s l i m s w e r e f o u n d also i n E p i r a n d Thessaly and o n Crete a n d the D u o d e c a n e s e Islands. . T h e O t t o m a n F o r e i g n M i n i s t r y A r c h i v e s c o n t a i n a series of o t h e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the m i g r a t i o n of M u s lims f r o m Russia. Osmanlı İmptnatorluğumın İktisadı Şartları Hakkında Bir Tetkik (Ankara. 56.r e l i g i o u s p r o b l e m . is to be a b s o l u t e l y d e p e n d e n t u p o n Russia. France. i n 1899 three g r o u p s f r o m T a m a r a a n d Ufa. Serbia. o n the r e d u c t i o n of the M u s l i m s to the status of a p o l i t i c a l l y a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y h a r m l e s s m i n o r i t y . 1957). "Osmanli imparatorluğunda Bir Iskan ve Kolonizasyon Metodu Olarak Sürgünler." T h e percentage of the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n i n the R u m i l i increased s u b s t a n t i a l l y after 1860. . V a r n a . k n o w n as the P o m a k s a n d B o ş n a k s . see also Mikhov. The w a r o f 1877-1878 p r o v i d e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y for a complete s o l u t i o n to the e t h n o . and Ö. i n the eastern. i f it does n o t s p e e d i l y b e c o m e v i r t u a l l y a Russian P r o v i n c e .c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s p e c u l iar to the O t t o m a n state. M o r e o v e r . c o n f r o n t e d a p o l i t i c a l l y d o m i n a n t M u s l i m elite. estimated the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n of R u m i l i to be a b o u t 4. T h e O t t o m a n census of 1844 gives the p e r c e n t a g e of M u s l i m s i n R u m i l i as 29. T h e Slav c o m m u n i t i e s n o w u n d e r the d o m i n i o n of A u s t r i a . Vol. i n 1906 s o m e 233 f a m i l i e s b e l o n g i n g to the K u b a r t i tribe of U y u m a n d 372 families f r o m K u p a n s k i e m i g r a t e d a n d settled i n A d a n a p r o v i n c e . t h e i r totals i n cluded Wallachia a n d M o l d a v i a . T h e T u r k s w e r e said to be a b o u t 18 to 20 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n in Europe. the E u r o p e a n sources v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y o n the q u e s t i o n of the n u m b e r o f M u s l i m s versus n o n . Bursa. a n d i n 1909 families f r o m the villages of C i v c i v l i a n d V a g o r i i n the g o v e r n o r s h i p of E l i s a b e t h p o l . ed. t o g e t h e r w i t h Bosnia a n d Servia.lı 1S79 (Ankara. a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y to be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e n e w Principality. 254-55.5 m i l l i o n o u t of a total of a b o u t 15 m i l l i o n . the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n of R u m i l i ( i n c l u d i n g Silistre) n u m b e r e d 549. w h i c h i n t u r n t r a n s m i t t e d t h e m to L o n d o n . a n d t h e n d e c l a r i n g the place to be B u l g a r i a n . T h e m e r e thought that the O r t h o d o x Christians h a d been r u l e d for centuries b y t h i s " p r i m i t i v e A s i a t i c n a t i o n " increased the nationalists' f u r y . A d a p a z a r i .4. a n u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n . a national consciousness. a l t h o u g h t h e y c o n d e m n i n the harshest possible terms M u s l i m or T u r k i s h I n s u m . T h e r e is less d i s a g r e e m e n t as to the e t h n i c o r i g i n of the M u s l i m s . c o n t i n u e d to p r e o c c u p y t h e Russians: [Before] l o n g the w h o l e M o h a m m e d a n p o p u l a t i o n w i l l . a n d the C h r i s t i a n s . 1. expressed utter surprise. See my "The Social and Political Foundations of Nationalism in South East Europe after 1878: A Reinterpretation. w h i c h c o n t a i n e d a b o u t 6 m i l l i o n p e o p l e . I t is n o t p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e T u r k s w i l l ever a t t e m p t . w h e r e t h e y w e r e g e n e r a l l y ." in Dor Berliner Kongress von 1S7S. P h i l i p p o p o l i s . a n d b y a r a d i c a l i z e d n a t i o n a l i s t i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . o r i g i n a l l y p u t f o r t h b y t h e Russian p l e n i p o t e n t i a r y d u r i n g the a r m i s t i c e talks i n E d i r n e early i n 1878 b u t ostens i b l y w i t h d r a w n u n d e r w e s t e r n p r e s s u r e . a n d A u s t r i a forced t h e Porte to a d o p t e c o n o m i c a n d political measures t h a t s e r v e d . Racial. The centennial of the Ottoman-Russian War and of the Berlin Congress of 1878. Cengiz Orhonlu. l e d b y a p r o s p e r o u s m e r c h a n t class. f o r e x a m p l e .d e f i n e d t e r r i t o r i a l base was f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m the n a t i o n a l i s m t h a t became the f o u n d a t i o n of s t a t e h o o d i n w e s t e r n E u r o p e . T h e Russian c o n s u l t o o k n o t e of 365 Circassians that i n 1883 a r r i v e d o n a n O t t o m a n boat at Jaffa a n d agreed that they c o u l d be settled a l o n g t h e J o r d a n r i v e r . at least. and in Turkish archives. The percentage of M u s l i m s g i v e n f o r t h i s later p e r i o d varies accordi n g to the sources: f i v e sources i n d i c a t e t h a t M u s l i m s c o n s t i t u t e d 30 percent of t h e p o p u l a t i o n . after t h e San Stefano a n d B e r l i n treaties of 1878 there w a s a g e n e r a l decrease i n the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n because of the t e r r i t o r i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l changes t h a t e n d ed O t t o m a n r u l e o v e r large areas of E u r o p e . l a n d o w n e r s . A l e p po. w i l l p r o b a b l y be absorbed u l t i m a t e l y i n t o t h i s vast Slav n a t i o n a l i t y . vols. M a r d i n . . 58. T h e C h r i s tians. thesis. T h e m o r e a d v a n c e d of the C h r i s t i a n elites l o o k e d w i t h e n v y to a d e v e l o p e d w e s t e r n Europe a n d b l a m e d the M u s l i m s ( T u r k s ) a n d t h e i r sociocultural s y s t e m f o r B a l k a n u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e object i n v i e w has been the a g g r a n d i s e m e n t of the Slav race. a n d other localities w e r e f u l l y aware of the i l l . For background information concerning Turkish settlement in Rumili. or 37. a n d M o n t e n e g r o . e n d o w e d w i t h Russian i n s t i t u t i o n s . i n m a n y i n s t a n c e s . b o t h b y T u r k s a n d Greeks."" The B r i t i s h consuls s t a t i o n e d i n R u s ç u k . the f i g u r e s a r r i v e d at b y t h i s census w e r e incomplete and conservative. as w e l l as t h e m a n n e r of. Yet considerable i n f o r m a t i o n on these events is available i n the H C A P for 1877-1885. 4. 385-410. Ç o r u m . 1970). e x c l u d i n g M o l d a v i a . 39 and 79-83. w h i l e f i f t e e n sources give 43 percent. a n d clergy. especially in the British consular reports. passim. c r a f t s m e n . 1970). It should be kept in mind that Akarli's figures are taken almost exclusively from western sources. and 1830/090.353. A c c o r d i n g to the O t t o m a n census of 1831. " O t t o m a n Population i n Europe in the 19th Century. e t h n i c T u r k s . t h e rest b e i n g A l b a n i a n s a n d Slavs. pp. . the interests of the O t t o m a n C h r i s t i a n p o p u l a t i o n . 5 5 sianic appeal to t h e i r sense of r e l i g i o u s i d e n t i t y a n d solidarity and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y b y w e s t e r n ideas of the E n l i g h t e n m e n t and. U r u p . i n Asia M i n o r p r o p e r .d a y B u l g a r i a . T h e A l b a n i a n M u s l i m s w e r e settled o n ancestral l a n d s i n A l b a n i a a n d 3 6 53. c o m p o s e d of b u r e a u c r a t s . University of Wisconsin-Madison. o n l y a b o u t 1. 13282/81. . T h e M u s l i m s c o n s t i t u t e d e i t h e r the m a j o r i t y or a p o w e r f u l m i n o r i t y i n m o s t of t h e l a n d s envisaged as n a t i o n al t e r r i t o r y b y t h e v a r i o u s C h r i s t i a n n a t i o n a l i s t s . i n fact. later. when confronted w i t h the evidence of this treatment of the Muslims. FM (Id) 176. b u t n o t o n sites likely to be v i s i t e d by p i l g r i m s to the H o l v P l a c e s . But the Greeks are n o t l i k e l y to r e n o u n c e the h e r e d i t a r y claims t h a t t h e y are c o n v i n c e d t h e y possess to M a c e d o n i a . 18 October 1883.228. a n d t h e f o r m a t i o n of a Slave [sic] State.5 percent of the t o t a l .l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p c o n sciousness n u r t u r e d b y t h e idea of an O r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n revival a n d a s u b s e q u e n t u p r i s i n g against the Islamic o r d e r represented b y t h e T u r k s . Çankiri.M u s l i m m i d d l e classes p r o v i d e d the e c o n o m i c basis of t h e i r n a t i o n a l i s m . It w a s clear that t h e s u c c e s s f u l e s t a b l i s h m e n t of n a t i o n a l states dep e n d e d o n t h e l i q u i d a t i o n of t h e M u s l i m e l e m e n t or. F M (Id) 268. m o r e o v e r . T h e i m m i g r a t i o n n o t o n l y m a d e u p for the h e a v y losses s u f f e r e d i n the v a r i o u s w a r s f o u g h t since 1812 b u t also increased the p r o p o r t i o n of M u s l i m s i n the area. I m a y be p e r m i t t e d to p o i n t o u t its i m p o l i c y .000 families f r o m the K u b a n area. L e a v i n g o u t o f v i e w the i n j u s t i c e of p l a c i n g large a n d i m p o r t a n t M u s s u l m a n a n d G r e e k p o p u l a t i o n s u n d e r t h e r u l e of the B u l g a r i a n s . a n d 790 f a m i l i e s . 54." making no mention meanwhile of the hundreds of thousands of Muslims killed or forced to flee their ancestral homes. f r o m the villages of V o l n y . " The b u l k of the M u s l i m s i n D o b r u c a . See Engin Akarli. w e r e also settled i n A d a n a . 1970). e x c l u d i n g t h e capital) i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y has b e e n the subject of considerable debate. T h e r e is n o q u e s t i o n b u t that t h i s increase r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e i m m i g r a t i o n of the Tatars a n d Circassians. t h e E u r o p e a n p r o v i n c e s o f the O t t o m a n state. w h i c h . A n u m b e r of Circassians w e n t d i r e c t l v to Palestinian p o r t s . . c h i e f l y T u r k i s h . T h e Serbians d i d l i k e w i s e i n n o r t h e r n M a c e d o n i a a r o u n d the t o w n of Niş. a n d rural leaders.A. respectively. The i d e o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t of t h i s a m a l g a m of h i s t o r i c a l a n d m o d e r n forces o p e r a t i n g a m o n g e t h n i c g r o u p s w h i c h d i d not yet possess a n a d v a n c e d l i n g u i s t i c h o m o g e n e i t y . g i v i n g t h e m m u n i c i p a l offices.4. the Russian a n d the B u l g a r i a n recasting of the e t h n o . a n d i n Thrace a n d M a c e d o n i a w e r e . H o w e v e r . T h e i d e o l o g i c a l gap b e t w e e n M u s l i m and O r t h o d o x Christian groups was deepened by economic. Balkan n a t i o n a l i s m w a s based o n e t h n o . a n d they sent t h e i r r e p o r t s to the embassy i n I s t a n b u l . of this p o p u l a t i o n . esp. b u t n o t a l w a y s .4 a n d 10. . or a w e l l . was used as a convenient podium by official representatives (and by scholars as well) of the Balkan countries to denounce the "Turkish atrocities. Several "experts" on Balkan history.r e l i g i o u s d e m o g r a p h i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f the O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( w i t h a l l o w a n c e m a d e for loss of t e r r i t o r y i n E u r o p e ) . pp. T h e fate of the M u s l i m s i n the Balkans is a t o p i c i g n o r e d by m o s t scholars. L. a s u b s t a n t i a í p a r t of the c u l t i v a b l e l a n d s w a s i n the h a n d s of the M u s l i m l a n d l o r d s or w a s h e l d b y the vakifs. See reports of the Migration Commissions. a n d D a m a s c u s a n d . a n d p l a c e d u n d e r Russian s u p e r v i s i o n . .M u s l i m s . i n E r z u r u m .d e m o g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r e of R u m i l i . Rumeli'de Yörükler.M u s l i m f e r v o r of the B a l k a n n a t i o n a l i s t s there w e r e . celebrated w i t h considerable pomp i n the West and i n southeastern Europe. of b r i n g i n g . T h e B r i t i s h a m b a s s a d o r i n I s t a n b u l r e p o r t e d t h a t the idea of the e x p u l s i o n of all the M u s l i m s f r o m t h e B u l g a r i a n p r i n c i p a l i t y ." İstanbul Üniversitesi İktisat Fakültesi Mecmuası 13 (1951-1952) and 15 (1952-1954). H o w e v e r . 1830-1914 POPULATION M O V E M E N T S I N T H E O T T O M A N STATE 71 excesses. T h e M i g r a t i o n o f the B a l k a n M u s l i m s T h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n a n d t o t a l n u m b e r of M u s l i m s i n h a b i t i n g t h e R u m i l i (or R u m e l i a — t h a t is. Burgas. respectively. social. 66695/181. Osmanlı İmparatorluğunda Aşiretleri İskan Teşebgüsü (istanbul. a n d K a r a m u r s i n e . Tables 4. and Vedat Eldem. Barkan. T h e O r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n s ' d r i v e t o w a r d n a t i o n a l i s m w a s f e d e m o t i o n a l l y b y Russia's mes57. a n d 4. A m i Boué and David Urq u h a r t . w h o o f t e n w e r e all l a b e l e d " T u r k s . Sivas. pp. and see also Bilal Şimşir. i n the m i n o r i t y . Its Territorial. 1-4. by direct or i n d i r e c t m e a n s b y d r i v e n o u t of i t . their n u m b e r as a b o u t 4. p o p u l a t i o n w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of d r i v i n g t h e m a w a y f r o m the t e r r i t o r y that w a s to b e c o m e Bulgaria. B e h i n d t h e a n t i . 33 34 w e s t e r n M a c e d o n i a .t r e a t m e n t accorded M u s l i m c i v i l i a n s . Ralph Melville and Hans-Jurgen Schroder (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. w h i c h had about 2 million i n h a b i t a n t s b u t a l m o s t n o M u s l i m s . l a n d e d i n I z m i t a n d w e r e sent b v t r a i n to A n k a r a . and Religious Composition" (M. K o n a k a s i . to r e s u m e t h e i r o l d d o m i n i o n i n R o u m e l i a .6 m i l l i o n w e r e estim a t e d to be e t h n i c T u r k s . and s o u t h e r n p a r t of p r e s e n t . T h e first step i n the e f f o r t to achieve t h i s goal w a s the p r e v i o u s l y discussed p r e s e n t a t i o n of the false p o p u l a t i o n statistics at the I s t a n b u l c o n f e r e n c e i n 1876. of l i b e r a l i s m . The Russians' w a r s w i t h the O t t o m a n s a n d the treaties that f o r m a l i z e d the d i s m e m b e r m e n t of the e m p i r e w e r e the c u l m i n a t i o n of a n eastern t y p e of n a t i o n a l i s t d e v e l o p m e n t that h a d been n u r t u r e d b y s o c i o . w h i c h are based o n the calculations of E n g i n A k a r l i a n d o n the analysis of statistical data f r o m E u r o p e a n w o r k s a n d O t t o m a n y e a r b o o k s . there w a s also a s m a l l percentage of o t h e r g r o u p s . P o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s i s s u e d f r o m 1864 to 1877 s h o w e d the p o p u l a t i o n of R u m i l i as v a r y i n g b e t w e e n 8. c o m p o s e d of 395. . E n g l a n d . 1963). the b e s t . g i v e a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e of the e t h n o . A s p o i n t e d o u t . E v e n t u a l l y t h e y came to r e g a r d a n y M u s l i m presence i n the t e r r i t o r y as a n obstacle to n a t i o n a l f u l l f i l ment. T h e B u l g a r i a n a n d B o s n i a n M u s l i m s . a n d E s k i ş e h i r . Belgeler. a n d a r e l a t i v e l y poor a n d u n e d u c a t e d p e a s a n t r y . spoke Slavic a n d i n h a b i t e d the R h o d o p e M o u n t a i n s a n d Bosnia a n d H e r z e g o v i n a . T h e Russian armies t h a t crossed the D a n u b e a n d m o v e d f r o m Rusçuk (Russe) s o u t h e a s t w a r d across the Balkans i n t o eastern Rumelia m o u n t e d i n d i s c r i m i n a t e attacks against the c i v i l i a n M u s l i m . as w e l l as t h e i r o w n i n terests.i n f o r m e d observers of t h i s early p e r i o d .70 O T T O M A N POPULATION. a f e w B u l g a r i a n s to t o w n s a n d villages i n w h i c h there w e r e p r e v i o u s l y n o n e . c e n t r a l . 2. W a l l a c h i a . 135 i n a l l . 55.5 m i l l i o n — a g a i n . 1982). the estimate t h a t at least h a l f a m i l l i o n people w e r e i n v o l v e d i n the C a u c a s i a n i m m i g r a t i o n of 1881-1914 is a h i g h l y reasonable o n e . a n d e d u c a t i o n a l differences. . These r e p o r t s of the B r i t ish c o n s u l a r agents s h o w the reasons f o r . Russia. see Tayyib Gökbilgin. w i t h any p r o s p e c t of success. app l i e d f o r p e r m i s s i o n a n d w e n t to Rostov to e m b a r k o n ships for T u r k e y . Rumeli 'den Göçler. a n d t h e Russian E m p i r e m a y t h e n i n c l u d e the w h o l e of Eastern E u r o p e .3 percent.2. g e n e r a l l y the h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e is s u p p o r t e d b y the m o r e reliable observers. The p r i m i t i v e capitalist s y s t e m i n iroduced i n t o t h e O t t o m a n state t h r o u g h the i n t e r m e d i a r y of the n o n . T h e Russian a n d B u l g a r i a n a u t h o r i t i e s a n d agents are accused.844 or 59.5 m i l l i o n . of course. 867. f o r i n the p e r i o d f r o m 1895 to 1908 large g r o u p s of Circassians w e r e g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n b y Russia to leave: i n 1895. Bir Geçiş Y.3.

O T T O M A N POPULATION,

1830-1914

POPULATION M O V E M E N T S I N T H E O T T O M A N S T A T E

73

Table 4.2.

Religious S t r u c t u r e of the O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n i n Europe 1820-1900 (in t h o u s a n d s ) 1820s 1340s Number 61.0 4.0 65 0 3.0 68.0 32.0 100.0 9.145 620 9.765 140 9.905 5.595 15,500
%

Table 4.4.

Racial-Ethnie S t r u c t u r e of t h e O t t o m a n P o p u l a t i o n i n E u r o p e , 1820-1900 (in t h o u s a n d s ) 1870s
%

18 70s Number 5,106 406 30 5,542 244 5.786 4,364 10.150
%

189 0s Number 3.137
%

Religious Group Greek Orthodox Bulgarian Catholics Others Total Christians Jews/Others Total Non-Muslims Muslims GRAND TOTAL

Number 6.225 405 6.630 305 6.935 3,265 10,200

1820s Ethnic Group Bulgars Other Slavs Total Slavs Turks (Tatars — Circassians) Greeks Albanians Romanians Jews, Armenians, Gypsies, & Others GRAND TOTAL Source: See Table 4.2. Number 615 1,325 1,940 2,755 2,960 815 1,225 505 10,200
%

1840s Number 3,000 3.200 6,200 2,120 1,000 1,500 4,000 650 15,500 6.0 13.0 19.0 27.0 29.0 8.0 12.0 5.0 100.0 19.2 20 7 39.9 13.7 6.4 9.9 25.7 4.4 100.0

1890s
%

Number 3,451 1.523 4.974 1.827 1.218 1,218 • 304 609 10,150

Number

°K
— —
26.0 29.1 19.2 19.7

59 0 4.0 63.0 0.9 63.9 36.1 100 0

50.3 4.0 03 54.6 2.4 57.0 43.0 100.0

49.5

34.0 15.0 49 0 18 0 12 0 12.0 3.0 6.0 100.0

— —
1,648 1.844 1,217 1,248

3,137 190 3.327 3,010 6,337

49.5 3.0 52.5 47.5 100.0

'

380 6,337

6.0 100 0

Source: Compiled from European and Ottoman yearbook statistics and from Engin Akarli, "Ottoman Population in Europe in the 19th Century; its Territorial, Racial, and Religious Composition" (M.A. thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1970). Table 4.3. S u m m a r y of Religious S t r u c t u r e of the O t t o m a n Europe Years 1820s 1840s 1870s 1890s Total % of Population Muslims 10,200 15,500 10,150 6,337 32.0 36.1 43.0 47.5 a n d t r a n q u i l l i t y are r e s t o r e d . I h a v e h e a r d the n u m b e r placed even as h i g h as 200,000! I n a n y case the M u s s u l m a n p o p u l a t i o n w i l l be g r e a t l y r e d u c e d .
5 9

Asia Total % of ' Population Muslims 11,100 16,500 16,000

Total Total % of Population Muslims 21,300 26,650 22,337 59.6 68.0 76.2

80-90 80-90 87.5

A m b a s s a d o r L a y a r d also described the m a n n e r i n w h i c h the M u s l i m s w e r e t r e a t e d d u r i n g the i n i t i a l stages of the war: W h e n the Russians crossed the Balkans last s u m m e r a n d , d i s a r m i n g the M u s s u l m a n s w h o m t h e y h a d i n d u c e d to s u b m i t b y p r o m i s e s of justice a n d p r o t e c t i o n , h a d h a n d e d over t h e i r w e a p o n s to the B u l g a r i a n s , a scene of i n d i s c r i m i n a t e s l a u g h t e r a n d d e v a s t a t i o n e n s u e d , such as h a d n o t b e e n k n o w n since the m o s t barbarous times. T h e w h o l e of the c o u n t r y i n v a d e d b y the Russians was l a i d w a s t e , a n d the t o w n s a n d villages sacked a n d d e s t r o y e d ; the f e r t i l e v a l l e y of the T u n d j a , one of the fairest a n d m o s t p r o s p e r o u s r e g i o n s i n E u r o p e , was d e v a s t a t e d ; t h e M a h o m m e d a n i n h a b i t a n t s o f the i n v a d e d d i s t r i c t s , w h o w e r e u n a b l e to save themselves b y f l i g h t , w e r e o u t r a g e d a n d massacred, a n d e v e n the Jews, w h o u n d e r T u r k i s h r u l e h a d e n j o y e d r e l i g i o u s f r e e d o m a n d c i v i l e q u a l i t y , s h a r e d the same fate. . . . It has b e e n asserted b y those w h o w o u l d palliate the c o n d u c t o f the Russians, that t h e y t o o k no p a r t i n the " a t r o c i t i e s " c o m m i t t e d b y the Bulgarians, a n d c a n n o t , t h e r e f o r e , be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e for t h e m . But s u c h is n o t the case, as t h e o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s that I have f o r w a r d e d to y o u r L o r d s h i p p r o v e . T h e y w e r e Russian officers w h o e m p l o y e d t h e B u l g a r i a n police at P h i l i p p o p o l i s to c a r r y o f f M u s s u l m a n w o m e n a n d girls to be the v i c t i m s of t h e i r l u s t s . Cossacks h a v e a c c o m p a n i e d a n d assisted B u l g a r i a n s i n the d e s t r u c t i o n o f M u s u l m a n villages, a n d i n the massacre of the f u g i t i v e s f r o m t h e m . T h e R u s s i a n a u t h o r i t i e s have s a n c t i o n e d a n d e n c o u r a g e d the d e s t r u c t i o n of T u r k i s h p r o p e r t y i n all the t o w n s a n d villages t h e y have o c c u p i e d , to the v e r y gates of the c a p i t a l . T h e y have 59. FO 424/68, pp. 272-79 (Layard to Derby, 13 March 1878); see also my "The Social and Economic Transformation of Istanbul in the Nineteenth Century" in Istanbul à la-jonction des cultures balkaniques, méditerranéennes, slaves et orientales aux XVI-XIX siècles (Bucharest, 1977), pp. 395—436.

defiled the m o s q u e s , a n d t u r n e d t h e m to v i l e uses; t h e y have desecrated t h e M u s s u l m a n graves, b r o k e n u p the t o m b s t o n e s , a n d t u r n e d t h e cemeteries i n t o p u b l i c gardens a n d places of a m u s e m e n t , c o m p e l l i n g t h e u n f o r t u n a t e M u s s u l m a n s t h e m s e l v e s to d o the w o r k . M u s l i m s w e r e d r i v e n o u t b y d i r e c t t h r e a t s t o t h e i r life a n d p r o p e r t y , as r e p o r t e d b y t h e B r i t i s h A c t i n g C o n s u l E. C a l vert f r o m E d i r n e . C a l v e r t , i n t e r e s t i n g l y e n o u g h , c a n n o t help c o m p a r i n g t h e t r e a t m e n t of t h e T u r k s i n 1878 w i t h t h e events t h a t l e d to t h e T u r k i s h " a t r o c i t i e s " against t h e B u l garian i n s u r g e n t s i n 1876: I , w h o a s s u r e d l y h a v e at n o t i m e b e e n b a c k w a r d i n d e n o u n c i n g T u r k i s h p r o v i n c i a l m i s r u l e , m a y be b e l i e v e d w h e n I state t h a t t h e e v i l state of t h i n g s n o w p r e v a i l i n g is of a n i n c o m p a r a b l y m o r e w i d e s p r e a d , h a r s h , a n d barbarous t y p e t h a n t h a t t o w h i c h it is m a n i f e s t l y i n t e n d e d as a set-off. I speak, o f course, of the n o r m a l T u r k i s h r e g i m e , to w h i c h a l o n e a c o m p a r i s o n can f a i r l y a p p l y . I f t h e h o r r o r s e n a c t e d i n M a y 1876 be i n s i s t e d u p o n , it s h o u l d be r e m e m b e r e d , i n the f i r s t place, t h a t t h e y w e r e t h e r e s u l t of e x a s p e r a t i o n a n d panic e n g e n d e r e d b y r e p o r t s of d a s t a r d l y a n d u n i m a g i n a b l e cruelties p e r p e t r a t e d b y t h e B u l g a r i a n i n s u r g e n t s u p o n i n o f f e n s i v e p e r s o n s , a n d t h e r e a l i t y of w h i c h p e c u l i a r class of cruelties, i n the s u b s e q u e n t instance of t h e t r a g e d y i n t h e Balkans a b o v e M u f l i s , i n the K y z a n l i k district, h a v e b e e n attested b y several E n g l i s h d o c t o r s w h o e x a m i n e d t h e b o d i e s o f the v i c t i m s . A g a i n , the atrocities c o m m i t t e d o n t h e M u s s u l m a n i n h a b i t a n t s of the same d i s t r i c t of K y z a n l i k , w h o , so far f r o m h a v i n g o f f e r e d a n y p r o v o c a t i o n , h a d s t o o d b y t h e Bulgarians a n d p r e s e r v e d t h e m f r o m m o l e s t a t i o n d u r i n g the f i r s t troubles; a n d the deliberate a n d p a r t i a l l y successful a t t e m p t to e x t e r m i n a t e t h e a d u l t male T u r k i s h p o p u l a t i o n of t h a t d i s t r i c t b y w h o l e s a l e a n d c o l d - b l o o d e d e x e c u t i o n s , m u s t be h e l d as, at least, a c o u n t e r b a l a n c e to the massacres of B u l g a r i a n s i n t h e T a t a r - B a z a r d j i k d i s t r i c t , w h e r e there w a s a d m i t t e d l y provocation. I n the N o r t h B a l k a n d i s t r i c t s , to m y o w n k n o w l e d g e , 60. FO 424 72, p. 27 (Layard to Salisbury, 24 June 1878).

Source: See Table 4.2. (Variations in figures are due to losses of territory.)

A c c o r d i n g to the P r e l i m i n a r i e s of Peace, the M u s s u l m a n s m a y c o n t i n u e to reside i n the B u l g a r i a n P r i n c i p a l i t y a n d i n the d i s t r i c t s c e d e d to Servia a n d M o n t e n e g r o . S h o u l d those w h o h a v e e m i g r a t e d n o t r e t u r n , they may retain their lands a n d other immovable p r o p e r t y u p o n c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h are to be f u l f i l l e d w i t h i n t w o years, u p o n p a i n of c o n f i s c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h the d e m a n d first p u t f o r w a r d b y C o u n t I g n a t i e w for the e x p u l s i o n of the M a h o m m e d a n p o p u l a t i o n was w i t h d r a w n , y e t there can be little d o u b t that the o r i g i n a l d e s i g n of Russia to r e m o v e the M u s s u l m a n s a l t o g e t h e r f r o m B u l g a r i a w i l l be c a r r i e d o u t by indirect, if not by violent, means. Judging f r o m w h a t t o o k place i n Servia after she was c o n s t i t u t e d a s e m i - i n d e p e n d e n t State, n o a r r a n g e m e n t m a d e w i t h M u s s u l m a n s w i l l be r e s p e c t e d . M e a n s w i l l be f o u n d to d r i v e t h e m , i n t h e course o f t i m e , f r o m t h e i r h o m e s , a n d to c o m p e l t h e m to sacrifice the l a n d s a n d p r o p e r t y that m a y h a v e r e m a i n e d to t h e m . A l t h o u g h t h e R u s s i a n a u t h o r i t i e s n o w p r e t e n d that the M u s s u l m a n f u g i t i v e s m a y r e t u r n to t h e i r h o m e s , t h e y refuse to g u a r a n t e e t h e m p r o t e c t i o n against the B u l g a r i a n s , except i n s o m e of the p r i n c i p a l t o w n s . W i t h o u t s u c h p r o t e c t i o n the M u s s u l m a n s w o u l d n o t v e n t u r e to g o back, a n d I a m i n f o r m e d that the Porte w o u l d n o t p e r m i t t h e m to d o so. I t is d i f f i c u l t to say how m a n y of t h e m w i l l have perished f r o m Bulgarian massacres, f r o m e x p o s u r e d u r i n g t h e i r f l i g h t before the i n v a d i n g Russian a r m i e s , a n d f r o m disease, before o r d e r

and, I h a v e been t o l d , i n those s o u t h of t h e B a l k a n s also, a n d a g a i n at the present t i m e i n the R h o d o p e , as lately r e p o r t e d b y m e , the excesses c o m m i t t e d b y M u s s u l m a n s h a v e b e e n l i m i t e d to o f f e n d i n g C h r i s t i a n villages. The C h r i s t i a n s u n d e r R u s s o - B u l g a r i a n r u l e , o n the o t h e r h a n d , v e n t t h e i r h a t r e d i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y o n the w h o l e M u s s u l m a n p o p u l a t i o n , w i t h t h e a v o w e d object of b r i n g i n g a b o u t its e x p u l s i o n f r o m the c o u n t r y . L e a v i n g aside, h o w e v e r , as r e g a r d s t h e T u r k s , exceptional events a r i s i n g f r o m e x c e p t i o n a l causes, a n d t a k i n g the o r d i n a r y state of t h e c o u n t r y as a basis of c o m p a r i s o n , I m a y say that w h e r e instances of r o b b e r y a n d assassination of i n d i v i d u a l C h r i s t i a n s o c c u r r e d u n d e r T u r k i s h r u l e , w h o l e M u s s u l m a n villages are n o w liable to that t r e a t m e n t ; a n d w h e r e a s t h e T u r k i s h a u t h o r i t i e s h a d at least the grace to profess a d e s i r e to a f f o r d redress, Russian r u l e i n T u r k e y does n o t m a k e even that concession to p u b l i c o p i n i o n . Instances of outrages b y T u r k s o n C h r i s t i a n females w e r e i n o r d i n a r y t i m e s of far less f r e q u e n t occurrence t h a n appears to be c o m m o n l y b e l i e v e d at h o m e . W'hen a single case of the sort h a p p e n e d it w o u l d set a w h o l e p r o v i n c e i n c o m m o t i o n . Since t h e R u s s i a n o c c u p a t i o n , it is h a r d l y too m u c h to say t h a t t h e B u l g a r i a n s i n the r u r a l districts' outrage at t h e i r w i l l T u r k i s h w o m e n a n d girls b y the score. The m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g of t h e , B u l g a r i a n peasant u n d e r T u r k i s h r u l e has b e c o m e a n a d m i t t e d fact, a n d the n a t i o n a l as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l s p i r i t of h o s p i t a l i t y of the T u r k is p r o v e r b i a l . N o w that the B u l g a r i a n s have t h e u p p e r h a n d , t h e i r chief a i m a n d e n d ( a n d i n t h i s , I regret to say, t h e y are j o i n e d b y n o s m a l l p a r t of the G r e e k r u r a l ' p o p u l a t i o n ) is u t t e r l y to r u i n the T u r k a n d to eject h i m f r o m his h o m e i n E u r o p e . By d e p r i v i n g t h e M u s s u l m a n p e a s a n t r y of t h e i r o n l y m e a n s of i n d e p e n d e n t subsistence, n a m e l y , t h e i r l i v e stock, a n d b y s t r i p p i n g t h e m of all t h e i r m o n e y a n d p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y , it is e v i d e n t l y i n t e n d e d to force t h e m to dispose of or to a b a n d o n t h e i r useless f i e l d s , a n d to reduce those T u r k s w h o m a y r e m a i n i n the c o u n t r y t o the c o n d i t i o n of f i e l d - l a b o u r e r s , a state o f life h i t h e r t o u n k n o w n to all b u t a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n . 61. FO 424 74, p. 329 (Calvert to Layard, 16 September 1878).
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74

OTTOMAN POPULATION, 1830-1914

POPULATION M O V E M E N T S I N THE O T T O M A N STATE

75 Conclusion: The Socio-Economic and Political Impact of M i g r a t i o n The p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t i n the nineteenth century changed the character of t h e O t t o m a n state a n d i n d i r e c t l y p r e p a r e d t h e g r o u n d f o r t h e e m e r g e n c e of a series of n a t i o n a l states, i n c l u d i n g m o d e r n T u r k e y . T h e M u s l i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o the O t t o m a n t e r r i t o r i e s a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t s l o w b u t steady rise of the r a t i o o f M u s l i m s w i t h i n t h e overall O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n h a d a p r o f o u n d i m p a c t u p o n A b d u l h a m i d I I , m a k i n g h i m d e t e r m i n e d to a d o p t a n Islamic p o l i c y . The m o t i v e s f o r a d o p t i o n of t h i s p o l i c y w e r e p r a c t i cal rather t h a n i d e o l o g i c a l . I t w a s o b v i o u s f r o m 1878 o n w a r d s that the g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d cater to the i d e o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l a s p i r a t i o n s of t h e M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n , w h i c h had attained an o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y . Islam and the O t t o m a n t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e became, h e n c e f o r t h , t h e l i n k u n i t i n g t h e l i n g u i s t i c a l l y a n d e t h n i c a l l y hetero g e n e o u s p o p u l a t i o n of T u r k s , C i r c a s s i a n s , B o s n i a n s , P o m a k s , A r a b s , a n d o t h e r s , n o w f o r c e d to l i v e t o g e t h e r , i n t o a n e w f o r m of p o l i t i c a l association. T h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w a s b o t h social a n d c u l t u r a l . For exa m p l e , w h i l e settled t e m p o r a r i l y i n t h e Balkans, t h e Circassians h a d n o t c h a n g e d t h e i r o l d h a b i t s . S o m e g r o u p s w h o c o n s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s w a r r i o r s b e g a n a t t a c k i n g the v i l lages of t h e B u l g a r i a n s a n d o t h e r established a g r i c u l t u r a l g r o u p s , a n d the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t h a d to use t r o o p s to q u e l l t h e s e r a i d s . H o w e v e r , a f t e r 1878 t h e C i r c a s s i a n s a d a p t e d to the n e w social a n d e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t i n A n a t o l i a . A l a r g e g r o u p s e t t l e d i n the w o o d e d , m o u n t a i n o u s area b e t w e e n A d a p a z a r i , H e n d e k , a n d B o l u i n w e s t e r n A n a t o l i a , r e s u m e d the t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n of cattle r a i s i n g , a n d b e c a m e s u p p l i e r s o f meat a n d d a i r y p r o d u c t s to the n e i g h b o r i n g t o w n s a n d cities. O t h e r s w e r e settled i n , or d r i f t e d i n t o , t o w n s a n d cities a n d , searching for h i g h e r status, u s e d the available e d u c a t i o n a l facilities a n d the m i l i t a r y c h a n n e l s to a c h i e v e g o o d social p o s i t i o n s . The Circassians h a d p r e s e r v e d t h e i r t r i b a l f o r m of o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d l o y a l t y d u r i n g t h e early stages of m i g r a t i o n , but, f o l l o w i n g its t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c y , the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t t r i e d to l i m i t the a u t h o r i t y of t h e tribal leaders as m u c h as possible b y s e p a r a t i n g t h e m f r o m t h e i r k i n . Ö . L . Barkan has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t as early as the f i f t e e n t h a n d sixteenth centuries the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t p e r s i s t e n t l y t r i e d to p r e v e n t t r i b a l chiefs a n d c o m m u n a l leaders f r o m e s t a b l i s h i n g m a j o r i t y a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e i r g r o u p s . Such leaders w e r e o f t e n f o r c e d , or i n d u c e d t h r o u g h g e n e r o u s pav, to settle a w a y f r o m t h e i r o w n g r o u p s i n o t h e r regions or t o w n s . T h e g o v e r n m e n t p u r s u e d t h i s p o l i c y w i t h e v e n greater v i g o r i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h u s , u p r o o t e d f r o m t h e i r n a t i v e places, d e p r i v e d of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t r i b a l leaders, a n d f r a g m e n t e d i n t o s m a l l g r o u p s f o r s e t t l e m e n t , the Circassians i n t e g r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s r a p i d l y i n t o the large socio-political u n i t , that is, i n t o a M u s l i m - T u r k i s h n a t i o n f o r m e d u n d e r the O t t o m a n aegis. T h e l i n g u i s t i c differences b e t w e e n Circassians, e t h n i c T u r k s i n A n a t o l i a , a n d o t h e r refugees w h o h a d settled i n A n a t o l i a w e r e s u p e r s e d e d by c o m m o n r e l i g i o u s a n d p o l i t i c a l ties as all of t h e m w e r e

R. Reade, one o i the B r i t i s h c o n s u l a r aides s t a t i o n e d i n the Balkans, r e p o r t e d t h a t s i m i l a r occurrences t o o k place i n Varna, a p o r t city i n eastern B u l g a r i a , e v e n after the f o r m a l s i g n i n g of the T r e a t y of B e r l i n i n July 1878. F r o m the f o r e g o i n g as w e l l as o t h e r c o n d u c t of the Russians a n d Bulgars it appears to be v e r y e v i d e n t that their real object is to r i d the c o u n t r y of all M u s s e l m a n s , and so clear is this t h a t w h i l s t I was l e a v i n g R u s t c h u c k a f e l l o w traveller of m i n e w a s c o n f i d e n t i a l l y i n f o r m e d i n a w h i s p e r b y the Russian C o l o n e l i n charge of the s t a t i o n that all the t r o o p s h a d j u s t received o r d e r s to be o n the " q u i v i v e " the G e n e r a l h a v i n g reason to suspect a r i s i n g of the M u s s e l m a n s against the R u s s i a n s — n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e y w e l l k n e w t h a t there is n o t a s i n g l e a r m e d M u s s e l m a n i n t h e i r p a r t of the p r o v i n c e . T h i s w a s t o l d to m y f e l l o w traveller b u t as he s a i d , i t w a s i n t e n d e d for m e — i t w a s also to serve as an excuse f o r the d i s a r m i n g of the M u s s l e m a n s . It is also v e r y clear t h a t the Russians a n d Bulgars are d o i n g t h e i r u t m o s t o n t h i s subject a n d w i t h t h e greatest speed possible b e f o r e the a r r i v a l here of t h e C o m m i t t e e , subject of article 6 of t h e B e r l i n T r e a t y , f e a r i n g n o d o u b t and i t is to be h o p e d w i t h reason, t h a t t h i s C o m m i s s i o n w i l l p u t a s t o p to t h e i r p r e s e n t o u t r a g e o u s c o n d u c t t o w a r d s the M u s s e l m a n s .
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The n u m b e r of t c h i f l i k s ( m a n o r s ) i n t h i s n e i g h b o u r h o o d w h i c h are i n possession of Servians, and c l a i m e d by T u r k s , m a y be e s t i m a t e d at f r o m S0-10Ü. The relative rights b e t w e e n the o w n e r s a n d the occupiers of the soil v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y . I n s o m e cases the peasants have e n j o y e d r i g h t s e q u a l to those of c o p y h o l d e r s of i n h e r i t a n c e ; i n others t h e i r t e n u r e seems to have b e e n of a p r e c a r i o u s , u n d e f i n e d , a n d most unsatisfactory character. T h e S e r v i a n G o v e r n m e n t i n t e n d s to b r i n g before the S k u p t c h i n a a p r o p o s a l to c o m m u t e the r i g h t s of the T u r k i s h l a n d l o r d s for an a n n u a l rent-charge or f o r a capital s u m pavable w i t h interest b y equal i n s t a l m e n t s e x t e n d i n g o v e r a p e r i o d of f r o m ten to t w e n t y - f i v e years. T h e T u r k s a p p e a r to be favourable to the p r i n c i p l e o f this s c h e m e , t h o u g h the peasants seem to h o p e f o r a s w e e p i n g m e a s u r e m o r e or less c o n f i s c a t i n g i n its n a t u r e . . . . T h e S e r v i a n C o u r t s of l a w m a y be said to be e n t i r e l y closed to T u r k s a n d Jews (except as d e f e n d a n t s ) . M a n y have c o m e to me to c o m p l a i n t h a t they are d r i v e n a w a y f r o m the C o u r t - h o u s e a n d c a n n o t o b t a i n redress f o r w r o n g s against p e r s o n or p r o p e r t y .
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après la c o n s t i t u t i o n de la P r i n c i p a u t é exercer u n e i m m i x t i o n q u e l c o n q u e p a r r a p p o r t à ces terrains? N o n ! on les avait au c o n t r a i r e r e c o n n u s c o m m e F o n d a t i o n s Pieuses, en respectant l'usage a d o p t é a i n s i q u e t o u t ce qui d e v a i t être r e s p e c t é ab antiquo e n ce q u i concernait ces t e r r a i n s . C'est d o n c d a n s le b u t d ' a n é a n t i r les F o n d a t i o n s Pieuses d e s t i n é e s a u x M u s u l m a n s , que les Commissaires Bulgares p r é t e n d e n t , c o n t r a i r e m e n t a u x p r i n c i p e s g é n é r a u x d u d r o i t i n t e r n a t i o n a l q u e les terrains ne p e u v e n t pas être des F o n d a t i o n s P i e u s e s .
65

That the treatment inflicted u p o n M u s l i m s was general and t h a t the l a n d p r o b l e m p l a y e d a m a j o r role i n the relations b e t w e e n M u s l i m s a n d n o n - M u s l i m s are s h o w n b y the r e p o r t of C o n s u l G . F. G o u l d . I n the r e p o r t he a t t r i b u t e d the mass e x o d u s of the M u s l i m s f r o m Niş ( t h e i r n u m b e r fell f r o m 8,300 i n 1876 to 300 i n 1879) to e m i g r a t i o n p r o v o k e d b y official m i s c o n d u c t — i n c l u d i n g a r b i t r a r y arrests, f l o g g i n g s , and r o b b e r i e s — o n the p a r t of local a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ; b y the d e s t r u c t i o n of the h o m e s of T u r k i s h residents; a n d b y the m o r e or less v o l u n t a r y d e p a r t u r e of w e a l t h y T u r k s to places of safety across the b o r d e r w h e r e t h e y c o u l d w a i t f o r i m p r o v e m e n t i n the s i t u a t i o n . R e f e r r i n g to h i s talks w i t h special c o m m i s s i o n s l o o k i n g i n t o t h e l a n d p r o b l e m G o u l d wrote: F r o m w h a t I h a v e h e a r d i n these c o n v e r s a t i o n s , a n d f r o m o t h e r sources, I believe these C o m m i s s i o n s h a v e collected a n e n o r m o u s mass of evidence o n the a g r a r i a n q u e s t i o n ; b u t the e v i d e n c e is a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y o n the side of the C h r i s t i a n s , a n d a b o u n d s i n g r a v e i m p u t a t i o n s o n the i n c e p t i o n o f the titles of t h e T u r k i s h l a n d l o r d s , f r a u d , f o r g e r y , a n d force b e i n g freely alleged against t h e m o r t h e i r predecessors i n title. T h e r e is, i n some instances n o d o u b t , s o m e t r u t h i n these allegations; b u t it seems o b v i o u s , t h a t e v i d e n c e so collected f r o m p e r s o n s i n t e r e s t e d , a n d n o t subjected to cross e x a m i n a t i o n , is n o t of a h i g h l y v a l u a b l e character. T h e m e m b e r s of these C o m m i s s i o n s lay great stress o n the fact of the T u r k s h a v i n g b u r n t the t o w n s a n d villages i n the T i m o k V a l l e y i n 1876, a n d seem to r e g a r d those sad e v e n t s as s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n for c o n f i s c a t i n g T u r k i s h p r o p e r t y . . . . These v i e w s as to c o n f i s c a t i o n are n o t p e c u l i a r to the m e m b e r s o f these C o m m i s s i o n s , b u t are c o m m o n to all S e r v i a n officials w i t h w h o m I have c o m e i n contact. 62. FO 78/2795, p. 60 (Reade to Layard, 30 July 1878).

The B a l k a n n a t i o n a l i s m o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y dem a n d e d the e r a d i c a t i o n of e v e r y c u l t u r a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , or economic i n s t i t u t i o n associated w i t h O t t o m a n - M u s l i m r u l e . The m o s q u e s w e r e targets f o r d e s t r u c t i o n , as is e v i d e n t f r o m a series of r e p o r t s b y the B r i t i s h c o n s u l s . A field i n spection of t h i r t y - t h r e e m o s q u e s i n P h i l i p p o p o l i s s h o w e d that o n l y one w a s usable, w h i l e the rest h a d b e e n d e s t r o y e d or t a k e n o v e r f o r h a y storage, a r m s d e p o t s , a n d the like; a n d the same w a s t r u e i n N i ş .
6 4

T h a t the vakifs, w i t h t h e i r l a n d , w e r e subject to e x p r o p r i a t i o n is clearly s h o w n b y the p e t i t i o n a d d r e s s e d to the B r i t i s h embassy b y M a h m u d N e d i m Bey, a caretaker {mütevelli) of a vakif. E v e n m a k i n g a l l o w a n c e f o r t h e p l a i n t i f f ' s selfinterest, the c o m p l a i n t is w o r t h q u o t i n g f o r the i n s i g h t it gives i n t o the h a n d l i n g of vakif p r o p e r t y : N ' e s t - i l pas encore u n e allégation d i a m é t r a l e m e n t o p p o s é e à l'équité et à la justice a i n s i q u ' a u x d i s p o s i t i o n s d u T r a i t e de p r é t e n d r e q u e les terrains de la n a t u r e s u s m e n t i o n é e ne p e u v e n t pas être des F o n d a t i o n s Pieuses? N ' e s t - i l pas é t o n n a n t q u e les terrains situés d a n s la R o u m é l i e - O r i e n t a l e p u i s s e n t être des F o n d a t i o n s Pieuses et q u e ceux q u i s o n t situés dans la Bulgarie ne p u i s s e n t pas l'être? A - t - o n oublié q u ' à l ' é p o q u e o u la B u l g a r i e était encore sous la d o m i n a t i o n d u G o u v e r n e m e n t O t t o m a n , certains terrains d o n t o n p e u t à p e i n e faire le t o u r p e n d a n t d o u z e h e u r e s , et q u i a v a i e n t été affectés c o m m e F o n d a t i o n s Pieuses, a u M o n a s t è r e de K i l a , f u r e n t dotes des m ê m e s p r é r o g a t i v e s q u i é t a i e n t accordées aux F o n d a t i o n s Pieuses e n q u e s t i o n ? N ' e s t - i l pas v r a i q u ' à la m ê m e é p o q u e o n t é t é o c t r o y é s des F i r m a n s c o n s t a t a n t q u e ces terrains d u s u s d i t m o n a s t è r e sont r e c o n n u s c o m m e F o n d a t i o n s Pieuses exceptionnelles? A - t - o n v u à cette é p o q u e , et m ê m e 63. FO 429/90, pp. 114-17 (Gould to Salisbury, 8 September 1879). 64. See FO 424.76, pp. 308-9, enc. 2 and 4 (Mahir to Abro, 7 and 10 November 1978.

The c o n s e q u e n c e s of t h e e v e n t s of 1877-1878 f o r the e t h n o - d e m o g r a p h i c c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e B a l k a n p e n i n s u l a and the O t t o m a n state w e r e far r e a c h i n g . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 250,000 to 300,000 M u s l i m s , m o s t l y e t h n i c T u r k s , w e r e killed, a n d a b o u t 1.5 m i l l i o n w e r e f o r c e d to take r e f u g e i n the O t t o m a n d o m a i n s . T h e B u l g a r i a n - s p e a k i n g M u s l i m s (Pomaks) l i v i n g i n t h e R h o d o p e M o u n t a i n s , rose against the a d v a n c i n g Russians a n d k e p t t h e m at bay f o r several m o n t h s . T h e i r i n s u r r e c t i o n w a s p u t d o w n , l a r g e l y at the u r g i n g of the s u l t a n , w h o w a n t e d to c o n c l u d e a peace w i t h the Russians. T h e A l b a n i a n s d e c i d e d , i n a m e e t i n g k n o w n as the League of P r i z r i n , t o take u p a r m s a n d f i g h t a n y force w h i c h m i g h t o c c u p y t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . T h e M u s l i m Bosnians a n d H e r z e g o v i n i a n s , a i d e d o n l y p a r t l y b y the local pan-Slavist Serbians, f o u g h t a t h r e e - m o n t h battle against the A u s t r o - H u n g a r i a n forces t h a t , i n accordance w i t h a p r o vision of t h e B e r l i n T r e a t y , h a d o c c u p i e d t h e i r c o u n t r y . Soon after these e v e n t s m o s t of t h e P o m a k s , A l b a n i a n s , and B o s n i a n s , f e e l i n g insecure u n d e r t h e n e w r e g i m e s or w a n t i n g to l i v e a m o n g t h e i r o w n c o - r e l i g i o n i s t s , m o v e d to O t t o m a n d o m a i n s . A large n u m b e r of M u s l i m s f r o m n o r t h ern D o b r u c a , w h i c h w a s l e f t to R o m a n i a , d i d t h e same. I n the sancak of Filibe ( P h i l i p p o p o l i s ) , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e n u m b e r of T u r k s d r o p p e d f r o m 300,000 i n 1875 to 15,000 i n 1878. This e x o d u s f r o m B u l g a r i a , R o m a n i a , Greece, Serbia, a n d M o n t e n e g r o c o n t i n u e d a f t e r 1879, a l t h o u g h at a s l o w e r pace. B u l g a r i a n statistics i n d i c a t e t h a t b e t w e e n 1893 a n d 1902—that is, d u r i n g t e n years o f peace—72,524 p e o p l e emigrated f r o m B u l g a r i a , of w h o m 70,603 (35,418 males a n d 35,185 females) w e n t to T u r k e y .
6 6

The e m i g r a t i o n f r o m t h e B a l k a n c o u n t r i e s began to i n crease again i n 1908-1909 a n d r e a c h e d its peak d u r i n g the Balkan W a r of 1913. A t t h i s t i m e M a c e d o n i a a n d T h r a c e , i n h a b i t e d b y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.5 m i l l i o n M u s l i m s , w e r e lost to Greece, Serbia, a n d B u l g a r i a . T h e e x o d u s c o n t i n u e d d u r ing the First W o r l d W a r , c u l m i n a t i n g i n a n o f f i c i a l exchange of p o p u l a t i o n b e t w e e n T u r k e y a n d Greece (1924-1926). There w e r e m i g r a t i o n s i n t h e 1930s also, these e n c o u r a g e d by the T u r k i s h g o v e r n m e n t . F i n a l l y , a large c o n t i n g e n t of 152,000 T u r k s f r o m B u l g a r i a w a s f o r c e d to e m i g r a t e i n 1951-1952.

65. See FO 424/61, p. 47 (Lacelles to Earl Granville, 22 December 18S4). 66. Bulgarian Chief Statistical Office. Statistique de I'emigration de la principaute dans les pays etrangers de 1S93 a 1902 (Sofia, 1906).

77 76 a m a l g a m a t e d i n t o a single p o l i t i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l e n t i t y . I n 1960, for e x a m p l e , the C i r c a s s i a n - s p e a k i n g p o p u l a t i o n of T u r k e y n u m b e r e d o n l y 147,000. T h e e c o n o m i c a n d social i m p a c t of the m i g r a n t s f r o m C r i m e a was s i g n i f i c a n t also. These p e o p l e spoke a dialect v e r y close to the A n a t o l i a n T u r k i s h a n d h a d w e l l established t r a d i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y a n d h i e r a r c h y . I n their o r i g i n a l h o m e s the C r i m e a n p o p u l a t i o n was d i v i d e d socially i n t o a s m a l l g r o u p of nobles a n d larger g r o u p s of traders a n d farmers w h o i n h a b i t e d the fertile area a l o n g the n o r t h eastern shore. T h e Tatars l i v i n g a l o n g the s h o r e , or the yaliboyu, as t h e y called i t , w e r e i n v o l v e d i n trade a n d c u l t i vated f r u i t trees, w h i l e t h e peasants l i v i n g o n the a r i d l a n d s i n the i n t e r i o r a n d o n the s t e p p e n o r t h of the P e r e k o p raised a v a r i e t y of d r y - l a n d c r o p s . T h e K i r j i s , the i n t e r m e diaries w h o b o u g h t w o o l , b u t t e r , h o n e y , a n d o t h e r c o m m o d i t i e s i n the i n t e r i o r a n d t r a n s p o r t e d t h e m to K a f f a a n d T a m a n for s h i p m e n t e l s e w h e r e , a n d the s o a p m a k e r s w e r e other m a j o r o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s i n the d i v e r s i f i e d C r i m e a n society. A t the t i m e of t h e i r m i g r a t i o n some C r i m e a n notables a n d m e r c h a n t s w e r e able to sell t h e i r p r o p e r t y ; t h u s t h e y b r o u g h t w i t h t h e m to A n a t o l i a c o n s i d e r a b l e c a p i t a l , o f t e n i n the f o r m of g o l d , as w e l l as t h e i r t r a d i n g skills. These i m m i grants o c c u p i e d a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n the s m a l l b u t g r o w i n g class of m e r c h a n t s a n d e n t r e p r e n e u r s w h o e m e r g e d as a n i m p o r t a n t s e g m e n t of a M u s l i m m i d d l e class d u r i n g the second h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . C r i m e a n businessm e n established p r o s p e r o u s t r a d i n g e n t e r p r i s e s i n I s t a n b u l , I z m i r , Balikesir, Bursa, A n k a r a , K o n y a , Eskişehir, a n d other areas i n w h i c h t h e y w e r e settled. E v e n t o d a y s o m e of the m a j o r business enterprises i n these t o w n s , especially i n Eskişehir, b e l o n g to the d e s c e n d a n t s of C r i m e a n m i g r a n t s . C r i m e a n s f r o m the p l a i n s settled i n the s t e p p e areas i n central A n a t o l i a a n d became w h e a t c u l t i v a t o r s . I t is generall y recognized t h a t w h e a t c u l t i v a t i o n i n A n a t o l i a — i n the t r i a n g l e b e t w e e n Eskişehir, A n k a r a , a n d K o n y a t h a t is the " w h e a t b a s k e t " of T u r k e y — d e v e l o p e d l a r g e l y after the C r i means settled i n t h a t area. Eskişehir o w e s its rise as a c o m mercial center to the t r a d e g e n e r a t e d b y w h e a t c u l t i v a t i o n . O t h e r C r i m e a n s settled i n the A e g e a n r e g i o n , w h e r e t h e y raised f r u i t , grapes, a n d o t h e r cash c r o p s . T h e e c o n o m i c i m p a c t of the m i g r a n t s f r o m the Balkans was s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t . A m o n g these p e o p l e w e r e l a n d l o r d s , r e t i r e d officials, a n d a v a r i e t y of o t h e r upper-class M u s l i m s . (The M u s l i m s w h o r e m a i n e d i n the Balkans w e r e t h u s d e p r i v e d o f l e a d e r s h i p , a n d t h i s w a s o n e of the reasons for the q u i c k d i s p e r s a l of the T u r k i s h c o m m u n i t i e s left u n d e r f o r e i g n r u l e . ) T h e r i c h M u s l i m s i n the Balkans t r i e d to sell t h e i r l a n d a n d o t h e r p r o p e r t y b e f o r e t h e y e m i g r a t e d , a n d o f t e n d i d so, b u t at v e r y l o w prices; s o m e b r o u g h t the proceeds, s o m e t i m e s i n t h e f o r m o f usable g o o d s , w i t h t h e m to A n a t o l i a . K. J. Jiricek, a n a u t h o r i t y o n Bulgaria, reports that f r o m 1879 to 1883 the t o t a l value of sales of l a n d i n eastern R u m e l i a , m a d e i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h certain i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n Bulgaria a n d the O t t o m a n state, was 108 m i l l i o n kuruş, of w h i c h 72 m i l l i o n came f r o m the sale of l a n d b y T u r k s to B u l g a r i a n s , despite the fact that the sale prices w e r e v e r y l o w . I n Stara Zagora
OTTOMAN POPULATION, 1830-1914 POPULATION M O V E M E N T S I N THE O T T O M A N STATE

l a n d v a l u e d at 50.5 m i l l i o n kuruş c h a n g e d h a n d s , 40 m i l l i o n kuruş' w o r t h of this b e i n g s o l d b y M u s l i m s . ' T h u s , Balkan refugees w h o b e l o n g e d to the u p p e r classes o f t e n b r o u g h t w i t h t h e m s u f f i c i e n t capital at least to start businesses of their o w n , a n d these became p a r t of the nucleus for the n e w social t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .
6

lated e v e n t u a l l y i n t o special ideologies a n d a d r i v e for stat u

second p r e s i d e n t , was an i m m i g r a n t ; a n d b o t h p a r e n t s of Celal Bavar the t h i r d p r e s i d e n t , w e r e f r o m B u l g a r i a . A detailed s t u d y of the role p l a y e d b y these f a m i l i e s i n the d e v e l o p m e n t of I s l a m i s m a n d t h e n of n a t i o n a l i s m a n d I a n T u r a n i s m , w o u l d be a m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h e unders t a n d i n g of t h e i d e o l o g i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l c u r r e n t s i n the O t t o m a n state. T h e m i g r a t i o n of t h e e t h n i c T u r k s f r o m the Balkans ga\e the T u r k i s h e l e m e n t , already i n a m a j o r i t y i n A n a t o l i a , the o v e r w h e l m i n g n u m e r i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y that a l l o w e d it to i m press its o w n l i n g u i s t i c a n d c u l t u r a l m a r k o n o t h e r i n c o m i n g - r o u p s . By the e n d of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e remaining O t t o m a n provinces i n Anatolia and i n R u m i l i had an i n t e g r a l , d i s t i n c t l y T u r k i s h character, except for some isolated areas i n the Balkans a n d eastern A n a t o l i a . I n s u m t h e successful i n t e g r a t i o n of m i g r a n t e t h n i c eroups into the O t t o m a n c o m m u n i t y altered f u n d a m e n t a ly the t r a d i t i o n a l social s t r u c t u r e of A n a t o l i a a n d p r e p a r e d the g r o u n d for t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of n e w f o r m s of social a n d p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a n a t i o n a l state. T h i s f u n d a m e n t a l process of social a n d p o l i t i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n sup e r s e d e d all a n c i e n t f o r m s of l o y a l t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n and m a d e t h e p o p u l a t i o n r e a d y to a d o p t a n e w p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i t y T h e process c u l m i n a t e d e v e n t u a l l y i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n 1923 of a n a t i o n a l T u r k i s h state t h a t was n o t o n l y the synthesis of t h e c e n t u r y - l o n g p o p u l a t i o n m o v e m e n t b u t was p o l i t i c a l l y , the m o s t suitable s y s t e m for u n i f y i n g the v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s assembled t h e r e . T h e T u r k i s h n a t i o n a l state w a s b o r n of a n d f u r t h e r fostered the n e w sense of p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i t y a n d a f f i l i a t i o n based u p o n a comm o n h i s t o r i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e a n d u p o n aspirations for the f u t u r e .

= a n d p o s i t i o n i n t h e n e w society. The O t t o m a n a r c h i v e s c o n t a i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n s f r o m r i c h d n o b l e M u s l i m f a m i l i e s still i n R u s s i a - t h e czar.st g o v use t h e m to c o n t r o l t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s and

a n

e r n m e n t w a s s o m e w h a t f r i e n d l y to t h e m because it h o p e d
t 0

The fate of the r a n k - a n d - f i l e B a l k a n m i g r a n t s was d i f f e r ent f r o m that of those c o m i n g f r o m Circassia a n d C r i m e a . Some w e r e e m p l o y e d as w o r k e r s b y the c o m p a n i e s b u i l d i n g the A n a t o l i a n r a i l r o a d s . O t h e r s w e r e settled, w i t h o u t p r o g r a m or p a t t e r n , i n a v a r i e t y of places i n A.natolia. M u c h of the best l a n d h a d a l r e a d y b e e n d i s t r i b u t e d ; b u t some Balkan m i g r a n t s w e r e f o r t u n a t e e n o u g h to be settled i n fertile areas, such the l a n d s a r o u n d B u r s a , Balikesir, Bandırma, a n d the A e g e a n coast, a n d t h e y q u i c k l y became p r o s p e r o u s , w h i l e o t h e r s , settled o n the a r i d lands i n central A n a t o l i a a n d the east, w e r e i m p a i r e d b y disease a n d m a l n u t r i t i o n . I n s o m e cases m i g r a n t s i n t r o d u c e d n e w crops such as p o t a t o e s , a n d n e w m e t h o d s of c u l t i v a t i o n as w e l l , a n d this h a d a b e n e f i c i a l effect u p o n the a g r i c u l t u r e of A n a tolia as a w h o l e . I t m a y be s a i d t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e m i g r a n t s h e l p e d s t i m u l a t e e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y i n t h e O t t o m a n state. For example, a c c o r d i n g to t w o of t h e best available accounts of the economic h i s t o r y of the O t t o m a n state, p r o d u c t i o n i n general, a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r , rose bet w e e n 1885 a n d 1 9 1 2 . Prices w e r e stable, g o l d reserves increased, a n d i n v e s t m e n t i n t e n s i f i e d . A n e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l class e m e r g e d . T h e r e c o r d s o f t h e C h a m b e r of Trade, establ i s h e d i n 1880 i n I s t a n b u l , s h o w t h a t i n t h a t c i t y , as w e l l as elsewhere i n the c o u n t r y , a g r o u p of T u r k i s h M u s l i m ent r e p r e n e u r s arose a n d g r e w s t e a d i l y i n size a n d p r o s p e r i t y f r o m 1880 to 1890. A n u m b e r of these b u s i n e s s m e n w e r e m i g r a n t s . A s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t of the u r b a n g r o w t h i n I s t a n b u l ( a n d i n o t h e r cities as w e l l ) w a s d u e d i r e c t l y to the i n f l u x of T u r k i s h m i g r a n t s . T h e r i c h e r ones j o i n e d the u p p e r echelon of the O t t o m a n h i e r a r c h y ( w h i c h h a d b e e n u n t i l t h e n largel y n o n - M u s l i m ) , w h i l e the p o o r e r o n e s — a n d these w e r e the o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y — s w e l l e d the r a n k s of the m a i n l y M u s l i m a n d T u r k i s h u r b a n l o w e r classes.
68

tribes-expressing

a desire to m o v e o u t of Russia a n d settle

i n T u r k e y . I n 1868, f o r e x a m p l e , the f a m i l y of Gazı M e h m e t E f e n d i w h o w a s closely related t o Sheik S h a m i l , a s k e d the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t to facilitate its m i g r a t i o n to T u r k e y . A m o n g i m p o r t a n t f a m i l i e s of t h e Caucasus w h o m i g r a t e d to T u r k e y w e r e t h o s e of S u l u k Bey of t h e K a b a r t a y t r i b e , Tanis Bev L e k a t a o ğ l u , za Elhaj S h e i k A l i , M o l l a A l , E f e n d i , and H a j i I s l a m E f e n d i , R u s t e m Bey, E l h o j a Ağa Bey, K a z a k M i r Elhaj H e r a v , A b d u l Rezai, M u g h a n H a s a n Bey, mânv others. ( E f e n d i a n d Bey are titles d e n o t i n g h i g h social p o s i t i o n . ) S o m e of these f a m i l i e s e d u c a t e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n m i s t a n b u l ; o t h e r s sent t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o M o s c o w ' , Pans Vienna, a n d e l s e w h e r e for s c h o o l i n g . M a n y of these w e l l -

educated o f f s p r i n g of m i g r a n t s later o c c u p i e d l e a d i n g p o s i tions i n O t t o m a n u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d m its i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e . _ Husevin A h u n z a d e , Yusuf Akçura, A h m e t A g a o g l u , and m a n y o t h e r s w h o became closely i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the rise of T u r k i s h n a t i o n a l i s m a n d m o d e r n i s m w e r e m i g r a n t s or sons of m i g r a n t s . T h e same can be said of t h e leaders of Y o u n g Turks and the Republicans: M e h m e t M u r a t (Mizancı) whose family was f r o m Daghistan, played a fundamental role i n t h e Y o u n g T u r k m o v e m e n t at the t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y (1895-1910); E n v e r Paşa w a s t h e g r a n d s o n of a m i g r a n t f r o m Russia; the first P r e s i d e n t of T u r k e y , K e m a l A t a t ü r k , wa< b o r n i n Salonica; the m o t h e r of i s m e t i n ö n ü , T u r k e y s

The s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i m p a c t o f t h e m i g r a t i o n was equally important. The migrating groups included m e n from welleducated, rich f a m i l i e s , s o m e o f t h e m d e s c e n d a n t s of the n o b i l i t y w h o h a d f o r c e n t u r i e s o c c u p i e d l e a d e r s h i p posi^ tions i n the E u r o p e a n t e r r i t o r i e s . T h e y b r o u g h t w i t h t h e m n o t o n l y a m o r e a d v a n c e d l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a n d a sense of n o b i l i t y a n d class, b u t s t r o n g a n t i - R u s s i a n feelings a n d a b u r n i n g desire to r e c a p t u r e t h e i r lost l a n d s . T h i s was trans67. K. J. Jiricek, Cesty po Bulharska [Travels in Bulgaria] (Prague, 1888), cited i n Doreen Warriner, ed., Contrasts in Emerging Societies: Readings in the Social and Economic History of South-Eastern Europe in the Nineteenth Century, select, and trans. G. F. Cushing et al. (London: University of London, Athlone Press, 1965), pp. 244-45. For background, see also John R. Lampe and Marvin R. Jackson, Balkan Economic History, 1550-1950: From Imperial Borderlands to Developing Nations (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982). 68. See Donald Quataert, "Commercialization of Agriculture in Ottoman Turkey, 1800-1914," International journal of Turkish Studies 1, no. 2 (1980): 38-55; and Eldem, Osmanli imparatorluğunun iktisadi.

.A p p e n d i x C.wi /i * '-y * "' £f*t -c- Ze4 <*/ rfYc Y^Yis /stsisft sY f ? st-7 .M. t tn *'• Y * r.t<-« tY^< t^s Ssstdts * & n/> r>i^ y A. sYf^^. Letters f r o m B u l g a r i a n E m i g r a n t s (continued) R e t u r n H o m e to O t t o m a n L a n d s f r o m Territories <7 //'YYY ' ('//Y///Y// .(. '•'•"i- <• s <# A a si s) s st si ? s f/Y r^tftsis YY?**. ( /'. V Y ' Y / / Y / Y / S /A - Y /i^i Y/rJY/• Y/ • • G) ' • C } / ° / / ? Y A y . f S 1 ^ & ^ ' ^f<-* ~% <Y^4~^ .i «.t.-^/ fit.) ' sisfs*? si . <^~y/1 &C^£c^ y Sh-^j/£~ * y Q /ijl n 7 ^fl i i t n^s^f .4 * n^r s r .t<-? dYi-tii St si sys v'-"' f A 'Ps. tlp-Ylf 1 -fit" ***Lf<- . . ^s < >r Ms. * < ^ Stye/?^Y^f^c? ^)*<~.?^<7 ^Ys YYif' /l &•**••> a / e / ^ t « ' /*. Y^ 't^**-?*^^..-i jf^)+ X< s.. * y ^. S r / si * i / S y y St-* sz.4t^t<y /^L^stf^. S * Sit Si / t'S'iS" fr* Yt* *s-£' //r>/}' <'y/*i>/Hf<> * ft ft J f si //fYi* . Y /.''St « <'•'• y > '" " Y ^ y ^» " £^Y- /^t'f /m.r^J.s y . . K fxrt c t^l /* ( / rfrssi-^s-M^s^^sd e et t. .'• ^t+.^-- ^.. sYs -ef-^lf sJ^-A'^^^ h 'at fit 1* *tsfy <*s? ' / U ~ y « * y /si YJ->• Yl 9' * ^ /%Y YYs c^.f <.j * { s r s * **yL.. s*t«s. ^ y p ^ aYs„i*.y s 1 ^> £ /* e-xs-Y^* y £*^> t**'**^^ iC*sY.7 y S^*^<s* /tm./lait. sy> f i .' Soi'tru* r^syssYl- /*sii-/j"</'* . s^vt^ v y / . ft s* ..<. ?SS-<* St ff-r /ifjs*/ Ss^S* ** £ * . <^-s ^ y & Y .s/ ) / c //.£ . fi~/-S./Ys' . /?0... t*ts .JLs. t.j.. tfi t'^Y^S^f.*~r<>^.. Letters from Bulgarian Emigrants Petitioning the Sultan Russian to A l l o w T h e m to A p p e n d i x C.*^ * y . ee-*** fl l a ^ ^ i M A y A * / ' si^t^^r y aY/i+Yi^ YLci.* s.

<V s?ye-/mx/ c'tti^ t*///?-i4 //fir f / i / 'ry(3e--//s4 /Ki4/? z/?^ i f. .-rf'-' ^.l4 „J . > f f </ f ft f ///. Vt*/yYY i l .y<-? ?rrt . / y & 6 a rit c/fi Cr rt /i'/ yyiy-f/A ieS/i/^u u -7?i)-^ed&fiQecr//fy£)t. / / / / - '/locctAsi&r'Ke. Letters f r o m B u l g a r i a n E m i g r a n t s (continued) /f n '. 1/ f*> * t . f*c'iyf^rs////<'&iKiJ^^ » //•i//////-///' cy/Ji/ 7 . yy. Letters f r o m B u l g a r i a n E m i g r a n t s (continued) appendix C.4+S>.-. * A<Z'ti/2sn^< /fd/nfylt*. but presumably it was someone in the Ottoman foreign ministry.'/Sf-j/sty'/i 4 ^ f / e / w . fiiYcft^€i./* r// .-/M„y ^v*-^// /<ye/^y^^ firtwrs&Q&s A YS/ya-fU^ z a t M / x c t t a . r / y x r / / ( Y ^ r m a ? ^r<%4^ ^ Jtfa zMfatuXv/.&jft& Ma ^utjirttf a as.y't'Q/Yc/Jy?0-&t<yv / J fx/if// ftft<* ft./ yj. USV> Y'Z Source: FM (Id) 177. i/£/l>/S*-*>?t A it it / fry/** ' -2 yi/lt-t /' * y . . ^ y /la •< > < </ Hs4-y A t< > ^Y'' ^ ^¿4*' '~^ / /1 e "y * Y^> '//. Y ^4-/^^0 Z/*it£&. //< <y //S/it.A p p e n d i x C.i s> ft / Sry?SsT ///>r-MU?rta r./A-iJrX-Mt tytf. ' S t * t? <x < /J iY y^i-y^ ' ' I ' S l' 1 ' f l* > ' 'rf i.¿2 C7) . f^rt^-7z/?^<?. / / ( C / > y « u /Yl^a/^Yo. u• J^/y ^A fiUi MM <xeu4/t i //.w e ^ / ' ^ / r . fflrte- cu drtia>M4 .ar.<tr CU) /{/» OMZ yiOfoviS>fr?Y&^??i!-'X./. t ft YYjiy?f-K#'-*-/'/a s-//.JH^MCAM* / . t/1 / < . r i I 7U . /lit tit /It {" Y'l . 80 81 .K//f' j.MU^&Y) //.JwJV zt&tYyfa.%^e. /y/fyf/Mca'tf-'f'-*. Note: This letter in French is a translation: the translator is not known. s Sye. 'Jawfj. f/y>(jc/?ryt.u&M cf/t/irf&- //& 'iY. itf/sr/Sc /t^ry^f-'/y//^--' tn~~yt. fiMiZlY r^y^e-ie^ti s^Xtf^i/y'ertU ?oc?/}K?/i^u. f3\<y'> el''<*-•£• .c{tA i/MJ t .//#•/?/ <5 y-ye-cr-i .

i. fmfr tt*Xl —j/j>1MHrnJ>b /(yKmrBf.*. t '7y///f///f- /X/'/Ti yy/fr/^7Y (&/ct'/t/>t><y>* Source: FM (Id) 177.^ i . .rs?if'?/'Y ci?//if 0i'Y7a/^e^w €Hy<K tyybiyurtex^tyeiWpM' /MfYfnXMl. //'/• ! ?//rn>.^ ^ M ^ ^ c/ff^^f^T^^ ^ k / ^ ^^v. Ovcainli >/ci vf*minn 7 f l y' J/x • 8&7..'.*-/tgluten* J*ny . II /fif" .'nnpnfuiXAH. i"ii<r» " ''/'•'>/''' l . yi< } t't 3&/^jf?/t&4<V~?X*S ¿2^ a/^Cf & Bif>niMi imn'h fray Atirinn ft hi /iptiAt.tft.IMVl'h . vrn'h . fh-'i ziyii*" m iii.t> PuAit'ti frnrifi //na/% ilnp^ (<//>nmn% A i>f. t.uj&.<j^'^- Aftrj(mi)/iHI*M 61 ll^Of it'A *//t>„//J&/c7&^/f^ J'tf-jtiV -3¿2.< /f*ph«\ /ifjiAvnili.nw> wr J U : « U. Z&KikJUeyaa/ t*7c7& ^ M9-?z/fei4>'^a^uL ^JVci^cS* \ $M?f<tKKMl y /{[/%">?>. me* A nj?t!(dA!»Xt>M y pr<</'X. ll ynl(\ y f^hJ/iWAU Wi * ^Tf /^ y?*-^. TTjxxn^ f fin /IprrmrA-h fa if/iun<t\wr\ </f. rinXirnxAU / / i fie*.7-7*0 ?y<j>~= ttjWAfiviiut cm% Mc'Kcav^tm* • TtinXA fl/f£A) fnri/T&Jb Haw/ii"* WCttfMm S&777/m7^ ' ..^/'t 7 fflu^^tt^a•e&nY'Zyeyicrta/. //yz^^Js^c^f/^e^u^-^^^} y i^0AV(fnHfiiiUUJi* flan/).Vr y/r/.<v j/?a /< /y///'//j/<' r/y reset .'enf/..*Mi Y/vtcrHHwi^tHti y U^iryty^ te iyy/& evrrf //Z^tf^ fr-as^^f. Letters from Bulgarian Emigrants (continued) Appendix C . ? rria Mf/ J syity^ /(V/omTMirniin ctmasni/vii jj^tynMim /n.i jiMAAyihii i . M ^ ? ^ / " unfit>xv<*«/y<»> fin . f . yfcww* y ?y^r-?.-**-*? Cfojt-?//oe f '#. 82 83 . Letters from Bulgarian Emigrants (continued) .y4t?.Appendix C .JviYi^n-/^ ^Arptr A%?fyi/ (flC% IK* Hhl ft¬ py«>Ui Id H ty* >•. Hi CM'/. 7 T '/ '/joHLI -AWL— MCf/fin'L yy ytftrm y tf.^AfittMf. /l. wilts' ujiec .. Jf fJ (iiv (V n PlMliif>f\Wf/>< r. UntuneKil* to0nfMcjkn*At4^et-£liqu/«i (trrnnHRmn. //lm</ir\ mi>- 77 K T^C/tX/X-'T/ia: 3ecQ?. <Kdu4/i 9*77ct/w f J V ^ / .fht«\ y rrr^/ic/^i'^/np H(\ //hitm!* nTTj>o(i^Mi.?/&r/tJ< 0/n£ i yt/ty r?en/r- ( \7'/$t/'??i/)t/ej^ Y/.7-t •' ? /er'Mk y'y>* < 7t k / CAA1D l^Mtll. lrt^j-ihpyj'*v»j3Am. lri ^K*?ut t*. fv/'/ft/^iv/^w^vo 7f//i/'jcty 7jfs/j*//tt -ftae ^jtcfjA^i^ZA!?y>frip6t"j ZM^/tdcsyy?'&>2y>!'sVf 'e-. ^I^kim'ill^jJHhl .

'• tttrnnmhiM fA AAt>A"f"L IjnjiHi! $fiCh HLi (AAHAH " ^ V f " fli/rrSO. ^ ((j<\yu<*!A4n nj>e\miArn\ #1% Cfich i /fir»<._ Anej/t'J' y (yyxrSyye U(\UH'A 'fUtrrrofy T*H vj)iWf>ipi» yJ^ryyy lit i t i ^ Y y i (A ¿ 7 * K M - j)6 If4 Hhf Pl?*£i M tA p y f r >'$. Wcs&r XHSHiAAi l : i(\Tt>mt\.(r • fl* f>*'t. ~7Tyi( m eA% yLt\ w / i w f ' .„ i j ^ j j ^ ./i e\mc — ?<l H<\j<\yii r c n ^ /TtfCAieyl > r rnsiyyyo ci r<\ ma* JljiyLeXMi 7TPi \mriA*'i t 2 r/a gCAA/narn vyn iijHC 7tnf)- .Appendix C .t jn^n Miyjy>y ' rrrtenAif r 4 ^ ^~y 0 yJj )/ f^ i . *l*'Ar(\Hrt TTJ>( rm 2<\yy{fHi fc\4n>i jl<% *M<\ y c s F y y m b BnAHUiij &Jl//*VA/\ /M/ rrri\Kt\ L /<<\/vfth f /^o UHC H ^ I *&/ mj)(\HrlUjc mc8n JAH/rnr /Hfrrrpr\ ftcA/<c (* &kt. WiAHCm rryrn<\ m".4Arim L rAypJKAAC y[Hftm<\ e»x* 'rrtc-frfiafcnrAnnui rnc Ati(\ r j yiMiynic . jjyrenm'i t. r ^ u j » ChAjkJ 3tj>nrn H( Br" " 4 k VyCyi'i nrrfl ffriUJlA /y^tu^ma. Letters from Bulgarian Emigrants (continued) 'Imo ir HcuiiiA KrHcyA'h yyn ret /trrrfJimvAK y/jnp(ryny'L y n lyif » A*(mryiy/rrny '<1tip*ffowly> Ijpiff'jyyA nyy-MHTi fi'-f e>Af'/MiT<f 'iii\iue\rr\n.yy lj<\f>'nt\ f\A\.\APL Ht\ Kcfl Ttf -rryepn\. sJfAl f\o\m A/fkr nn»rrit.t. '/ r/fr/fmifi ( ^ e ^ K ^ T t vy 84 Source' FM (Id) 177 v \ t ft . . j y C\Hti n r \ ]r\t J^ts^cil ma i\>T'c\ <?rrrfjy. \ /(rni-yA).l/vi n Bn r » fl/Jfrrttliyy ' ' (Mi y i * ^ i H 6 i y M f H i - /yfA>t y Brtyytnl.:lity.« ti h At* me*orfct i](\tunmt\ tf(\ck > uje m f /<tyrnc (H^txnrni t t n<\pt\\[()Aji jre -nJXmHH y Mi. Letters from Bulgarian Emigrants (continued) Appendix C .y>n -npafVa • Om\ itnAKikltflpkl..

there w a s a s u r p l u s of b r e a d . 2d ed. j u s t as it h a d been f r o m the f i f t e e n t h t h r o u g h the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A. or m a y o r . The g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d sell its s t o r e d g r a i n ( w h i c h w a s k e p t i n w o o d e n shacks i n an area a r o u n d the arsenal i n Kasimpa§a) w h e n the n e w year's s h i p m e n t s a r r i v e d .c o l o n i a l . tall a q u e d u c t s . w h e n it t h r e a t e n e d to become s p o i l e d . See Thomas Thornton. T h e w h e a t w a s collected f r o m V o l o . This transformation stimulated f u r t h e r change i n the i n t e r i o r of the c o u n t r y .O t t o m a n W a r of 1877-1878. b u t he w a s t h e n a l l o w e d to sell h i s w h e a t at free m a r k e t p r i c e s a n d k e e p t h e d i f f e r e n c e . The collectors. and Osman Nuri Ergin. L i k e the O t t o m a n state as a w h o l e . T h e naib k e p t a register of the q u a n t i t y of w h e a t d e l i v e r e d . h u n d r e d s of l i b r a r i e s . as it h a d been i n p r e v i o u s c e n t u r i e s . a n d the e c o n o m i c heart of a r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g society. a n d i n 1900 it reached a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 percent. a n d Ü s k ü d a r i n A s i a w e r e its t w o o t h e r m a i n sections. T h e A r m e n i a n s l i v e d m o s t l y at K u m k a p i a n d S a m a t v a . T h e r e g u l a t i o n of w h e a t sales b v the g o v e r n m e n t a p p e a r e d to be less t h a n satisfactory. T h e influx of capital a n d skills b r o u g h t b y the i m m i g r a n t s f r o m the Caucasus a n d the Balkans t u r n e d the city i n t o a center of e n t e r p r i s e a n d c u l t u r e . 2d ed. W h e a t s o l d p r i v a t e l y was u s u a l l y s u p e r i o r i n q u a l i t y to that sold b y the g o v e r n m e n t . palaces. V a r n a . T h u s .M u s l i m . Istanbul on the E v e of T h e Socio-Economic Transformation: The q u a n t i t y of w h e a t purchased for the capital a m o u n t e d . t h e g a t h e r i n g place of e x i l e d provincial elite. b y the e n d of the c e n t u r y the c o l o n i z a t i o n process w a s reversed. T h e w h a r f area b e t w e e n S a r a y b u r n u a n d Fener. Life T h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y d r e w to a c l o s e a n d the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y b e g a n w i t h o u t m a n i f e s t i n g a n y conspicu o u s s y m p t o m s to suggest t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l life of Istanb u l was d u e for drastic c h a n g e . o v e r 100 churches. as w e l l as the p o l i t i c a l c a p i t a l of the O t t o m a n state. a n d i n s o m e of the villages a l o n g t h e B o s p o r u s . K a s i m p a ş a . especially as the possibilities f o r s p e c u l a t i o n i n meat and dairv products were even more favorable than i n wheat. a n d a f e w M u s l i m s . O t t o m a n a n d n o n . I s t a n b u l w a s the m i c r o . edited bv N . s q u a r e . Every year large n u m l i e r s of Greek a n d T u r k i s h m e r c h a n t s h o l d i n g f i r m a n s f r o m the g o v e r n m e n t w e n t to the Balkan p e n i n sula a n d o t h e r f o o d . I s t a n b u l became the n e r v e center of the n e w s y s t e m . A H ships c a r r y i n g g r a i n f r o m the Black Sea a n d t h e A r c h i p e l a g o u n l o a d e d t h e i r cargoes o n t h i s w h a r f . W h e n there was a s h o r t a g e of w h e a t (as. a n d p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d n o t b u i l d granaries or w a r e h o u s e s to store f o o d . a n d s o u t h east. as the center of c o m m u n i c a t i o n s (the press w a s concentrated there). or w h e n the m a r k e t prices rose h i g h e n o u g h to a l l o w a h a n d s o m e p r o f i t . a n d o t h e r m o n u m e n t s of the past. i n the n o r t h . t w o m o d e r n d i s t r i c t s o n the n o r t h e r n shore of the G o l d e n H o r n j u s t o p p o s i t e the part of the o l d city i n h a b i t e d b y E u r o p e a n s . 1928). Ahmet Refik (Altunay). the naib l o w e r e d t h e p r i c e a n d forced the bakers to b u y larger q u a n t i t i e s t h a n t h e y n o r m a l l y d i d . w a s the e c o n o m i c heart of the city. a f e w E u r o p e a n s . T h e d i c h o t o m y b e t w e e n c i t y a n d c o u n t r y was m a n i f e s t e d w i t h i n the city of I s t a n b u l itself i n its " o l d " a n d " m o d e r n " sections: Pera ( B e y o g l u ) a n d Galata. p a y i n g f o r his o w n share the same p r i c e as the g o v e r n m e n t . (Istanbul. (London. and Lit t fi Tarihi. o f t e n spenl their m o n e y o n v a r i o u s i m p o r t e d i t e m s . a n d t h e n the city i n t u r n was subjected to a v a r i e t y o f n e w pressures f r o m the i n t e r i o r . t h e o l d Genoese q u a r t e r across the Haliç. w h e r e all differences s e e m e d to d i s a p p e a r . i n t u r n . İstanbul Folkloru. Pera. n. Galata. T h e d a i l y life of I s t a n b u l w a s g o v e r n e d b y the I s t a n b u l efendisi. H o w e v e r . Cibali. b u t it gave little s i g n o f the great i m p o r t a n c e it w a s to a c q u i r e later. a n d t h e n d i s t r i b u t e d it to t h e bakers.p r o d u c i n g areas to collect b u t t e r . p o r t r a i t s also of the life as it still w a s i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h a n d the early n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a n d i t . Celal Esat Arseven. w h i l e the old city stagnated a n d decayed. fell u n d e r the g r o w i n g i n fluence of t h e c a p i t a l i s m a n d the l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t of E u r o p e . o r he s o m e t i m e s p o u r e d sea w a t e r over t h e g r a i n to s w e l l it a n d m a k e it appear to be larger i n a m o u n t . as expected. T h e mubayaaci w a s a l l o w e d to b u y f r o m the p r o d u c e r f o r h i s o w n account onet e n t h of the a m o u n t of w h e a t collected f o r the g o v e r n m e n t . The Present State of Modern Turkey 2. cheese. The a n n u a l collection of sheep alone a m o u n t e d at the e n d of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y to 500. secured h a n d s o m e p r o f i t s for t h e m selves. k n o w n g e n e r a l l y as U n k a p a n i . to one m i l l i o n kiles (a kile was equal i n w e i g h t to a b o u t sixty p o u n d s ) . t o o . I n o r d e r to p r e v e n t m o n o p o l i e s a n d s p e c u l a t i o n . T h e naib. f r o m 1828 to 1829 w h e n the A l l i e s closed the straits a n d p r e v e n t e d the s u p p l y of I s t a n b u l b y sea) the bakers w e r e f o r c e d to use s p o i l e d g r a i n or to m i x it w i t h o t h e r i n g r e d i e n t s to p r o d u c e a l o w q u a l i t y b r e a d t h a t sold at h i g h prices. o r B e y o g l u . or w h e a t c o l l e c t o r . east.M u s l i m ) e n t r e p r e n e u r s . lstanbulda imar ve Iskan Hareketlen (istanbul. H a s k ö y (these w e r e m o s t l y Karaites). T h e Jews i n h a b i t e d Balat. I t also w a s the first to experience the s e m i . T h e r e also existed the p o s s i b i l i t y of considerable p r o f i t for the mubayaaci. n e w businesses. f i x e d a p r i c e . a n d goats w a s m e l t e d o n the spot i n W a l l a c h i a a n d M o l d a v i a a n d t r a n s p o r t e d to the capital as t a l l o w . to s u b s t i t u t e barley or rye f o r the g o v e r n m e n t w h e a t purchase. especially. The same m e t h o d was used f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n a n d dist r i b u t i o n of o t h e r f o o d i t e m s c o n s u m e d i n the c a p i t a l . w h o e n j o y e d special f a v o r s . It is interesting that the mubayaaci in Salonica was a descendant of the famous Evrenos family that remained in virtually absolute control of the Vardar valley until well into the eighteenth century. i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the g r a i n w a s sold at 60 to 75 percent a b o v e the price p a i d on delivery i n Istanbul.O t t o m a n observers seem to agree that b e t w e e n 1844 a n d 1880 m o r e t h a n 50 percent of the city's p o p u l a t i o n w a s n o n .M u s l i m s h a d also increased. l i v e s t o c k .000 to 600. T h e price of o r d i n a r y w h e a t p a i d to the p r o d u c e r v a r i e d b e t w e e n three a n d 1. T h e process w a s a l l the m o r e r a p i d a n d c o m p l e t e because I s t a n b u l w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y sensitive to o u t side s t i m u l i . social.000 h e a d . b y 1885 the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n h a d r i s e n to over 54 percent. Salonica. except f o r a f e w m i n o r differences. medresses. w h o p e r f o r m e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s a n d h a d c i v i l j u r i s d i c t i o n over t h e c i t y . 3 f o u r piasters p e r kilc. Cevdet Tarihi. a n d I s t a n b u l h a d become once m o r e Islamic a n d T u r k i s h i n character. 1972). p u s h i n g u p the p r i c e a n d f u r t h e r enr i c h i n g the mubayaaci. s e r v i n g as the m a j o r d i s t r i b u t i o n p o i n t f o r i m p o r t e d wares a n d attracting w e a l t h f r o m t h e c o u n t r y s i d e to be s p e n t o n consumer goods.T H E P O P U L A T I O N A N D T H E S O C I A L A N D E C O N O M I C T R A N S F O R M A T I O N OF I S T A N B U L 87 5 THE POPULATION AND THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION OF ISTANBUL: THE OTTOMAN MICROCOSM Introduction D u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y thé c i t y of I s t a n b u l u n d e r went a transformation. w h i c h w a s o f t e n s o l d at l o w prices o r g i v e n free to the p o o r of I s t a n b u l . G o v e r n m e n t p r o f i t s f r o m the sale of o n e year's s u p p l y of w h e a t a m o u n t e d to 2 to 3 m i l l i o n piasters. The changes i n the socio-ethnic a n d c u l t u r a l c o m p o s i t i o n A shorter version of this chapter appeared in Association Internationale d'Etudes du Sud-Est Européen Bulletin 12. T h e mubayaaci often a r r a n g e d . T h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s t r o n g c e n t r a l government based o n a large b u r e a u c r a c y a n d the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a centralized b u d g e t s y s t e m h a d the net effect of bringing i n t o the city a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t of the tax revenues.m o d e l of the dem o g r a p h i c . or Haliç. T h e G r e e k s . See also Ali Rıza (Bey). t a l l o w . s u p e r v i s e d t h e s u p p l y of f o o d a n d f i x e d the p r i c e o f f o o d s t u f f s . 2 (1974). T h e o l d c i t y g l i t t e r e d i n t h e s u n i n t h e f u l l majesty o f its n e a r l y 400 m o s q u e s . Some of the older Turkish sources on the history of Istanbul used in this study are Asim Tarihi. w e r e located m a i n l y i n Fener. the e x i s t i n g portraits of life i n I s t a n b u l i n t h e s i x t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h centuries . O n l y t h e g o v e r n m e n t w a s p e r m i t t e d to collect g r a i n i n large q u a n t i t i e s a n d store it f o r use i n t i m e of n e e d . 2. g r e w a n d became a k i n d of c o l o n i a l replica of E u r o p e a n cities.000 oxen. are. p r o t e c t e d b y distance a n d l i m i t e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . d e p e n d e n t t y p e of c a p i t a l i s m that replaced the o l d . r i g i d . his assistant. Bir Zamanlar istanbul (istanbul. r u n b y M u s l i m ( a n d n o n . a n d e c o n o m i c change i n the e n t i r e c o u n t r y .d. a n d o t h e r places i n D o b r u c a a n d W a l l a c h i a . no. at the t u r n of the c e n t u r y . and see Mehmet Hali! Bayri. to pay the salaries of the b u r e a u c r a t s w h o . 1932). T h e p h y s i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of I s t a n b u l was a c c o m p a n i e d b y a c u l t u r a l c h a n g e of c r u c i a l i m p o r tance. K a r a a ğ a ç . A n u m ber of small v i l l a g e s o n either side of the B o s p o r u s a n d the G o l d e n H o r n w e r e also p a r t of t h e c i t y . Eski istanbul (istanbul. b y b r i b i n g the r e s p o n s i b l e officials. I s t a n b u l came to p l a y a n e w role i n the n i n e t e e n t h cent u r y . t h e b u y e r s w e r e n o t a l l o w e d to store g r a i n for m o r e t h a n a f e w d a y s .n a t i o n a l consciousness a m o n g various c o m m u n i t i e s . O t t o m a n statist r e g i m e . T h e fat of u p w a r d s of 80. sheep. a n d a f e w o t h e r places. T h e city felt soonest a n d i n greatest degree the effects of the forces u n l e a s h e d b y c a p i t a l i s m a n d the tensions caused b y the rise of n e w social g r o u p s a n d the m i g r a t i o n s t h a t s p u r r e d the d e v e l o p m e n t of e t h n o . w a s the residence of t h e E u r o p e a n ambassadors. 86 of I s t a n b u l i n the s e c o n d h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h century w e r e the direct c o n s e q u e n c e of the increased trade and e x p a n d e d economic o p p o r t u n i t y that f o l l o w e d the C r i m e a n W a r a n d the R u s s o . T h e c o u n t r y s i d e . I n such cases. not m i x i n g w i t h each o t h e r i n t h e i r d a i l y lives except i n t h e bazaar. T h e c i t y w a s still c o m p o s e d of three m a i n parts: the chief p a r t w a s t h a t c o n c e n t r a t e d b e t w e e n the defense walls o n the w e s t a n d the shores of the M a r m a r a Sea a n d the G o l d e n H o r n . A substantial p a r t of these s u p p l i e s was collected f o r the Janizaries a n d the s u l t a n ' s h o u s e h o l d . I n fact. f o r e x a m p l e . it received a f l o o d of n e w i m m i g r a n t s . 1937).) and the new edition of this work. I n d e e d . w a x . despite the fact that the gross n u m b e r of n o n . Banoglu. a n d . e v e n b e g i n n i n g to a d o p t E u r o p e a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l styles a n d p a t t e r n s of u r b a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the course of a l t e r i n g itself u n d e r the i m p a c t of these o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s . o v e r 300 d e r v i s h tekkes. T h e r e l i g i o u s groups inhabited their traditional quarters. c o n t i n u e d i n its t r a d i t i o n a l m o l d . 1809): 23-24. h o n e y . T h u s he m e t the quota set b y the g o v e r n m e n t a n d still w a s able to k e e p a g o o d s u r p l u s for h i m s e l f . Galata w a s t h e n h o m e to Greeks. S a m a t v a . attracted f r o m the interior p o o r p e o p l e a n d peasants w h o became a sort of city proletariat. A r m e n i a n s . Hicri On Altinci Asirda istanbul Hayati (istanbul. Shortages also w e r e caused b y the fires that f r e q u e n t l y d e s t r o y e d the g o v e r n m e n t storage shacks. 2 W h e n there w a s an o v e r a b u n d a n c e o f w h e a t a r r i v i n g at the w h a r f .

246-48. t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f t h e means for extensive p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e h a n d s o f i n d i v i d u a l s . I n d e e d . T h e O t t o m a n response t o E u r o p e a n d e m a n d s f o r f o o d a n d r a w materials w a s d i c t a t e d b y p o l i t i c a l as w e l l as econ o m i c events.r e l a t e d e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l factors. M e a n w h i l e f o o d prices soared.s t a i n e d code f o r the p u n i s h m e n t o f f i c t i t i o u s c r i m e s . ( T h e çiziye—officially a h e a d tax rather t h a n a t i t h e — w a s o f t e n also r e f e r r e d t o as haraç. These p r i n c i p l e s have b e e n p r e s e r v e d b v practice. b u t b y the absoluteness o f eastern g o v e r n m e n t . t o trade w i t h a n y o n e w h o s o l d u s e f u l articles. E v e n t u a l l y . 2d ed.e c o n o m i c syst e m .794 14. I s t a n b u l s u f f e r e d acute f a m i n e . a n d w h i c h never can be separated f r o m direct t a x a t i o n . T h e a b i l i t y o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t to f i x t h e price o f f o o d a n d r a w materials d e p e n d e d o n its a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l its i n t e r n a l a n d external trade f u l l y . o r o t h e r services. stated t h e M u s l i m s ' basic o b j e c t i o n t o E u r o p e a n econ o m i c habits: 6 i n d e p e n d e n t i n q u i r y . 6. t h e paşas a n d t h e vakif m o s q u e s ) . seizure.800 501 1.968.000 2. Observations sur l'état actuel de l'Empire ottoman (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. [ T h e y ] object t o o u r ( E u r o p e a n ! p r i n c i p l e s o f f i n a n c e and of commercial legislation. (London. . (London. See Henry Grenville. Freedom of commerce a n d i n d u s t r y . as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e b u d g e t . 4 Four basic factors w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the h a p p y state o f the O t t o m a n b u d g e t i n 1776. R e v e n u e s h a d a l r e a d y b e g u n t o d i m i n i s h . again w i t h o u t success. a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e evils o f i n d i r e c t t a x a t i o n . e v e r y o n e c o u l d engage i n i t . 4 3 7 . T h e haraç w a s a t i t h e paid b y n o n . Eton. c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s w e r e carried o u t every six m o n t h s . because o f its r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g m i l i t a r y p o s i t i o n . w h i c h n e v e r existed i n T u r k e y .916 purses (a p u r s e was 500 piasters). e d u c a t i o n a l . customs. M o r e o v e r .000 piasters.) For Istanbul i n 1776.700 800 1. T h e T u r k i s h m e r c h a n t s d i d n o t w a n t t o speculate b y s e l l i n g expensive articles o r rare c o m m o d i t i e s abroad b u t m e r e l y w a n t e d . H o w e v e r . g i v i n g a s u r p l u s o f £ 7 9 4 . s T h e e n t i r e O t t o m a n e c o n o m y w a s s u f f e r i n g f r o m the s t r a i n o f c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m t h e free m a r k e t e c o n o m y of the W e s t .e c o n o m i c h i s t o r y o f t h e O t t o m a n state as t o call f o r s o m e e l a b o r a t i o n . it became i n creasingly o b v i o u s that c h a n g i n g circumstances h a d m a d e the olci m e t h o d s obsolete. especially i n the Balkans. i d e a l l y s p e a k i n g .250 1. u n d e r t a k e n every three years a r o u n d 1750. The i n f l u x s l o w e d d o w n t o w a r d s the e n d of t h e c e n t u r y as O t t o m a n crafts p r o d u c t i o n a n d . it is a consequence w h i c h f l o w s f r o m . d u r i n g the w a r i n 1812 a n d later d u r i n g the b l o c k a d e o f the straits after t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e O t t o m a n fleet a t N'avarino (1827). 2nd ed. especially the sale o f f o o d a n d h o u s e h o l d g o o d s . the goods f r o m the Black Sea p o r t s w e r e c a r r i e d n o t o n l y b y O t t o m a n vessels b u t . hence. 16-17. T h e r e v e n u e s a n d e x p e n d i t u r e s of the miri (public t r e a s u r y — e x c l u d i n g t h e p r i v a t e treasure o f the s u l n . w h i c h a b o l i s h e d t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f Wallachia a n d M o l d a v i a t o sell c e r t a i n q u a n t i t i e s o f f o o d t o the Porte. 41-47.500 piasters) 89 Revenue Sources • .700 financial h e a l t h . (3) t h e r e w a s a lack o f g o v e r n m e n t e x p e n d i t u r e f o r health. Business w a s transacted in. t o set the price o f o t h e r c o m m o d i t i e s s o l d i n I s t a n b u l . I s t a n b u l w a s a bazaar f r o m o n e e n d t o t h e o t h e r . B u t at t h e e n d o f t h e eighte e n t h a n d t h r o u g h o u t the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the O t t o m a n state w a s g r a d u a l l y d e p r i v e d o f t h e f r e e d o m t o f o l l o w an economic p o l i c y o f its o w n c h o o s i n g . as w e l l as t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f c a p i t a l . O t t o m a n m e r c h a n t s d i d n o t f o r m extensive r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h each o t h e r . M a n u f a c t u r e d g o o d s f r o m E u r o p e w e r e also s o l d i n the free m a r k e t a n d s t i m u l a t e d its d e v e l o p m e n t .M u s l i m s . t h e O t t o m a n b u d g e t f o r 1776. ( P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n o r s also w e r e o r d e r e d to p r o h i b i t e m i g r a t i o n f r o m t h e i r p r o v i n c e s b y set7. c a m e to £ 4 .942. b y the b e g i n n i n g o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . g l u t s . . t r a n s l a t e d i n t o pounds s t e r l i n g . social.r a n g e f i n a n c i a l goals.700 700 1. T h e e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s responsible for the c h a n g e d s i t u a t i o n w e r e t h e f o l l o w i n g . . a b l o o d . s i g n e d i n 1774.885 (or 44. freed o m f o r these c o u n t r i e s t o b u y a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m o d i t i e s f r o m the O t t o m a n m a r k e t . ships had to w a i t f o r d a y s . T h e o b v i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e w a s to a d o p t a s v s t e m t h a t . w h i c h have a l w a y s been t o o s t r o n g to require t o disguise their i m p o s t s . as o f t e n h a p p e n e d i n t h e fall w h e n large q u a n t i t i e s o f f o o d w e r e d e l i v e r e d t o t h e c i t y .000 o u t o f a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f about 870.800 1. are a r g u m e n t s w h i c h a M u s s u l m a n is o n l y made acquainted w i t h by visiting E u r o p e / The practical consequence o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l e c o n o m i c philosophy was evident in the O t t o m a n inability to thwart the challenge o f a p o w e r f u l E u r o p e . m e r c a n t i l i s t s p i r i t .0U 89. 24. fictitious wealth. 2 5 0 a n d £ 3 . as c o m p i l e d b y W i l l i a m E t o n (reproduced i n Table 5. p . T h e Treaty o f K ü ç ü k Kaynarca. 1 .000 9. Turkey and its Resources. See A Survey of the Turkish Empire. Organization and Free 3. a n d . as t r a d e i n the O t t o m a n state w a s geared t o s e r v i n g t h e i m m e d i a t e needs o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f l o n g . M o n e y w a s n o t a c c u m u l a t e d a n d i n v e s t e d as capital b u t w a s used for m e e t i n g t h e d a i l y n e e d s o f t h e m e r c h a n t a n d h i s t r a d e . pp. n o t s o l i c i t u d e . called Küçük Kalem Payment of the Danubian guards Expenses of maintaining the posts Total . i n p a r t d u e t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g i n s e c u r i t y i n t h e r u r a l areas a n d i n p a r t because o f t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a " s e r v i c e " sector i n t h e O t t o m a n e c o n o m y — t h e result o f the s l o w t r e n d t o w a r d s a capitalist s y s t e m . u n w h o l e s o m e i n d u s t r y . E u r o p e a n m e r c h a n t s e s t a b l i s h e d associations w h i c h r a m i f i e d i n t o every m a j o r f i e l d o f a c t i v i t y a n d i m b u e d t h e m w i t h a p r a g m a t i c . a n d trade s t a g n a t e d . i n c r e a s i n g l y . First.077 36. Expenditures Pay of the city guards or militia of Istanbul Pay ot the bostancis and of the people in the sultan's kitchen Pay of the ağas and officers of the sultan's palace To the harem of the old palace To the ağa and seraglio of Galata Expenses of the kitchen (purses rumi) To the chief of the butchers Expenses of the imperial tables Arbitrary assignments Payment of all the other fortresses of the Ottoman empire A donation to Mecca and Medina (this had been paid annually for centuries) Pay of the sailors of the fleet Provision for the fleet Expenses of the admiralty Pensions of the sultanas and of the deposed khans of the Crim Pay of the garrison of Vldin Pay for those of Bosnia For maintaining recruits Expenses of the iesser department. rested u p o n the m o r a l concept t h a t all c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y .g o v e r n m e n t a l source o f p a y m e n t f o r h i g h g o v ernment officials: m o s t o f these d e r i v e d t h e i r i n c o m e f r o m various real estate h o l d i n g s a s s i g n e d t o t h e m u p o n t h e i r a s s u m p t i o n o f p o s i t i o n . t i t h e . ships w h i c h d i d n o t stop i n I s t a n b u l . f l u c t u a t i o n s .000. over-trading. i n d e e d . s h o u l d n o t be m o t i v a t e d b y t h e desire f o r p r o f i t b u t s h o u l d serve the w e l l b e i n g o f society. so t h e salar}' r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e budget w a s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . pp. 8. the O t t o m a n commercial a n d e c o n o m i c p h i l o s o p h y . T h e e c o n o m y and e v e n t h e social o r g a n i z a t i o n o f I s t a n b u l w a s p r o f o u n d l y affected b y t h e s y s t e m ' s demis'e. O t t o m a n c o m m e r c i a l c o m p e t i t i o n w a s c h e c k e d . e n d e d the g o v e r n m e n t . 1799). n o t because o f lack o f g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l b u t because o f t r a d i n g habits a n d t r a d i t i o n s . t h e n the n o n . a b o v e the prices p a i d by the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t . i n o r d e r to a v o i d delays. It must be remembered that the budget came after the war with Russia was concluded i n 1774. E v e n O t t o m a n m e r c h a n t s p r e f e r r e d n o t to go to I s t a n b u l at a l l because o f loss o f t i m e : w h e n there was h e a v y t r a f f i c . A c t u a l l y . credit w a s n o t available. l a r g e l y because its o w n f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n . o r 180. a n d taxes. I n fact. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . The O t t o m a n p h i l o s o p h y o f e c o n o m i c s a n d c o m m e r c e w a s essentially statist. Surivy. f i n a l l y / ( 4 ) t h e g o v e r n m e n t w a s free of f o r e i g n d e b t . 1956).200 3. Early i n the nineteenth century there d e v e l o p e d i n I s t a n b u l a free c o m m o d i t i e s m a r k e t t h a t g r a d u a l l y s u r p a s s e d a n d u n d e r m i n e d the g o v e r n m e n t f o o d collection a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o p e r a t i o n . p a u p e r i s m . I t therefore i n creased the i n c e n t i v e f o r the f o o d collectors b y a l l o w i n g t h e m l a r g e r m a r g i n s o f p r o f i t . H e n c e f o r t h . u n t i l t h e 1820s t h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t d i d n o t f e e l pressed t o m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e m a r k e t e c o n o m y w i t h its u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y o f economic liberalism. bankruptcies. e v e n w e e k s . Still. I n 1829 t h e g o v e r n m e n t t r i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o fix t h e price o f coffee.s p o n s o r e d s y s t e m o f food c o l l e c t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n at f i x e d prices t h a t h a d been in force since t h e late f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y .1) s h o w e d t h a t the g o v e r n m e n t was t h e n i n good 4.521 1. b y t h e ships o f Russia a n d o t h e r n a t i o n s . Modern Turkey.250 18. haraç r e v e n u e w a s 2. a p p e a r e d t o be r e l a t i v e l y s e c u r e . . w h o i n m y e s t i m a t i o n h a d the m o s t p e n e t r a t i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the O t t o m a n s o c i o . t h e g r o w i n g E u r o p e a n d e m a n d f o r f o o d s t u f f s a n d r a w materials f r o m O t t o m a n lands p u s h e d the price o f local c o m m o d i t i e s . A Survey of the Turkish Empire. i n d e e d w i t h t h e m an object o f 5. excessive prices o f t h e necessaries o f l i f e . w a s f o r b i d d e n . T h r o u g h o u t t h e first t h r e e q u a r t e r s of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y there h a d b e e n a constant i n f l u x of c o u n t r y p e o p l e i n t o I s t a n b u l . these b e i n g met either b y t h e vakifs o r b y r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n i t i e s o f v a r ious p e r s u a s i o n s . the need for m a n p o w e r began t o decrease u n d e r the pressure of w e s t e r n c o m p e t i t i o n a n d as t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n s t i tuted rigorous p o p u l a t i o n controls: t h e search f o r u n w a n t e d n e w c o m e r s i n I s t a n b u l . T h e Treaty of A d r i a n o p l e (1829). . a l l these c o n d i t i o n s w e r e t o change.236 (or 36. T r a d e c o n t r o l i n t u r n w a s based o n the capacity o f t h e O t t o m a n state to p u r s u e a n i n d e p e n d e n t external p o l i c y a n d to a d o p t t h e e c o n o m i c measures m o s t suitable to its o w n interests.700 1. m a n y ships c a r r y i n g cargoes o r i g i n a t i n g i n O t t o m a n lands 3 O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N . 6 9 6 .a m a n ner r e m i n i s c e n t o f b a r t e r . respectively.133 piasters) Source: William Eton. Purses 22. 1833). T h e effect o f this w a s felt even i n t h e internal O t t o m a n markets. (2) t h e m i l i t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e was r e l a t i v e l y l o w a n d w a s b a l a n c e d b y equal a n d c o n s t a n t revenue.) 5 ( a 76. The best source for a statement of this economic philosophy is a declaration in the Moniteur ottoman of September 1832. t h e capital w a s a l r e a d y f u l l o f all k i n d s o f p e o p l e e n g a g e d i n some sort o f p e d d l i n g . w o u l d be relatively free o f g o v e r n m e n tal interference a n d c o u l d operate i n response t o m a r k e t forces. T h e peace treaties s i g n e d b y t h e O t t o m a n state w i t h A u s t r i a a n d Russia i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r v e x p l i c i t l y e n v i s i o n e d a l i b e r a l i z a t i o n o f t r a d e — t h a t is..800 600 600 1. w a s m a d e e v e n m o r e t h o r o u g h a n d . c o n s e q u e n t l y . Yet. ( I f o n e takes 6 kuruş as t h e a m o u n t collected p e r person as haraç. pp. Thornton.970 472 1. Fixed (Haraç) Various taxes Unfixed Total Miri B u d g e t o f 1776 Purses 39. a n d haraç collections decreased as t e r r i t o r i e s w e r e lost. A\-i7. 4 9 4 . Its Municipal Trade (London.88 A t the b e g i n n i n g of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the g o v e r n m e n t faced g r o w i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n s u p p l y i n g I s t a n b u l w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m o d i t i e s at f i x e d prices. chiefly because o f the lack o f p r o p e r storage places. T h e need for change w a s d r a m a t i z e d w h e n . 1799). pp. T h e cargo w o u l d t h e n a p p e a r o n p a p e r t o have originated i n Russia a n d the s h i p c o u l d sail past I s t a n b u l w i t h o u t any p r o b l e m s .M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n o f I s t a n bul i n 1776 w a s a b o u t 243. a n d i n 1832 i t t r i e d . a n increase o f 360 purses. Some B a l k a n n a t i o n a l i s t h i s t o r i a n s have labeled it " f e u d a l " and dismissed i t . 8 1 3 . (1) T h e r e w a s a m o r e o r less reliable n o n . 1830-1914 THE P O P U L A T I O N A N D T H E S O C I A L A N D E C O N O M I C T R A N S F O R M A T I O N O F I S T A N B U L Table 5 . D a v i d U r q u h a r t . t o u n l o a d t h e i r cargoes. T h e s u p p l y p r o b l e m first faced b v I s t a n b u l at the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r v w a s t h e consequence of a series o f i n t e r . is n o t .372 1. t o w a r d s the e n d of the c e n t u r y . The q u e s t i o n o f e c o n o m i c p h i l o s o p h y is so i m p o r t a n t t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s o c i o . e n d e d the O t t o m a n m o n o p o l y o f the Black Sea trade a n d w a s a m a j o r e c o n o m i c b l o w t o t h e state i n general a n d to I s t a n b u l i n p a r t i c u l a r . I d o n o t m e a n f r e e d o m o f c o m m e r c e b u t that f r e e d o m w h i c h facilitates the exchange o f c o m m o d i t i e s w i t h the v i e w o f e n h a n c i n g the v a l u e o f l a n d a n d p r o p e r t y . the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t d i d n o t seek to adjust to t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e free m a r k e t . c h a n g e d t h e i r cargo certificates b y g o i n g t o Russian p o r t s .

T h e d e s t r u c t i o n was f o l l o w e d by a cons t r u c t i o n b o o m t h a t a t t r a c t e d w o r k e r s to the c i t y . i n 1808 n e g o t i a t e d a n d s i g n e d w i t h the ayans t h e concession k n o w n as the Sened-i ittifak g r a n t i n g t h e m considerable a u t o n o m y i n t h e i r vast d o m a i n s i n the Balkans a n d A n a t o lia. w a s o c c u p i e d h e n c e f o r t h b v a T u r k . t h u s g i v i n g the latter f u r t h e r p o w e r . a n d the l a n d e d g e n t r y i n the c o u n t r y s i d e . r e m a i n i n g so even after the p r o h i b i t i o n against b e a r i n g a r m s w a s reinstated i n 1839. ) N e v e r t h e l e s s ." istanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 9. menial w o r k e r s . i t m e a n t t h a t a large n u m b e r of p e o p l e lost the social status. e . Center of International Studies. T h e Greek r e v o l t of 1821. I n a d d i t i o n . p e t t y e n t r e p r e n e u r s . I n 1824 t h e f o r t r e s s at A n d o l u h i s a r b e g a n to f i r e f r o m s e v e n of its t o w e r s t h e g u n s a n n o u n c i n g the e n d of t h e f a s t i n g d a y d u r i n g R a m a d a n . T h e O r t h o d o x p a t r i a r c h a t e i n I s t a n b u l b e g a n to lose its p o w e r — a r r i v i n g f i n a l l y at t h e i n s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i o n it h o l d s t o d a y . The a b o l i t i o n of t h e Janizaries b y S u l t a n M a h r h u d I I i n 1826 d e p r i v e d I s t a n b u l of one of its m o s t c o l o r f u l . f i n a l l y . See Islam Ansiklopedisi. ( h a v i n g s u b d u e d t h e m over the p e r i o d f r o m 1812 to 1820). already d i s i n t e g r a t e d o r t r a n s f o r m e d themselves i n t o a v a r i e t y of n e w social g r o u p s . The effect of the social changes i n the O t t o m a n state. a l t h o u g h for a l o n g t i m e to come t h e force of c u s t o m p r e v e n t e d a n y v i o l e n t sectarian strife. B e t w e e n 1807 a n d 1817 I s t a n b u l e x p e r i e n c e d massive d e s t r u c t i o n . s e e k i n g e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e p o r t s or i d l i n g i n the coffee houses of Galata. or p e a s a n t s — a n d o n a n e t h n o . was deeply felt i n I s t a n b u l .. for the document showing the wages. H o w e v e r . Scholars w h o have s t u d i e d the ayans t e n d to i g n o r e the essential fact that the p r o d u c t i o n a n d exchange of c o m m o d i t i e s i n the territories t h e y c o n t r o l l e d f o l l o w e d largely t h e p r i n c i p l e s of the m a r k e t e c o n o m y . l o w . Istanbul w a s the battle arena i n w h i c h the t r a d i t i o n a l millet m e t its end. (It w a s at t h i s 1 2 t i m e that the sale of a r m s became a v e r y l u c r a t i v e business i n I s t a n b u l . i n fact. ) O n e of t h e effects of the increase i n the b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y was c o n f l i c t a m o n g b u i l d i n g entrep r e n e u r s . w a s h a n g e d because. 1830—1914 T H E P O P U L A T I O N A N D T H E S O C I A L A N D E C O N O M I C T R A N S F O R M A T I O N OF I S T A N B U L 91 Istanbul D u r i n g the R u l e of M a h m u d I I (1808-1839) The r u l e of M a h m u d I I . s. " t h e R e f o r m e r . to k e e p track of t h e passes (mürur tezkiresi) carried by t h e i n c o m i n g travelers. check p o i n t s w e r e established at v a r i o u s places. a n d their sympathies lay d e f i n i t e l y w i t h w e s t e r n E u r o p e . at the s u g g e s t i o n of the p h a n a r i o t r u l e r s of W a l l a c h i a a n d M o l d a v i a . the c o n s e q u e n c e of b o t h social u n r e s t a n d accidental fires. w h i l e the B u l g a r i a n m e r c h a n t c o m m u n i t y i n I s t a n b u l g a i n e d i n n u m b e r s t h r o u g h the arrivals" f r o m t h e countryside a n d acquired w e a l t h and influence. w h o was s u p p o r t e d b y t h e Russians. f o r t h e r e v o l t h a d separated the r e l i g i o u s head f r o m its b o d y : it h a d cut the Patriarchate o f f f r o m O r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n s i n Greece a n d e l s e w h e r e . b e i n g f e a r f u l of a Greek u p r i s i n g i n the c i t y . T h i s service w a s r e c o g n i z e d and r e w a r d e d . T h e R i s e of a N e w Social C l a s s : T h e Bureaucracy M a n y c o u n t r i e s have been t r a n s f o r m e d as a consequence of c h a n g i n g social a n d e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s . c o m m e r c i a l . Research M o n o g r a p h no. w h o h a d i n t e n t i o n a l l y o m i t t e d one i n c r i m i n a t i n g p a r a g r a p h w h i l e t r a n s l a t i n g a secret letter. b e g a n to be r e b u i l t i n February of 1810. a l t h o u g h o n l y t e m p o r a r i l y . w i t h the s u p p o r t of t h e B r i t i s h . Residence at Constantinople during a Period Including . a Greek. the g o v e r n m e n t . the u p r i s i n g t h a t r e s u l t e d i n A l e m d a r ' s d e a t h h e r a l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t social s t r i f e . a n d the f o o d p r o d u c e r s . T h e i r u p p e r strata. T h i s church w a s e v e n t u a l l y a b o l i s h e d i n 1767. " b e g a n i n 1808 at a time w h e n the e m p i r e w a s f e e l i n g the steady pressure of the n e w economic a n d social forces. some i n I s t a n b u l b u t m a n y i n small t o w n s . s o o n after A l e m d a r ' s d e m i s e . a n d a v a r i e t y of o t h e r marg i n a l . a n d c r a f t s m a n g r o u p s a n d s u b g r o u p s signaled the f i n a l b r e a k d o w n of the social o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t h a d e n d u r e d since t h e l e g i s l a t i o n of M e h m e d I I (1451-1481). n o t the causes. T h e p o s t of d r a g o m a n . T h e rise of the ayans a n d of v a r i o u s a g r a r i a n . the Greeks.90 t i n g u p roadblocks o n the m a i n h i g h w a y s to the capital a n d t u r n i n g back those i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h o u t v a l i d reasons for g o i n g to the c i t y . See An Inquiry into the Social Foundations of Nationalism in the Ottoman State: From Millets to Nations. 10. its capitalist philosop h y ) a n d c o n f o r m e d to s o m e extent to its business practices. the c o m m u n a l r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n . h e w a s h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e for the acts of his flock. i n 1808. w h o became the sultan's v i z i e r a n d . a n d . 13 (1958): 1-30.t h r e e ) t h a t d e s t r o y e d a g o o d p a r t of the c i t y . It came r a t h e r f r o m the fact t h a t the Greek millet. I n a d i f f e r e n t s t u d y I have stressed the fact t h a t the classical O t t o m a n state s t o o d o n a s o c i o . social g r o u p s . See M . of the p r o b l e m . (Later. a n d s o m e i n f l u e n t i a l villagers a n d some w o r k e r s c l a i m i n g to be Janizaries a p p a r e n t l y forced p r o s p e c t i v e b u i l d e r s to engage as laborers m e n s u p p l i e d by t h e m at t w i c e the p r e v a i l i n g w a g e . Walsh was chaplain of the British embassy in Istanbul and served there from 1820 until 1834. b e t w e e n I860 a n d 1870. reserved f o r a Greek since t h e m i d . f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s the l o n g peace b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s a n d ethnic groups i n Istanbul was e n d e d . " T h e changes i n the life of I s t a n b u l t h a t began to be felt at the b e g i n n i n g of the c e n t u r y g a i n e d m o m e n t u m after the 11. the m e r c h a n t s . h a d r e m a i n e d m o r e o r less u n changed. A l s o i n 1826 the Bektaşi r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s (Haci Bektaş w a s the Janizaries' p a t r o n ) w e r e f u s e d w i t h the N a k ş i b e n d i o r d e r s . a l t h o u g h p e r s o n a l l y i n n o c e n t of r e b e l l i o u s deeds. c h i e f l y because its s u s t a i n i n g basis.i n c o m e g r o u p s . It is i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e t h a t the decline of the Greeks after 1821 h e l p e d o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s t o rise t o p o w e r . 2 vols. c o m p o s e d of the h i g h c l e r g y . G r e e k sailors i n the O t t o m a n n a v y w e r e n o l o n g e r t r u s t e d . It w o u l d be t o t a l l y w r o n g to assume that the G r e e k s ' a t t i t u d e s t e m m e d f r o m m e r e o p p o r t u n i s m or sheer s u b servience to t h e P o r t e . People of the l o w e r strata i n these millets—the newmerchants a n d the c r a f t s m e n — a c c e p t e d the p r i n c i p l e s of the E u r o p e a n e c o n o m i c s y s t e m ( i . after an unsuccessful e f f o r t to d r a f t b o a t m e n o n the B o s p o r u s i n t o the n a v y . w a s c o n s i d e r e d i n I s t a n b u l an act of u t m o s t b e t r a y a l o n the p a r t of the p a t r i a r c h a n d was a d e a d l y b l o w to the e n t i r e millet system a n d to t h e traditional balance established a m o n g religious-ethnic g r o u p s . h a d a basic c o n s t i t u t i o n a l place i n t h e O t t o m a n s y s t e m . a n d also m o s t t r o u b l e s o m e . i n t h e p a s t o n l y t h e f o r t r e s s at R u m e l i h i s a r h a d f i r e d its g u n s . " X V I I I Asirin Ilk Yarisinda Istanbulun Nüfus Meselelerine Dair Bazı Vesikalar. . the city w a s o n the p a t h to drastic change. of t h i s . the M u s l i m character of I s t a n b u l b e g a n to b e ' s t r o n g l y e m p h a s i z e d t h r o u g h t h e repair of the m o s q u e s a n d o t h e r h o l y places.) A large n u m b e r of Greeks f r o m the p r o v i n c e s . w h o w e r e p a r t of the O t t o m a n bureaucratic s y s t e m . These i n n s . a n d the Bektaşi leaders w e r e e x i l e d to A n a t o l i a . The m a i n b u i l d i n g at t h e P o r t e — t h a t is. The Janizary-u/ema r e v o l t t h a t e n d e d Selim I l l ' s rule i n 1807. it p u t an effective e n d to t h e p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n w h i c h the G r e e k s h a d e n j o y e d . c o n s e q u e n t l y . I n T u r k e y . T h u s . 12. as s u c h .c r a f t s m e n g r o u p s and their leaders. K a l i n i k . A r m e n i a n . C o n s t r u c t i o n or r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f m a n y o t h e r private a n d p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s also w a s started d u r i n g this p e r i o d . s o m e of t h e s e attacked the C h r i s t i a n s a n d c o n t r i b u t e d to a rise i n robberies a n d general d i s o r d e r i n the c i t y . Wages w e n t u p so m u c h that the g o v e r n m e n t f o u n d it necessary to fix the s c a l e . the r a n k .r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n a l s y s t e m c o n s i s t i n g of the millets a n d the local c o m m u n i t i e s . M o r e o v e r . t h r o u g h its r e p r e s e n t a t i v e the p a t r i a r c h . especially r i g h t a f t e r the o c c u r r e n c e of a series of fires (altogether s e v e n t y . 1:308. a l l o w i n g each g r o u p to f o l l o w i t s o w n p o l i t i c a l d e s t i n y . T h e A r m e n i a n s became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . (For e x a m p l e . a n d m a n y of these areas became rather p r o s p e r o u s because. as a p r e c a u t i o n against spies. 21-25. t h e o f f i c e o f the g r a n d v i z i e r — d e s t r o y e d i n 1808. a n d s u c h g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l measures c o u l d n o t halt the process.p o l i t i c a l r e p e r c u s s i o n s of the Greek r e v o l t w e r e d e e p l y felt i n I s t a n b u l . t h e P a t r i a r c h A n t h i m o s of Jerusalem c o u n t e r e d by i s s u i n g h i s Paternal Teaching (1798). w h e n b e t w e e n 1790 a n d 1795 t h e ideas of the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n s e e m e d to b e c o m e a t t r a c t i v e to some C h r i s t i a n elements. Münir Aktepe. Those Janizaries w h o w e r e n o t executed e v e n t u a l l y became small e n t r e p r e n e u r s a n d servants. . a n d the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r concerted action that h a d been p r o v i d e d b v t h i s q u a s i .e c o n o m i c f o u n d a t i o n c o m p o s e d of f o u r social g r o u p s — t h e m i l i t a r y . w e r e f o r c i b l y sent back to t h e i r n a t i v e areas. these m i d d l e m e n then r e t a i n i n g h a l f of the w a g e s e a r n e d b y w o r k e r s . T h e chief d r a g o m a n ( i n t e r p r e t e r ) . a n d b u t t e r . F i n a l l y . see Refik. w h e n the Serbian p a t r i a r c h and his f o l l o w e r s m o v e d to H u n g a r y i n 1600. The Serbian a n d G r e e k m e r c h a n t s w e r e the first to embrace this n e w c a p i t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y . ) T h e r e fore. T h e e l i m i n a t i o n of the Janizaries freed the s u l t a n f r o m t h e m o r b i d fear t h a t t h e y m i g h t depose or assassinate h i m a n d t h u s enabled h i m to proceed w i t h the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of h i s a r m y and the bureaucracy. to a lesser degree. A g r o u p of e s t a b l i s h e d b u i l d e r s t r i e d to m o n o p o lize the c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k a n d the sale of m a t e r i a l s so as to secure e x o r b i t a n t p r o f i t s . A p p a r e n t l y the l o w er classes i n I s t a n b u l h a d p l a y e d a p a r t i n these events. f o u n d i n each m a j o r O t t o m a n center. H e h a d d e a l t m e r e l y w i t h the effects. from Estates to Social Classes. 9 O T T O M A N P O P U L A T I O N . 1973).s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . ) The s o c i o . T h e place w h e r e t h i s process started a n d s h o w e d its greatest effect w a s I s t a n b u l . (By 1845 the g o v e r n m e n t w a s o f f i c i a l l y e n c o u r a g i n g the use of bricks i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of h o u s e s to m a k e t h e m m o r e resistant to f i r e . " I s t a n b u l " . T h e G r e e k clergy h a d a l w a y s p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t role i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e l o y a l t y of the O r t h o dox C h r i s t i a n s to the s u l t a n . . (London. T h e r e f o r e . especially y o u n g s t e r s k n o w n as ycrli kulu. A t t h e same t i m e t h e Freemasons' l o d g e w a s a b o l i s h e d a n d its leaders forced to leave the c i t v . A l e m d a r M u s tafa Paşa. no. 1S36). s h o w e d a p r o f o u n d allegiance to the s u l t a n a n d the s y s t e m he r e p r e 9. (The first M a s o n i c l o d g e h a d been e s t a b l i s h e d i n I s t a n b u l i n a b o u t 1820 b v I s m a i l F e r r u h The G r e e k . h a d become shelters f o r n e w m i g r a n t s i n the c i t y . See Robert Walsh. w h e r e t h e y felt safer t h a n i n t h e c a p i t a l . M o r e o v e r . especially the a c t i o n of Y p s i l a n t i . i n w h i c h the s u l t a n was described as a gift sent b y G o d f o r t h e g o o d of t h e Orthodox Christians. w a s b r o u g h t i n to h e a d t h e S e r b i a n c h u r c h . w e r e a l l o w e d to a r m t h e m s e l v e s . These p r o v i n c e s c o n t i n u e d to practice r e l a t i v e l y free trade e v e n after M a h m u d confiscated the lands o f the ayans. 39 (Princeton. Some became o r d i n a r y laborers. Greek r e v o l t of 1821. the c o u n t e r a t t a c k b y A l e m d a r Mustafa Paşa t h a t b r o u g h t M a h m u d I I to the O t t o m a n t h r o n e i n 1808. the Greek and Turkish Revolutions.v. the social r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the M u s l i m society b e g a n at the t o p a n d w a s i n i t i a t e d b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t . the gove r n m e n t closed a n d d e s t r o y e d the b a c h e l o r s ' i n n s (bekarodalari). By the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the f o u r t r a d i t i o n a l social classes (erkani erbaa) h a d . C o n s t a n t i n e M o r u z z i . a n d . w a s d i s m i s s e d f r o m his p o s i t i o n (as was h i s successor after o n l y a s h o r t p e r i o d of service). T h e p a t r i a r c h . at the b e g i n n i n g of the cent u r y the millet s y s t e m s t i l l o u t w a r d l y m a i n t a i n e d its classical shape. i n the drastic r e f o r m of the millet s y s t e m . I n p r a c t i c a l . Hicri On Altinci Asirda Istanbul Hayati. J e w i s h millets h a d d e v e l o p e d a class s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r o w n . The ayans h a d e f f e c t i v e l y c h a l l e n g e d the a u t h o r i t y of the s u l t a n a n d l i m i t e d i t .m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . especially after 1856. the m e r c h a n t elites r e s i d i n g i n I s t a n b u l a n d the o t h e r c o m m e r c i a l centers. t h e scholars. T h e y w e r e also centers of social u n r e s t a n d p r o t e s t against t h e e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r . pp. as h e a d of the c o m m u n i t y . The change began w i t h the g r a d u a l r e p l a c e m e n t of the o l d bureaucratic o r d e r b y a n e w a n d m o d e r n o n e . . i n w h i c h d e m o g r a p h i c changes p l a y e d a v i t a l role. h i r e d Genoese a n d o t h e r i d l e m e n i n Galata for the n a v y . such as K ü ç ü k ç e k m e c e a n d Bostanci. the M u s l i m s . a c q u i r e d a l e a d i n g p o s i t i o n i n the trade of I s t a n b u l . o i l s . w h o h a d come to I s t a n b u l to increase t h e i r capital b y s e l l i n g groceries. M a h m u d h a d been b r o u g h t to the t h r o n e b y the ayan of R u s ç u k . came o u t i n t o the o p e n i n a r a t h e r t w i s t e d way b e g i n n i n g i n 1821 a n d e v e n t u a l l y c u l m i n a t e d . 1 0 sented. The conflict b e t w e e n the l o w e r e c h e l o n m e r c h a n t . t e r m s .

d u r i n g t h e reigns o f A b d u l m e c i d [1839-1861]. T h u s . Conseq u e n t l y .000 460. 14.000 34. t h e r e f o r e . I n a b o u t 1850 a chief of service received 1. B u d g e t o f 1855 Income (in francs) Haraç Customs Tithe Indirect taxes Real estate Tribute of Egypt Tribute of Wallachia Tribute of Moldavia Tribute of Serbia Total 9. w h e n a fire caused extensive d a m a g e i n t h e city. w e n t e v e n f u r t h e r i n h i s quest f o r p o p u l a r i t y . H e declared t h a t ' f r o m n o w o n w a r d s the t h r o n e s h a l l n o t f r i g h t e n the p e o p l e a n y more b u t w i l l become their s u p p o r t e r .000 t o 1. Eventually quarantine b u i l d i n g s w e r e established i n Istanbul a n d o t h e r p o r t s . 15. s h o w s that a s u b s t a n tial p a r t o f the state r e v e n u e w e n t t o p a y t h e officials o f the " m o d e r n " b u r e a u c r a c y . a n d Galata. t h e g o v e r n m e n t w a s f o r c e d t o a s s u m e responsibilities i n e v e r y f i e l d o f a c t i v i t y a n d t o u n d e r t a k e to deliver a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i c a l services t o t h e p u b l i c . These a d m i n i s t r a t i v e officials w e r e g i v e n a seal w i t h w h i c h t o s t a m p o f f i c i a l papers a n d w e r e m a d e responsible for m a i n t a i n i n g o r d e r i n t h e i r respective q u a r t e r s . w h i l e a s i m p l e f u n c t i o n a r y received o n l y a r o u n d 25 t o 30 francs. " International journal of Middle East Studies 3 (1972): 338-416. of the I n t e r i o r ) 13.760.900 69. M a h m u d I I p l a n n e d t o p a y a t o p o f f i c i a l as m u c h as 100. the divan. a n d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f w h a t m a y be called service g r o u p s .200. together w i t h t h e millet o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f the n o n . w a s a p p o i n t e d t o t h e post o f d r a g o m a n to serve as b o t h t r a n s l a t o r a n d l a n g u a g e teacher. Factories established i n I s t a n b u l i n t h e first half o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r v served c h i e f l y m i l i t a r y needs. T h i s r e q u i r e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a b u r e a u c r a c y s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the traditional O t t o m a n one. I n t h e past m o s t O t t o m a n statesmen had risen f r o m the ranks of the m i l i t a r y administration. 294. h a d i n s u l a t e d the s u l t a n f r o m contact w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n a n d p r o t e c t e d h i m a g a i n s t d i r e c t c h a l l e n g e . M o r e o v e r . 7. La Turqule et le Tanzimat 1 (Paris. b u t he m e l l o w e d r a p i d l y . 1 ) . b e g i n n i n g i n the 1830s t h e y c l i m b e d t o p o w e r via the Chamber o f Translation o r the Foreign Office. T h e u p p e r section consisted o f five m a j o r r a n k s .000 159. The f a m o u s r e f o r m i s t p r i m e m i n i s t e r s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h cent u r y . a n d h o u s i n g ( b o t h r e n t a l rates a n d p r o p e r t y values). Y a h y a Efendi. See C. especially against the s u r v i v i n g ayans a n d o l d m i l i t a r y chiefs. 1855). t h e a d o p t i o n o f a evv m e n t a l i t y . Üsküdar. I n fact.850. Englehard.000 44. w e r e p r o d - D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e role o f t h e g r a n d v i z i e r w a s f o r a short t i m e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h a t o f a p r i m e m i n i s t e r (Başvekil).2. d o m i n a t i n g and o u s t i n g sultans a n d .000. H e n c e f o r t h I s t a n b u l ' s economic g r o w t h w a s based c h i e f l y o n trade a n d service-related activities r a t h e r t h a n o n crafts a n d p r o d u c t i o n . The b u y i n g p o w e r o f the bureaucrats affected seriously t h e three basic sectors o f t h e city's e c o n o m y : f o o d .200 francs salary. m o d e r n i z a t i o n . T h e effect o f the large a m o u n t o f tax r e v e n u e s b e i n g c h a n n e l e d f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e s a n d s p e n t as cash i n I s t a n b u l w a s reflected i n t h e increase o f t h e c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n . c l o t h i n g . w h i l e t h e Reisülküttab became a f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r . 191. La Turquie actuelle (Paris. a s s u m i n g t h e status of a m a j o r c o n s u m i n g g r o u p a n d p a y i n g cash f o r p u r c h a s e s .000 28. 9.000. k n o w n also as B u l g a r z a d e . T h e last vestiges o f the timars w e r e e l i m i n a t e d i n 1831.000 Expenditures in francs) The sultan Employees Army Other (includes the difference) Total 17. ) M a h m u d I I a l l o w e d m a n y o f the Greeks w h o h a d fled t h e city i n 1821 t o r e t u r n to t h e i r h o m e s a n d t o r e p a i r t h e i r churches. H e o r d e r e d t h e p r i n t i n g o f b o o k s o n anato m y .a n d . a n d t h e c o u n t r y a p p e a r e d t o be m i l i t a r i l y a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y w e a k e r t h a n i t h a d been a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f his r e i g n i n 1808. 1855). D u r i n g t h i s time an i m p o r t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n n o v a t i o n w a s i n t r o d u c e d : t h e M u s l i m q u a r t e r s (mahalle) w e r e t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d h e n c e f o r t h b y a h e a d m a n (muhtar) a n d h i s d e p u t y . (Catholics. The s u l t a n .r a n k i n g bureaucrats received r e g u l a r salaries f r o m t h e state b u d g e t . as the shores o f the G o l d e n H o r n a n d Galata became d o t t e d w i t h 12.) The s u l t a n also a b o l i s h e d t h e f i r e m a n u n i t s (tulumbaci). T h e s u l t a n ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h public w e l f a r e a n d h i s f r i e n d l y policies t o w a r d C h r i s t i a n s made some c l e r g y m e n . t h e Dar-i Şura-i Bab-i AH a n d the Meclis-i Vala-i Adliye. a b o l i s h i n g t h e sultanate.000. 5. t h e prices o f staple i t e m s s o l d b y t h e state m o n o p o l i e s w e r e monopolies were largely abandoned increased. 1 6 m 0 n affiliated w i t h t h e s u l t a n a n d t h e l o w . (Later. Ibid. a c t u a l l y the m o d e r n c a b i n e t — c o n s i s t e d o f t h e f o l l o w i n g officials: 1. V. b u t soon a f t e r w a r d s . a n d captain. The b u r g e o n i n g of the m o d e r n bureaucracy made a s t r o n g e c o n o m i c a n d social i m p r e s s i o n o n the life of I s t a n b u l . B y 1841 this t r a i n i n g school h a d a staff o f t h i r t y . A r o u n d 1850 the O t t o m a n central g o v e r n m e n t — t h a t is. the search f o r b a c k i n g f o r his f i g h t against i n t e r n a l e n e m i e s .000 230.000 6.900. H e also e n d e d t h e c u s t o m o f e x p e c t i n g each n e w ambassador t o offer g i f t s w h e n first p r e s e n t e d t o the Porte. The broadening economic a n d commercial relations w i t h E u r o p e as w e l l as a n u m b e r o f new i n t e r n a l p r o b l e m s called for t h e c r e a t i o n o f specialized t e c h n i c a l cadres. h o w e v e r . T h e müşir (field m a r s h a l ) w a s above r a n k . o r p r i vate c o u n c i l . t h i s w a s d o n e . f i n a l l y . . 10. 1 5 u C t s of these i n s t i t u t i o n s . t h e A r m e n i a n s . w i t h o u t e s t a b l i s h i n g the basis o f a n e w economic o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e f i n a n c i a l supp o r t f o r h is n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n s . N e e d l e s s to sav. a n d h e a l t h services w e r e i n a d e q u a t e to m e e t n e w needs. Walsh. 20.000. i n t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f f o o d a n d c l o t h i n g s h o p s o f all varieties. t h e M u s l i m s n u m b e r e d 45. The consequences o f this n e w p o l i c y w e r e s o o n e v i d e n t i n I s t a n b u l . b r i g a d i e r general a n d colonel. a n o t h e r o f the l a n d m a r k o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f I s t a n b u l . t o w a r d s t h e e n d o f h is life he became very u n p o p u l a r . M o r e o v e r . 6. S h o r t l y after t h e dismissal o f M o r u z z i i n 1821. p . A l i . w h o had served as O t t o m a n ambassador i n E u r o p e . n o t a b l y F r e n c h . they could be sold o n only one day each year i n places unseen by Muslims. as g i v e n b y U b i c i n i . m a j o r . a n d t h e Greeks. ) T h e b u d g e t f o r 1855. T h e f u n c t i o n a r i e s w h o a t t a i n e d t h e first t w o r a n k s w e r e called paşa. t o o k over t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e a n d j u d i c i a r y f u n c t i o n s p e r f o r m e d i n t h e past b y t h e g r a n d vizier. p e r m o n t h . (The c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n the h i g h . l i e u t e n a n t c o l o n e l . became a c a r d i n a l feature o f M a h m u d ' s p o l i c y after 1829. w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d e d t o a m i l i t a r y h i e r a r chy as f o l l o w s : general o f a d i v i s i o n . A b d u l a z i z [1861-1876]. see Table 5. Şeyhülislam Serasker ( m i n i s t e r o f w a r ) Kaptanpaşa (minister of navy) President o f t h e C o u n c i l o f State M a s t e r o f A r t i l l e r y (also g o v e r n o r o f all fortresses) M i n i s t e r o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s ( f o r m e r l y Reis efendi) M i n i s t e r o f Finance M i n i s t e r o f T r a d e a n d P u b l i c W o r k s (1838) Superintendent of the Treasury (mint chief) S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h e Vakifs o r C o u n s e l o r o f the V i z i e r (also M i n i s t e r Table 5.000 460. Grand Vizier (presiding) 2. E. a l t h o u g h drastic p l a n s t o m a k e m o r e extensive use o f state f o r fear o f p o p u l a r reaction. his forced r e f o r m s d i d n o t really e n d e a r M a h m u d I I to e i t h e r M u s l i m s or C h r i s t i a n s .610. a n d M i t h a t p a ş a s . Fuat.600. the paşa w a s a m a n o f w e a l t h .152. Müsteşar.P u r g s t a l l ' s 1815 s t u d y o f t h e O t t o man administration ( H a m m e r himself acknowledged t h e rapid change i n t h e O t t o m a n b u r e a u c r a c y ) . 16. i n s t e a d o f l i v i n g o f f t h e r e v e n u e s f r o m l a n d as h a d b e e n the case i n the past.250. 3. he h a d all of his o t h e r c h i l d r e n v a c c i n a t e d b y a F r e n c h d o c t o r a n d took effective measures against t h e p l a g u e a n d cholera. after his o w n son d i e d o f s m a l l p o x . t h e g o v e r n m e n t u n d e r t o o k a p o p u l a t i o n s u r v e y o f a l l male inhabitants of the city proper. 11. h e a b o l i s h e d t h e o l d practice o f s e n d i n g f o r e i g n ambassadors to jail i n case of w a r w i t h t h e i r respective c o u n t r i e s . La Turquie actuelle (Paris. cont r i b u t e d l i t t l e or n o t h i n g to the basic e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t of the c o u n t r y . a n d p r e s t i g e . T h e idea o f a b o l i s h i n g t h e 10 p e r c e n t tax collected b y t h e r e l i g i o u s heads f r o m t h e e x c h a n g e o r sale o f p r o p erties a n d f r o m cases settled b e f o r e r e l i g i o u s t r i b u n a l s w a s also a b a n d o n e d . Ubicini. The need f o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l b u r e a u c r a c y w a s o b v i o u s . T h e b u r e a u c r a c y . i n the past. p.. 191. a n d even o f f e r e d t h e m p r o t e c t i o n . ) A c c o r d i n g to t h i s obviously incomplete survey. I n t h e e n d this group assumed control o f the g o v e r n m e n t . M a h m u d h a d b e g u n h i s r e i g n as a ferocious despot. i n fact. he established a [new v o l u n t a r y f i r e m a n corps. Residence at Constantinople 2:297. A s the rate o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n I s t a n b u l accelerated.000 46. s u c h as Reşit.000. 30.000. In a b o l i s h i n g all t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s M a h m u d I I d e p r i v e d the t h r o n e o f its basic s u p p o r t : these i n s t i t u t i o n s . a n d t h e a s c e n d a n c y o f a m o d e r n c i v i l i a n bureaucracy. it m u s t be stated t h a t E u r o pean languages. 4.2 ( a n d c o m p a r e i t w i t h Table 5 .000 167. w e r e n o t c o u n t e d . t h i n k that he m i g h t c o n v e r t to C h r i s t i a n i t y .000 kuruş p e r m o n t h . The l o d g e w a s restricted to a s m a l l n u m b e r o f people a n d h e l d secret meetings. 1830-1914 THE P O P U L A T I O N A N D T H E S O C I A L A N D E C O N O M I C T R A N S F O R M A T I O N O F I S T A N B U L 93 E t e n d i . " H e began to travel t h r o u g h o u t the c i t y a n d evert the c o u n t r y s i d e .p a i d . M i n i s t e r o f Police ( f o r m e r l y t h e Kahyabey) The n e w b u r e a u c r a c y w a s e v e n t u a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n t o a n u p p e r a n d a l o w e r section.f i l e bureaucrats c o m i n g f r o m m o d e s t social strata became t h e catalyst o f p o l i t i c a l change at t h e e n d o f t h e c e n t u r y . H e began t r a i n i n g p e o p l e i n t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e a n d i n a n i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h came t o be k n o w n as t h e C h a m b e r o f T r a n s l a t i o n (Tercüme Odnsi). r a n k . After 1834 the sultan permitted the sale of pigs in Istanbul. e d u c a t i o n a l . " w i t h o u t o b j e c t i o n . w h e r e m o s t o f the offices w e r e l o c a t e d . b y 1835 t h e O t t o m a n b u r e a u c r a c y h a d changed so d r a s t i c a l l y as t o m a k e t o t a l l y obsolete Joseph Freiherr v o n H a m m e r . p. 1882): 17. " 1 3 1 4 conservatives. a t e r m h a r d l y used i n the p r e v i o u s centuries. p o w e r .000 50. Yet. a n d two n e w l y created c o u n c i l s . a n d the Christian quarters b y a superintendent (kahya) a n d a muhtar. 17 The explanation f o r the u l t i m a t e u n p o p u l a r i t y of M a h m u d I I is s i m p l e : h e h a d created a large c i v i l bureaucracy a n d a n e w a r m y w i t h o u t i n s t i t u t i n g a d e q u a t e controls over t h e m a n d . T h e need t o meet the expenses o f the n e w a d m i n i s t r a t i o n forced the s u l t a n t o raise the taxes. T h e significance o f t h a t institution lay i n t h e fact t h a t i t s y m b o l i z e d the o r i e n t a t i o n f the O t t o m a n state t o w a r d s E u r o p e . which probably included o n l y f a m i l y heads. H o w e v e r . T h e h i g h echelons o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l b u r e a u c r a c y were a b o l i s h e d . T h e vakifs t h a t h a d i n t h e past p r o v i d e d s o c i a l . especially. a n d t h e p r o f i t as w e l l as t h e a s s u m p tion of superiority were forever a b a n d o n e d . a n d t h e o l d s y s t e m o f a n n u a l r e n e w a l o f appointments w a s replaced b y a system u n d e r w h i c h a p p o i n t m e n t s a n d dismissals c o n f o r m e d w i t h the n e e d f o r personnel. M a n y of these service occupations. a n d . T h e salaries o f these u p p e r r a n k i n g officials w e r e v e r y h i g h . F r o m 1826 o n w a r d s . a n d t h e y s p e n t m o s t o f these salaries i n t h e c a p i t a l . T h e y became also t h e social s y m b o l s o f the society's n e w i d e a l — n a m e l y . a l t h o u g h o f f e r i n g s o m e e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The rise o f a n e w b u r e a u c r a t i c o r d e r became e v i d e n t first i n I s t a n b u l .900 Source: A.M u s l i m s .252. he h a d a c h i e v e d t h e h i g h e s t r u n g o n t h e l a d d e r o f social aspiration climbed b y t h e u p c o m i n g bureaucrats. The same differences i n salaries p r e v a i l e d a m o n g a r m y personnel.92 OTTOMAN POPULATION. h a d been t a u g h t at s o m e Military O t t o m a n i n s t i t u t i o n s e v e n b e f o r e t h e establish¬ e n t o f t h e T r a n s l a t i o n B u r e a u . The h i g h . o r b a t t a l i o n h e a d . H e had his p o r t r a i t p a i n t e d a n d asked to have i t h u n g o n office w a l l s — a n act t h a t scandalized t h e r e l i g i o u s 13. a l w a y s eager t o p r o m o t e t h e i r f a i t h . "The Foundation of the Ottoman Foreign M i n i s t r y . t h e i m p e r i a l fayton became a c o m m o n s i g h t o n t h e streets o f I s t a n b u l . w h i c h w a s c o m p o s e d i n i t i a l l y a l m o s t e n t i r e l y o f M u s l i m s . h o w e v e r . a p p a r e n t l y at t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h ambassador. Findley. t h e s u l t a n b e g a n t o seek p o p u l a r s u p p o r t . became a d o m i n a n t class o f efendis w h o m n o b o d y c o u l d criticize o r q u e s t i o n . 8. a n d A b d u l h a m i d I I [1876-1909].000 19.r a n k i n g b u r e a u c r a c y 17. Each q u a r t e r b a d its o w n imam o r priest.

T h e Edict of 1856 (the İslahat Fermani). a n d c h i l d r e n m i x e d freely w h i l e t r a v e l i n g o n them. Lfl Turquic actuelle. Tophane. pp. The e c o n o m i c life o f I s t a n b u l d u r i n g the early vears of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e v o l v e d m o s t l y a r o u n d the bazaar. because of its n a r r o w a n d steep streets. I n Galata a n d P e r a — the u p c o m i n g . a m a n w i t h a t y p e w r i t e r w h o c o m p o s e d . The total n u m b e r of bekar i n I s t a n b u l i n 1853. I s t a n b u l became i n c r e a s i n g l y the recipient of a great v a r i e t y o f E u r o p e a n i m p o r t s . T h e r e was also a n o t h e r tvpe of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t . a n i n s t i t u tion in itself. m u l e s w e r e u s e d to operate i t .M u s l i m m i d d l e class. the A r m e n i a n s d e a l t i n j e w e l r y . I s t a n b u l d e p e n d e d f o r f " o r t a t i o n (as it still does i n parts) o n the Immals. pp. the Kaptanpaşa.94 OTTOMAN POPULATION. the m a n u f a c t u r e d goods of E n g l a n d p o u r e d i n t o the O t t o m a n state. or "bachel o r s .n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y caravans still came to I s t a n b u l . or at the entrances of the bans— that is. h a v i n g a g r a n d range of stores a n d w o r k h o u s e s . Residence at Constantinople 1:379. w h o have been c o n d e m n e d for v a r i o u s crimes. watches. a n d a n y o t h e r t y p e of message. there are [ w o r k i n g there] five h u n d r e d labourers w i t h as m a n y slaves. I n d e e d . s y m b o l i z i n g the ascendancy of E u r o p e over the t r a d i t i o n a l O t t o m a n c u l t u r e i n a l l fields of a c t i v i t y . m o s t of these o l d professions either d i s a p p e a r e d c o m p l e t e l y or h a d to adjust to n e w c o n ditions a n d c o n t i n u e i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y altered f o r m . s t a t i o n e d at v a r i o u s p o i n t s a l o n g the shores there w e r e vessels o p e r a t e d b y one to three b o a t m e n . the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of I s t a n b u l . a n d to Pera a n d Galata. T r a d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s attracted large n u m b e r s o f T u r k s . was a b o l i s h e d . a n d Black seas. o f t e n of E u r o p e a n o r i g i n . a n d i n o t h e r s i m i l a r o c c u p a t i o n s . H o w e v e r . w h i c h o c c u p i e d a sizable b u i l d i n g .c e n t u r y . These . Greeks. The business a t t i t u d e s of t h e bazaar merchants varied g r e a t l y . especially. 1 9 . these h a d been a d m i n i s t e r e d or c o n t r o l l e d b y sııbaşi. Because the m a r k e t s w e r e g r o w i n g too fast to be a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t r a d i t i o n a l means. and lists of professions are given in Section IV of the statistical appendices. T h e letter w r i t e r (katip) c o u l d be seen a r o u n d bazaar or m o s q u e . i n b u s i es p l a c e s . 1883). A s the c e n t u r y a d v a n c e d . Pera. w h i c h h a d consisted of c r a f t s m e n a n d small shopkeepers. C o m m e r c i a l treaties w i t h E n g l a n d i n 1838 a n d 1861. M o s t came f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e s w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n of a c c u m u l a t i n g some capital a n d e v e n t u a l l y r e t u r n i n g to t h e i r native places to start businesses. i n c l u d i n g the c o n t r o l o f w e i g h t s a n d measures—a job heretofore perf o r m e d b y the ulema. Pera. a n d ulema. w h o s e m a i n f u n c t i o n was to dist r i b u t e the cheaper. ciğerci (sellers of ' " ' j liver). Survey. M e d i t e r r a n e a n . 20. H a s k ö y . . a n d r e l i g i o u s c o m p o s i t i o n . a n d the i n crease i n p o p u l a t i o n h a d c o m b i n e d to s t i m u l a t e the g r o w t h of s u b u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s a l o n g the shores of M a r m a r a a n d the B o s p o r u s . a n d i t a d o p t e d Europ e a n . h o w e v e r . c a r r y i n g w i t h h i m a s m a l l table. social. the pazar kaik. i t s p i l l e d o u t of the bazaar o n t o the side streets. s o m e o t h e r s m a l l i n d u s t r i e s h a d b e g u n to be d e v e l o p e d . A r m e n i a n s . Galata. The i n i t i a l O t t o m a n c o m m e r c i a l t r e a t y w i t h E n g l a n d i n 1838 e l i m i n a t e d a n u m b e r of trade r e s t r i c t i o n s . 272-79. to f o r t y or even b e l o w . the T u r k i s h merchant w o u l d ask a set p r i c e : y o u w o u l d insist i n v a i n [ b u t ] he w o u l d n o t l o w e r the price even one para. w h i c h w e r e u n jtable f o r w h e e l e d t r a n s p o r t . w i t h a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t foods a n d c l o t h i n g .000. a c c o r d i n g to U b i c i n i .was located i n Ü s k ü d a r also. was about 75. T h e alliance w i t h t h e West t h u s h e l p e d r e m o v e some i n h i b i t i o n s a n d d i s p e l the fear felt b y M u s l i m s tow a r d s E u r o p e a n d its c u l t u r e . K a s i m p a ş a . T h e C r i m e a n W a r h a d p r o v i d e d t h e occasion for I s t a n b u l to establish contact w i t h E u r o p e a n citizens. Bulgarians. A r o u n d the m i d d l e of the c e n t u r y the central bazaar of I s t a n b u l h a d o v e r a t h o u s a n d shops. w h o w e r e received there as f r i e n d s a n d allies f i g h t i n g i n t h e c o m m o n w a r against the Russians. of technically t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l — t h e result of the restrictive p h i l o s o p h y of social e l i t i s m . M a n y f the b o a t m e n w e r e bekar. The city w a s host to French a n d E n g l i s h soldiers a n d officers. as the m a j o r i m p o r t i n g p o r t . some of w h i c h w e r e v e r v m o d e r n . a m a n of h u m b l e o r i g i n s w h o became a f a v o r i t e of Sultan M a h m u d I I . the rest Greeks. t h e Edict of 1856 p a v e d the w a y f o r the rise of E u r o p e a n i n f l u e n c e i n the O t t o m a n state a n d i n d i r e c t l y f a c i l i t a t e d the social a n d e c o n o m i c rise of a n o n . w h i c h had been i n existence since the conquest of the citv in 1453. Fındikli. By the m i d d l e of the c e n t u r y . O u t s i d e the bazaar. c l o t h i n g . s . the stronger the desire for E u r o p e a n g o o d s . that ere used for p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . w h e n a n e w a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n was installed. The g r o w t h of e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t y .' O t h e r m e r c h a n t s loaded goods. W a l s h w r o t e i n the 1830s that the arsenal e x t e n d e d f r o m Galata a l o n g the h a r b o u r . Pera ( B e y o ğ l u ) .n o n M u s l i m s . of-Galata. the Greeks sold c o t t o n g o o d s a n d w o r k e d as tailors a n d leather w o r k e r s . 21. A description of professions may also be found in Théophile Gautier. I s t a n b u l . i n fact. O f these. u n d e r a chief (hamalbaşı). w e r e m o s t l y T u r k s or C e n i ' a n s . f u r s . a n d I t h i n k t h e m m o r e extensive. the c a n n o n . c o n s u m e d m u c h m o r e t h a n it e x p o r t e d . established a t a n n i n g p l a n t . I n 1831. became the center of the res u l t i n g socio-political t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . I n t h e second h a l f of t h e nineteenth c e n t u r y . Ubicini. .s u p p l i e d a n d c o n d u c t e d . C h r i s t i a n s . M a n y of these t o o k u p o c c u p a t i o n s as f o o d sellers or d i s t r i b u t o r s . head of g u i l d s . e k c r a n s p lra rter rR h b 20 0 W w i t h i n the city itself. especially. a n d it p r o d u c e d 22 o k k a of t h r e a d d a i l y .) Both i n n u m b e r s a n d i n e t h n i c . (The c h a n g i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l p i c t u r e w a s discussed i n C h a p t e r 3. i n exchange for a s m a l l fee. carried t h e m to the iikele. a n d then t r a n s p o r t e d t h e m o v e r l a n d to t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n s . Some of them w e r e c a l l i g r a p h e r s w h o c o u l d w r i t e i n a n y of the seven types of h a n d w r i t i n g u s e d b y t h e O t t o m a n c h a n c e r y . Iraq. Selim H i h a d established i n Ü s k ü d a r a large factory for p r i n t e d c o t t o n s that i n 1812 o p e r a t e d 600 l o o m s ( b u t o n l y 41 l o o m s i n 1841). sexes. There w e r e . the latter i n c l u d e d K a s ı m p a ş a . or c h a m b e r s . . I n a d d i t i o n to the o p p o r t u n i t y for f r i e n d l y e n counters at the h u m a n level. for a m i l e a n d a half. There w e r e also p s y c h o l o g i c a l factors t h a t p r e d i s p o s e d the city to o r i e n t itself t o w a r d s E u r o p e . 41-45. I v i s i t e d the arsenal a n d the d o c k y a r d s at Fieri [Piri] Pasha. p e r f u m e s . and Eton. H o w e v e r . M a n y o f the c r a f t s m e n w e r e o r g a n i z e d i n corp o r a t i o n s .m a d e goods of E u r o p e a n d to become i n the process E u r o p e ' s p r o t é g é s a n d agents. . at B a l t a l i m a n . b r i n g i n g f r o m A n a t o l i a . M e a n w h i l e . T h e katips w r o t e letters of all kinds. S o m e boats w e r e o p e r a t e d b y i n d i v i d u a l o w n ers. w h i l e E y ü b a n d its d e p e n d e n c i e s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d b y a n o t h e r j u d g e . a n d e n g r a v i n g s . T h e y w o r k e d as harnais ( p o r t e r s ) . m a c h i n e .s t y l e s h o p s a n d a m u s e m e n t h a b i t s . b o o k s . as w e l l .|vA î (candy m a k e r s a n d sellers). I n the past. " m o s t o f w h o m w e r e n o t n a t i v e to the c i t y . T h e h i g h er the. helvaci (makers a n d sellers of 18. the o l d office of the şehremini. the m a r k e t s o f I s t a n b u l h a d b e g u n to change. T o p h a n e . Galata. . a q u i l l p e n (kalem). a great v a r i e t y of other o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h h a d b e e n vital i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m . a n d B e y r u t g r a d u a l l y a c q u i r e d l e a d i n g roles as e x p o r t i n g a n d exchange places. I z m i r ! Salonica. of w h i c h 318 w e r e 2 1 There was safety i n the bazaar. the C r i m e a n W a r i n 1853. 327. T h i s factory e m p l o y e d several h u n d r e d w o r k e r s ( w h o m W a l s h c o n s i d e r e d to be as expert as the w o r k m e n of M a n c h e s t e r ) . or the g r a n d j u d g e . or bezistan. w h o are c h a i n e d together. and e m b r o i d e r i e s . Syria. of c a p i t a l . a n d r e l i g i o n s . a n d T o p h a n e w e r e a d m i n istered by t h e voyvoda. the g o v e r n m e n t t o o k o v e r t h e i r s u p e r v i s i o n .000. Subsequentl y . 19. the city proper was officially u n d e r the aut h o r i t y of the g r a n d v i z i e r . A s U b i c i n i describes i t . I n the m i d . the exchange of c o m m o d i t i e s was largely i n the h a n d s of t h e bekar—single m e n . By 1827 a c o t t o n t h r e a d (iplikhane) p l a n t w a s ' c o n s t r u c t e d at T a ş l i b u r u n i n the district o f E y u b . The b u r e a u c r a c y t r a i n e d i n " m o d e r n " schools g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p e d a n interest n o t i n the basic p r o b l e m s of its o w n c o u n t r y b u t i n the wares a n d the c u l t u r e of E u r o p e . I s t a n b u l . These ferries were p a t r o n i z e d b y large n u m b e r s of p e o p l e of all ages. Modern Turkey 2:20. a n d .1 9 U P O P U L A T I O N A N D T H E S O C I A L A N D E C O N O M I C T R A N S F O R M A T I O N OF I S T A N B U L 95 m i l i t a r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . d u r i n g this p e r i o d Pera became increasi n g l y the center of social i m p o r t a n c e i n I s t a n b u l . so the relatively h i g h c u l t u r a l level of the bureaucracy m a n i f e s t e d itself i n the r e f i n e m e n t of habits of c o n s u m p t i o n . p r i n t i n g press. i n a d d i t i o n to t h e professions m e n t i o n e d above. w i t h advice a n d tools f r o m a b r o a d . The T u r k s i n I s t a n b u l h a d a l m o s t exclusive c o n t r o l over an i m p o r t a n t p r o f e s s i o n r e q u i r i n g some l e a r n i n g — t h e p r o fession of letter w r i t i n g . M u s t a f a . A. h e a l t h . T w o . 110-12. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n across the w a t e r d e p e n d e d largely o n kayikçi ( b o a t m e n ) u n t i l m i d . a special belt d e s i n e d to h o l d a n i n k b o t t l e . a n d transp o r t a t i o n a n d .t h i r d to a Greek. î ev s t a t i o n e d t h e m s e l v e s r e a d y f o r h i r e i n G a l a t a . K n o w n for t h e i r h o n e s t y . Constantinople (Paris. M a n y h a d no skills a n d t o o k a n y available jobs. i n c o m e a n d e d u c a t i o n . and the Istanbul efendisi. F i n a l l y . I t is q u i t e d i f f e r e n t w i t h the C h r i s t i a n or J e w i s h m e r c h a n t s i n t h e bazaar. m e n . M u s l i m s . i n c l u d i n g the inhabitants of t h e s u b u r b s . veiled w o m e n . Istanbul i n the Second H a l f of the Nineteenth Century T h e life of I s t a n b u l i n the second h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h century appears to have been d o m i n a t e d by Europe t h r o u g h centers established i n Galata a n d . p e t i t i o n s to v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s . Ü s k ü d a r . p. that is. n o r are t h e y to be exceeded. a n d b e v o n d goods of all varieties a n d d e p a r t i n g w i t h m e r c h a n d i s e for sale i n l a n d o n the r o u t e back. n u m b e r i n g a b o u t 5. w h i l e 137 w e r e o u t s i d e the w a l l s . a n d o n e . E u r o p e a n . The O t t o m a n p o p u l a t i o n as a w h o l e felt the i m p a c t of these s o c i o . the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n facilities.e c o n o m i c changes i n I s t a n b u l d e e p l y . 1 8 3 0 . especially. p. it w a s . La Turquie actuelle. the Treaty of Paris.t y p e b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s — t h e f t was a c o m m o n occurrence.f o u n d r y a n d the d e p o t at T o p h a n e . U n t i l 1854. w h i l e s u p posedly establishing equality between M u s l i m s a n d . the p e o p l e of I s t a n b u l h a d t h e chance to b e c o m e a c q u a i n t e d at first h a n d w i t h E u r o p e a n a m e n i t i e s a n d facilities i n s a n i t a t i o n . T h e c i t y was r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g i n t o a n e w k i n d of c o n s u m p t i o n center. u n d e r w e n t great change i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h e c o m m e r c i a l t r e a t y b e t w e e n t h e Porte a n d Great B r i t a i n s i g n e d at Kanlica ( I s t a n b u l ) o n 29 A p r i l 1861 gave t h e E n g l i s h e v e n m o r e extensive f r e e d o m of trade a n d m o r e p r i v i l e g e s w i t h i n the O t t o m a n d o m a i n s . as those at P o r t s m o u t h or W o o l w i c h . a n d a s m a l l k n i f e . B o a t i n g i n I s t a n b u l h a d a r a t h e r complex o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . T h e y come d o w n successively f r o m one h u n d r e d piasters to sixty. . a n d . a n d i n a m a t t e r of years the M u s l i m O t t o m a n m i d d l e class. a n d Jews w e r e e n g a g e d i n a v a r i e t y of other occupations. the p o r t e r s w e r e anized i n odas. w h i c h a d h e r e d to its o w n w a y o f m u t u a l t r u s t a n d c o n f i d e n c e . For example. w h e n the modern ferryboats o n the B o s p o r u s b e g a n to operate. to the trade centers of the mahalle. a n d m a n y of these p e t t y v e n d o r s f r o m the p r o v i n c e s became r i c h a n d w e r e able to establish successful businesses. 1 suppose. a n d a p p a r e n t l y as w e l l . the p o p u l a t i o n of I s t a n b u l l i v e d i n 455 t o w n quarters. T h e g e n e r a l r u l e is this: o f f e r ' t o the A r m e n i a n h a l f of the a s k e d p r i c e .. See Thornton. T h e T u r k i s h m e r c h a n t s specialized i n the sale of hides. a n d o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s . i n fact h e l p e d the C h r i s t i a n s achieve e c o n o m i c p o w e r . These b e g i n n i n g s of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n I s t a n b u l d i d n o t go far because o f lack of a class of e n t r e p r e n e u r s . h o w e v e r . a n d others f r o m far-away provinces w h o m o v e d to I s t a n b u l i n search of f o r t u n e s . the place of the katip w a s e v e n t u a l l y t a k e n b y t h e arzuhalci. a n d E y ü b a n d its d e p e n d e n c i e s . o n s m a l l boats. saka (carriers of w a t e r i n b i g leather bags). a m u l e t s . A n e w Greek and A r m e n i a n m i d d l e class. o n e . was w i p e d out. rose to p o w e r . b v a n v c o u n t r y in E u r o p e .q u a r t e r to a Jew. .f i f t h s of these w e r e T u r k s . Jews. A r m e n i a n s . B u t if y o u really w a n t e d to b u y the m e r c h a n d i s e of t h e M u s l i m resign y o u r s e l f to p a y i n g the price he a s k e d f i r s t . 332. o p e r a t e d b y six to eight o a r s m e n (there was a r e g u l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the n u m ber of o a r s m e n : the m a x i m u m w a s f o u r t e e n ) . the s m a l l p o r t s a l o n g the coasts of the M a r m a r a .

a n d residence i n a E u r o p e a n c i t y w a s life's d r e a m . 8 C a t h o l i c c h u r c h e s . I n the second half of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Five A r m e n i a n dailies a n d e i g h t weeklies had a c i r c u l a t i o n of a b o u t 10. La Turquie) a n d w e e k l i e s c o n s i s t i n g of three c o m m e r c i a l r e v i e w s (as against a single one i n T u r k i s h ) h a d a t o t a l c i r c u l a t i o n of a b o u t 25. Residence at Constantinople 2:283. a n d a r t s ' s e e m e t T t e fascinate the m o d e r n e x e m p l a r . p. t h e ideal c i t i z e n w a s o n e w h o possessed a d i p l o m a f r o m o n e of the m o d e r n p r o f e s s i o n a l schools. 24. T h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t r a d i t i o n a l i s m a n d m o d e r n i t y is well defined b y the descriptions of the t w o h u m a n types that r e p r e s e n t e d t h e i d e a l of t h e t w o p e r i o d s . Political Modernization in japan and Turkey (Princeton: Princeton University Press. Constantinople aux dormers jours d'Abdul-Humid (Paris. a n d several h u n d r e d ham ( i n n s ) . eco27. e d u c a t i o n i n the m o d e r n school.000. 23. was the most expeditious. gracious m a n n e r s . T h e Greek-language press. T h e Jews had t w o dailies. Turkey (London. all s e r v e d to enhance t h e p r e s t i g e of t h e W e s t . the s i g h t of a n e w s p a p e r c a r r y i n g the ideas of t h e s u l t a n was an i n t e l l e c t u a l r e v o l u 22. w i t h a c o m b i n e d c i r c u l a t i o n of a b o u t 10. f l o c k e d t h e r e . n o t o n l y f o r I s t a n b u l b u t also f o r the e n t i r e realm. d e s p i t e h i s declarations to t h e c o n t r a r y . b o t h these stations c o n t i n u e t o serve t h e city. a n d he l o o k e d a d m i r i n g l y to E u r o p e a n d b e g a n t o i m i t a t e E u r o p e a n m a n n e r s a n d to dress h i m s e l f i n F r e n c h clothes i n the n a m e of p r o g r e s s . b e t w e e n the capital a n d the i n l a n d t e r r i t o r i e s . I n a d d i t i o n there was one paper each i n G e r m a n . The n e w istanbullu Efendi (the t e r m w a s u s e d to designate a c u l t i v a t e d . w h i l e t h e ancient treasures of his o w n c i t y left h i m u n m o v e d .336 s t u d e n t s i n the O t t o m a n state w e r e r e c o r d e d as l e a r n i n g French i n various schools.000 f o r the dailies). A t the b e g i n n i n g of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a total of 62. T r a b z o n . T h e large t r a d e houses a n d b a n k s h a d t h e i r h e a d q u a r t e r s t h e r e . See Islam Ansiklopedisi. sold by auction to native companies. a n d o t h e r poets. I n a b o u t 1850 I s t a n b u l h a d m o r e t h a n 350 m o s q u e s of all sizes. I n i t i a l l y the m o d e r n schools w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n Istanb u l or s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s . 7 7 6 in r e v e n u e . the b u r e a u c r a c y . 6 9 5 . ) Yet all these d i d n o t i m p r e s s the m o d e r n O t t o m a n M u s l i m intellectual. a d i p l o m a of g r a d u a t i o n . G e r m a n . " ) . T h e p a p e r m a d e its w a y to the coffeehouses. D u r i n g the 1880s the s y s t e m w a s f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d so that there w e r e three levels: the p r i m a r y level (sibyan a n d riişdiye). A c t u a l l y . a sort of b u l l e t i n . a n d B e y r u t h a d 2 2 . E v e n t u a l l y t h r e e p o s t a l r o u t e s to E u r o p e v i a Marseilles. E u r o p e a n v i s i t o r s to I s t a n b u l w e r e deeply impressed by the city's traditional water system. c o u l d recite b y h e a r t H a f i z . see also my "The Mass Media" in Robert Ward and Dankwart A .M u s l i m s — m o s t l y G r e e k s . 200 h o s p i t a l s of v a r i o u s sizes. T h e c u l t u r a l a l i e n a t i o n h a d b e g u n . 91 G r e e k a n d A r m e n i a n c h u r c h e s . Properly managed. the M e d i c a l School (tıbbiye). except for a few i n s t i t u t i o n s for m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g .000 p e r s o n s . 100 imarcts ( w e l f a r e centers). 25. h a d a respectable p o s i t i o n i n t h e bureaucratic h i e r a r c h y . i n c l u d i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l schools). a n d s o m e o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s ." ' F i n a l l y . s y n a g o g u e s . a n d d i s p l a y e d m a n n e r s t h a t o f t e n c o m b i n e d reserve a n d r o m a n t i cism w i t h exaggerated p o l i t e n e s s . the Mesr-i bahri a n d the Eser-i Hayir. a n d F r e n c h . Jews.000.i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . Levant Herald. A list of s o m e m a j o r c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s (extracted f r o m v a r i o u s sources) is i m p r e s s i v e . T h e ascendancy of Pera to p o l i t i c a l . a n d the u p p e r level ( u n i v e r s i t y a n d special schools of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e w e r e also n i n e w e e k l i e s . " after 1866. s. t h e c i v i l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e schools). T h e A n g l o . The i m p a c t of the p u b l i c a t i o n is w e l l described by W a l s h : The p u b l i c a t i o n of the n e w s of the e m p i r e i n this w a y soon became of u n i v e r s a l a t t r a c t i o n . p. Ubicini. a n d a h u g e post office b u i l d i n g w a s erected i n the o l d c i t y . T h u s . a n d d e g e n e r a t e d b y its representatives i n P e r a — t r i c k l e d t o t h e o t h e r areas of t h e O t t o m a n state. It also h a d a F r e n c h e d i t i o n . was " b y far the m o s t i m p o r t a n t a n d e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n n o v a t i o n . Eastern Express. i f n o t s u p e r i o r . C i v i l Service T r a i n i n g S c h o o l (mülkiye). . ( E v e n t u a l l y i t d i d so w h e n p l a c e d b y the g o v ernment u n d e r the management of K a n i Paşa. For e x a m p l e . M o d e r n shops. S o o n I s t a n b u l became t h e filter t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e so-called E u r o p e a n c u l t u r e — d i l u t e d . w h i c h h a d a c o m b i n e d c i r c u l a t i o n of 32. 1866). M o r e o v e r . w r o t e p o e t r y h i m s e l f . d e s p i t e t h e fact t h a t i n the m i d . b e l o n g i n g to the n a v a l forces w e r e assigned to c a r r y passengers to v a r i o u s points o n the shores of the B o s p o r u s . 98-99. a F r e n c h . pp. a n d the same T u r k that I n o t i c e d before d o z i n g h a l f . 255-82. T h e c o l l e c t i o n o f c u s t o m s w a s f a r m e d o u t t o t r a d e r s . M i l i t a r y E n g i n e e r i n g School. N a v a l A c a d e m y . A f e w years later a conces2 6 T h e R i s e of Pera a n d the Introduction of E u r o p e a n S h o p s The s e c o n d h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w i t n e s s e d the rise of Pera as t h e m o d e r n E u r o p e a n section o f I s t a n b u l . A u s t r i a n s . a n d n o t a b l y d u r i n g the r e i g n of A b d u l h a m i d I I . . A m o n g the special schools there w a s also the French school. k n e w F r e n c h . o n e i n S p a n i s h (the L a d i n o s p o k e n by Sephardic Jews) a n d the o t h e r i n H e b r e w .) 2 7 The Takvim-i Vekai w a s s o o n f o l l o w e d b y Ceride-i Havadis a n d Terciimani Hakikat. Ö m e r K h a y y a m . w a s p u b l i s h e d b y the g o v e r n m e n t i n 1831.) A m o d e r n p o s t a l service w a s i n s t i t u t e d i n 1840. (The census of 1831 p r o v i d e s f i g u r e s f o r s o m e of these e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . v u l g a r i z e d . w h i c h attracted readers a n d gave the press a h i g h status: the s u l t a n o f t e n w r o t e the l e a d i n g a r t i c l e . S o m e of t h e m o d e r n schools a n d m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n s as w e l l w e r e established i n Pera or its v i c i n i t y . Pera ( w i t h Galata) d e v e l o p e d i n t o a n i n d e p e n d e n t city i n practically every respect. Pera h a d a c q u i r e d a d i s t i n c t l y E u r o p e a n character w h e n established as the residence of t h e F r e n c h a m b a s s a d o r i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . E u r o p e a n s of all n a t i o n a l i t i e s a n d t y p e s . b u t all seemed to listen w i t h p r o f o u n d a t t e n t i o n . The railroad further expanded communications for the c a p i t a l . w h o a u c t i o n e d the c u s t o m s a n d t h e n i m p o r t e d t h e i r o w n m e r c h a n d i s e p r a c t i c a l l y free of d u t y .f i l e m e r c h a n t s w e r e d e m o r a l i z e d . A r m e n i a n s . the O t t o m a n tariff structure favored western i m p o r t s but levied a h e a v y tax o n e x p o r t s . M o s t of t h e i r g r a d u a t e s j o i n e d the ranks of the b u r e a u c r a c y . the s e c o n d a r y l e v e l ( c o m p o s e d of the idadiye. I n a d d i t i o n . M i l i t a r y College (harbiye) a n d the A g r i c u l t u r a l a n d V e t e r i n a r y schools deserve special m e n t i o n . E u r o p e a n c u l t u r e first came to I s t a n b u l n o t as l e a r n i n g a n d t e c h n o l o g y b u t i n the f o r m o f m e r c h a n d i s e sold freely o n c i t y streets.d o m a n . T h e r a n k . James Lewis Farley.000 to 18.000 (20. and the D a n u b e w e r e established. A n insignificant object m a n u f a c t u r e d i n E u r o p e w a s c o n s i d e r e d a priceless treasure. e v e n t u a l l y . called terazi. brought £ 6 . a l t h o u g h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s still p r e v e n t e d the s e n d i n g of n e w s p a p e r s to the p r o v i n c e s . thus competing on unequal terms w i t h independent m e r c h a n t s . the rayas of the e m p i r e s o o n c a u g h t the s p i r i t of such a p u b l i c a t i o n . I s t a n b u l was serviced by some t w e n t y m a r i t i m e lines l i n k i n g it w i t h all parts of the w o r l d . Residence at Constantinople 2:279. w h o k n e w A r a b i c a n d Persian. La Turquie actuelle. Yet. ( T o d a y . 1907). " I s t a n b u l . eds. the m o d e r n e d u c a t i o n a l system was e x p a n d e d i n t o the p r o v i n c e s . w e r e w e a k e n i n g r a p i d l y . a n d I z m i r ) . T h e s t e a m b o a t s h o r t e n e d the travel time f r o m I s t a n b u l to Marseilles f r o m six w e e k s to six days. i n c l u d i n g t h e m o d e r n e d u c a t i o n a l system. w h o h a d t o p a y h e a v y d u t i e s . e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1868 at the insistence of the F r e n c h . theaters. the a t t e n t i o n p a i d [ t o the n e w s p a p e r reader] is very d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t w h i c h I saw t h e m g i v e to a story-teller. t o t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n E u r o p e . c o u l d speak w e l l . o v e r 300 haman (baths). . w h o s o u g h t to p r o m o t e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n s i n the O t t o m a n state w i t h p r o p e r c u l t u r a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l s u p p o r t .000: I s t a n b u l alone h a d 6. w i t h n i n e p u b l i c a t i o n s . t e a c h i n g I t a l i a n . the customs house in Istanbul probably w o u l d have more than tripled its r e v e n u e . t h i s " m o d e r n " m a n ' s ties t o his o w n c u l t u r e . theaters. " . 23 t i o n i n itself. But the m o s t usual m o d e of c o m m u n i c a t i n g it are the n e w s r o o m s .l e a r n i n g p u p i l s at a m u c h h i g h e r f i g u r e ) — a t least 70. Trieste.980. The appearance of the n e w s p a p e r .000. t h e scion of g o o d f a m i l y . Ruston. m a n y of w h i c h received f i n a n c i a l h e l p f r o m the F r e n c h g o v e r n m e n t . w h i c h p u r i f i e d the w a t e r t h r o u g h a n i n g e n i o u s use of the g r a v i t a t i o n a l force of t h e l i q u i d ' s n a t u r a l f l o w . 1830-1914 P O P U L A T I O N A N D T H E S O C I A L A N D E C O N O M I C T R A N S F O R M A T I O N OF I S T A N B U L 97 The o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d s E u r o p e a n d the t r e n d t o w a r d m o d e r n i z a t i o n w e r e assisted by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a variety of m o d e r n i n s t i t u t i o n s . a n d h a d delicate.t o . . . w e r e establ i s h e d . t h e n e x t year t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o o k over and realized £23. I n the second h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y interest i n t h e n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e w a s r e p l a c e d b y a n e f f o r t to absorb E u r o pean culture. T h e c u s t o m s i n Bosnia a n d H e r z e govina.n i n e t e e n t h r c e n t u r y I s t a n b u l possessed a great v a r i e t y of o l d m o n u m e n t s a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s o f l e a r n i n g . p p . e . D u r i n g t h e second h a l f of t h e c e n t u r y . I n o w saw a c t u a l l y a w a k e w i t h a paper i n his hands eagerly s p e l l i n g o u t the n e w s .a n d . f r o m p o w e r f u l d i p l o m a t s to s h r e w d b u s i n e s s m e n a n d professionals. k n o w l e d g e of a f o r e i g n language became the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g m a r k s of the n e w d o m i n a n t class. Its p o p u l a t i o n in the second h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y consisted l a r g e l y of n o n . 37. b u t its i n f l u e n c e at t h a t early t i m e w a s i n s i g n i f i c a n t . • . t h e last. sultaniye. . s u p e r i o r m a n ) w a s p o l i t i c a l l y s e n s i t i z e d a n d p r o n e to engage i n l o n g debates i n w h i c h he s o u g h t to d e m o n s t r a t e the w o r t h i n e s s of his c o u n t r y a n d c u l t u r e . a n d Serbian. A m o n g these. l i t e r a t u r e . T h u s . A t the b e g i n n i n g of the c e n t u r y . 518 medreses.668. T h e first T u r k i s h n e w s p a p e r . D u r i n g the first h a l f of t h e c e n t u r y t h e g e n t l e m a n of I s t a n b u l w a s expected to be a r e l a t i v e l y w e l l . u s e d o n l y i n t h e summer. a n d a place is taken w h e r e those w h o w i s h to hear it assemble . F r e n c h . I n the e a r l y p e r i o d o f contact w i t h E u r o p e ( i . the i m p r o v e m e n t of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system g r e a t l y i n t e n s i f i e d the c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n I s t a n b u l a n d E u r o p e a n d . h a d a t o t a l c i r c u l a t i o n of 17. 2 4 sion to carry passengers w a s g i v e n to t h e Şirket-i Hayriyye. 26. 58. u n t i l w e l l i n t o the 1870s the basic f u n c t i o n of the schools r e m a i n e d the t r a i n i n g of personnel for g o v e r n m e n t service rather t h a n the e d u c a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n at large. i s s u e d e v e r y S a t u r d a y .s t y l e a m u s e m e n t places also w e r e f o u n d t h e r e . w h i l e a l o n g A s i a t i c l i n e began at the m a s s i v e b u i l d i n g i n H a y d a r p a ş a o n the A s i a t i c shore. " " . a n d the e x i s t i n g o n e s w e r e e x p a n d e d .s t u p i f i e d w i t h coffee a n d tobacco. 1964).v. m e a n w h i l e the government's revenue was c o n s t a n t l y d i m i n i s h i n g .THE 96 OTTOMAN POPULATION. 37 p u b l i c libraries.. the Galatasaray Sultanisi.c o n t r o l l e d n a v i g a t i o n society. u n t i l a b o u t 1850) t h e T u r k s seemed f u l l y a w a r e o f the fact t h a t they h a d b u i l t i n I s t a n b u l a n i m p r e s s i v e c i v i l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r o w n a n d h a d e n d o w e d t h e c i t y w i t h w o r k s of art a n d u t i l i ties w h i c h w e r e e q u a l . as W a l s h p u t i t . p e r h a p s as m a n y as 300. a n d w e r e d e l i g h t e d w i t h the p e r m i s s i o n to imitate i t . These d e v e l o p m e n t s . ( P a u l Fesch p u t s the t r u e t o t a l of F r e n c h . H o w e v e r . d u r i n g the s e c o n d h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m o r e f o r e i g n schools. the M u s l i m s i n the O t t o man state d i d n o t have a n y m o d e r n schools. The p i c t u r e of r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g I s t a n b u l c a n n o t be c o m p l e t e d w i t h o u t m e n t i o n of t h e e x p a n s i o n of the c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems.. H o w e v e r . A l i n e c o m i n g f r o m E u r o p e e n d e d i n I s t a n b u l i n a n e w l y b u i l t t e r m i n a l at Sirkeci. a n d . Pera became the s y m b o l o f m o d e r n i t y . 449. I t a l i a n . T h e n e w s p a p e r h a d a r a t h e r u n u s u a l feature. These g o o d s p o u r e d i n t o t h e c i t y t h r o u g h its c u s t o m s h o u s e ( o t h e r p r i n c i p a l c u s t o m s houses w e r e i n Salonica. a n d a v a r i e t y of E u r o p e a n . p e r h a p s . T h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t itself purchased a passenger steamer a n d i n 1844 t w o ships. by 1860 I s t a n b u l h a d a c q u i r e d a n u m b e r of p r o f e s s i o n a l schools. the Takvim-i Vekai [ C a l e n d a r of E v e n t s ] .000.F r e n c h d a i l y press (Moniteur oriental. b y the e n d of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t of the c i t i z e n r y of I s t a n b u l . W e s t e r n c u l t u r e . I n d e e d . w h i c h established a n e t w o r k of f e r r y b o a t l i n e s i n t h e B o s p o r u s a n d the G o l d e n H o r n . t h u s p r o v i d i n g a c h a n n e l for u p w a r d m o b i l i t y f o r the c o u n t r y p e o p l e . There w a s n o m i r t h or l a u g h t e r excited. A n e w e d u c a t i o n a l system w a s established a n d d e v e l o p e d r a p i d l y i n the second half of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . read some sort of d a i l y or w e e k l y p u b l i c a t i o n i n o n e of t h e languages s p o k e n i n the c i t y . it was p r o o f that p u b l i c o p i n i o n w a s e v e n there b e c o m i n g a r u l e of d i r e c t i o n to the g o v e r n m e n t . . N e d i m . w h i c h h a d b e e n c o p i e d f r o m E u r o p e w i t h o u t m u c h concern f o r t h e n a t i v e c u l t u r e or local needs.

T h e g r o w t h of Pera a n d the rise of the m e r c h a n t s as a d o m i n a n t g r o u p . The social p y r a m i d reflected the d e p e n d e n c y o n E u r o p e . T h e y had originally used Italian as their business language. a n d debasing E u r o p e a n s in the eyes of the T u r k s by our apparent identity with them. Hicri On Altıncı Asırda Istanbul Hayatı. Pera h a d six n e w s p a p e r s i n v a r i o u s l a n g u a g e s . p. lest one of the frequent fires b u r n d o w n his building. man state.) T h e y established their homes in Pera. a n d Jewish) w e r e r e o r g a n i z e d t o give t o t h e lay e l e m e n t . d e m o g r a p h i c . T h e " m o d e r n " l i f e i n Pera h a d n o a u t h e n t i c n a t i o n a l or social r o o t s . t o balls t o w h i c h o n l y the m e m b e r s of the u p p e r class w e r e i n v i t e d . and C i h a n g i r . often converted Catholics) had their h o m e s . t h e Europeanized element. a n d other E u r o p e a n p o w e r s t h e y s e r v e d ." For a rather extensive treatment. language teachers. at the same time. 1. i n the 1860s.r a t e I t a l i a n c i t y . T h o s e i n Pera a n d Galata w h o w o r k e d p a r t i c u larly w i t h E u r o p e a n s f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s b e i n g t o r n a p a r t b y the c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n t h e i r ecclesiastical leaders a n d the heads of the n e w l y risen m e r c h a n t . H o w e v e r . d i v i d e d a m o n g the various nationalities other than French as follows: 6. S a r d i n i a n s . Intérêts et Impérialisme Français dans L'Empire Ottoman OS95-19I4) (Pans: Publication de la Sorbonne. Ubicini. a base f o r E u r o p e a n d o m i n a t i o n of t h e O t t o m a n E m p i r e . w h i c h cost about 80. by instilling their o w n prejudices. Belgians. 2 vols. 1977). being superseded b y and absorbed economically a n d ethnically into Galata. the s h o w case of t h i n g s E u r o p e a n . i n fact. a n d . eds. as w e l l as t h e p s e u d o . all of w h o m c o n s t a n t l y s t r o v e to rise ever h i g h e r i n status b y b e c o m i n g i n v o l v e d i n n e w c o m m e r c i a l v e n t u r e s a n d b y a d o p t i n g the l a n g u a g e of their E u r o p e a n d i p l o m a t i c p a t r o n s . T h e b u s i n e s s g r o u p s h a d d e v e l o p e d a secular orientation a n d h a d adopted a European economic philosop h y a n d concepts of n a t i o n a l i t y a n d r e l i g i o n that d i f f e r e d f r o m t h e p a r o c h i a l . therefore. w e r e the consequences of several e c o n o m i c . t h r o u g h the a c q u i s i t i o n of the special iVraf g r a n t i n g the p r o t e c t i o n of a w e s t e r n state). t h a n k s to F r e n c h s u p p o r t — a g r o u p of c o n v e r t e d A r m e n i a n s f r o m Ankara w h o were proselytizing a m o n g their k i n were b a n n e d f r o m the c i t y . after the proclamation of Italian unity. Lewis and B. especially after the D u c e de Boglie. i n c l u d i n g d r a g o m a n s ( w h o f o r m e d a special class) a n d messengers " " ( t o s ) . see B. 35. Findikli. T h e decline of the F r a n k s as a dominant group in Pera resulted partly from their o w n restrictive attitude towards T u r k s a n d other O t t o m a n ethnic g r o u p s — a n attitude w h i c h prevented intensive commercial interaction. A m e r i c a n s . H o w e v e r . became i n t e n s i v e i n I s t a n b u l . 29. G e r m a n . and cultural prominence w a s thé immediate consequence of the g r o w i n g E u r o p e a n influence over the Otto-. w h i l e the f o u r t h c o n s i s t e d of v a r i o u s low-echelon employees. Pera. a n d she looked u p o n the G r e e k s as the group best qualified strategically a n d professionally to help establish the British commercial hegemony in the Mediterranean a n d the M i d dle East. for example. as they were called in Istanbul) living there.000 to 16. U b i c i n i w r o t e t h a t " i f t h e r e w e r e n o t here a n d there g r o u p s of T u r k i s h w o m e n i n f r o n t of shops s e l l i n g new F r e n c h i t e m s . the t h r e e o l d millets ( O r t h o d o x . in fact. w h o s e heads w e r e considered the leaders of their respective national colonies.Pera became a second Ottoman capital.. Benefiting f r o m ' t h e British efforts to establish a strong economic foothold in the O t t o m a n state and Istanbul. go to a place where a Frank population has not m a d e E u r o p e a n s objects of contempt. For the most comprehensive treatment of religious groups in the Ottoman state. 31-33 . • • * '* c T h e merchants of Galata.E u r o p e a n cultural characteristics.000 Maltese and Ionians. A n y self-styled teacher of F r e n c h . Lâ Turquie actuelle. and menial workers. . D u t c h . the G r e e k merchants replaced the F r a n k s as business leaders while continuing to identify themselves culturally and linguistically with the F r e n c h (although they frequently spoke G r e e k also. the F r e n c h minister of foreign affairs. The n o n . Pera. (In 1870 a fire destroyed 3. rented a n n u a l l y for 15. " A t m i d . A t the t o p w e r e t h e d i p l o m a t i c m i s s i o n s a n d t h e i r vast p e r s o n n e l . a n d t h e y c o u l d be " n a t i o n a l " — a c t i v e l y p r o . occasionally.M u s l i m communities i n Istanbul g r e w i n size.l i t e r a r y e n v i r o n m e n t I k n o w . although practically all of them spoke T u r k i s h and Greek. whose members had European citizenship by b i r t h or b v " o p t i o n " (that is. Condition and Prospects. a n d craft g r o u p s . p r o f e s s i o n a l . by bribing the government officials. J830-1914 nomic. Rosenthal. as they became rich a n d influential. t h o u g h a n n e x e d to I s t a n b u l this city [Pera] is as d i f f e r e n t f r o m it as it w o u l d be f r o m Peking or C a l c u t t a . . a n d o n the B o s p o r u s w h e r e t h e p r i v i l e g e d classes ( t h a t is. . Ibid. 88 ff. w h o played a significant role in uprooting the F r a n k s from their position of power. started p r o m o t i n g the idea of a B u l g a r i a n n a t i o n a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e Porte. misrepresents the one to the other. In Three Parts . a n d H a s k ö y — t h a t is. Imprimerie national. a n d s e r v a n t s . see Jacques Thobie.000 structures a n d c a u s e d b a n k r u p t c y a m o n g building owners. Samatya.w e s t e r n a t t i t u d e s of t h e i r c l e r g y . a n t i . servants. the m a i n a u t h o r i t y f o r the c o n d u c t of affairs i n these c o m m u n i t i e s .G r e e k or p r o B u l g a r i a n — o n l y t o the extent p e r m i t t e d b y the E u r o p e a n p o w e r s a n d t o l e r a t e d by t h e O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t . T h e i r sons a n d daughters attended so31. F i n a l l y . w o r k i n g d u r i n g the day in their Galata offices a n d returning home in the evening' up the steep hill that linked the two districts. each o w n e r being anxious to recover his investment as soon as possible. d i d n o t r e a l l y offer a n y t h i n g remarkable. ia F r e { h e 0 3 2 er n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t i e s . it transmitted it's o w n p s e u d o . For example. M a n y Europeans w h o . became s y m b o l of m o d e r n i t y a n d d i s t i n c t i o n . For the economic background. K n o w l e d g e of F r e n c h . 208. p p . " ' The E u r o p e a n s i n Pera n o r m a l l y a m u s e d themselves b y g o i n g several t i m e s a w e e k t o the theater. Christians and ]eivs in the Ottoman Empire. . a c c o u n t a n t s . La Turquie actuelle. The second h i g h e s t social g r o u p w a s c o m p o s e d of t h e n e w economic elites—bankers. P h y s i c i a n s . 36. especially the small shopkeepers and their workers). (New York. o n e c o u l d t h i n k t h a t one w a s i n a second or t h i r d . I t w a s . 442 Other prices in Pera were high also. but also perpetrates old antipathies. E a r l y in the century it attracted adventurers a n d even criminals from Mediterranean shores. h o w e v e r d e f i c i e n t . cemeteries.E u r o p e a n aspect of the d i s t r i c t . 455. increased throughout the century despite the limited n u m b e r of F r e n c h m e n (or F r a n k s . 1 In the second half of the nineteenth century Perâ harbored sixteen diplomatic missions. that is.000 to 30. H o w e v e r .M u s l i m g r o u p s i n Istanb u l e n d e d i n v i c t o r y f o r the n e w e c o n o m i c e l i t e s . after 1850 these r e s t r i c t i o n s n o l o n g e r a p p l i e d . T h u s t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n the clergy a n d the r i s i n g m e r c h a n t classes of the n o n . its reputation among E u r o p e a n s w a s somewhat tarnished. to a lesser extent. t h e i r e c o n o m i c a n d social status to t h e F r e n c h .000 G r e e k s . after 1850 the merchants from Galata began to buy quite expensive houses i n Pera a n d became frequent guests of the diplomatic missions. to d i n n e r s . p. (New York: Holmes & Meier. A r m e n i a n and Jewish merchants w h o w o r k e d there h a d gained great economic power. as n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g s s u p e r s e d e d r e l i g i o u s allegiances. thev abandoned Italian in favor of F r e n c h . rents a n d the cost of dwellings soared. T h i s circumstance determined the architectural plan of the district—tall buildings a n d very narrow streets designed to use the available b u i l d i n g space to the utmost. a n d c u l t u r a l factors. p. pp. wrote that under the old system of special trade privileges the class called F r a n k s has g r o w n u p .000.: Greenwood Press. A c c o r d i n g to Ubicini.600 A u s t r i a n s .) In Pera a pic of land (a pic w a s equal to 80 cm ) cost 1. see Steven T. A t this time Britain w a s advocating extensive commercial liberalization..000 piasters.c e n t u r y Pera " r e m a i n e d as alien t o ideas a n d m o r a l life of the W e s t as it w a s t w e n t y years earlier w h e n one n e e d e d n o t less t h a n six w e e k s t o cover the distance b e t w e e n it a n d Marseilles or G e n o a : Pera is the m o s t i m p o r t a n t a n t i .. Some of t h e c o n v e r t e d A r m e n i a n s eventually reverted to their o l d faith a n d were t h e n p b l i g e d to l i v e i n K u m k a p i . The Races of European Turkey. Refik.000. Pera r e c e i v e d w h a t e v e r it w a n t e d f r o m E u r o p e . as the m a n y m a r i t i m e lines k e p t it i n c o n s t a n t c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h the W e s t . A l t h o u g h Pera came to be considered desirable because of its E u r o pean character. w h e r e a s the same amount of land on the outskirts cost only 15 to 20 p i a s t e r s . w i t h f e w exceptions. the n o n . 1980). 34. 30. 439. acquired permission to build houses in the areas a r o u n d Pera.000 to 1. a n d schools i n a n d a r o u n d Pera f u l l y attests the g r o w t h of t h e n o n M u s l i m c o m m u n i t i e s . at that time the total population of the area w a s 28. 1878). Indeed. a n d o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s f o r m e d the t h i r d social s t r a t u m of Pera. E n g l i s h . 3:1 The appearance o f m a n y n e w c h u r c h e s . 2 30 . c o n s i d e r a b l y u n d e r m i n i n g t h e i r l o y a l t y to the Porte a n d o p e n i n g t h e m t o f u r t h e r E u r o p e a n i n f l u e n c e . p.or three-room suite in the best hotel in Paris.000 piasters w i t h the land i n cl u d ed . Conn. 28 29 usually on the slopes descending towards T o p h a n e . abolished i n 1833 the regulation that prohibited the settlement in Pera of a n y o n e w h o did not possess a c e r t i f i c a t e i s s u e d b y t h e C h a m b e r o f C o m m e r c e of Marseilles. T h e dominant cultural a n d political position of France i n Pera was maintained a n d . Their History. Prussians. a meal cost five times more there than in the old city. It might be s u p p o s e d that w h e r e E u r o p e a n s reside there w o u l d be the greatest intercourse w i t h the T u r k s — i t is just the reverse.000 R u s s i a n s . it was hard to accommodate all the people attracted there by economic opportunity. . A s economic i n t e r a c t i o n increased a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n a m o n g e t h n i c a n d r e l i g i o u s groups expanded.second half of the nineteenth century Pera itself > u n d e r w e n t a substantial social a n d economic change. The d i p l o m a t i c m i s s i o n s w e r e s u s t a i n e d by t h e i r respective c o m munities. if y o u w i s h to k n o w the natives or be on friendly terms w i t h them. m a n n e d by E u r o p e a n s a n d e x e r t i n g a v i t a l i n f l u e n c e over the empire's fate. Turkey and Its Resources. T h i s class not only prevents communications between the T u r k s and E u r o p e a n s . T h e G r e e k a n d . 31 T H E P O P U L A T I O N A N D T H E S O C I A L A N D E C O N O M I C T R A N S F O R M A T I O N OF I S T A N B U L 99 Initially the territorial limits of Pera w e r e rigidly restricted. The Politics of Dependency: Urban Reform in Istanbul (Westport. T h e millet r e f o r m e v e n t u a l l y h e l p e d m e l d the r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n i t i e s i n t o l a r g 3 4 32. La Turquie actuelle. a n d the rest A r m e n i a n s . Spanish. F r e n c h rapidly replaced Italian as the language of all the Mediterranean seaports. f o u n d easy e m p l o y m e n t (as evinced b y the q u a l i t y of the F r e n c h still s p o k e n i n I s t a n b u l ) . 3 6 28. T u s c a n s . Around 1818 there was an Italian song about Pera which attested to its ill repute: "Pera. j events g i v e n b v E u r o p e a n s a n d s t r o v e to d i s p l a y t h e i r L o w l e d g e of E u r o p e a n art a n d l i t e r a t u r e a n d t o speak n c h . The language of communication in Pera w a s F r e n c h . d e s p i t e the fact t h a t he m i g h t be i g n o r a n t f g r a m m a r a n d p h o n e t i c s . In the . u n d e r the l e a d e r s h i p of i n f l u e n t i a l m e r c h a n t s . A s early as 1827—a t i m e w h e n C a t h o l i c p r o p a g a n d a . Braude.98 OTTOMAN POPULATION.M u s l i m m e r c a n t i l e g r o u p s h a d to p a y a p r i c e f o r the e c o n o m i c g r a t i f i c a t i o n g a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h E u r o p e a n e n t e r p r i s e s : Greeks a n d A r m e n i a n s l i v i n g i n Pera a n d Galata w e r e p r o n e t o c o n v e r s i o n t o C a t h o l i c i s m or P r o t e s t a n t i s m as p r e a c h e d b y F r e n c h a n d E n g l i s h m i s sionaries. A s w o u l d be expected. subsequently became the strongest supporters of French culture. as far as c u l t u r e w a s c o n c e r n e d . p. merchants. the rent for a single room was more than the cost of a two. A r m e n i a n . the m e r c h a n t s a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s . See mv Social Foundations of Nationalism. Galata. and P e r s i a n s . 1. m i s s i o n o f f i c i a l s . The o l d millet s y s t e m seemed t o p e r p e t u a t e the s u p r e m a c y of the c o n s e r v a t i v e clergy a n d p r e v e n t e d the b u s i n e s s m e n a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s f r o m g a i n i n g i n i n f l u e n c e . a n d shopkeepers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s a n d relatives. I t w a s at t h i s p e r i o d t h a t the B u l g a r ians b e g a n to e m e r g e as a d i s t i n c t e t h n i c g r o u p i n I s t a n b u l a n d . became rich overnight. These European C h r i s t i a n missionaries w e r e o f t e n a n a d d i t i o n a l focus of c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n the t r a d i t i o n a l ists a n d the m o d e r n i s t s . U r q u h a r t . A n average house. 1. one of the most outspoken apologists for Britain's designs i n the area. Galata was the fast-developing. E n g l i s h . i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t r i c t s r a t h e r t h a n i n B e y o ğ l u . the French inhabitants of Pera i n 1849 n u m b e r e d about 1. Edson Lvman Clark. to w h i c h . dei scellerati i! nido. 443 33. 204 ff. Because of limited construction space. m o d e r n business district of Istanbul. (In the 1870s.200 piasters. disqualifying E u r o p e a n s from j u d g i n g of T u r k s or rayas. T h e m e r c h a n t c o m m u n i t i e s o w e d . p p . 1982).

gas storage t a n k s . m a n y of w h o m w e r e s t i l l l i v i n g i n t h e o l d c i t y . w o o d a n d steel p r o d u c t s . i n fact. . M o s t of the u p p e r . 5 (1970): 26-48. . . w a s c o n v e n e d . s h o p p i n g . a n d a b o v e e v e r y t h i n g else a p o r t of t r a n s i t . the n u m ber of the ulenia. c o n v e n i n g several d o z e n p r o v i n c i a l d i g n i t a r i e s i n I s t a n b u l to a d v i s e a b o u t r e f o r m s . w o u l d o v e r t h r o w the p h i l o s o p h y of the w h o l e life [ o f the M u s l i m s ! . 1. w i n e s . . w h i c h h a d a m e m b e r s h i p of 250. t h o u g h he s h o w e d s o m e r e l i g i o u s bias. 3 7 O T T O M A N POPULATION. pp. 236. A şehremaneti in charge of m a r k e t s ( s i m i l a r to the F r e n c h prefect de ville) was installed i n 1854. a n d e v e n t u a l l y f o u n d . e m p l o y m e n t with the g o v e r n m e n t . p e t r o l e u m . m a c h i n e s a n d t o o l s . 511-12. 39.m i n d e d . a n d f e r r y b o a t s . I t is also i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e t h a t a r r i v e a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t of goods s u p p l i e d b y E u r o p e to T u r k e y s u c h as r e a d y c l o t h i n g . . ) It is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n o f I s t a n b u l . (Even Reşid P a ş a . file-cases a n d o t h e r p a r a p h e r n a l i a of a p r o m p t a n d accurate business system. . fezzes. I n the Asiatic d i s t r i c t s of S t a m b o l is c o n t r a s t i n g n a r r o w n e s s o f l i m i t e d e x p e c t a t i o n . (Some of these E u r o p e a n g o o d s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d i n the i n t e r i o r t o w n s . p.300. I n d u e t i m e t h e f a v o r e d places f o r a m u s e m e n t . h a b e r d a s h e r y . p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t o w a r d s the e n d of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y I s t a n b u l possessed n o h e a v y i n d u s t r y . b r i d g e s . 1881-1908: Reactions to European Economic Penetration (New York: New York University Press. O t h e r m a j o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l factors affected t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n of I s t a n b u l ' s o l d a n d n e w d i s t r i c t s . a n d a v a r i e t y of o t h e r facilities w e r e a d d e d .c u l t u r a l d i s p o s i t i o n also p a t r o n i z e d the 38. 520. F r o m C o n s t a n t i n o p l e d e p a r t s f o r t h e W e s t a v e r y large p a r t of the s i l k .c o l o n i a l post f o r the e x c h a n g e of g o o d s . w a s o f f i c i a l l y established. rosaries. m a t e r i a l c o m f o r t d e r i v e d f r o m an increase i n i n c o m e . T h e concept of m o d e r n u r b a n l i v i n g w a s o n e of. a g r o u p t h a t as steadily i n c r e a s i n g i n n u m b e r . f o r e i g n f i r m s still m a n aged to m a k e a p r o f i t . it became the C h a m b e r of T r a d e a n d I n d u s t r y (Ticaret ve Sanayi Odasi). T h e V i l a y e t L a w of 1864 h a d already created n e w a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s i n the c o u n t r y s i d e . G r e t z n e r . g l o v e s . the t o t a l i m p o r t w a s at least 11.f i v e years later a c o n s t i t u t i o n was a d o p t e d a n d a p a r l i a m e n t . o i l s . K o c h l e r . . . t h o u g h i l licit.c e n t u r y t h e p h y s i c a l appearance of the c i t y w a s v e r y m u c h a l t e r e d t h r o u g h the a d d i t i o n of p r i v a t e a n d p u b l i c w o r k s s u c h as a r c h i v e b u i l d i n g s . docks. Meanwhile. These w e r e d e s i g n e d largely to solve the p r o b l e m s caused b y the g r o w t h of P e r a . The d i c h o t o m y i n the life of I s t a n b u l d u r i n g the second half of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s h o w s clearly i n the contrast b e t w e e n the s h o p s of Pera a n d those i n the o l d section of I s t a n b u l . Avrupa hayati—a E u r o pean w a y of l i f e — b e c a m e the a s p i r a t i o n of the n e w generat i o n of M u s l i m s . K n o c h (all G e r m a n ) . b u t t h e y also c o n t i n u e d to m a n u f a c t u r e t r a d i t i o n a l c l o t h i n g a n d h o m e f u r n i s h i n g s s t i l l u s e d by a great p a r t of the M u s l i m p o p u l a t i o n . See Ubicini. i n 1897 w h e n I t a l y was able to capture s o m e of the m a r k e t s h e l d b y E n g l a n d a n d sold 5. T h e E u r o p e a n p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n Pera d e m a n d e d p a v e d streets. Pfaff. w i t h t h e i r c o m m o d i o u s c o m f o r t . H e w r o t e : Greater contrast can h a r d l y be i m a g i n e d t h a n is f o u n d b e t w e e n the E u r o p e a n b u s i n e s s houses of Galata. t h e a r m c h a i r f o r the h e a d o f the f i r m . Mecelle-i Umut-u Belediye (Istanbul. w h i c h as early as 1830 h a d been declared a rest d a y . 1983). a n d O r o s d i Bach ( F r e n c h ) . chairs. cigarette cases. A f t e r 1865 street cars. Tarihi 43. Ibid. . See also Donald Quataert. T h i s explains the reasons for w h i c h r a w m a t e r i a ! of h i g h q u a l i t y is u s e d a n d the great f a v o r e n j o y e d b v the hides a n d leather i m p o r t e d f r o m France a n d f i n i s h e d i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . Social Disintegration and Popular Resistance in the Ottoman Empire..) A f t e r 1856 the O t t o m a n b u r e a u c r a t s c o u l d f r e q u e n t l y be seen m i x i n g w i t h E u r o p e a n s as w e l l as w i t h the n o n . had begun to dwindle rapidly. p. f o r e x a m p l e . the C h a m b e r of C o m m e r c e . The b r i d g e s . a l c o h o l i c beverages . . a n d Pera a n d its a d j o i n i n g areas t h u s c a m e to s y m b o l i z e n o t m e r e l y m o d e r n i t y b u t also w e a l t h a n d h i g h social status. T h e French f a s h i o n [designers] are q u i t e n u m e r o u s i n Pera. A f r i c a . S l i g h t l y m o r e t h a n t w e n t y . T h e s h o p s h a d n o d i s p l a y w i n d o w s or a n y o t h e r features d e s i g n e d to attract c u s t o m e r s . an u n d e r g r o u n d t r a i n .000 tons. b u t t h e s u l t a n s e r e c t e d at l e a s t t h r e e h u g e . no. ) 4 2 M u s l i m s w h o h a d s u f f i c i e n t i n c o m e a n d the necessary p s y c h o l o g i c a l . e v e n t u a l l y . T h e c i t y became. street l i g h t i n g . I s t a n b u l possessed at least three elegant s h o p s s e l l i n g n o t h i n g b u t hats to m o d e r n . T h e c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n for m a r k e t s w a s created d u r i n g M a h m u d IPs r u l e . m i n e r a l ore. all the chief m a n u f a c t u r e r s of s e w i n g m a c h i n e s . p. T h e bazaars h a d b e g u n to specialize i n the s e l l i n g of cheaper g o o d s at l o w prices to the p o o r of I s t a n b u l . f l o u r . w h o h a d b e g u n to favor the " m o d e r n " life of Pera. to d r a w a d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n . a n d the m e r c h a n t s . . O t h e r types of i m p o r t e d g o o d s h a d l a r g e r m a r k e t s . Goods w e r e n o t a t t r a c t i v e l y p r e s e n t e d . w a s accused of h a v i n g t a k e n m o n e y f r o m a r i c h A r m e n i a n f a m i l y t h a t operated the c u s t o m s houses i n I s t a n b u l a n d o n the A s i a t i c shores. m a d e n o e f f o r t to p r o m o t e their merchandise.000 to 25. ( A list of m a j o r p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e w o r k s c o n s t r u c t e d a n d n e w i n s t i t u t i o n s establ i s h e d i n I s t a n b u l d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y is i n c l u d e d as A p p e n d i x D f o l l o w i n g t h i s c h a p t e r . w r i t i n g m a c h i n e s . candles. as i n d i c a t e d b y their insistence u p o n s t a y i n g i n the c i t y . 42. Constantinople aux derniers jours d'Abdul Hamid. w h o k n e w I s t a n b u l i n t i m a t e l y a n d f o u g h t to restore F r e n c h i n f l u e n c e there. T h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y e x p e r i m e n t of 1876-1878 was u n i q u e l y i m - D u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h .o l d use of boats a n d m a k i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n easier a n d m o r e c o n v e n i e n t .r a n k i n g bureaucrats l i v e d o u t s i d e the c i t y . . Constantinople and its Problems (New York. w h i c h they o f t e n s u p p l e m e n t e d t h r o u g h the l u c r a t i v e . a n d o t h e r facilities s i m i l a r to those f o u n d i n the West. 1901). T h e socio-economic life of I s t a n b u l i n the second half of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s n o t v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m that of m a n y o t h e r large cities i n A s i a . 515. g e n e r a l l y s h o p p i n g t h e r e o n T h u r s d a y . Jews. 41 40.T h e L e v a n t i n e s w h o are so elegant m u s t also h a v e g o o d shoes. F u r t h e r m o r e . M e u l l e r . T h e c o m m e r c i a l l i f e of the o l d c i t y w a s still centered i n the bazaar a n d w a s c o n d u c t e d i n the same s p i r i t as i n years past (except t h a t the c o l o r f u l slave m a r k e t was closed q u i e t l y i n 1846). N e w m o s q u e c o n s t r u c t i o n d e c l i n e d greatly. besides e n d i n g the c e n t u r i e s . Fesch w r o t e : C o n s t a n t i n o p l e is a c t u a l l y a large m a r k e t place. although in mid-century the n u m ber of softa (students in religious-schools) was still estimated to be around 22. faced w i t h r a p i d decline i n t h e v a l u e of the T u r k i s h currency a n d l o w e r state r e v e n u e s . p o t t e r y . t h e l a w w a s r e v i s e d i n 1867 a n d 1871 to create m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h r o u g h out the c o u n t r y . o n the pretext that the c i t y lacked q u a l i f i e d w o r k e r s . especially the M u s l i m s . a n d a f e w G r e e k s . O u r c o u n t r y c o u l d i n fact increase f u r t h e r its sale a n d w o u l d enlarge its o u t l e t s if it a d o p t e d the c h r o m e t a n n i n g . o u r [ F r e n c h ] p r o d u c t s . 1830-1914 THE P O P U L A T I O N A N D T H E S O C I A L A N D E C O N O M I C T R A N S F O R M A T I O N OF I S T A N B U L 101 u n d e r t a k e all sacrifices. h o p i n g to m a k e u p i n a p p e a r a n c e w h a t it lacked i n economic s u b s t a n c e . d r y f r u i t s . f u r t h e r enh a n c e d the i m p o r t a n c e of Pera a n d Galata a n d the n e w l y established d i s t r i c t s n o r t h of t h e m . t h e p r e m i e r associated w i t h the r e f o r m s i n 1838. The c o m m i s s i o n . l u x u r i o u s palaces. residence o f a s p i r i n g ) m o d e r n i s t M u s l i m s became Pera a n d its s u r r o u n d i n g d i s tricts. a bazaar . A g r i c u l t u r e .r a n k i n g b u r e a u c r a t s received i n c o m e f r o m the c o l l e c t i o n of taxes (the g o v e r n ment. a b o v e a l l . farmed o u t the tax c o l l e c t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l s i n 1845). Paul Fesch." Mimarlık 70. ' T h e e c o n o m i c g r o w t h ' o f I s t a n b u l l e d to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the I s t a n b u l C h a m b e r of C o m m e r c e (Istanbul Ticaret Odası) to represent the m e r c h a n t c o m m u n i t y . a n d h a v i n g m a d e a n u n s u c c e s s f u l e f f o r t to a d o p t a c e n t r a l i z e d tax s y s t e m . s o a p . a n d S o u t h A m e r i c a t h a t have s e r v e d as i n t e r m e d i a r i e s b e t w e e n the p o w e r f u l i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s of the W e s t a n d t h e i r o w n i m p o v e r ished c o u n t r y s i d e s . to have elegant shoes there is n e e d for g o o d leather. o n 27 F e b r u a r y 1888 the n a m e w a s c h a n g e d to C h a m b e r of T r a d e . hides o f a l l k i n d s p r o d u c e d b y E u r o p e a n a n d Asiatic T u r k e y a n d the i s l a n d s of the A r c h i p e l a g o . 3 9 shops i n Pera. t h e i r desks. But to a d o p t as a rule a business s y s t e m of w h i c h the p r i n c i p l e is f r u g a l self-denial i n p e r s o n a l expenses c o u p l e d w i t h l a v i s h e x p e n d i t u r e s i n b u s i n e s s . pp. . grains. w h i c h i n c l u d e d many' F r e n c h m e n . A s u b s t a n t i a l n u m b e r of these w e r e m e m bers of the n e w r u l i n g class of bureaucrats. C l e m e n s . asked his G e r m a n a d v i s o r .100 there was also a g r o u p of M u s l i m T u r k s . Osman Nuri Ergin. c l o t h i n g . o n 31 M a y 1910. and a s u b s t a n t i a l n u m b e r of t h e m b o u g h t c l o t h i n g a n d other a m e n i t i e s at s h o p s i n Pera a n d Galata. a n d the l i k e . r u n n i n g w a t e r . T w o years later. the i n h a b i t a n t s of I s t a n b u l w o u l d 37. d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d t w o bridges w e r e b u i l t b e t w e e n I s t a n b u l a n d Galata. S u l t a n M a h m u d I I . associates of some E u r o p e a n s . For the latter h a v e the o n l y r o o m y t h i n g a b o u t the place. a s e m i . p r e s e n t e d a rather g o o d p i c t u r e of the c o n t r a s t i n g e c o n o m i c establishments of Pera a n d the o l d c i t y . . See Istanbul Yıllığı (1967). T h e y w o u l d b l u s h if t h e y w e r e to w e a r those v u l g a r shoes w h i c h m a n y m e n of their rank i n France are satisfied to w e a r . . O t h e r changes o c c u r r e d later. w o u l d h a r d l y a p p e a r i n this capital i n t h e i r t r u e s h a p e .000 pairs of r u b b e r shoes (galoche). .. vV 4 0 p o r t a n t to the life of I s t a n b u l : it s y m b o l i z e d the transfer of some of the s u l t a n ' s absolute p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y to the r i s i n g m i d d l e classes i n the c o u n t r y s i d e . o n 16 J a n u a r y 1882. s u c h as Singer ( A m e r i c a n ) . .000. leather g o o d s . a n d i n t h a t same year a C i t y P l a n C o m m i s sion (Intizam-i Şehir Komisyonu) w a s created to r e p o r t o n the E u r o p e a n m u n i c i p a l s y s t e m a n d p r o p o s e m e a s u r e s for m o d e r n i z a t i o n . a n d f i n a l l y . A r m e n i a n s . 171-172. T h e process of the p h y s i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of I s t a n b u l w a s reflected i n the p r o g r e s s i v e e m e r g e n c e of its m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t . T h e m e r c h a n t s i n the bazaar i n c l u d e d T u r k s . m o s t l y f r o m France. f l o u r s . a l t h o u g h the total n u m b e r of s e w i n g m a c h i n e s i n the city was b a r e l y 10. nails m a d e f r o m scrap i r o n . These h i g h . w h o constituted the bulk of the traditional elite. M o l t k e .000 at t h e e n d of the c e n t u r y . or French or Swiss. 41 It is o b v i o u s t h a t Pera a n d Galata a n d the districts established n o r t h of t h e m h a d d e v e l o p e d a n e w m o d e of u r b a n life t h a t d i f f e r e d s t r i k i n g l y i n p r a c t i c a l l y all c u s t o m s a n d habits f r o m life i n t h e o l d c i t y . m e d i c i n e . practice of g r a n t i n g concessions. u s u a l l y i n one of the n e w districts n o r t h o f Pera a n d i n localities a l o n g the B o s p o r u s . 1922). h a d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n I s t a n b u l . T h e first Associat i o n of T r a d e (Cemiyet-i Ticariyye) h a d b e e n established i n 1870. "Success" m e a n t to t h e m the a b i l i t y to b u y a h o u s e a n d a d o p t the w a y of life p r e v a i l i n g i n the m o d e r n p a r i of Istanbul. Its m o s t i m p o r t a n t m a n u f a c t u r e s w e r e of tiles a n d c e m e n t b r i c k s . I n the E u r o p e a n p a r t of the c i t y there is spaciousness a n d t h o u g h t f u l p r o v i s i o n of conveniences based o n the assurance t h a t t h e c u s t o m e r w i l l p a y for t h e m . a n d I n d u s t r y .M u s l i m m e r c h a n t s a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s of Pera. as each g r a d u a t e of a m o d e r n school s o u g h t . F o r e i g n f i r m s chose n o t to m a n u f a c t u r e t h e i r p r o d u c t s i n I s t a n b u l . * 3 N o m a t t e r h o w s m a l l the m a r k e t . o n the one h a n d . 41. o n l y a f e w w e r e o w n e d by the O t t o m a n g o v e r n m e n t o r b y n a t i v e i n h a b i t a n t s . A s early as 1845 S u l t a n A b d u l m e c i d h a d m a d e a n e f f o r t t o create a c o u n c i l of notables. M o s t of t h e s e e n t e r p r i s e s b e l o n g e d to E n g l i s h m e n . For additional information see Doğan Kuban.000 bags of flour a n d 600. Fesch w r o t e : To be w e l l . La Turquic actuelle. e v e r y t h i n g else falls o n the second level a n d i n o r d e r to o w n b e a u t i f u l dresses. W i t h o u t t h e m . The city i m p o r t e d annually.d r e s s e d is the a m b i t i o n of b o t h sexes. a n d it gave at least i m plicit r e c o g n i t i o n to the fact t h a t the c i t y w a s r a p i d l y l o s i n g its central p o s i t i o n a n d b e i n g forced to share its w e a l t h a n d p o w e r w i t h the d e v e l o p i n g t o w n s a n d p r o v i n c e s of the i n t e r i o r . a n d o n the o t h e r h a n d t h e c r a m p e d q u a r t e r s of native m e r c h a n t s . "lstanbulun Yapisi. i n fact". t h e v g u i d e t h e i r r i c h c u s t o m e r s i n the selection a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n of n e w fashions. p a i d special a t t e n t i o n to l u x u r i o u s c l o t h i n g . suitcases. . o f t e n c o p i e d a n d d e f o r m e d . a n d .000 tons of c o t t o n g o o d s i n I s t a n b u l . w h i c h c o n d u c t e d its b u s i ness i n a b u i l d i n g i n the o l d d i s t r i c t . S u l t a n A b d u l m e c i d h i m s e l f a t t e n d e d a b a l l g i v e n b y the F r e n c h ambassador. . . rich customers. H e n r y O t i s D w i g h t .

a n d ulema.4 s u m m a r i z e s t h e e x i s t i n g o f f i c i a l census f i g u r e s f o r 1844. Johnson.d e s c r i b e d i m m i g r a t i o n of M u s l i m s f r o m the Caucasus a n d t h e B a l k a n s f r o m 1862 o n . a n d t h e i r leaders. F i n a l l y .234 Total 381.565 Remarks Males only Males only 2 Population 426. New York: Arno Press. a n d the Office of Director of Legal Affairs (Umur-u hukukiyye miidiriyeti). Yeniköy. F a t i h . w h o f u n c t i o n e d u n d e r the d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O n the full organization of police.910 Muslims 359. Constantinople Today (New York: Macmillan.748 94. t h u s . Davidson. and Cerrahpaşa in the old city.234 males c o u n t e d i n I s t a n b u l . 2 . 1822. Üsküdar was not included. 1878). 1:270. III. T h e t w o d e velopments were intimately interrelated. one year later officials w e r e c o m p l a i n i n g t h a t a large n u m ber o f p e o p l e f o u n d i n t h e c i t y w e r e n o t l i s t e d i n the registers f o r n o n . C e r r a h p a ş a . 1922). the m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n h e a d e d b y the şehremini) consisted o f n i n e d i r e c t o r a t e s . I n the country at large there were the süvari (mounted police). a n d 1 8 8 5 ) — a l t h o u g h d e t a i l e d s u m m a r i e s o f o n l y five of these have been l o c a t e d . t h e Esnaf Tezkerelcri Kalemi w a s charged also w i t h c o l l e c t i n g special fees f r o m m e r c h a n t s .M u s l i m s (reaya defteri) a n d therefore d i d n o t pay t h e çiziye. 44.159.102 agreed to r e c o m m e n d the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a n u m b e r o f u t i l i ties. a n d p h y s i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f I s t a n b u l discussed i n t h e p r e c e d i n g sections w a s effected t h r o u g h a c o n t i n u o u s m o v e m e n t o f p e o p l e f r o m the c o u n tryside to the capital a n d f r o m d i s t r i c t t o d i s t r i c t w i t h i n t h e city. who also produced the 1882 Guide de Constantinople. V a r i o u s f i g u r e s f r o m official a n d p r i v a t e sources f o r the p o p u l a t i o n o f I s t a n b u l i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y are g i v e n i n Table 5 . pp. a n d 1301 ( a . g a r d e n e r s .) T h e Porte w a s . 4 ) .000 359. see Joseph. w h e n t h e M u s l i m p e o p l e s o f t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n Balkans a n d Macedonia a n d D o b r u c a were d r i v e n o u t . 1794-1916: V a r i o u s Estimates Area City Greater city Year 1794 1829 1864-75 1877 300 km 3. 1882. a n d 1885 ( g i v e n i n d e t a i l i n t h e statistical a p p e n d i c e s .946 1. i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y 46. p. 1325) I s t a n b u l was r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o a vilayet ( p r o v i n c e ) a n d a t t a c h e d t o t h e central g o v e r n m e n t .M u s l i m s — p o u r e d i n t o the c i t y t o f o r m t h e sort o f service g r o u p c o m m o n t o e v e r y t h r i v i n g p o r t c i t y o f t h e T h i r d W o r l d . m i l l e r s . 107-13. t h e r e w e r e estimates o f the city's p o p u l a t i o n as l o w as 304. this area w a s recogn i z e d as a separate a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t a n d became t h e s i x t h d i s t r i c t (daire) tó be a d m i n i s t e r e d b v a c o u n c i l o f twelve members plus a chairman. w h i c h w e r e the f o l l o w i n g : B e y a z i d a n d Fatih i n the o l d c i t y . a n d r e l i g i o u s c o m p o s i t i o n o f its p o p u l a t i o n . t o collect r e v e n u e . w h o f u n c t i o n e d c h i e f l y i n I s t a n b u l : (1) Kavasse. At that time some 4. B o m o n t i . Large n u m b e r s o f Caucasian M u s l i m s a r r i v e d i n t h e O t t o m a n state i n the p e r i o d f r o m 1862 t o 1908. Before d i s c u s s i n g these p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r t h e c i t y . Ü s k ü d a r . it appears f r o m a comm u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n the palace a n d t h e p r e m i e r ' s office that 49.600. For t h e p e r i o d 1865-1878. social.243 Foreigners Source: Summarized from figures in the statistical appendices.089 490. see Clarence R. I n 1868 a m u n i c i p a l code o f r e g u l a t i o n s w a s a d o p t e d . Fatih. see also Rpderic H . T h e transformation of Istanbul w e n t h a n d i n h a n d w i t h g r o w t h i n its size a n d changes i n the e t h n i c . Demographic change i n I s t a n b u l can be s t u d i e d easily. w h i c h became (and still are) some o f the m o s t f a s h i o n a b l e d i s t r i c t s o f t h e city w e r e i n c l u d e d i n the census. Source: Compiled from figures in European works and Ottoman sources. such as O s m a n b e y .000-722. a n d f u l l y a d m i n i s t e r its respective b r a n c h . Urquhart. H o w e v e r . e les tures. One reason for the variation is that early censuses generally included only the old city. w h o p e r f o r m e d police d u t i e s i n the c i t y itself. The figures are derived from Eton. 4 9 T h e p o l i c e i n I s t a n b u l e v o l v e d i n a special w a y . 3 .945 144.O t t o m a n W a r o f 1877-1878. Reform in the Ottoman Empire. a n d Ü s k ü d u r o n the A s i a n side o f B o s p o r u s — a n d occasionally i n c l u d i n g some o f t h e s m a l l e r villages a l o n g t h e B o s p o r u s a n d t h e Sea o f M a r m a r a . From 1896 to 1898 the municipal districts were Şehzadebaşi. is e v i d e n c e o f t h e scope o f t h e e c o n o m i c b o o m a n d the g r o w i n g n e e d f o r m a n p o w e r . 50. 1856. w h o w e r e n e a r l y a l l single m e n (bekar). second.945 508. applying the administrative organization introduced in Pera-Galata to t h e o t h e r f o u r t e e n districts o f the citv. reprint ed. 47. 1830-1914 THE POPULATION A N D THE SOCIAL A N D E C O N O M I C T R A N S F O R M A T I O N OF ISTANBUL 303 tieth c e n t u r y . I s t a n b u l w a s d i v i d e d i n t o police d i s t r i c t s . Freiherr von HammerPurgstall. charged w i t h public safety and mail protection.000 a n d as h i g h as 2 m i l l i o n .000 606. 1856-1876 (Princeton: Princeton University Press. o u t o f a total of 238. 1844. Kauffer. B e ş i k t a ş . 1882.600 km 2 Table 5. a n d t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e a p p r o v e d b v the T a n z i m a t H i g h C o u n c i l .2. f o r C h r i s t i a n a f f i l i a t i o n h a d a c q u i r e d special prestige w i t h t h e increase i n E u r o p e a n i n f l u e n c e . Bore. w o r k i n g directly for Europeans a n d engaging i n i n d e p e n d ent o c c u p a t i o n s as bakers. 1298. and often d i d in case of need. (Officials o f the Greek a n d A r m e n i a n P a t r i archates also r e p o r t e d o n the presence o f u n r e g i s t e r e d n e w comers. 1856." t h e t e r m t a k i n g i n t h e m a i n c i t y a n d t h e three " b o r o u g h s " — E y u b . Ü s k ü d a r . G e n e r a l m u n i c i p a l d u t i e s w e r e p e r f o r m e d b y the O f f i c e o f T e c h n i c a l A f f a i r s (Heyet-i fenniyye miidiriyeti) the O f f i c e o f Sanitary A f f a i r s (Heyet-i sihhiyye miidiriyeti).116. 1967). w h o w o r k e d i n t h e capital a n d w e r e a t t a c h e d to embassies a n d o t h e r f o r e i g n offices. t h e m a j o r cause f o r t h e e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i n I s t a n b u l w a s t h e a l r e a d y .H i s a r . I I I . Constantinoplis u'nd der Bophorus (Pesth. a n d these p e o p l e w e r e .. 24. As previously noted. Ladv Easthope (London. I n 1857. 1963). a n d a newcorps w a s f o r m e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n n e l . including the 1844 1857 O n 22 July 1909 ( r . m a n y refugees settled i n I s t a n b u l . a n d the l i k e . 1254. o r f o o t police. Y e n i k ö y . and Pera. each of w h o m were stationed along roads 6 to 10 km apart to safeguard transportation. c u l t u r a l . 1830. s o m e o f w h o m came f r o m as far a w a y as Trab¬ zon. and the bekçi (rural police). the O f f i c e o f C o r r e s p o n d e n c e a n d R e g i s t r a t i o n (Heyet-i tahririyye miidiriyeti). O n the A s i a t i c side there were six chief districts a n d stations. A n a d o l u . Letters on Turkey. a n d others to the n o r t h a n d n o r t h w e s t o f Pera. Bv 1876/77 t h e n u m b e r o f c i t y districts h a d increased f r o m f o u r t e e n to t w e n t y . Galata-Pera. and others. 4 7 vilayet of Istanbul) 1884 1896-97 1901 1914-16 895. E v e n t u a l l y . each o f w h i c h h a d its o w n c e n t r a l p o l i c e s t a t i o n a n d w a s headed b y a chief o f police (Merkez Memuru). a n d t h e kepele i d e n t i f i e d i t s wearer as a C h r i s t i a n i n I s t a n b u l t o w o r k ." [ournal asiatique. b e g a n w e a r i n g a special hat. 44 O T T O M A N POPULATION. a n d its census d u t i e s w e r e i g n o r e d or not p r o p e r l y fulfilled. T h a t these n e w c o m e r s . the r e s u l t o f t h e i n f l u x o f m i g r a n t s . after several o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes. Tens o f t h o u s a n d s o f y o u n g m e n f r o m t h e provinces—especially Greeks a n d other n o n . a n d B a k i r k ö y . The f u n c i t o n o f each miidiriyet was to p r o v i d e m u n i c i p a l services. B ü v ü k d e r e . and Büyükdere (the last three along the'Bosporus). 16 (1860): 114-190. M o s t o f t h e e a r l y censuses refer to the c a p i tal as " D e r s a a d e t ve B i l a d . K a d i k ö y .115 Men 219. all police d u t i e s i n I s t a n b u l came t o be s u p e r v i s e d b v t h e General Police D i r e c t o r a t e . 3. vol. w e r e easily able t o f i n d e m p l o y m e n t . chieftains.4.000 1. Y e n i k ö y . See Stanley Lane Poole. the I s l a n d s . 1838. o r mihiirh/ets. ser. o f course. M a ç k a . 1260. g i v e n strict o r d e r s t o t u r n a w a y these p e d d l e r s a n d seasonal w o r k e r s . The suvari could.751 Bekars City Residents 137.t h r e e . a n d Galata ( i n c l u d i n g Pera). a n d Kadiköv. and Walter Behrnauer. d .931 48. 1273.000 bekars were sent back to their places of origin. instead o f t h e l o c a l l y m a d e f u r h a t . T h e E u r o p e a n hat came to s h o w b o t h social s t a t u s a n d r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . t h a t i s . t h e kepele.814 (Temporary Residents) 75. assume duties in cities. 1857. Ravenstein. les persians.376 873. For an early city plan. The Population of Istanbul T h e e c o n o m i c . w h i c h w a s responsible n o t to the head o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' b u t t o t h e m i n i s t e r o f the i n terior. 24. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t w e n 4 3 the a t t r a c t i o n s o f t h i s u r b a n center increased i m m e a s u r a b l y . pp. Beşiktaş. The plan is by F. The entire police force was supervised by the müfettiş (detectives). 5. 1973). Osnabruck: Biblio Verlag. Şişli. T h e gross difference b e t w e e n t h e f i g u r e s f o r 1882 a n d 1885 is traceable t o several technical f a i l i n g s t h a t caused the f i g u r e o f 1882 t o be o n l y a p a r t i a l r e s u l t : f i r s t . These C h r i s t i a n n e w comers. "Sur les institutions de police chez les árabes. H o w e v e r . i t is i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e . whereas o n the E u r o pean side there w e r e t w e n t y . 45. O t t o m a n official c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t there w a s a considerable i n f l u x o f n o n .3 P o p u l a t i o n o f I s t a n b u l . reprint ed. Police r e f o r m w a s i n s t i t u t e d u n d e r A l i a n d F u a d p a ş a s . 0 0 0 ^ — a f i g u r e t h a t c e r t a i n l y is v e r y h i g h a n d p r o b a b l y i n c l u d e d t h e h i n t e r l a n d s o n b o t h sides of the B o s p o r u s a n d c o u n t e d m e n i n the a r m y a n d f o r e i g n e r s . P o p u l a t i o n o f I s t a n b u l : S u m m a r y of Census Figures Number of Persons Census Year Number of Families 46. Ubicini. B y 1894 the police a u t h o r i t i e s i n I s t a n b u l h a d been 4 8 Table 5. a n x i o u s to register these n e w c o m e r s a n d l e v y t h e h e a d tax.098 (100. A f t e r 1882 t h e n e w q u a r t e r s . T h i s s y s t e m r e m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d u n t i l 1908. 48. i n fact. 3.693 238. .000.s t y l e b r i m m e d h a t . trans. The People of Turkey (London. as t h e scope o f e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y b r o a d e n e d a n d chances f o r a c h i e v i n g u p w a r d social m o b i l i t y o u t s i d e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s w e r e c r e a t e d . the p r o p o s e d utilities w e r e for Pera a n d Galata o n l v . d u r i n g a n d after t h e R u s s o . whereas later ones included the suburbs that eventually became part of the city.412 Non-Muslims 129. o f t e n b y w o r k i n g f o r the palace o r for state d i g n i t a r i e s .693 Women 1882 1885 161. Reclus. H o w e v e r . m u c h of the p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h of I s t a n b u l r e s u l t e d s i m p l y f r o m t h e e x p a n s i o n o f trade. T h e o r d i n a r y o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f the c a p i t a l c i t y h a d f o r centuries d r a w n the a m b i t i o u s f r o m the c o u n t r y s i d e . I n 1882 t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f I s t a n b u l was r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o t e n districts t h a t i n c l u d e d the e n t i r e o l d city a n d adjacent areas s u c h as B e y a z i d . c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the n i n e kazas. The n e w city a d m i n i s t r a t i o n consisted of a n appointed c o u n c i l t o assist the c i t y a d m i n i s t r a t o r a n d a d i r e c t o r {miidir) for each d i s t r i c t . U b i c i n i gave t h e p o p u l a t i o n as 8 9 1 . A l s o . Yakshity. T h e şehremaneti (that is. settled i n I s t a n b u l .000-200. 159-60.M u s l i m s i n t o t h e c a p i t a l i m m e d i a t e l y after the c o m p l e t i o n o f the census o f 1844. t h e E u r o p e a n . t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s .119 Totai 213. Galata. a n d these occasionally m a d e f o r t u n e s . K a n l i c a . 4 6 Table 5. t h a n k s t o at least six censuses t a k e n i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n 1246. Karal. 4. (2) Seymen. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e functions were discharged b y the O f f i c e o f the G e n e r a l I n s p e c t o r (Müfettiş-i umumilik). Walsh. as w e l l as f i l l i n g t h e r a n k s o f t h e occasional laborers a n d p e d d l e r s . See BA (1)/(MN)T177 of 21 Zilhicce 1260 (1 January 1845). a n d (3) Zaptiye.000-796.431 364. a n d t h e O f f i c e o f E c o n o m i c A f f a i r s (Umur-u iktisadiyye miidiriyeti). i t is essential t o d e f i n e t h e i r geog r a p h i c a l scope.i Selase.119 q u a l i f i e d as bekar. i n 1912 I s t a n b u l w a s m a d e a s i n g l e m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h n i n e m a j o r d i s t r i c t branches.000 1.000 { 384. and some are based on Ottoman sources. T h e later censuses also i n c l u d e d the n e w districts t h a t s p r a n g u p a l o n g t h e M a r m a r a a n d t h e Bosporus a n d b e y o n d the o l d c i t y w a l l s t o w a r d s the w e s t . The 1829 figure included Galata and Uskudar and is from a census taken with the aim of instituting bread rationing. e v e n t u a l l y subject t o r e g i s t r a t i o n : subsequent censuses of I s t a n b u l i n d i c a t e d i n a special c o l u m n those w h o w e r e bekars o r taşralı ( " f r o m the c o u n t r y " ) . t h e O f f i c e o f A c c o u n t s (Heyet-i hesabiyye miidiriyeti).

1976). that t h e p o p u l a t i o n of I s t a n b u l d o u b l e d i n less t h a n a c e n t u r y a n d .875 3.99 2. so p r o p e r p r e p a r a t i o n s w e r e n o t m a d e . The memorandum explaining the census of 1885 is i n BA (I)/(D)/75538.328 No.24 . T h a t c i t y w a s a m i r r o r o f all o f those changes that c u l m i n a t e d i n the p o l i t i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the e n t i r e realm. See my The Cecekondu: Rural Migration and Urbanization in Turkey (New York: Cambridge University Press.365 370 267 281.804 83. "The Population of Istanbul i n the Nineteenth Century. Area City ol Istanbul (the old city. that is.05 005 62 .324 83.000 1. This was e v i d e n c e o f the s u p r e m a c y a c h i e v e d b y E u r o p e a n econ o m i c interests w i t h t h e i r bias t o w a r d s n o n .4 18. are b a s e d o n a c o m p l e t e c e n s u s .911 4. memorandum of 22 Zilhicce 1297 (26 October 1880).690 32. or Pnnkipo) Gebze (a town along the Asiatic shore of Marmara) Kartal (a town along the Asiatic shore of Marmara) Beykoz (along the Asiatic shore of the Bosporus) Şile (a town on the Black Sea coast of the Asiatic shore) Kanlica (along the Asiatic shore ot the Bosporus) City of Istanbul Total 10.269 51. a n d t e n years later t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f n o n .750 25. Table 31 32 53 Statistics o n t h e o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e residents of the city that s h o w t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s .1 25.946.000. despite the fact that the M u s l i m s w e r e m o r e n u m e r o u s b y far.059 % 72.946 Source: Compiled from figures given in Section III of the statistical appendices Source: Annuaire oriental du commerce. w h i l e t h e n u m b e r of n o n .6 81.7. 5 6 5 r e s i d e n t s ( o r 162. 105.3 29.189 21. but he overestimated the number of Turks by almost 20. 1897 Population 875.444 Greater Istanbul Islands (four islands in the sea of Marmara.44 2. These s h o w . 7 .98 .M u s l i m s .466 1.79 5. 71-72. m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d i n c o m p l e t e .285 15. "The Population of Istanbul in the Nineteenth Century. is f u l l y d e m o n s t r a t e d b y t h e figures i n Table 5 . T h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f I s t a n b u l i n 1885 a n d thereafter consisted m o s t l y o f n e w c o m e r s .t y p e occupations—exceeded t h a t o f t h e M u s l i m s b y a l m o s t 50 p e r c e n t .4 4 .0 32.000 kuruş allocated b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t for the p a y m e n t o f census takers seemed i n s u f f i c i e n t to meet t h e i r n e e d s . dated 28 Ramazan 1302 (11 July 1885).6 s h o w s the e t h n i c a n d r e l i g i o u s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f I s t a n b u l ' s p o p u l a t i o n a n d its e n v i r o n s i n 1 8 9 7 .977 3. 1897 Ethnic Group Turks Albanians Kurds Greeks Armenians Jews Serbians Christian Arabs Total Number 597. Vedat Eldem claimed. second.41 . pp. this source is to be found in the archives of the municipal library i n Istanbul. 1885 Commerce. based on the same lists. T h e f i g u r e s g i v e n f o r 1885.1 74.994 No.013.465 12. a n d social c o n f l i c t w h i c h beset t h e e n t i r e O t t o m a n state i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y are easily observable i n the statistics for I s t a n b u l .0 57. t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f greater I s t a n b u l h a d reached 1. f i r s t .2 48. Shaw.49 . See Stanford J.5 31.609 8 Number 51.r e l i g i o u s r e a l i g n m e n t : M u s l i m s w e r e h e a v i l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e bureaucracy.979 3. 146. de l'industrie et de l'administration et de la magistrature (1896). The census of 1897 does not provide a distribution of population according to ethnic origin.297 % of Population 25.5 47.5 75.292 24. especially.58 .52 20.870 3.000 1.955 1.12 The c o n c l u s i o n s expressed i n this c h a p t e r are s u p p o r t e d by t h e statistics. that the ethnic a n d r e l i g i o u s character o f t h e c i t y w a s c h a n g e d drastically b y t h e i n f l u x o f large n u m b e r s o f M u s l i m s .5 25. 53..7 . See BA (I)/(D)/65848. o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . dated 11 Teşrinevvel 1298 (23 October 1882). A f t e r 1882 t h e c i t y p o p u l a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o i n crease. I compiled this list from various official sources. including Büyük Ada. Ibid.43 1.5 No 88. A v a r i e t y o f g o v e r n m e n t sources i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e n u m b e r o f i m m i g r a n t s w e n t f r o m 30.676 1.0 27. 54 51.183 1.6 .09 .286 45. 412 Number of male residents only. Table 5. Ethnic D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I s t a n b u l P o p u l a t i o n . 56. a l t h o u g h v e r y u s e f u l for i n d i c a t i n g t h e t y p e of d w e l l i n g s i n w h i c h the city residents l i v e d .7 5.000 1.1 32. Ü s k ü d a r .000.4 27.866 35. p. B y 1885 a l m o s t 60 p e r c e n t o f the city's residents h a d b e e n b o r n e l s e w h e r e . for more extensive information on the census of 1882.000 47.000 Table 5.013. t h e s u m o f 400. the Bulgarian population by about 13. 8 . O c c u p a t i o n s o f I s t a n b u l Residents. the h i g h l y r e m u n e r a t i v e w e s t e r n .M u s l i m s e m p l o y e d i n trade a n d i n d u s t r y — t h a t is. 33 Source: Stanford J Shaw. Trade.238 1.8 93.19 State Service % of Total in Occupation 95 34 1.339 91.n a t i v e s w a s e v e n greater.6 71.000 i n 1906. that the total population of Istanbul in 1896 was 1.000 162. b y 1896/97. 5 7 Religious Group Muslim Greek Orthodox Armenian Orthodox Bulgarian Catholic Jewish Protestant Latin Total Population 201.039 68. 54.000 i n 1880 t o 200.000 10.8 51.494 19. 52.984 348 490 1 150 99 3 28 24.2 61.4 368 43.679 46 3. 55. 412. T h u s .211 1.394 488 528 407. Shaw.334 107 348 211.41 26.586 68.9 24.181. ' Total P o p u l a t i o n of I s t a n b u l .6 53 5.995 22 1." Tarih Dergisi 32 (March 1979): 411 the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t w a s t o c o n d u c t a census just o f n o n iMuslims. i m m i g r a n t s a n d bekars. i t b e i n g d e c i d e d o n l y at the last m i n u t e t o c o u n t the M u s l i m s also. a n d K a d i k ö y .209 22.044 633 224 206 125. a n d the increase in their majority continued unabated into the twentieth c e n t u r y .103 % of Population 11.950 houses).115. "The Population of Istanbul In the Nineteenth Century.5.690. P o p u l a t i o n o f I s t a n b u l i n 1885: N a t i v e s a n d Newcomers • Female Those Born Outside of Istanbul Male % 48.512 58. 2 1 1 .9 Total 241.8. ethnic.764 78.5 .7 60.036 376 1.029 118 261 126. w i t h t h e c i t y p r o p e r h a v i n g 8 7 5 .12 . pp.0 81. de l'industrie et de I'administration et de la magistrature (1896).34 5. as w e l l as the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n o f the city. .9 25.331 2.000 236.720 1.32 25.0 75. see Osmanli imparatorluğunun iktisadi Şartiari Hakkinda Bir Tetkik (Ankara. Before t h e e n d o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e M u s l i m s h a d reached a n absolute n u m e r i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y .503 19. Industry % Of Totals in Occupations 49.3 94.722 42. Source: Stanford J.000 5.03 4. See Annunire oriental du commerce.565 105.998 594 473 406.984 123 251 133.977 70.4 ." p. Female No 95.300 9. f i n a l l y .533 21.550 % 27.300 23.073 33.e t h n i c g r o u p s i n g o v e r n m e n t a n d n o n g o v e r n m e n t service are g i v e n i n Table 5 .4 55.250 18.5 Number 22.01 .5 s h o w s the general p o p u l a t i o n p i c t u r e i n 1896/97.115.000 and underestimated the Serbian and. O c c u p a t i o n a l data s h o w a d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f professions a n d a n e t h n o .3 62. 1 55.7 97.363 225 609 337.783 6.466 OTTOMAN POPULATION.059.7 37. and villages along the Bosporus) Üsküdar Kadıköy Total ." Tarih Dergisi 32 (1979): 411.684 24 2. T h e statistics s h o w as w e l l the increased u r b a n i z a t i o n of the capital a n d the c u l t u r a l a n d social changes t a k i n g place there. 71-72.104 T a b l e 5.40 22. 3 2 . p. 1830-1914 THE POPULATION A N D THE SOCIAL A N D E C O N O M I C T R A N S F O R M A T I O N OF ISTANBUL 105 Table 5.472 53. T h e e c o n o m i c changes t h a t caused t h e r e l i g i o u s .13 % of Totals in Occupation 38.2 99 5 52. 1970).6. a c c o r d i n g to a reliable source. Pera. see IUKTY 8949/b.' 57. 52.1 Those Born in Istanbul Male Religious Group Muslim Greek Orthodox Armenian Orthodox Bulgarian Catholic Jewish Protestant Latin Total Total 143. 3 6 Table 5.3 47. T h u s t h e census o f 1882.

The information in this table has been collected from a variety of sources. Dates vary in the sources. as some refer to the time the decision to build was made. Üsküdar. • Yildiz Palace Hamidiye Mosque . Koca Mustafa Paşa.Palaces and Mnsoues Public Works and Institutions REIGN OF MAHMUO II (1 808-1 839) Kağitnane Palace (1808) Beyazid firetower (wooden) (1808) Nusretiye (Tophane) Mosque (1821) Medical and surgery schools (182/) First steamboat (Üsküdar) (1828) Selimiye barracks finished (1829) Regular postal service established (1832) Military Academy founded (1834) Wood bridge between Unkapan and Azapkapi (Galata) built (1836) STATISTICAL APPENDICES SECTION I GENERAL OTTOMAN POPULATION STATISTICS FROM CENSUSES.1 876) Valide Mosque (1867-76) Ortaköy Çiragan Palace (1867-76) Tunnel company (1868) Streetcar company (1869) Teacher's college for girls (1870) Ottoman University (Darülfünun-u Osmani) (1870-71) Maritime Administration (1872) Haydarpaşa-lzmlt and Istanbul-Edirne-Filibe railroads opened (1873) Gas depot at Dolmabahce (1874) Istanbul water company (1875) Military barracks at MecidiyekSy Ruşdiye military schools at Fatih.1 861 ) Dolmabahce Palace (wooden) finished (1853) Start of university building (1845) Bridge between Eminönü and Galata ( ı 8 4 b ) Night duty established for doctors (1845) Treasury and document archives (1846) Şirket-ı Hayriyye Navigation Company (1850) Science Academy (Encümen-I Oaniş) (1851) Bridge built in 1836 enlarged (1853) Haliç Navigation Company (1857) Pangalti (Harbiye) Military Academy (completed ?) State Archives building (completed ?) ABDULAZIZ (1 8 6 1 . while others indicate the beginning or the end of actual construction. REGISTERS. AND YEARBOOKS ABDUL MECIO (1 8 3 9 . Sogukçeşme ABDULHAMID II (1 876-1 909) Bosporus gas depots (1879) Yedikule gas company (1886) Üsküdar and Kadıköy Water Company (1866) Kadikoy gas company (1890) Istanbul docks (1890) Haydarpaşa docks (1898) Museum of Antiquity Fine arts school (Oarülbedai) New postal and telegraph building Land registration office Note.

585 10.479 2.723 5.507 1.683 816 3.422 3.067 2.760 7.517 7.202 3.580 545 12.341 4.586 7.619 4.755 2.596 1.112 10.195 5.104 3.826 6.323 11.404 7.667 17.745 3.819 686.7.041 4.875 18.540 10. Akçar.479 5.196 1.473 833 5.000 16.040 18.514 1.616 382 15.858 1.897 16.368 18.334 13.444 3.327 4.187 748 16.986 3.678 58. a l t h o u g h t h e y have been s y s t e m a t i z e d a n d m i n o r corrections m a d e .214 2.1. and Esterlik (N) Köprülü Perlepe Samakov Köstendi! Behişte Kesrlye Persepe Manastir Florina Istrova Hotpeşte Nasliç Iştip Koçana Kumanova TOTAL.776 4.294 1717 2.254 39 62 72 1.773 812 1.449 2.658 2.501 39. 8.767 3.031 1.525 2.154 1.436 5.260 6.253 1.804 178 1.643 2.700 20. b u t t h e t e r m c a r r i e d also some connotation of "Latin-speakers" (i.992 44.215 11. R o m a n i a n ) .582 9.176 3.124 1. " R o m a n C a t h o l i c s " w e r e those w h o w e r e o u t r i g h t Catholics d i r e c t l y a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the Vatican (as o p p o s e d t o those w h o s e c h u r c h e s m e r e l y accepted the a u t h o r i t y of R o m e ) .695 24.528 789 1.618 4.289 420 390 450 111 232 89 335 705 365 57 43 275 1.543 5.775 109 .558 7 762 Radovışte Nevrekop Menlik Timurhisar Zihne Siroz (Sarai) Selanik (Salomka) Yenice! Vardar Vodine Karaferiye Ağustos Perzinek Iznebol Ustrumca Toyran Karadağ Avrathisar Dupnlçe Radomir Ivraca Kratova.678 10.660 11.190 629 1.108 2.211 14. The terms t r a d i t i o n a l l y a p p l i e d to citizens of the various religious persuasions i n the O t t o m a n Empire acquired d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g s a n d n e w census categories w e r e a d d e d as e t h n i c .938 554 1.260 20.651 5.549 916 1.712 1.360 10. g .661 2.990 1.672 5.489 11. .795 1.052 737 4.048 6.846 22. The Ottoman Population in Certain Districts of Rumili (Rumelia) and A n a t o I i a .391 12.422 3.752 3.292 499 1. Ivraniye. persons speaking E u r o p e a n languages).007 54 1.954 1.502 18.229 2.596 21.244 3." The term " A r m e n i a n s " (Gregorians) o r i g i n a l l y w a s u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e m e m b e r s of t h e A r m e n i a n O r t h o d o x c h u r c h .176 3.170 8.1.727 836 4.592 3. l a t e r .867 2.630 5.564 8.010 6.852 3.714 51 73 5.282 10.792 8.755 3.511 4.027 755 1. Bucak Çarşamba Semce Tıkveş Petnç 3.991 914 1. a n d those w h o ret a i n e d their allegiance t o t h e I s t a n b u l p a t r i a r c h a t e a n d to o t h e r Greek n a t i o n a l c h u r c h e s ( e .620 4.568 11.083" 1.099 1061. as s o m e e t h n i c A r m e n i a n s accepted other faiths. continued 848 887 127 794 464 403 29 2.732 888 151 546 334 108 332 4.674 22.920 3.080 7.941 6.949 11.746 9.467 19.721 5.745 1. T h u s t h e totals g i v e n i n census lists u p to 1881/82 d o n o t i n c l u d e females.017 16.043 5 154 81.237 4.794 2.504 8.118 51 3.811 3.580 3.068 262 627 .076 1.815 2.596 170 102 13.79 962 1.001 20.176 16.681 10.107 8.077 131 25 126 9.924 57 24 64 11.032 3.693 6.377 5.489 575 366 44 3 100 900 472 88 5.344 3.n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g b u r g e o n e d i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h cent u r y .095 Üsküdar and Manastır ( N ) _ Edirne (kaza') Üsküdar (N) Manastır (N) Çdke (N) Ada (N) Tırfelli (village) Jews and Armenians (6 localities) Çisn Muştala Paşa Çirmen Çirpan Ahlçelebi Akçakizanllk Zağraiatık Dimetoka Ferecık Meğri Gumülcine Yenıceikerasu Uzuncaabat Hasköy Sultanyeri Drama Cığlacik and San Şaban Tırnova Hutallç (N) Torluk (N) Sahra (Nl Filibe Tatarpazarı (Pazarcık) ihtaman Sofya Şehırköy Pravışte Bereketlu Kavala Beı-Kofca Cuma Pazarı Ear.862" 9.550 5.574 9.920 1.798 3.886 1.440 887 127 794 464 403 29 12.860 971 177 542 684 2 203 666 274 850 1.674 4.642 7.443 18.486 13.434 9.304 7.463 4.541 1.162 24.653 83 886 379 259 119 10.437 13.172 5.539 918 3.996 1.702 5.993 12.867 4.081 2.994 17.037 2.286 24.171 3.907 8.161 1.883 11.680 151 215 131 3.457 15.557 8.739 29.001 12.543 5.") " L a t i n s " were o l d E u r o p e a n C a t h o l i c s .. w a y s .444 Çekmeceıkebır Çekmeceısagır Tiirkeşçıttiığı Reaya (6 kazas) Tekturdağl Inecik Malkara Gelibolu Şarköy Bergos Çorlu Ereğli Babayiatik Havas Mahmutpaşa Hayrabolu Evreşe Inoz Keşan Çisriergene İpsala Edirne (town) Ada (N) Çûke (N) 12.411 739 260 494 642 1.598 5.730 7.454 3 893 14.479 10.730 33.395 20. d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h cent u r y i t a c q u i r e d a n a r r o w e r m e a n i n g .792 181 32 ' 45 24 6.404 6.879 12. Karalom.955 2.378° 2. By the e n d of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y " G r e e k " h a d c o m e t o m e a n simply "Greek-speaking peoples.174 1.748 9.051 1. J j 3 1 District Muslims Reaya a Oensui Gypsies' Jews Armenians Total Census District Muslims Reaya 3 Gypsies* c Jews Armenians Total EUROPE' RUMELİ EYALET Çatalca (N) Silivri Midye Terkos e EUROPE RUMELİ EYALET.051 956 2.766 3.172 7.613 7.042 5.749 4.051 7.152 5.486 2.910 938 6 .269 408 4. T h e t e r m " G r e e k s " ( R u m ) o r i g i n a l l y e n c o m p a s s e d all O r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n s .404 6.692 6.090 4.1 N o t e s : I t s h o u l d be k e p t i n m i n d t h a t t h e b o u n d a r i e s of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s l i s t e d i n t h e census reports a n d other statistics i n t h i s section w e r e c o n s t a n t l y being changed i n minor.286 110.747 1.e. the C h u r c h o f C y p r u s ) c a m e to be t e r m e d " O r t h o d o x Greeks." The O r t h o d o x c h u r c h was b r o k e n u p into various n a t i o n a l c h u r c h e s ( B u l g a r i a n .772 2.385 692 30.716 16. Serbian. t h e r e f o r e .734 2.747 2.835 235 3.374 17. RUMELİ EYALET SILISTRE EYALET Niğbolu Sancak Selvı Izladı Etripolu Lofça Plevne Rahova Sıpre (Çire) Niğbolu Zıştoy Rusçuk (Russe) Yanbolu Nevahiı Yanbolu Zağraicedıt Yenlceı Kızılağaç and Hatunil Niş Prızren Yehud Tırguvişte Gude Usküp Kalkandelen Krçova TotaL Niğbolu Sancak 3.836 497 1.806 2.467 750 1.251 8.893 3.097 3.137 1.291 4.929 955 ' 8.718 14.125 3. h o w e v e r . The figures i n t h e O t t o m a n official statistics are n o t corrected i n accordance w i t h t h e p r o c e d u r e o u t l i n e d i n C h a p ter 1 .557 10.722 3.942 1.631 2.007 26.959' 2 021 344« 344 — 178 — 0 7.216 7.891 5.526 197.663 5.754 8. t h e C h u r c h of Greece.048 6700 10.329 1.577 7.374 2.973 14.070 2.588 21.580 545 12.262 4.363 7.064 40.056 4.830 24. a n d sometimes major. and Belgratçik Çunarka.459 12.182 6 611 10.681 8.452 6. and Palangai Eğridere Vidin.622 12.313 568 6.557 1.273 633 89 1.031 1.882 181 2.669 4.253 896 1. Comparisons s h o u l d be m a d e w i t h c a u t i o n .281 44.124 2.163 94 145 32.766 2.276 337.869 3.924 3.942 10.141 11.108 2. (Some N e s t o r i a n s j o i n e d t h e A r m e n i a n O r t h o d o x c h u r c h and were termed " A r m e n i a n Nestorians.051 7. Godgoskaca.526 23.339 2.525 37.429 5. a n d n o percentage-of-error a d d i t i o n s have b e e n m a d e i n a n y list.835 235 8.165 1.700 8.282 21.649 2.593 4.692 27.898 5.718 967 1.782 10.097 12.313 .766 2.761 511 248 5.512 6.350 682 4.368' 6. w h i c h c o n t i n u e d to use the O r t h o d o x rites (all o f B y z a n t i n e o r i g i n ) but w e r e g i v e n their o w n c o l u m n s i n later censuses.243 3. the terms "Catholic Armenians" and "Protestant A r m e n i a n s " were introduced.734~ 2.733 1 482 2.573 1.

332 1.269 1.137 2.752 3.888 2.382 1.250 4.839 2.713 1.ni.517 5.338 7.844 2.267 14.196 5.276 4.720 501 609 7.387 5.305 3.586 2.852 6.988 10.338 7.065 1.300 8.532 6.275 8.521 4.817 4.874 1.285 118 139 Total. Hüdavendıgsr Sancak skişehir Sancak Eskişehir (town) Seyidgazi Karacaşehir Bilecik İnönü Karanisar Sandıklı Şuhud Sancakli Karamık Çap Çöle Bolvadin Han Cadcende Padcende Total.478 1.004 4.226 1.874 1.846 9.306 3.192 2.576 6.376 8.586 2.149 4.293 795 218 226 3.426 8.450 14.986 3.004 4.693 168 0 168 7.837 1.822 6.761 669 1.920 1.597 4.137 2. Aydın Sancak Saruhan Sancak 150.521 52 1.586 447 0 0 0 51.1.303 1.718 858 2.356 3.123 3.456 1.196 5.853 19.939 2.205 21.450 7.975 7.617 69 10.324 57.998 7.399 8.732 847 847 22 657 — 520 3.908 2.044 787 1.993 1.491 23.297 912 1.542 5.281 4.063 2.655 1.226 204 2.604 5.512 3. conlınued Çankırı (Kengırı) Sancak Çankiri Kalecik Koçtıısar Keskin Milan Karacaviran Bicure Şabanözü (including Inailu tribe) Tuht Ksrgi Tosya Öküz Kurşunlu Boğaz Çerkeş Karipazari Reaya Total.586 4.602 2.ed Sılıstre Sancak Varna Isakçı (Isacceaı Mineye Balçık anı! Kuvar.454 1 661 596 845 948 1.687 6.360 3.861 6.569 1.403 2.654 4.455 2.140 1.456 1.226 2.462 5.424 1.838 4.098 833 1.281 4.766 991 1.199 2.999 1.345 4.926 1.072 727 1. Saruhan Sancak Muğla Sancak Izmir (town) Urla Ayasefid Birunabad Tiryanda Cumaabad Karaburun Çeşme Seferihisar Kuşadasi Söke 87.828 2.766 3.319 1.550 5.285 47 333 2.040 2.515 2.452 4.521 4.002 2.017 823 213 15 11 120 911 227 95 27 15 16 26 92 29 3 13 110 49 3 2 _698 370 162 64 15 73 336 1 12.725 5.917 3.114 5.983 7.261 604 922 3. Çankiri (Kengırı) Sancak Bolü Sancak Bolu (town) Devrek Gerede Total.472 708 1.376 8.557 6.975 7.203 5.290 3.192 2.693 168 0 0 147.188 49.604 5.838 155.730 6.033 Köşkderesi Köşk Daltica Vakıf Ayasuluğ Tribes Total.346 0 532 543 767 10.563 2.588 12.692 4.506 2.297 912 1.385 757 8 542 5.CTSUS Dısincı Muslims Reaya 3 Gypsies* Jews Armenians Total Census District Muslims Reaya 3 Gypsies' Jews Armenians Total EUROPE SMJSTRE EVAtET.427 553 694 1.391 472 5.730 12.642 2.462 5 585 1.191 750 998 981 4.020 2. excluding Nomads Nomadic tribes Total.270 2.758 3.358 3.472 706 1.711 1. Kütahya Sancak 147.063 2.188 O 136 136 0 Reaya 6.002 2.305 3.303 1.425 2.800 16.107 2.441 256 15" 5 0 20 0 90 256 105 5 _ 6.602 2.163 761 300 14.692 4.1.655 1.250 3.058 6.789 430" 806 882 475 248 892 240 196 105 698 381 618 144 684 951 930 454 786 590 278 732 6.663 2.042 1.099 256.642 2.243 6.597 4.986 3.001 3.961 6.512 3.795 1.975 0 0 5.089 2.191 750 998 981 4.410 989 4.747 861 2.326 6. ! - 1 573 605 15 630 52 821 386 986 592 1.089 2. 3_.317.260 87 1.833 2.853 19.149 Tota'.384 8.532 990 30 2.063 1.663 2.840 3.122 1.972 2.635 Total.975 2.080 6.698 2.313 100.822 6.779 33 905 178 10.666 50.062 1.849 5.346 8.742 2.088 5. Kastamonu Sancak Arapsun (39) Haymanateyn 1.723 0 627 2.919 7.718 2.285 3 285 14.263 2.683 2.908 447 Aydm Sancak Güzelhisar Tire Bayindır Ödemiş Bırgi Kılas Balabanyolu SarrJ and Salihli Dağmarmarasi Alaşehir Kestel and Nazilli Yenişehir Bozdoğan Kuyucak Arpaz İnegöl Atça Sultanhisar Amasya Beypazari • 11.975 2.079 1.027 7.107 2.607 2.692 4 49 66 5 1 32 74 Mandiçe Balat Karpuzlu Çine Şahme Talma Ineabad Kızilhisar Immigrants Yorüks Foreigners 1.776 226 4.688 2.178 7.290 468 12.839 2.122 1.744 2.132 627 2.776 226 4.706 2.761 669 1. Bolu Sancak Kastamonu Sancak Kastamonu Taşköprü Boyabat Gökçeağac Devregan Sinop Gerze Saray Çanli Akkaya Islatan Ayandon Gineulu İnebolu Hoşalay Cide Zari Kuremuhas Azdavay Devrekani Güney Göl Çilene Eflani Merküze Araç Yoruks (01 Araç) Sarp Boya! Gerede Akyürken Puşiyens (reîigious order) Ankara Sancak Ankara (town) Ayaş Murtazaabat Sutla (N) (45) (49) (67) s v ANATOLIA ANDOLU EYALET.027 5.557 3.607 2.678 ANATOLIA' ANADOLU EYALET Kütahya Sancak Kütahya (town) Kütahya (Nj Emrüdlli (N) Örencik (N) Giray (N) Tavşanlı G ü m ü ş (N) Altuntaş (N) Uşak Niyaz (N) Kula Eşme Sirke Küre Inay Silindi ûamşmentîuyukeöir (Keteş) Çal Emet Simav Dağardi Gediz and Şaphane Şeyhli (Şehlu) Tazkıri (Şehlu) Kenliler (Şehlu) Soma (Şehlu) Balkan (Şehlu) Yöruks Gypsies Total.405 95.387 5.290 3.998 6.569 1.180 1.083 6.160 434 1. Eskişehir Sancak 10.489 2.709 6.358 3.098 833 1.319.062 1. c nt.766 3.306 3.559 4. Sılıstre Sancak TOTAL.286 3.482 3.399 8.498 701 231 1 237 1.403 2.752 3.917 4.290 468 2.999 1.928 1.293 795 218 226 3.398 1.342 783.840 1.226 204 2.755 2.795 1.619 7 40.496 6.550 5.333 8.758 3.476 1.327 5.713 2.384 4.908 447 12.579 1.410 989 4.270 2.385 757 8.261 604 922 3.970 487. 1831 (continued) Census DiSU.530 1.142 8.861 6.678' : 0 346 366 7.171 1.892 2.470 8.133 0 2.876 2.853 167 39 37 125 25 41 21 19 358 38 273 449 300 231 146 146 287 223 2.917 3.452 4.197 746 2.298 1. EUROPE 1 ANATOLIA ANDOLU EYALET cent need Hudavendıgar Sancak ANATOLIA (UvDDLU EYALET.713 2.520 2.167 1.413 8.050 385 1.419 2.835 2.450 7.092 1.„530 50 11 2.465 1.ct Muslims Reaya 3 1.912 2.972 2.298 1.092 1.802 2.308 .840 1.257 • 1. Muğla Sancak 520 74 757 6.345 4.852 6.319 1.947 2.494 Bursa ttown) Bursa (villages) Inegol Yenişehir Lelke Goipazar: TaraKli Tobralı Köynek Karamiha! Karanisar Nail Gümüşabad Nalllhan and Kuzupazarı Beypazari Küüük Mihalıççı Gunyuzü Seferihisar Sogüt Yarhısar Pazarcık Domaniç Harmancık Gemlik Mudanya Mihaliç Soma and Kirkağaç Gönen Gökçedağ Kepsut Kirmasti Aydincik Ayvacik Bergama Nevahii 8ergama llicaı Bergama Atranos Cebelicedid (N) Kete Cebetıatik (N) Bayramiç Kozak Tribes Total.560 219 674 1 124 358 538 6 54 30 23 213 38 35 29 21 11 22 55 23 31 .912 2.365 9.462 2.939 2.496 6.027 7.647 108 1 205 1.58a 12.266 1.008 960 2.203 5.637 2.744 2.917 4.263 2.267 122 575 3.557 6.118 8.635 2.482 4. Ankara Sancak 110 111 .177 1. 3.709 381 609 6.159 2.1 The Ottoman Population i n R u m i l i and Anatolia.592 5.462 2.252 11.519 1.754 2.506 2. The Ottoman Population in R u m i l i and Anatolia.641 1.520 2.618 4. 17 29 3 75 73 99 4.042 1.384 4.na Kartala -vıllag-e Maçın Köstence Hırsova Tulça Kannabad Babadağ!" Doskasrı Aydos Yenipazar Pravadı Umurlakıh Kozluca Pazarcık Çardak Tolai.831 56.876 2.834 3.702 3.825 7.552 2.425 2.374 4.860 3.084 4. SILISTRE EYALET TOTAL.470 8.42) Şorba (62) Çubukabat (90) Yoruks (ot Ankaraj Yabanabad (95) Bala (N) (49) Reaya and Jews Total.417 1.313 107.971 96.837 4.800 169.354 62.358 5.470 2. 1831 (continued) Reaya 3 Gypses 1 3 Jews Armenians Tolai Census District Muslims Gypsies 5 Jews Armenians Total r.491 23.947 2.043 0 0 0 67.557 3.919 7. continued 3.877 2.088 5.450 13.586 4.790 3.413 8.585 1.988 10.455 2.123 3.482 3.

060 4. 552 1. 2 2 5 Total.933 1.932 4.106 47.391 2.706 Dadya 1.389 2.839 527 623 1.593 — 0 6.987 767 404 1 241 965 1 721 1. ANADOLU EYALET Gv.32i Yerkeskı 740 Mesul! 1.371 8.466 36.843 0 0 0 93.318 10.629 1.979 2.014 18.062 2.253 14.148 539 0 0 0 35.713 1.919 1.057 18.277 966 13.879 7. and Kelkurasl Kedegre (Köprü) Havza Ladik Gümüş Madeni Haclköy Zeytin Merzifon Total.156 3.792 10.s es : Jéws Armen ans Tela: Census District Reaya' ANATOLIA Gypsies" Jews Armenians j i The Ottoman Population i n R u m i l i and Anatolia.186 229.680 8.457 6.945 4.257 2.724 942 961 7.845 2.014 3..505 10.258 7.373 989 2.032 569 995 1.062 7.190 Troloz 1.710 2. Divriği Sancak Bozok Sancak Yozgat (town) Kızilkoca Selmanli Budaközu Akdağ Sorkun Karahisar Behramşah Gedikçubuk Emlak Suleymanli BDğazliyan Reaya Total.250 5.860 37.817 1.682 17.225 1.826 527 247 679 O 147 1. continued Amasya Sancak Amasya (town) Ezinepazari.033 4.242 12.793 831 4.060 4.864 ' SİVAS EYALET Sivas Sancak .435 10.225 59.479 3.294 2.076 60.775 55.652 4.450 4.506 895 41.ye Total.997 2.745 3.809 358 65 155 7 3.952 2.005 18.215 168 6.731 7.322 5.502 5.929 7.220 2.282 942 1.680 8. içel Sancak Alaiye Sancak Aleiye Söker (including Dusenbıh) Manavgat ibrsdı Nevahiı Ala.204 ' 1 710 2.188 10.290 3.307 2 007» 1.935 0 10.541 683 _ 0 _ 0 2.051 3.633 Kerme 779 Köyceğiz 3.893 —-—~~~~ IRANIAN EYALET Konya (town) Konya (villages) Konya Sancak Beyşehir (town) Beyşehir (villages) Beyşehir Sancak Akşehir (town) Akşehir (villages) Akşehir Sancak Aksaray (town) Aksaray (villages) Aksaray Sancak Kayseriyye (town) Kayseriyye (villages) Kayseriyye Sancak Niğde (town) Niğde (villages) Niğde Sancak Kirşehir (town) Kırşehir (villages) Kirşehir Sancak Nomadic tribes 1 33 ANATOLIA SİVAS EYALET.326 8. Sancak Tola' ot towns and villages m 12 kazas YÖrüks (nomads] Total.735 2.498 4.842 1.248 1.321 2.420 2. 1831 (continued) Muslims Reaya 3 Gypsies' Jews Armenians Reaya 3 Gypsies' Jews Armenians ANATOLIA 2.005 5.047 2.893 1.736 1. The Ottoman Population in R u m i l i and An Census 0 s!.721 Meğn 1. Akdağ. Amasya Sancak TOTAL.250 Müas 5.178 6.000 845 245 113 107 550 .933 1.135 6.037 49.405 2.371 8.138 756 127 10 62 111 123 458 91 30 289 23 1.462 1.411 3.173.672 1.199 2.195 3.775 2.349 659 661 6.842 1.793 831 4.199 2.104 52 2.058 2.987 2.190 1 354 331 3.058 2.219 5.772 2. contır Teke Sancak Antalya (town) Antalya (viliagesl istanoz (N) Elmali Kaş Kalkat Fenike Eğridir and Kaddıç Serik. Karesi Sancak Viranşehir Sancak Viranşehir Şahabeddın Kizilbe! Yenice Çarşamba Perşembe Bendereğli Bartin Amasri (Amasra) Ulus Safranbolu Eflani Kiçno Zerzene Aktaş Tefen Ova Börek Kurukavak Reaya (in Safranboiu.346 505 520 2. SİVAS EYALET 2 981 6 835 2.210 3.261 Talaman 1.321 740 1.343 801 323 3.914 6.051 7.038 4.075 11.343 801 323 3.307 1.459 5.N) Gebranes 757 Uzunlu 40i Ağırdos 1.870 16 37.393 4.095 1.649 1. Alaıye Sancak TOTAL.745 9.281 6.960 1.110 8.879 1.2J1 Doğer 985 Eşen 1.578 52.928 41 293 2.012 112 65.349 659 661 6 581 33.259 4.807 4.913 2.210 3.781 .492 3.379 8.033 4.268 — 0 1 .168 411 8.282 Tarahya 942 Ula 1.1.963 5.037 6.629 1.037 6.218 4.888 3.322 4.919 1.261 1.948 41.682 17.914 6.007 631 1.135 6.220 2.690 196 196 36 36 52 52 7.084.900 3.411 3.016 7.157" _99 705 0 197 10.047 2.290 966 13.906 5.104 Nomads (ot Milas) 505 Foreıgners 468 Non-Muslıms Total.501 1.110 8.908 11.254 1.581 33.573 3.171 1. Çorum Sancak Canik Sancak 270 21.171 4.703 4.032 569 995 1. Zennunahad.462 1.775 40.735 2.593 60 0 0 327.259 4.466 21.790 14.727 270 1.382 1.389 2.443 8.218 7.512 2.110 1.051 2.393 4.248 1.960 1.310 2.255 1.384 2.931 9.498 4.321 2.86f 481 .310 2.512 2.25a 7. ADANA EYALET 30.387 Yarangure ı.391 2.502 1.007 631 1. Bartın.110 1.354 Eskihısar 331 Subıce 3.261 1.593 115.987 2.830 ANOOL'J EYALET. Bendereğli) Total. Tarsus Sancak içe.879 1.241 Settied tribes TOTAL.457 8.743 3.813 2.492 3.218 7.706 1. KARAMAN EYALET ADANA EYALET Adana Sancak Adana (town) Yuregif (villapes) Yüregir (N) Akçakoyunlu (tribe) Sam Bayatı (commumty) Dindarlu (tribe) Sarıcam (tribe) Aşaği Dindarın Karaisalı Bılan Sancak 481 717 Total.ued Menteşe Sancak Muğla 2 981 Tavas 6 835 2.062 7.839 278.930 1.1.731 7.076 1.819 2.931 9.538 37.574 .567 5.930 1.171 3.343 Gökabad 472 Karaova 790 Mandalyan 2.633 779 3 343 472 790 2. and Geldikten (N) Day. .016 4.839 0 2.649 2.672 1.460 .751 2.353 895 41.713 1.679 7."c! Mus: r s Reaya' ANATOLIA AN00LU EYALET cont .Mi and Has Bucak and Germiye Kizılkaya Immigrants Tribes Tahtacı and Apdallar (Alevi groups! Total.271 699 4.025 3.643 2.443 8.011 3. Beşkonak Karavelüer (.487 2.908 11.140 1.206 394 1.140 1.817 1.373 Mazon 989 Bozüyük 2. Azır Sancak Tarsus Sancak Tarsus (town) Kusun Yörük communities Elvanlı Ulaş Kuş-tımur Namrun Karabah tribe Gökçe Total.893 2.163 411 9.150 6.839 527 623 1.362 729 5.148 539 35.025 3.182 2.256 15.422 60 0 0 60 6.724 942 961 7.075 11. Menteşe Sancak Hamit Sancak İsparta Pavlu Eğridir Karaağaç Afşar Yalvaç Hoyran Uluborlu Badle Ağros Günan Keçiborlu Ağlasun İncir Burdur Karaağaç Kemerbamıt Ibrala and Boyce Güfhisar Tefenni and Siroz Denizli Honaz Ezıneılazkıye Ezıneiçarsamba Gökünük TotaL Hamıt Sancak 49. Viranşehir Sancak TOTAL. 4.450 4.398 3.955 4.891 2.307 1.583 2 665" 2.03a 4.600 50 188 2.053 134 14 419 314 222 444 • 644 2.713 1. 12.843 92.736 1.012 8.769 13.069 7.997 2. Bozak Sancak Çorum Sancak Çorum " İskilip Osmancik Hacihamzaöerbendı Saz 5 97.573 3.076 Bodrum 1.012 28.166 263.819 2.710 Kurds and other tribes 1. Adana and Bilan Sancaks Azir Sancak Azı/ Derbendi Misis (village) Totai.963 5. Teke Sancak Karesi Sancak Balıkesir Gelenbe Kozak Bigadiç Slndirgi Kemer Ayazmend Manyas Hat and Aşami Edremit İvrindi Ayvalik Total.

971 2. Boynumcelu. ( rj here. Source: Defter (register) entitled "Mema!ik-i Mahrusa-i Şahanede 1247 Senesinde Mevcut Olan Nüfus Defteri. Tarsus (town) Kusun. as indicated by later censuses.491 310 1.787 taxable inhabitants. while the most important unit in the division was the sancak. Çoke.679 3. although included under Kocaeli Sancak in this list.236 1.102 511 8. The last-named group (known also as Yürük) is of Turkish stock. immediately following. "reaya.083 Yörüks.925 2. ' Includes 750 soldiers.216 2.529 3. no.333 297.323.317. Their number is more or less equal D At the time of the census of 1831 the European section ot the empire consisted of three e/a/eis. the rest lived in villages.224 28. See Hans-Jurgen Kornkrumpf. Kuş-Timur." "nomads.300 20. Kocaeli Sancak Biga Sancak Kalaısultanıye Kumkale Ezineikazdaği 8ayramıç Can Ünye Balye Güvercinlik Biga Lapseki Yörüks Bozcaada (ıslandı İmroz (island) Reaya (foreigners) Exiles (in Bozcaada and Kumkale) Consular service personnel Marmara (island) Paşa lımani Imrali (island) Total. Alevi and other non-orthodox Muslims and persons practicing the trade of charcoal-making {torak).643 105 98." Actually Filibe (ot Phıtlıppopoils) had a large Greek population. n n 0 0 p p figures in parentheses indicate the number of villages in these kazas.968 Muslims and 14 gypsies only. includes 35 persons described as European merchants.058 761 3. 0i "Includes 304 Yörüks.002.515 44. it was conservatively estimated that there were about 250.232 .800 persons classed as fellahin—that is. and 6.785 3 973 5 962 ' 8 432 6. their number should be somewhat less than that of the Muslims.066 1.337 3. and 245 Torak—that is.921 2. 1943).802 35. Despite intensive search. CEZAYİR-! BAHR-l SEFID EYALET 109. Bulgarians.434 10. Ms. or 29. or families.430. "1831 Tarihinde Osmanlı İmparatorluğunda İdari Taksimat ve N ü f u s . I have been unable to locate this register. The census takers occasionally refer also to non-Muslims as a group as "reayay-i milei-i setase. There is no explanation for the failure to indicate the number of Muslims in the Botu Sancak.721 families. meant Orthodox Christians.432 6.821 430 1. ¿4 391 are described as being Bulgarian and 568 as Latin. The original register uses the term "Rumeli" for the European section of the realm.431 0 0 0 6. while the nahiye was the rural district of a kaza. 60 (1961): 617-28 The largest administrative division at the time of the 1831 census was the eyalet. 3.660 2. which is a summary of hundreds ol other registers.431 136. and Manastır are mentioned twice in the original register They are so 114 115 .327 1. n 05 M Includes 4.629 2.431 125. 335 Dikiti. Abdalan. Each census taker in 1830/31 had his own methods.133 5. 4.619 3 1.505 4.236 690 5. u These are specifically described as being Rum.002.530 848 16 43 69 43 10. no 8. ANATOLIA 17. for a total of 3. SE bt 7 h e population of the town of Çorum was 4. 1831 (continued) Reaya 3 G.552 'Of these.360 694 1.382 3.939 4 202 3.547 8. he states.822. Rumeli. m practice. m In this tabulation tor Karaman Eyalet. has been used.121 11. occasionally referring to them by their ethnic name.108 957 3.1. for the administrative listing.980 918 1. Includes 79 Tahtaci. a/id Evanii.517 3. especially m the Balkans.921 105 297.303 people in 2.400 102 69 773 113.130 1. 2 S cmcludes Jews living in Karlova 0 f these.551 KARS EYALET Visitors and merchants in Kars and Çildir TOTAL.937 310 1.235 were townspeople.275 84.208 632 2.390 8. S e 5. ' 5.799 immigrants.361 were villagers.802 0 5.580 2. 8867." that is.099 Muslim families.046 2. which was composed ol Sarad.505 l n the original register the Muslim and Christian gypsies are listed separately.095 14. except for B a b a d a ğ ! ! have used the second set of figures for this kaza because the number of Christians is given. n does not include results from Kastamonu The figures are included in Karai's work and were taken. is 3. no.878 7.643 18.161°'' 19. and Jews: but more often than not these are listed separately in the old Ottoman tradition. Şile and T a ş k ö p r ü ." Istanbul University.597 5.973 5. see BA. and some Yörüks (Marchers). 49088 A.992 575 1.414 3. Circiv.768 29. and it includes Payas Kaza.972 soldiers.208 2. : ""'"'The listed localities ol Cezayır-i Bahr-i Sefid Sancak are islands. S o m e 135 persons are designated as members of various tribes.035 taxable inhabitants. l n the original register it is stated that the count of Christians in these seven kazas is given in a different register (which could not be located). and Gökçe.302 780 849 342 1.. with the exception of Erdek.236 2.420 29 190 1.016 persons.) a *The original 1831 census register from which most of the figures in this table have been compiled Includes some Catholic Armenians. the Greeks.463 33.434 3 011 1. Cermandelu.107 1. None of the kazas listed in the 1831 census register is listed also in the second register. 1850 the population ol Babadağı (town) consisted of 2.766 51. whereas in the past it had covered all land cultivators regardless of religion: however. despite the fact that administratively Rumeli was an eyalet comprising only a portion of the European territory c The designation !N) after the name of a locality indicates that it is a nahiye (ptural: nevan/)—a rural district of a kaza.985 18. Cezayir-ı Bahr-i Sefıd Sancak TOTAL.856 2.490. therefore the figures 1or Kastamonu are as given m Karal. no. Levane. from a special register for Kastamonu that he found in the library of istanbul University.107 1. and Cebecik.817 tones The foreigners {musteminin) are described as being persons under the protection of foreign powers. Tiryanda.351 Muslims at the same time Babadağ! had a total of 2.936 . The Ottoman Population in R u m i l i and Anatolia. i. 25 218 660 1.505 4614 2.905 1.847 2.614 25 5? 58 1. The census of 1831 for the first time distinguishes the Bulgarians.327 1. Bilan Sancak.164 15. Includes a small number of tribesmen in each eyalet. The kaza was the main judiciary district.208 632 2. 139-55.441 2.571 Künyen [liva] Rize and Hemşın Giresun and Keşap Görele Vakfıkebir and Sağır Polathane Yümrenek Tonyan Sürmene Of Reaya TOTAL. as both Greeks and Armenians were included in the reaya total of Bilan Sancak. and 2.300 20 532 30.862°° 2.707 10.611 4. Egyptians (usually workers In the cotton fields)—who are listed in the Muslim totals of Adana (town). ol whom 1.134 690 4." Miinchener Zeitschrift fur Balkankunde 1 (Munich: Rudolf Trofenik. the 1831 census register gives a iota! of 1.785 3.532 30. and Payas Kaza.547 8. and Bandırma.623 2. The last was not included in the census.741 105 90.667 3.388 3.641.732 2.641 773 2. to be found mostly in the mountainous areas of southern Anatolia.496 814 479 11 569 9. were not actually in that district. Yuregir (village and nahiye).253 3. 877 lived m town.940 11.957 41 25.302 780 849 342 1.es" Jews Armenians Total Census District Muslims Gypsies 5 Jews Armenians Total ANATOLIA CEZAYİR-I BAHR-l SEFID EYALET Kocaeli Sancak Iznikmıt Adapazarı and Sapanca Akhisar Geyve İznik Pazarkoy Yalakabad Karamürsel Kaymas Şeyhler Kandlra and Gençli Ağaçlı Hendek and Akyazı Karasu Ibsafi Sarıçayır Beşdivan Akabad Foreigners Şile" Taşköprü Total.000 Yörüks in Ottoman lands.992 575 1.220 1. Ayasefıd. D-8. Males only were counted in this census. " Belleten 15. 1831 (continued) Census District Muslims Reaya 3 11. The majority of locality names in the fable are of kazas: the names of other types of areas are specifically labeled. A total of 17 livas were included in this census.426 2. Sherefli.333 1. 1978). The Ottoman Population i n R u m i i i and Anatolia.856 2. (See also note q below. Ada. Isatistik ve Defatır Katalog. l n the nineteenth century the term reaya came to be officially applied to Christians in general.660 3. but one may safely estimate that the total oi Christians was not less than 20. (The original register. d e Edirne. Includes 1. or 15.080.756 persons.719 186 127 773 232.442 4. It should be noted that the 1831 census register gives no figures forthe town of Silistre itseli. grouping them in their proper administrative districts (in the register they are listed without regard to administrative boundaries).048 16.742 1. Christians of the three "nations.356 791 3. while 13. was located east of Trabzon. the second sel of totals.962 8.887 78.942 3. EUROPE ANATOLIA GRAND TOTAL 487.622 non-Muslim families. Silistre.940 11.633 224 0 58 0 41. see Osmanlı İmparatorluğunda Ilk Nüfus Sayimı 1831 (Ankara. Cat. Biga Sancak Cezayır-i Bahr-i Sefid Sancak Midilli Kalonya Molva Yunda Limnı Bozbaba Taşoz Semadirek Istankoy Sakiz Rodos Cyprus Erdek Kapu-daği Bandırma Total. "The total population for Urla.910 12 985 18. About ir. reaya.cs. "Zur Verwallungspjıedeıung der Dobrudscha in den letzlen Jahren der Osmanischen Herrschati. Birunabad.686 population in 710 families The total tor the entire km was 3.772 people.821 433 3. Kapu-daği.323 5.323 5. Azır Sancak.131 non-Muslims (229 families). consists of 119 pages of text plus 77 blank pages} Notes: The listing of localities in the original register followed to a large extent the form officially adopted by the General Directorate of Statistics: for that listing. or Greeks.925 2. 180-85. if there is not separate listing of the latter.g.732 2.419 121. headed by a sancakbey (the liva was the equivalent of a sancak).443 3.000. Tarsus (town). Osmanlı İmparatorluğunda.333 439 793 2. Silistre had a total of 3.983 620 111 884 miT5 ANATOL A TRABZON EYALET Trabzon Sancak Trabzon |.164 7. 'Includes 1.282 191 4. Armenians. !J : ^includes some Armenians.253 3.442 4. ÇILDIR AND KARS EYALETS TOTAL. elsewhere they are described "Pavlikan.838 8 558 7.130 SUMMA RY 191 1. the sancak totals include persons living in the district outside the towns and villages 7 ÇILDIR EYALET " 1 73. Serbians. here the two groups are combined into one category. Hatt-ı H ü m a y u n . "Greeks and Armenians are counted together. which are non-insular kazas.194 9. including 2. Üsküdar.861 3 066 1.936 8.836 77." Orthodox.910 12. that is.151 11." "foreigners")—that are totalled for several localities rather than counted separately for each.200 were Muslims. elucidated by notes by Enver Zıya Karal. pp. and Cumaabad is 6. p The nomadic tribes include the Pehüvanlu. 2.392 visitors. This is the sancak area not in the village. Includes Jews.361 55 29 84 0 0 5.755 1. "Includes Tahtacılar (Alevis). Note that there is no explanation for the failure to include any figures for Christians *The total number ot hanes.972 4.297 2.929 2. TRABZON EYALET 6. for a total of 5. or 14.003 224 11.892 783.101 ^In the census of Anatolia the term reaya often includes both the Greek Orthodox and the Armenians. and Bosnia. but I have tried to provide as uniform a listing as possible The totals in this table differ from those of the General Directorate because I have made (minor) necessary recalculations and corrections in the figures and have also rearranged the listed localities. who were numerous in these areas. According to the census of 1866.787 4 177 5. The figures for Babadağ! are from a second register for the census of Silistre apparently compiled alabout the same date as Ihe 1831 census register (and used by Karal).274 1 314 1.. I follow Fazila Akbal. Çildir.099 16. Also listed under "census localities" are some non-geographical designations—the names of groups (e. but this first sel of population totals has been excluded from the final tolals in this section. Azir Sancak.1.206 2 323.755 1. and Vlahs.034 "Muslims were found mostly in the town. y These are specifically mentioned as being Bulgarians Of these.555 Musfims (481 families) and 1.

000.000 3.350.000.160 481.000 235. the inclusion of these two principalities and Serbia distorts the Muslim-Christian ratio in the last section of the table The population of east Arabia is not included in this account.550 26.889 10.677 6.700.744 2.221 4.735 11.4.802 807.959 9.267 16.234 35.385 499 16.882 10.000.841.3.057 340.978 9.309 1.446 2.426.631 3. Ottoman Population in Europe and A s i a .505 175. Notes: Niş is excluded from this table.350.7 54.000 35.000 1.461 131.912 3.788 1.059 29.275 14.000 85.154 2.742 1.000 15.000 4.000 1.0 732.864 187.000 30.431 1.297 SUMMARY Ottoman Population Region Europe Asia Africa (including Egypt) GRAND TOTAL Area (mi ) 2 3.425 610.0 99.410 630.796 72.332 14.618 3.000 728.456 90.965 12.000 4.526 79.100 503.013 2.095.3 1140 3 225. the census figures cannot be found.128 7.029 3.596 34.000.016 8.176 1.600 2.6 Source: A Ritter zur Helle von Samo.5 6723.424 4.000 8.820 2.724 55.203 5.834 20.740 Total 12.265 654.958 304.859 20.479. 1291) Administrative restrict Rusçuk Şumnu Hezargrad Cumaiatik Sılistre Tutrakan Zıştovi Niğbolu Pilevne Total Vidin Lorn Adliye îelgratçik Berkofça vraca Rahova Total Villages 92 156 135 46 235 40 39 61 46 850 64 74 43 Wanes (Families) 13.7 10.773 35.030.000. 22.346 458.000 Total 21.134.212 1.000 5.924 301 3.800.417 Non-Muslims 95.000 4.000 In Africa 3. 478 800.991 34.293 1.589 25.273 17.301.340 10.245.426.448 44.500 191. pp 13-19.359 39.291 11.9 285.086 4.646 685.000 347.400.000 35.000 1.231 4.288 2.000 70. BY ETHNIC ORIGIN In Europe Ottomans (Turks) Greeks Armenians Jews Slavs Rumanians Albanians Tatars Arabs Syrians (Assyrians) and Chaldeans Druses Kurds Turkomans Tsigani (Gypsies) Total 2.998.234 34.0 661.000 1. BY REGION European Turkey Thrace Rumelia and Thessaly Bulgaria Albania Bosnia and the Herzegovina Wallachia scecial Moldavia [• autonomous Servia ! status The Islands (Aegean) Total ( . Notes: Ubicini's figures are based on statistics compiled in the Ottoman census of 1844.901 4.711 2.352 228.954 22.311 973.200 1.000 70.242.200.438 Muslims 143.172 Muslims 24.088 11.000 150.158 151.330 Total 1.404 260.269 7.450.000 6.426 155.548 1.311 6.192 19.737 4.2 1770.817 4. EUROPE Area (mi ) 2 Muslims Non-Muslims Total .866 138.000 120.000.000 30.820.4.431 25.700.000 Source: Tuna Vilayet Salname of 1286.501 1.000 ASIA (1874) Vilayets Istanbul (Asia) Bursa Aydin Cezayir-i Bahr-i Sefid Cyprus Kastamonu Ankara Konya Adana Trabzon and Canik Sivas Erzurum Diyarbekir Baghdad Aleppo Syria Hejaz and Yemen Total Beylik of Samos TOTAL.500.929 100.000 1.260. both overwhelmingly Orthodox Christian.233 12. Population and Number of Villages.000.174 427 198 70 29 40 173 58 18 127 37 750 122 6 45 10 6 77 85 1 33 18 403 16 11 57 25 34 38 55 11 19 266 67 91 71 108 70 407 3.400.000 1.000.000 16.561 336 5.456 210.000 774.596 1.764 164.147 5.000 2.000 470.000 260.000 900.936.763 71.000 15.856 27.308.000 36.000 2.523 138.350 595 5.600.954 13.342 9.244 980.312 7.7 455.736 42.000 1.781 Non-Muslims 10.000 700.856 27.700 571.8 1684.701 491.000.727 125. as usual. these tabulations include Wallachia and Moldavia. Lady Easthope (London.103 1.000 80.626 5.046 59.186 708.911. This population list is significant.851 4.095 104.514 17.234 170.000 Source: Tuna Vilayet Salname of 1285. 1868 ( H . 1856.208 4. a fact noted in the yearbook.800.432 740.692 147.397 16.312 5 34.930 164 — 104 82 60 — 7.968 41.850 6.170 4.087 15.548 23.2.701 2.786 849.428 9.000 12.058 100.826 Non-Muslims 95.204 282.500. and Kurdistan Arabia (Mecca.035 144.540 13.567 147.000 3.1.589 4.623 Muslims 138.270 15.100 801.7 264.000 400.350.062 154.773 928 1.425.5) because figures for Niş are included.036 14.319.000 40.000 Source: [Jean Henri] A[bdolomyne] Ubicini.096 2. 1869 ( H .672 909 1.808 885.7 10.091 1.000 1.905 171.053 39.450 13.280.163 7.500 838.. Ottoman Population.573 5. Tuna Province.000 1.000 C.854.4 156.2 974.616 7.111 9.680 56.834 2.062 937. Population and Number of Villages.199.854 15.174 Non-Muslims 21.097 17.192 1.338 638.6. 116 117 .018 7.920 1.434 23.833.494 600.000 300.761 42.998.918 57. B r R E L I G I O N In Europe Muslims Greek Orthodox Catholics Jews Other Sects Total 4.039 21. 1.049 7. 1973).487 62.430 710. reprinted.200 539. The census districts named are mainly kazas: nevahi are identified by IN) following the name.9 791.000.5 1358.000 2.868 1. and it therefore includes areas omitted from that tabulation.800.033 7.394 27.512.260 8.238 10.820 14.706 1.000 14.339 7.000 15.100.280.510 412. 1874 ( H .000 2.800.712 Villages 833 467 523 706 453 248 1.000 2. Mesopotamia.314.000 900.000 757.375 11.960 6.7 5877.300 14.134.334 4.000 600.000 Sofya Dubniçe Orhaniye Ihtiman Köstendi! Samakov zladi Radomir Cuma Total Tirnova Rahoviçe (N) Bebrova and Elnene (N) Dranova(N) Travna (N) Lofça Osmanpazar Kazgan (Kazan) Selvi Gabrova Total Tulça Sine Babadaği Maçin Köstence Harsova Mecidiye Mahmudiye (N) Kili (Isakça excluded) (N) Total Varna Pravadi Balçık Pazarcik Mankalye Total GRAND TOTAL 20.200 796.965 3.000 10.891 1.540 90. Tuna Province.700. those in the English translation are presumably more accurate.120 1. Tuna Province.056 12. New York: Amo Press.000 In Africa 10.237 8.000.154 2. 1285) Sancak Rusçuk Varna Vidin Sofia Tirnova Tulça Niş Tota! Villages 833 391 434 71! 453 252 549 3.813 45 62.000 100. Muslims 3.263 1.000 3.800.500. Population and Number of Villages.100.000 443.000.881 19.756 8.959 4.200.3 2345.555 9.000 3.068 115. 1286) Sancak Rusçuk Varna Vidin Sofya Tirnova Tulça Niş Total Wanes (Families) 20.288 2.757 300 11.839 6.000 1.699 429.133 2.641 5.973 334.5 1008.769 • 124.000 4.222 1.911.000 400.532 2.458 149.575.000 16.990.276 9. Letters on Turkey.0 671.722 60.724 7. trans.750 380.550.000 77.433 13.645 39.000 2.988.991 100.172 324.796 11.795 9 34.653 15.000 150.490 16.932 — — — 3.497.624 34.200.513 3. ASIA • 232. It is also reported that the male population had not been subjected to census since 1260 (1847) and that the registration of births and deaths had not been properly kept up.300 14.411 9.892 Total 234.878 504.230 460. There are some differences between population figures in the English and French versions of Ubicini's book.000 6.359 8.000 1.084 16.840 1.044 44. 46.752. as it was intended to complement the property survey {tahriri emlak) carried out in the towns of Tuna Province in 1866.000.200.000 100.701 25.050.000 3.721 3.237. As will be observed.685 2.209 4.507 3.000 1.000 900.304.800.004.000 214.000 3.5.000 85.619 15. 1872 and 1874 Population Region EUROPE (1872) Wfeyefs Istanbul (Europe) Edirne Skutari (Işkodra) Prizren Tuna Janina Salonica Bosnia Crete Total Serbia Romania (WallachiaMoldavia) Montenegro TOTAL.818 32.914 Total 238.451 25.410 71.022 7.331 378.000 640.000 15.1 667.0 1884.404 624.5 1260.3 938.133 54.182 8.833.646 2. •' : ' Asiatic Turkey Asia Minor Syria.057 11. — 21.558 56.649 98.000 1.650.293 21.854. The district listed first in each group is the central kaza.050.200.000 ' 16.500. and.000 In Asia 12.200 249.504 4.935 1. Ethiopia) Total Africa Egypt Tripoli and Fezzan Tunis Total GRAND TOTAL B.596 173.7 1167.310 29.752.934 119.0 2201.016. Women are not counted in this census.862 1.0 1917.338 1.174 11.692 58.928 612.004 5.022 2.389 4. 1844-1856 A.200.00 461.000 95.628 5.000.000 In Asia 10.894 10.0 3109.675 44.756 6.338 24.840 250.7 34.0 800 9795. Notes: The yearbook from which this census list is taken was apparently the first one issued for Tuna Province The population totals and number of villages given in this census list are higher than those given for 1874 (see 1.000 235.0 1134.000 1.294 128.523 4.4 173.000.520 160.592 2.426 214.540 7.033. only males were counted.500.000 13.520 2.466 764.293 34.000.755 147. Die Völker des osmanischen Reiches (Vienna 1877) Source: Tuna Vilayet Salname of 1291.000 10.000 80.525 3.800.841.700.199.419 34 4.000 16.000 2.023.455 43.291 — — 2. Medina.286 817.093 172.

Niksar. (19) Ayaş.292 143. Keskin. Kurşunlu. Torul. Ağaçli. Margiç. Koçgir. Bar. Karatova.522 22. Mihaliç. Beklin. Mecidiye. Lofça. Tuzla.510 12.393 171. Population of the Ottoman State.894 907. Girne. (28) Orhaniye.982 53. Kalecik (17) Tokat.388 422. Karapinar.029 167. Tavas. Yenişehir. Sultanyeri Ahyolu.626 129.875 9. Podgoriçe.455 245.318 13.179 27. Diraç. Gümuicıne Ahıçelebi. Praptre. (5) Main Census District Edirne Total Giril (Crele) Total Tuna (5) Rusçuk Varna Vidin Tulça Tirnova Pilevne. Teşne. Mardina. Ürgüp. (16) Çelebipazari. Radomir. Görice. (13) Istarova. Köprülü. Milas.805 178. Muğla. Kaşot.500 6. Soma.574 365.549 8. Yenipazar. Visoka.599 14.954 232. Düzce. Alucra. Ziştovi. Tepedelen. Rahova. Tosya. Zagraicedıt.221 65. Florina. Cumaiatik. Tirgovışte. Değirmenlik.318 40. Izvornik.649 89.521 27. Akseki. Vakfikebir.542 3. Çatalca. Baf. Toyran.388 223.624 9. Karaağaç. Suşehri. Berkofça. Pınarhisar. Atine. Pedye.112 65. Ihleune.264 139.400 3. Menemen. Mihaliç. Kızılağaç Çorlu.700 52. Esferbar. Pazarcık. Kuşadasi. İstanbul. Foça. Matu. Potmu. Kesriye.867 40. Peridor. Köstence.946 28. Mitroviçe. Eğribucak. Bilecik. Bozcaada.455 22.300 20. Ilbasan. (35) 1. Çay. Erdek. Havsa. Pelne. Zayçe.823 87.963 12. Terme. Cide. 1877/78 (H.500 372. Kizanlik. Pazarcık. Çesriergene. Çirpan.720 410. Samakov. Timurice. Beypazari. (19) Ordu. Divrik. İlgin. Brane.440 13. Milo Isfakye. Mecidiye. Haymana.849 91. Denizli. Aybastı.352 132. (16) İnegöl.1. Kaladine. Eskişehir. Silistre.180 340. Ohri. Köyceğiz. İpek.141 129. Daday. Kaş. Ladik. Tonya.080 8.135 98.443 22.431 19. Ferecik. Zağraiatik. Tiran.585 49. Madenisim. Demirhisar.702 26.391 52.174 17. Istroşça.200 6.761 151.811 16. Nevşehir. Kalkandelen.013.030 14. Ivasal Esine. Foynice. Parga.676 309. Ameri. Ustruşça. Ivraca. Yakova. Akşehir. Çermen.987 20. Inoz.854 9. Maden. Kavala.362. Ürgüp. Serfice. Ayvacik. Lüleburgaz.487 65. Tefenni.410 32.000 Buildings (Houses) 20. Koyulhisar. Ayvalik. Hopa. Niğbolu. Yenivaroş. Haskoy.010 28.388 39. Bafra. Sürmene. Alasonya. Karinabat. Magosa.103 23. Popov. Debreibala.616 92.070 37.797 85. Osmancık.725 57. Golos. Irmiye. Vodine. Leş.920 15.306 68. Mis.207 18.513 25. Tıkveş. Urla. Kisamu. Sandıkli.501 50. Sunne. Tutrakan Balçik. Palanka.241 19. Akdağmadeni.000 84. Çaynice. Kosteniçe. Gürbur. Silne. (12) Total Hüdavendigar Total Sofya Total Selanik (5) Sofya Niş (2) Selanik Serez Orama Total Aydin Total Bosna (3) Saray Izvornik Banaiuka Bihke Travnik Yenipazar (6) Hersek Gaçka (2) Manastir Prizrerf Üsküp Debre Total Ankara ' Total Hersek Total Manastir Total Yanya (4) Yanya Tirhala Ergri Preveze Berat (5) Total Sivas Total Trabzon Total Işkodra Total Canik (Samsun) TOTAL. Adliye. Köprü. Sombeki.691 652. Bozliğan. Çeşme. Zir.352 250.135 175. Safranbolu. Manisa. Karadice.478 339.827 24. Malkara. Zile. Gürün Erbaa.500 27. Izladi.568 100.681 43. Priştine. Kaiimboz. Olgun.907 64.7. Yeniceikarasu. Gradagaç. Rizo. Konice. Bergos.088 87.774 127.270 2.721 77. 8elgratcik. Petrıç.990 9.500 Kazas ın District Babayatik. Koniçe.544 50.586 53. Vulçitrin. Icareler. Lubuşka. Taşlice. Dupniçe.429 26.900 18. Livana Şiran. Midye.629 35.800 185. Population of the Ottoman State. (12) Ustrumca.180 177. Zihne. Çerkeş.131 22. Simav. Tirebolu. Kluç. Çürüksu.651 15. Tenus.648 11. Pravadi.251 13.934 18. Yalvaç. Ivraniye.426 28. Limasol. Malvlz. Yenicevardar. Yenişehir.906 197. Nasliç. Keşan.591 86. Museurı. Kelkit (16) Ünye. Eşme. Leskofça. Radovişte. Hayrabolu. Kolaşin. Buka.000 213.982 71. Buldan. (21) Akçahisar. Penve.382 13. Avanos. Akova. Ereğli. Ravice.435 406.036 17.529 23. Tirhala.000 12. Meramile.632 193. (22) Ödemiş. Göynük Istetan. Bayindir. Narda. Lom Babayiatik. Razrıme. Bartin. Osmanpazari. Trebin. Kurupazar. Eğridir. Kumanova. Akhisar. Çorum.786 115. Mankalya. Şerli. Taşköprü. Musluca (Aziziye). Molve Ibsara. Nıkşik. Iştip.600 8. Krupa.7 A . Kemeredremit Akaabat.908 97. Maçin. Bor.546 186. İncesu. Debreizir.312 8.128 134. Gemlik.751 58. 1294) Sancak Edirne Tekfuraağı Gelibolu Filibe Islımıye Population 190.053 39. (39) Bileke. Larende.713 13. Bolvadin.550 177.495 160. Çarşamba. Perçe. Görele. Cuma.022 102. Bihor.154 102.000 75. Uluborlu. KirkkıTıse. Karaağaç. Şarköy. Boyabat.561 266. Gabrova. Lume.653 22. Espkeşan.400 2.200 9.438 27.612 63. Giresun.243 103. (24) Araç. Şehirköy. İskilip. Miglayi. Hadim. Lubin.000 187.321 26. Grebene.994 282. Gradişka.814 39.000 22. Lapseki. Nazilli.451 110. Edremit.248 74.834 120. Darende. Merzifon.707 46. Balibogun. Çesrımustafapaşa. Gördes.315 Kazas in District Ezine. Aksaray.000 110.272 59. Hatuneiı. 1877/78 (continuée^ yam Census District Cezayir-j Batır-i Sefid (Aegean Islands) Sancak Biga Midilli Sakiz Rodos Kibris (Cyprus) Istanköy (6) Hanya Kandiye Resmo Isfakye Laşit (5) Bursa Karesi Karahisarisahip Kütahya (4) İzmir Aydin Saruhan Menteşe (4) Ankara Yozgat Kayseri Kirşehir Total Konya (4) Konya Teke (Antalya) Hamit (İsparta) Niğde Burdur Total Kastamonu (5) Kastamonu Bolu Sinop Çankiri (4) Sivas Amasya Karahisar-i Şarki (3) Trabzon Batum Gümüşhane (3) Population 64. Avlonya. Bozkir.353 38.799 149.929 Buildings (Houses) 14. Of. Gradcaynice.251 19.365 112. Develi.513 135.000 26. Kovaya.439 74. Aydos. Limnı. Uşak. (18) Elkiyan. Mudanya.104 539. Domana.167 93. Batnos. Gerede. Permedi. Panaiuka. Alaiye. Derbend. Naili. Eureşe. Menlik. (18) Ereğli. Marmaris. Vize.000 21.480 42.488 1.776 262. Karaferye. Hirsova. A .200 5. Sungurlu. Novasil Akhisar.300 127. Avrathisari. Daridere. Gilan. Seferihisar. Delvinye.128 53. Glamoç. Seydişehir.337 134.568 119. Iznebol.338 28.213 9. Kirçova. Kolonya. Atala. Nevrekop. Boğaziiyan. Novesin.875 91.020 7. Gediz.500 3.142 809.231 10.656 393. Koçana. Perlepe. Fener.456 177.033 55.280 80. Goslne. Vişegrad.024 131.247 47. (29) Aydonat. Yayçe.985 155. Ş u m n u . Elmali. Berçka. Hafik. Oimetoka. Hezargrad. Prebol. Filan. Bigadiç. EUROPEAN POSSESSIONS 4. Inebol. Çubukabat.716 118 119 .

Yenbuulbahir. Akra.455 160. Misrata.179 127. Kilis. Şirvan. Lebed. Also listed.000 48. Aclun. Total Cebelilübnan Beyrut Kudüs (Jerusalem) 130. Cizre.180 393. Salt. Sahil. Maarretüinuman. but not included in the census.000 21. 1877/78 (continued) Mam Census District Bağdat(Baghdad) Sancak Bağdat Musul Süleymaniye Kerbela Hille Şehrizor Ammare Total Basra (7) Basra Müntefik Necet (3) Sana Hudeyde Asir Taaz (4) Mekke Medine (2) GRAND TOTAL 13. Bitlis.300 12. Mendili. Mutki (27) Erciş. Deme.128 59. (5) 14. Reyme. Cidde. Mamuretülaziz and Erganimadeni are sancaks: Basra still Is listed as an eyalet. Zeydiye.154 187.000 Buildings 52. Hankin. Arapkir.109 — 2. Kevkeban.000 266.832 233. Hısnimansur.141 129.629 409.388 339.000 15.586 16. Ermenek.604. (24) Rabi. and Kudüs (Jerusalem) were mulasauitliks—i.393 422.900 432. Bargıri. Havhan. 202.248 539.372 296.651 27.963 65.272 57. Midyat. Ammare. Bilayköy. Keban. Humus. (3) Heze. Beyrut.000 — — I. Notes: This population list probably is based on the 1844 census results and estimates of population made after calculating the number of births and deaths (including losses in the war).000 52. Kevkep.000 14. Maslata.149 93. Rakka. Bakaiarabi. 1877/78 (continued) Md'H Census District Erzurum Sancak Erzurum Erzincan Bayazit Çıldır Kars Muş Total Van (6) Population 140. Meberz. Göksün.318 27.251 40.000 9. Ardahan. Taaz.568 193. Çukur and Kusur. Sevkilşuyuh. Kasto.306 37. Population of the Ottoman State. (4) Uns. Sofya and Hersek are valiliks—z term applied to a European province administered by a vali (viceroy). Karcigan. Keskin.291 124. İslahiye.000 24.128 143. Basire. Raşyan.982 232.330 1.000 177.900 148. Nasira.946 23. Cafaşayıri. Zeytin. Hindiye. Resulayn.619 395. Ahtar.400 14.7.000 12.000 82. Köseler. Mecdil. Revandiz. Zaruşat.000 249. Sence.134 23.897 120. Necefieşref. Ridvan.799 410.B. Canik (Samsun) Cebelilübnan.270 19. Malazgirt. Birasa.471 395. Sarma.348 95.900 Maden Baalbek. Bayburt. Beytüşşebap. Lazkiye.551 73.832 233. Tekman.000 29. Bilan. Antakya. Sason.092 204.760 23. (5) Diyarbekir Diyarbekir Mardin Siirt Malatya (4) 120.000 25. Tehüne.436 19.053 186. Katıf. Zübeyır.372 80.000 39. Seyhan. Bulak. Sibya. Safed.200 93. Delim. Reyhaniye. Muha.000 17.315 148. (15) Eğin. Eleşkirt Ardanuç. The main census districts in this list are primarily vilayets.000 95. Gidames.431 27. Kazimiye. Zahu.270 50. Ayintap. Erbil. Sur. Karaısali. Imadiye. Futurlbak.200 80. Source: Salname of 1294. Karadağ.524 94. Sisam (the island of Samos). Elbistan.000 18.300 12. Kuneytre.000 18.500 65. Diyadin.000 (32) Zaviye. Anamur. Kahta.388 97. Kubbe. (4) Halep Maraş Urfa Zor 102.900 95.I. Aziziye.270 — — — — 19. Gevar. (13) Edlep. Hoşap. Rumkale. Çolemerik. Sis.000 409. Avniye.000 45.000 127. Pasını Sufla.880. Summary of Totals (Compiled by Author) Main Census District Edirne Tuna Sofya Selanik Bosna Hersek Manastir Yanya Işkodra Cezayir-i Bahr-i Sefid Girit Hüdavendigar Aydın Ankara Konya Kastamonu Sivas Trabzon Canik Erzurum Van Diyarbekir Mamuretülaziz Erganlmadeni Suriye Cebelilübnan Beyrut Kudüs Adana Halep Trablusgarp Bağdat Basra Yemen Hicaz Total Population 652.7.000 202.760 95. Rıskan.501 110.247 119. Kemah. Mersin. Şambe. Cidabiye. Ganze. Pasıni Ulya. Akçadağ.064.400 59. Erde.375 19.e.723 Population 250. Ebtıa.000 95.259 12. Patnos. Adın.270 Total Halep (Aleppo) Notes follow Table I.065 78. Şemdinan. Koysancak.000 32.880.000 145. Aşare.375 (21) Deyrülkamer. Sinanli. Nalut. Gıryan.723 120 121 . Soregel and Akbaba. İslahiye. Ebuikemal.000 120.987 250.B.471 62. Maan. Cebeliduruz.000 65. Kağizman. Besni. Hlsnilekrat. Hassa. Yenişehir.551 33.400 Adana Adana Kozan İçel Payas.7.774 340. Total Trablusgarp (Tripoli in Libya) (4) Trablusgarp Bingazi Fizan Cebeligarbiye Humus (5) 1. Berika.544 134.907 103. Zilliteyn.064.7. Korucan. Karakilıse. Pazarcik.760 1. Ricalilma. Lice.013.799 Kazas m Dıs'nc İspir and Tortum. Silvan.604.000 110. Çarsancak. Haçin. and Karadağ (Montenegro) in Europe.985 372. Hacyar.7. Merke — 700. Boğdan (Moldavia). Ovacik.905 300. Hasa. (3) Tartuş. Gülanber. Harm and Barisa. Eb. Taif.524 266. Lehye.799 80.200 — Divaniye.000 — 10. Sarikvan. Haydaranli. Ranye. Şırnak. Zeman. Adılcevaz.. (30) Kurna. Gan. Ebuaris. Hinis.457 52.000 19. Atar. and I.734 6. the name given the largest administrative divisions before the promulgation of the Vilayet Law (1864) and the reorganization that followed. Recilhıraz. Bulanık. Aneh Dehuk. the last two districts were beyliks. Osmaniye.000 204. Birecik. Taberye.551 73. Total — 13.000 120. Kuruçay.570 Kazas ın Dıstrıct Horasan.629 Buildings (Housesı 45.000 Notes to Tables 1.000 25.400 Total Yemen Total Mamuretülaziz • Total Hicaz Erganımadeni Suriye (Syria) Şam (Damascus) Hama Trablus (Tripoly) Havran Akka Belka (6) 52. Population of the Ottoman State. Meskene.000 296. Kanfide. Hicriye.A. Merciun.906 406.000 120. Hace.513 135.205 8.622 45. Cirfeles. Yafa. Rada. Beblcebul. (13) Siverek. Menşlye. Hacur.070 37. Tercan.000 130. Bakaulaziz. Celile.000 15. and Eflak (Wallachia). Safita. Benişehir.000 31. Suruç.084 50.000 67. Mirlih.348 25. Cesrişuur. Loblu.429 11.000 237. İskenderun.000 1.929 432. Hayfa.022 282.524 45. Sayda.060 257.000 15. Sert.436 78.107 23. Şehripaza. small districts governed by a mutasarrit (a civil administrator traditionally charged with the collection and distribution of taxes).A.000 12. (22) \J k.109 2.650 237.790 Buildings (Houses) 65. Kut.B.676 907.010.149 32.029 1. Karhi.000 39.200 10. were some special districts' Misir (Egypt) and Tunus (Tunisia) in Africa. Sehmare. Barban. Urfele. Mazgirt. Sirp (Serbia).000 9.707 46.010. Ümran.000 95. Palu. Cll.000 110. Ucele.900 9.834 365.

167 10.702 15.386 44.195 12.951 18.209 12.209 8.434 34.625 9.809 94.703 3.485 168.819 6.129 31.296 1. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 Muslims Administratıve Dıstrıct AYDIN PRCVINCE İzmir Sancak İzmir Central Kaza Bergama Seferhisar Foçateyn (Foça) Urla Menemen Çeşme Kuşadası Tire Ödemiş Bayindir Total.102 230 1.945 11.808 6.942 1.131 13.221 10.028 4.335 12.515 1.327 28.420 178.275 606 17.192 13.118 26.872 149.215 20.233 11.921 17.135 13.952 85 34 12 1.016 26.658 33.494 20.963 12.123 58 95 40 15 1.925 42.255 496.629 11.864 7.414 8. Saruhan Sancak Aydin Sancak Aydin Central Kaza Nazilli Bozdoğan Söke Çine Total.459 16.074 12.877 3.480 27.125 250 652 340 693 391 122 813 1 5 3 168 390 7 1.857 259.422 77 76 464 586 53 3 50 3 21.399 30.385 12.973 6.427 10.840 132.213 13.059 4.439 62.585 959 16 4.410.244 36.320 11.885 14.047 33.075 1.845 2.058 5.822 180.944 358.987 21.557 10.306 1.548 65.660 8. Denizli and Menteşe Sancaks TOTAL.588 2.680 18.528 13.660 8.076 31.955 188 899 30.336 7.398 236.225 19.466 20.295 24 1.114 31.927 29.052 147.651 3.292 13.732 6.431 21.576 6.313 -15.574 660 5.966 10.716 6.287 1.091 25.413 8.815 29.603 12.316 25.833 8.731 1 188 37 18 15 16 275 11.698 9.243 43.756 26.424 64 28.519 37.895 116 1 20 142 45 7.522 5.017 31.396 15.156 131 8.012 1.892 6.511 385 314 72 1.374 31.174 171.838 7.518 34.519 18.661 1.696 21.894 607 1.133 330 113 2.399 50 .168 8.430 21.130 1.249 10.349 13.082 15.938 6.175 252 53 142 128 54 514 372 18 8.796 29.526 15.122 178.779 1.226 12.179 1.270 687.907 4.984 9.722 28.426 16.512 26.183 26.355 9.052 70.708 17. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) 1 M~ Jews F M Protestants F M F Latins M Monophysites (Syriacs) F M Non-Muslim Gypsies F M F Foreign Citizens M F Total M Population 34.244 24.111 17.008 68 27.721 103.896 571.627 545 833 1.525 10.266 13.586 14.277 13.997 1.602 1.738 3.433 14.341 14.887 7.690 70.574 105.566 25.562 10.058 35.861 29.508 9.517 21.556 2. İzmir Sancak Saruhan Sancak Manisa Kasaba (Turgutiu) Salihli Gördes Demirci Kula Eşme Akhisar Kirkağaç Alaşehir Soma Total.968 103.245 723.814 156.396 12.731 111.069 50 4.270 3.323 18.367 30.934 29.770 4.902 26.462 10.919 2.348 24.664 250 6.585 10.692 6.023 5.859 9.8.155 2.389 1.963 12.047 1.468 19.141 13.905 346.321 20.884 12.736 122 .459 17.696 172.374 30 33 25.058 856 1 18 271 902 28 139 4 343 250 251 1 1 8 15 18.285 14.835 10. AYDIN PROVINCE î F M • F Greeks M F M Bulgarians F M Catholics 1.459 24.041 9.019 159 7.842 2.781 15.415 12.336 13.574 2.118 10.268 1.736 16.869 1.324 8.542 208.394 17.230 2.612 8.568 19.013 92.563 12.573 6.234 66 83 42.464 124 149 5 25 303 132 152 3 34 321 941 100 6 954 95 5 58 34.936 45.296 1.697 52.659 410 6 34 9 57 42 7 581 90 4.296 15.348 25.443 95.265 613 16.A.353 12.190 1.927 207.346 14. Aydin Sancak Denizli Sancak Denizli Central Kaza Tavas Çal Buldan Saray Garbikaraağaç (Acipayam) Menteşe Sancak Muğla Milas Bodrum Marmaris Köyceğiz Meğri (Fethiye) Total.769 96.773 1.135 14.154 10.527 16.823 12.054 16.593 15.992 6.146 62.43 19 17 31 1 136 256 365 14 77 11 76 464 586 27.734 243 44 140 101 69 515 13 8.343 280 310 17 1.855 9.135 2.567 29.898 181 380 11 1.657 58.779 29.780 22.681 26.1.419 2 168 45 2 2 138 32 34 290 452 423 10 225 10.919 12.520 16.181 21.041 3.745 12.676 632 5.466 10.815 13. A.859 63 65 464 586 26.332 7.682 14.721 251 7.341 12.716 547.151 399 2 13 7 49 45 5 512 87 4.8.586 11.114 10.607 8.680 21.466 5.943 9.112 304 135 1.110 6.143 7.019 88.403 8.444 33.058 1.225 52 1.981 3.

İçe! Sancak 6.870 3.205 17.023 9.255 54.579 21.444 6.002 3.483 1.269 394.671 1.828 49.169 3.555 91 557 281 929 1.030 14.666 21.231 9.211 1.507 4.532 7.723 8.007 10.782 17.448 15.797 15.361 6.713 240.261 16.373 8.620 13 39 80 119 873 49 66 115 1.665 6.674 49.986 12.294 6.041 11 10 95 322 152 733 136 412 208 921 97 142 2.199 369 621 3.186 9.309 8.1.165 18.175 11.941 30.455 20.114 ' 5.742 5.830 10.297 6.560 22.073 89.367 1. Erzurum Sancak Bayezit Sancak Bayezit Central Kaza Diyadin Tutak (Antap) Karakilise (Karakose) Eleşkirt Total.819 49.493 256.297 1.548 814 24 475 876 372 7.758 40.588 12.045 44. Erzincan Sancak TOTAL.741 12.497 25.072 107.897 5.006 28.215 46.270 16.650 3.340 244 3 51 280 17 9 60 664 242 8 72 375 1 20 12 75 805 4.793 375 200 416 203 164 42 1.364 211.561 393 1.416 124 125 .799 20.641 171 116 37 1.229 65.813 12.614 17.429 6.230 204.811 55.276 704 309 19 6.829 24.179 22.860 12.250 12.062 27 73 100 29 72 101 398 420 39 76 42 331 _59 432 45 351 _84 480 15.608 13.172 13.200 125.097 1.627 26.009 6.529 31.050 52.058 5.563 9.381 369 5.503 22.765 9.729 26.847 11.631 7.575 22.659 7.202 11.111 21.679 6.698 222.596 33.836 14.684 64.708 805 5.924 556 • 254 63 5.760 42.017 11.734 27.460 31.199 21.381 30.498 893 365 697 1.098 1. Bayezit Sancak Erzincan Sancak Erzincan Central Kaza Refahiye Kemah Kiruçay (İliç) Total.645 351 4.362 138.859 183 179 165 97 121 18.624 24.879 10. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Monophysites (Synacs) F M Non-Muslim Gypsies F Foreign Citizens M F Total M Total Population 18 25 27 92 137 30 99 90 142 214 88 92 150 330 115.216 23.110 72.979 12.495 57.505 73.146 5.691 16.374 6.921 39.449 28.877 3.091 16.454 565 565 743 743 £1 21 13 3 37 40 il 31 4.478 60.761 8.030 11.259 22.322 6.874 •41.599 52.441 7.967 38.299 29.714 712 281 505 1.748 15.701 216.329 100.025 26.763 6.090 65.545 14.984 136 35 44 274 489 173 35 40 287 535 4.239 13.397 90.8.707 10.393 7. Adana Sancak Kozan Sanjak Sis (Kozan) Kadirli Sayimbeyli (Haçin) Feke Total.067 19.577 3.867 15.312 12.681 39.369 25.917 524 33 45 5.724 7.141 4.544 24.366 15.287 544 544 600 600 6.839 10.507 • 14.888 37.980 19.544 378 7 114 145 523 24 3 136 185 871 45 21 9 75 35 9 112 4 17 12.003 24.801 210 108 1.541 26.A.187 48.903 11.224 19.657 33.046 13.330 8.947 5.110 3.067 110 182 26.336 107.324 12.853 40.276 9.998 44.010 9.633 31.242 3.873 10.868 4.492 128.193 42.125 376 1.251 10.340 20.177 70.057 12.883 49.743 33.545 2.557 1.015 14.636 169. F Greeks M Arme mans F M Bulgarians F M Cathoi es F M Jews 57.308 306 139 131 576 342 196 166 704 304 94 332 88 39 76 32.942 8.858 142.231 55.907 821 12.208 18.770 28. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Muslims Administrative District EDİRNE PR0VINCE Edirne Central Sancak Gelibolu Kaza Dedeağaç Kirkkılise (Kırklareli) Tekırdaği (Tekfurdağı) Gümülcine TOTAL.452 5.153 10.846 8.602 214.496 3.629 109.068 50.770 5.327 19.709 19.320 1.153 9.888 38.613 3.671 15. Kozan Sancak İçel Sancak Silifke Mut Ermenek Gülnar Anamur Total.644 10.016 11.486 5.162 12.755 5.524 83.058 3.835 16.988 65.705 11.866 13.863 4.933 23.765 2.601 147 8.148 11.856 10. ERZURUM PROVINCE ADANA PROVINCE Adana Sancak Adana Central Kaza Tarsus Mersin Karaisalı Total.887 100.093 26.226 4.464 10.235 91.406 20.501 25.468 4.904 239.636 23.109 Protestants F M Latins I H A .530 32.905 7.137 2.403 175 8.630 53.035 25.597 302.336 470 121 20 4.328 430.312 6.137 123'313 46.982 9.100 323 546 2.797 4.370 790 11 425 780 __232 ERZURUM PROVINCE' Erzurum Sancak Erzurum Central Kaza Ova Tercan Bayburt İspir Keskin Tortum Pasinler Kiği Hinis Total.862 8.393 5.919 84.212 60.137 32.045 24.105 51.028 23.509 836.679 2.502 945 132 105 969 1. EOIRNE PROVINCE F M .885 5.369 11.915 6.510 17.114 7.429 19.667 179.080 6.473 21.993 11.770 10.665 11.213 869 6.439 4.164 8.064 5.957 4.634 156.066 20.604 5.128 10.279 48.568 9.665 42.993 21.181 405.134 10.872 12.955 4.605 6.312 4.090 559.192 11.593 115 544 299 958 1.

805 22.575 59.383 11.241 17.339 380 335 784 22.936 2.690 9.504 27.400 380 335 664 120 651 118 769 64.945 11.847 178.132 126 .398 11.258 44.670 8.843 3.983 8.924 7.192 4.392 14 11 55 69 2.780 32.966 35.180 ANKARA PROVİNCE Ankara Sancak Ankara Central Kaza Zir (Simdibuak) Ayaş Beypazari Nailihan Mihaliççik (Eskişehir.047 69 81 58 140 72 144 69 750 81 198 903 1.358 25 37 43.125 12 377 17.673 7.091 13.064 7.798 4.157 4.922 20.048 11.613 63.400 43.745 9.286 36.251 15.266 22. contınued Cebelibereket (Osmaniye) Sancak f M F Greeks M Armenians F M Bulgarians F M Catholics F M I.790 208.789 17.523 7.754 35.984 1.228 16.588 4.685 22.029 22.132 1.532 33.189 12.226 3.803 3 2.316 9.351 25.032 6.320 20.140 10.107 183. Kayseri Sancak Yozgat Sancak Yozgat Central Kaza Çorum Sungurlu Boğazlıyan Maden (Akdağmadeni) Total.340 15.087 13.518 17.457 396.145 923 114 23 379 516 1.958 11.475 4.556 8.357 58.846 2.768 2.048 24.234 33.189 14.236 17.226 22.345 40.529 29.077 190 ' 1. Ankara Sancak Kayseri Sancak Kayseri Central Kaza Develi İncesu Total.325 297 1.367 4.096 9 424 1.118 2 403 1.565 24.569 362.933 7.711 4.157 120.680 417.014 5.831 3.391 3. ANKARA PROVİNCE 8.178 5.465 5.372 _37 19 3 3 29 5 3 2.456 386 3.655 3.253 54.896 11.403 17.548 564 45 333 218 2.432 2.863 16.749 8.055 87 27 371 485 25 1.237 10.356 22.896 9.284 13.236 17.848 2 349 1.409 720 32.537 10.941 25.025 20.549 34.277 73. Kuyucak) Sivrihisar Haymana Bala Çubuk Kalecik Kizilcahamam (Yabanabat) Total.518 17.340 14.129 6.471 19.755 70 81 3.316 9.091 31.327 7.558 16.349 IŞKODRA (SCUTARI) PR0VINCE = Işkodra Sancak Akçahisar Draç Sancak Draç Central Kaza Tiran Kuvaya Sirak Total.793 111 16 66 18 211 96 17 63 25 201 27.115 3 34.161 9.830 55. Kirşehir Sancak TOTAL.692 19.359 13.245 28. IŞKODRA PROVİNCE 6.878 24.551 33.176 92.746 6.476 4.819 4.372 7.312 12.196 886 2.841 60.939 49.762 4.057 67.A.287 128.602 8.461 43.014 10.677 3. Draç Sancak TOTAL.377 7.453 22.A.976 25.137 2.445 8.937 5.846 2.976 252 3 3.251 3.023 11.145 3.931 90.462 12.686 7.605 23 18.536 4.362 124.809 16.857 130.8.200 3.643 138.550 22.507 147 136 118 911 39 1.667 188.552 16.971 112.424 17.854 29.991 36.002 5.675 8.496 4. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Muslims Admmıstrative Districi ADANA PROViNCE.713 106.752 210 ' 154 175 1.597 5.923 3.116 39 76 216 1.279 373.887 - 54.907 20.308 1.444 248.482 65.745 9.852 8. 1.683 18. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Protestants F M F Latins M F Monophysites (Syriacs) M Non-Muslim Gypsies F M F Foreign Citizens M F Total M T o t 3 | Population 3arpu2 Hassa İslahiye Bulanık (Bahçe) Osmaniye Payas Total.872 17.335 14.800 18.134 200 1.532 7.076 767 10.1.156 16.8.383 15.325 162.830 30.634 6.439 873 7.652 16. Cebelibereket Sancak TOTAL ADANA PROVİNCE .768 802 501 1.742 190 116 133 3 42.055 8.302 136.827 ' 34.764 64.544 4.607 42.579 3.835 7.993 8.621 27.006 20.310 9.264 1.506 433 17.295 375 2.697 18.426 429.210 935 2.419 12.106 847.634 15.659 26.643 146.190 8.837 592 101 357 270 2.354 9.945 290.585 16.982 7.874 25.028 1.036 39.327 7.168 6. Yozgat Sancak Kirşehir Sancak Kirşehir Central Kaza Keskin Çiçekdağı (Mecidiye) Avanos Total.777 8.598 59.432 712 386 1.772 5.711 5.556 8.356 12.813 11 12 227 854 808 3.168 39.770 925 11.055 8.774 21.733 188 9 2 109 127 7 6 12.919 9.891 24.955 7.302 144.122 61 1.457 12.041 3.438 9.854 8.262 15 362 23 410 318 161 241 390 161 14 151 702 14 12 1.924 7.983 25.778 9.648 11.516 9.302 3.539 843 794 2 376 1.972 87.310 10.599 10.991 17.239 23.

011 11.011 5.161 39.098 2.287 31 32 23 5 8 20.030 0 1 .281 45.826 5.177 77 207 1.137 19.394 14.309 M 8.851 12.754 8.507 6.818 1.307 990 2.772 67.304 32 54 13 22 41 AO Qc 112 134 98 130 14.842 266 463 2 731 270 572 2 844 11.783 7.191 9.676 870 1.351 16.686 6.683 26.610 1.467 2.850 33.353 14.086 11.781 6.675 Greeks M F 1.965 32 54 7.677 16.219 7.821 82 160 1.328 7.391 19.607 18.634 10.345 29.714 2.012 21.463 2.853 1 AO 421 0 126 9 135 3.428 40.485 Population 39.006 8. Trablusşam Sancak 32 54 859 912 166 9.960 65.967 ' BASRA PROVINCE Basra Central Kaza Ammare Kurna TOTAL.356 11.493 12.179 3.749 6.074 23.015 273. Beyrut Sancak Akka (Acre) Sancak Akka Central Kaza Hayta Safat Nasira Tabarya Total.468 2.352 M 1.407 12.882 3.605 5.511 59.327 19.856 53.190 Jotal M 20.274 137.543 1.610 16.437 27.969 9.942 18.226 16.916 18.351 14.963 21.446 16.776 18.505 28.834 13 125 1.033 32.¡ S.887 12.576 3.924 44.641 22.937 20.069 4.751 67.237 4.270 633 3.278 26.656 6.704 6.882 17.819 8.775 F 7.969 16.041 27.210 1. Hisnülekrat j Total.978 6.912 22.826 8.864 55.607 45.352 1.369 220 97 1.853 BEYRUT PROVINCE Beyrut Sancak Beyrut Central Kaza Sayda (Sidon) Sur • Mercium c 10.648 32.660 62 212 94 408 776 R1 D i 9Q1 ¿3 i ÛQ yy 391 842 60 5 139 204 70 10 149 229 104 59 663 3 829 112 65 695 4 876 12.510 616 481 442 80 3.452 28. Belka Sancak TOTAL.018 36.Beika Sancak Nablis Benisaap Cemain Cenin Total.693 17.548 14.778 43.555 11.306 3.297 13.385 2.205 21.627 16.495 58.675 10.179 75. BEYRUT PROVINCE 13.288 1.756 26.031 78 152 3.¿00 3 3 13 19.129 1.153 582 277 cit.619 99.061 6.114 5.696 1.113 3.536 982 1.593 7.991 21.308 11.672 367 46 158 571 29.609 52.215 10.309 884 3.283 30.994 285 6 155 446 25.229 5.854 124 251 5.037 2.911 r : 9.963 776 10. Akka Sancak • Lazkiye Sancak Lazkiye Central Kaza Cebele Merkap Sakyun Total.420 21.006 54.789 53.807 15.862 62.520 3.291 5.729 3.179 3.891 197.538 14.592 6.285 18.804 14.es _ _(Syriacs)_ F M Non-Muslim _ Gypsies F M F 51 27 Foreign Cfens M 54 40 1" 18 78 113 _ _ F 19.428 40.837 13.207 11.891 129.690 7.770 10.343 6.761 13.495 Total.406 15. BAĞDAT PROVINCE 756 103.812 52.842 19.136 11.996 13.703 96.270 789 128.604 13.154 32 3 35 75 33 108 CI 6.340 13.837 13.114 3.453 32 3.601 25.471 15.811 149.A.966 41 1.938 892 12.322 195.658 767 10.406 12.006 117.366 F 9.055 1.058 2.179 487 2.942 510 230 12.820 22 22.545 232 121 1.528 4. Lazkiye Sancak Trablusşam Sancak Trablus Central Kaza Akar : Safita .432 626 2.625 26.443 16. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) ~ Armenians Bulgarians F 5 M '8 F 63 Cathodes M 70 F 78 3 jews Je W S ivl — ~~ Protestants Krotes tanış M 333 1 ^0 I Dc 36 521 382 162 43 587 F Latins L dll ıs M Monophysit.314 11.383 1.963 776 10.299 294.362 39.352 349 875 33 11.902 8.348 fi/ OH Q 0 1 5 8 63 70 81 88 i BAĞDAT (BAGHDAD) PROVINCE Bağdat Central Kaza Hille Kerbela TOTAL.139 13.707 48 1.845 6.978 44. BASRA PROVINCE 6.946 9.A .523 69.014 129 128 .686 43. İÜ 18.852 31 32 15 26 5 8 • .109 21. D İ0 007 153 64 50 426 693 189 82 57 441 769 145 21 97 16 1 114 25.756 756 349 875 33 17 49 789 196.194 58.406 22 3.485 17.072 899 13.473 66 142 1.037 14 148 1.963 9.703 749 633 497 78 3.570 61.940 121.570 11.611 11.429 6.040 16.982 16. İZMİT SPECIAL DISTRİCT r Tfi.303 237.350 13.787 11.517 13.791 7.213 224.656 30.328 39.746 63.337 25.682 17 49 371 2 373 11.880 1.718 115.552 10.172 79 177 1.198 13.529 32.292 6.215 645 2.926 25. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Muslims Administraiive Dıstrict İZMİT SPECIAL DISTR1CT İzmit Centra! Kaza Adapazari Kandira Geyve Karamürsel TOTAL.314 568.114 1.648 27.728 2.297 15.

826 7.836 17.506 2.650 11.510 2.261 3.273 18.789 12.320 9.925 2 .027 916 1.621 2.237 46 12 17 4 2.313 18.101 4.225 14.319 5 1.619 1.443 21 115 22 9.522 16.654 18.713 570 8.871 6.004 508 38.225 803 18.855 14.511 50.734 4.547 36.21329.953 18.650 26.209 805 20.461 17.667 99.735 4.532 2.486 79 59 9 2 _2 116 24 12 4 2 140 14 18 1.615 4.609 5.731 12.229 8.020 4.649 1.020 2.435 1.911 122.915 8.197 418 36.912 4.530 4.176 58.858 18.032 12.093 13.063 110. Ipsara Total.864 13.683 10.238 127.536 73.051 5.673 3.674 3.941 3.160 48.439 2.078 2.305 10.706 2.634 19.220 4.103 6.1881/82-1893 (continued) Jews F M Protestants F 239 202 195 636 M 322 233 307 862 F Latins M Monophysites (Syriacs) F 96 755 M 165 965 70 851 1.590 ÇATALCA SPECIAL DISTRICT Çatalca Central Kaza Silivri Bûyükçekmece TOTAL.691 2.570 358 50 7.652 1.656 5.181 19. BİGA SPECIAL DISTRICT 4.807 5.632 44. Ottoman General Census of .893 436 11 447 439 J3 452 604 1. CEZAYIR-I BAHR-I SEFIO PROVINCE 6 3.480 136.300 21.231 13.029 4.690 2.907 4.213 14.915 31.011 276.130 70 89 89 Non-Muslim Gypsies F M F Foreign Citizens M F Total M Population 31.206 19.185 2.081 432 195 144 8 779 532 274 136 20 962 766 114 180 180 222 222 880 729 126 3 17 875 19 27 125 8 167 22 7.059 1.040 8.929 6.173 16.041 12.959 16.754 8.549 9.718 21.237 4.316 16.482 18.579 5.377 792 1.059 42.668 16.603 1.224 2.705 21.760 65.816 2.854 3.316 3 1.014 52.116 4.171 47 3 3 41 88 44 71 62 133 10.914 22.8.1.358 42.777 1.A.058 1.230 34 .375 45.071 6.083 3.368 657 2.244 1.581 23.965 9.666 3.514 28.425 9.189 51.671 98.198 3.601 .110 263.750 9.149 3.737 9.517 14 18 2.373 2.418 15.447 335 7.456 3.149 394 3 35 781 1.605 8.354 9.218 424 40.350 4.835 19 27 133 189 ÇEZAYIR-I BAHR-I SEFID i (AEGEAN ISLANDS) PROVINCE Şodos Sancak • Rodos Sombeki Meyis Kirpa Total.596 8.048 53 618 1.339 11.288 18.222 932 78.624 18.511 17.333 22.791 55.232 16.587 116.366 75.171 M 16 1.698 2.991 3.540 18.707 47.202 18 6 4 5 2.394 6.174 3.853 944 46 629 1.103 2.116 30.835 35.982 11.457 25.139 118.385 3. Limni Sancak (TOTAL.436 765 2.075 3.302 9 80 32 99 35 14 18 1.719 9.629 756 1.533 4.909 62.094 612 1.526 7. Midilli Sancak Limni Sancak Limni Central Kaza İmroz Bozcaada Total.319 9.407 2.807 1. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Muslims Administrative District BİTLİS PROVINCE* Bitlis Central Sancak Siirt Muş Sancak i Genç Sancak TOTAL.967 16.581 18.539 4.026 21.494 3.321 40.093 1.653 46.775 3.647 40.949 4.552 3.080 52.326 5.383 4.250 1.A.754 1. BİTLİS PROVINCE 18. Sakıs Sancak iMldilii Sancak Midilli Central Kaza Mulve Pilmar • Yunda Total.131 2.126 34.024 15 110 3.022 301 39 5.507 91 54 1. Rodos Sancak Sakiz Sancak Sakız Central Kaza Istanköy Kalimnos Leros Kalyot .673 19.261 27.832 8 12 40 165 20 36 62 102 103 268 20.218 2.8.955 5.006 39.998 '' SIĞA SPECIAL DISTRICT Çanakkale Ezme Ayvacik Biga Lapseki TOTAL.795 16.206 2.716 6.438 4.777 Bulgarians F M Catholics F 10 1.332 1.163 15.015 11.100 154.087 17.054 33.708 9.998 501 34.560 36.817 22.230 56.374 3 344 2 25 778 1.864 2.527 5.343 4.519 2.622 130 131 .323 25.623 2.608 27.957 444 444 521 1 522 1 219 220 4 208 212 8.309 93. ÇATALCA SPECIAL DISTRICT • 3.999 18.693 8.388 1.537 2.

988 2 10.000 106.755 406 1.051 29.568 15.100 9. Diyarbekir Sancak 22.594 8.041 16.866 6.637 28.830 164.776 787.562 3.675 62.296 432 341 14 8 62.823 2.395 35.913 65.63! 3.694 8.123 60.779 2.542 9.722 1.585 15.779 22.758 2.884 3.405 11.798 52 32. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Muslims Admınisirative Dıstrıct HALEP (ALEPPO) PR0VINCE Halep Central Sancak Maraş Urfa TOTAL.840 16.719 32.255 489 1.733 11.973 38.020 11.590 16.932 2.085 224 10.256 28.531 345.981 4.388 14.532 34.570 15.365 320 7 604 2.650 1.519 11.689 84 189 273 109 109 218 1.374 24.813 377 409 12. Afyonkarahisari Sancak Karesi Sancak Balıkesir Sindirği Erdek Bandirma Gönen Edremit Burhaniye (Kemer) Ayvalık Bigadiç ^ Total.211 19.361 629 1.542 15.571 2.232 7.860 15.395 321.303 20.299 20.171 148 3.290 13.932 16.231 45.130 56.779 36.579 664.148 61.417 30.204 67.139 10.004 3 3 2 81 515 2 108 451 12 12 40 40 5 19 76 84 38.932 16.273 144.489 156 1.303 145 37 151 34 23 208 5 7 533 97 2 718 116 4 838 60.247 61.403 19.782 22 357 293 _ 38 49 1.762 855 2.280 13.281 1.762 671.725 837 2.161 3.372 11.335.654 10.204 2. Karesi Sancak 44.558 132 70 153 39 473 112 143 69 _24 821 510 101 148 78 21 858 1.020 44.091 33.194 50 74 69 1.335 99 34.665 126.990 64.148 1.728 22.470 156.065 12.736 19.1.069 1.681 21.473 67.020 40.353 1.713 103.070 16.477 211.069 76.785 4.475 564.584 6.462 2.115 31.562 3.744 1.289 20.173 76.595 158 1.664 58.653 7.007 40.548 378 375 1.308 18.704 20.485 14.990 258.213 1.479 568.973 12.440 3.083 258.077 187 444 51 285 3.892 14. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued^ Armenians Bulgarians F M Catholics F M F Jews M Protestants F M F Latins M F M Monophysites (Syriacs) F M Non-Muslim Gypsies F Foreign Citizens M F Total M Population Greeks M F M F ? .776 1 1 41.937 19.608 151.677 23.778 126.194 10.881 123.029 958 400 14.436 3.870 30.932 19.830 540 24.779 36.473 11.659 91 182 4.624 58.290 9.511 13.067 3. Bursa Sancak 'lErtuğrul Sancak .002 437 14.931 56.969 261 348 48 239 2.865 2.816 833 8.827 339.035 9.239 3.455 3.847 12. Sandikli Total.263 41.136 11.990 4.073 81.508 4.505 11.957 10.436 514 23.937 1.810 377 404 11.307 336. HALEP PROVlıMCE : I .443 340 2 568 2.304 75.157 707 60 512 3.272 265 265 993 1.378 131.950 76.413 54.595 21.822 21.064 16.447 4.393 2.793 956 8 2.615 23 36 2.956 378 15 47 440 372 26 47 445 78 89 4 171 77 85 5 167 J 4 31.165 12.930 28.352 5.734 56.570 3.572 399.642 32.120 3.782 17.107 22.632 31.429 28.818 147.896 7.613 30.318 38.507 226.524 5.863 8.019 443 1.348 7.8.175 8 6 8 265 988 14 443 5 406 154 146 194 59 95 4 703 22 260 68 99 4 751 1.993 23.541 1.699 35 42 2.772 726 2.625 28.942 767 878 5. HÜDAVENDIGAR PROVINCE OIYARBEKİR PROVINCE Diyarbekir Sancak Diyarbekir Central Kaza Siverek Lice Derik Silvan Total.148 8.311 675 2.050 16.697 107 177 4.805 121.167 19.193 22 357 293 1.853 37.869 7.587 3.912 25.543 7.945 15.467 19.221 3 25 28 6 69 75 2.476 175 3.186 54.683 38.403 10.546 3. Kütahya Sancak Afyonkarahisari (Karahisar-i Sahip) Sancak Afyon Central Kaza Emirdağ (Aziziye) Bolvadin '.212 36.366 21 88 83 1.602 775 862 5.183 40 11.353 11.926 14.517 18.116 59.703 2.413 57.341 1.822 38.212 36.903 244 9.949 145.714 HUDAVENDIGAR (BURSA) PROVINCE Bursa Sancak * Bursa Mudanya Gemlik Orhaneli (Adranos) Mıhaliç (Karacabey) Kirmasti (M.092 3.477 171.851 8.641 2.972 11.022 2.653 105.606 27.436 1.951 157.781 367 4.925 14.962 50 11.146 23.702 5.128 102.511 5.768 115.049 11. Kemalpaşa) Total.275 15.008 90.319 207 _5 — 7 632 24.080 80 112 78 158 84 196 5.717 202 192 25 28 132 133 .645 71.352 25 — 1.262 6.224 1.322 10.245 725 15 308 3.398 10.421 19.701 321 4.674 2.713 24.282 5 4 1 844 10 2.A.979 18.044 25 28 31.966 15.149 16.204 388.022 16.355 19. 228.824 106.293 2.754 11. Bilecik i Söğüt 1 İnegöl Yenişehir Total.541 11.977 60.514 8.046 139.444 163.292 21.A.8.592 91.189 57.600 181.371 1.535 15.124 2.451 13.104 62.387 1.223 10.592 102.093 53.631 516.688 760 8.139 14.591 1.991 73.720 j TOTAL.929 44.209 12.995 285.267 56.274 12.604 1.997 12.964 21.999 29.980 13.966 15.799 10.704 20.284 5.898 32.368 73.183 2. Ertuğrul Sancak Kütahya Sancak Kütahya Central Kaza Uşak Gediz Simav Eskişehir Total.

633 15.053 13.321 58.942 16.361 9.298 1.754 3.708 1.972 13 102 115 3.178 24.958 2.482 15.957 10.926 18.902 1.680 132 211 343 5.815 Katrin Total.742 3.498 44.279 4.006 10.356 21.088 5 3.246 30.578 15.238 2.825 7.905 96 103 2.311 21.737 27.751 10.033 808 2.022 22.152 17.182 7 17.336 16.252 764 6.253 2.622 39 18 57 82 33 20 53 81 21.757 19.050 17.639 2.047 8. continued Mardin Sancak Mardin Central Kaza Midyat Cizre Avniye Nusaybin Total.652 10.260 107 1.793 8.813 7.944 1.535 115 468 321 187 2.064 763 7.259 6.181 114.035 2.741 18.077 6.177 7 32 152 9 29 162 13 43 47 6 96 103 5 22 3.767 8.192 13.398 174.195 10.614 400.671 • 1. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Muslims Administrative Oistnct OIYARBEKIR PROVINCE.539 192 16.185 2.486 4.744 13.650 2.770 73 165 200 365 4.792 7.427 9.852 12.334 4.423 9.297 9.936 57 1.480 8.487 20.828 124.020 1.406 769 784 489 1.606 49. DIYARBEKIR PROVINCE 11.913 47.991 93 1.741 24.779 16.888 95.448 18.270 13.210 5.328 8.320 17.303 11.093 3.846 26.640 13.938 5.856 44.982 65 92 44. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Jews M Protestants F M F Latins M F Monophysites (Syriacs) M F Non-Muslim Gypsies M F Foreign Citizens M F Total M j o t a i Population 24 29 218 146 24 63 214 200 36 79 1.113 239 107 171 451 529 64 F M F Greeks M Armenians F M Bulgarians F M F Catholics M I.544 103.288 3.614 103 260 1.285 24.349 37.787 368 7.953 52.938 16.815 1.249 75 422 269 153 1.652 14.A.007 49.665 1.759 490 53.251 199 é 230 22 179 241 30 197 17.994 93 790 51 2.282 45.244 116.421 827 7.535 17.614 6.149 5.220 108.434 21.972 116.504 8.928 2.163 22.098 143.108 3.A.756 960 4 838 7.227 9.152 17.964 Zor Sancak Deyr Aşare Resülayn 5 7.389 1.168 246 2.292 11.174 3.988 6.686 20.356 42.441 7.233 19.639 330 53.999 15.169 79 281 29 7 4 183 17. SURİYE PROVINCE 53.363 6.921 1.889 15. Zor Sancak 28 55 125 175 2 1 1 SURİYE (SYRIA) PROVINCE" Şam (Damascus) Sancak Şam Central Kaza Duma Hasbiya Raşya Vadiülacem Baalbek Beka Nebak Total.315 11.943 58.423 17.741 1. Mardin Sancak Maden (Ergani) Sancak Maden Central Kaza Çermik Palu Total.767 22.717 140.028 1. Hama Sancak TOTAL.232 9.741 7.124 11.745 7.110 291.259 20.504 11.529 11.154 5.520 34.331 61 88 1 279 6.826 198.274 158 26.588 54.748 2 45 2 49 SELANİK (SALONICA) PROVINCE Selanik Sancak Selanik Central Kaza Avrathisari Toyran Usturmca Köprülü Yenice Vodine Tikveş Kesendire Lankaza Gevgili Karaferiye Aynaro2 14.363 20.308 14.871 4.573 883 1.110 6.043 94 318 1.231 3.033 733 1.778 10.291 96 103 205 2.114 164.627 7.815 284.209 33.170 3.801 5Î334 4.796 7.271 6.693 2.347 969 8.170 33.287 7.082 11.362 158 21.751 89.354 88 292 73 20 3 210 25 18.542 17.541 50.729 11.212 154 18.502 9.184 335 11 121 132 367 2 2 25.267 7.094 34.843 21.807 25.185 23.035 47.170 1.359 16.681 15.437 134 .186 12.233 118 791 70 85 24 29 3.8.303 13. Selanik Sancak 15.024 51.748 7.235 700 2.976 11.538 67.041 7.582 18.861 10.940 23 430 201 654 2.814 176.896 20.905 9.935 21.897 1.811 16.113 19.061 138.640 24.170 3.792 36.078 1.330 6.929 27.922 50. Maden Sancak TOTAL.250 2.302 22 2.266 9.780 3.112 2.065 376 2 434 5 4 6 4 1 5 60 40 28 137 710 3 694 708 64 37 11 50.168 10.551 26.193 9.867 11.220 372 530 440 636 73 73 128 128 569 119 119 482 27 477 164 668 1.366 18.672 380 5.692 2.669 68 14.593 24.836 50.788 6 202.301 57.875 172 20.213 192.337 6.286 843 3.856 14.277 42.289 40.250 Total.107 217 9.619 4.784 2.344 18.735 10.776 25.775 10.914 103.762 116.129 1.092 552.401 13.1.608 668 1.184 220 2 29 235 43 47 6 61.576 28 55 125 175 2 1 1 7.646 1.955 5.034 6.137 11.364 2.423 15.765 6.729 2.544 40.589 19.626 2.707 38.539 30.697 5.659 13.913 2.241 5.113 41.413 6.809 15.255 3.309 3. Şam Sancak Hama Sancak Hama Central Kaza Selimiye Humus Hamidiye Total.981 261.859 126.926 20 3.927 3.619 203 8.214 2.353 4.170 10.093 3.027 368.8.104 372 440 1.134 22.855 8.104 10.210 18.788 2.292 36.942 16.365 172 26.004 151.993 17.464 5.174 20.108 22.053 2.106 8.066 51.

743 143 140 6 32 38 862 18 37 55 1.804 17.528 1. Tokat Sancak Foreigners within the province TOTAL.576 11.822 74.443 22.560 33.019 6.008 399.494 25.041 3.804 4.981 10 140 13 139 64 119 258 70 51 66 95 301 80 54 5 20 22.835 16.843 946 3.577 28.935 3.020 8.366 9.627 16.527 33.765 48.241 46.1.936 8.218 8.607 104.368 33.967 8.8.369 6.095 29.928 17.389 148.726 808 874 44 55 43.813 24.117 10.404 42.503 64.559 16.818 23.164 18.054 851 1. Drama Sancak TOTAL.850 13.564 20.009 1.529 17.926 32.346 8.676 12.011 17.224 8.526 41.374 33.541 17.127 7.863 87.165 4.607 1.937 45.698 1.447 18.120 150 152 562 596 5 20 • 9.264 230.246 16.491 86 4.632 1.997 5.967 62.220 .398 591 6.597 71.061 16.158 7.916 25.221 88.4 Total.921 14.001 20.565 366.000 1.973 69.818 12.059 19.982 989.8.329 7.669 421 1.660 11.948 4 25 29 126 1.134 507 2.477 6.974 20.309 3.006 1.153 9.288 468 2.711 12.422 7.334 58.088 23 1.789 13.142 9.297 14 1.616 10.668 736 932 89 1.335 16.043 8.358 25.849 13.817 7.113 3.405 562 6.484 32 1.198 8.844 31.677 44.691 4.183 38.086 7.120 6.671 370 351 104 105 16 17 104 105 963 21 20 1.033 15.627 132 5.791 10.450 163.874 7.341 4.653 801 314 206 7.625 101.133 1.620 6.696 3.493 33.378 17.051 6.350 304 1.575 87.742 9.253 17.526 5.992 8.289 189.754 39.789 1.171 9.879 6.171 12.163 3.206 184.100 235 7.894 193 18. continued Serez Sancak Serez Central Kaza Cumaibaia Zihne Nevrekop Demirhisar Petriç Menlik Razllk « Total. Karahisar-i Şarki Sancak 30 112 550 10 28 100 128 18.846 26.702 176.109 3.811 926.546 136 .182 5.011 9.666 15.277 964 790 826 6.694 50.915 5.309 15.809 16.453 161.066 21.814 1.341 17.996 12. î 14.722 5.152 339.938 15.499 22.562 8.571 78.599 17.762 16.353 208.544 3.463 SİVAS PROVINCE Sivas Sancak Sivas Central Kaza Hafik Şarkişla (Tenus) Yıldızeli Zara (Kocgiri) Divriği Darende Gürün Emirdağ (Aziziye) Total Sivas Sancak Amasya Sancak • ' Amasya Central Kaza Vezirköprü (Köprö) .343 90.902 3 313 1.081 4.723 87.277 40. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Jews M Protestants F M F Latins M Monophysites (Syriacs) F M Non-Muslim Gypsies F M F Foreign Citizens M F Total M j ( | Population .547 384.105 25.935 96.524 21.384 8.867 9.267 7.548 34.440 24 8.186 8.923 5.638 4.766 5.611 42.232 678 928 74 1.391 54.047 452 19.443 14.197 109 11.015 37 178 986 169 27 240 20 368 30 26 256 27 394 18.788 15.921 1.794 45. Hamidiye) Suşehri Koyulhisar Alucra >-.759 18.284 9.018 4.990 5.399 21.275 3.587 15.671 27.651 182 10 75 1.527 370 351 104 105 16 21 129 46 141 65 206 29 235 25 40 20 20 20 20 36.985 39 1. Serez Sancak F M F Greeks M Armenians F M Bulgarians F M Catholics F M 1. SELANİK PROVINCE 24.104 72 3 994 1.048 4.683 83. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Muslims Administrative District SELANİK PROVINCE.901 29.146 31.094 10.800 Tokat Sancak Tokat Central Kaza ' •' Ziie • Erbaa Niksar Total.041 35.542 '216.547 8.031 175 25 200 1.701 34.934 12.760 6.514 18.341 199.728 106.A.985 16.045 80 1.430 22.857 1.791 10.149 4.663 10.126 290 252 11 1.702 5.988 5.638 42.881 562 Drama Sancak Drama Central Kaza Kavala Sarişaban Total.932 9.855 1.104 8.314 69 19 94 55 7.055 16.367 129.327 27.495 8.156 31.338 7.187 12.009 22.030 487 2.271 25 9.525 41.930 18.363 33.122 14.339 16.946 99.853 1.465 43.152 1.171 12.806 15.018 4.986 50.276 518.925 10.063 9.706 471.833 142 118.456 5.458 11.594 5.740 64.241 16.352 4.713 3.998 9.286 63 26 \ 85 39 7.659 650 58 6.951 7 10.331 36.011 10.729 3.915 11.817 8.910 4.105 2.335 13.006 9.998 1.479 578 279 202 6. SİVAS PROVINCE 30.446 483.365 443.196 43.564 133.655 62.A.070 18.423 8.678 5.464 1.552 22.239 8.876 33.500 12.506 1.677 3.125 20.341 33.051 30. Amasya Sancak Karahisar-i Şarki (Şebinkarahisar) Sancak Karahisar-i Şarki Central Kaza Mesudiye (Melet.639 13.646 514 13 15 20 481 18 12 33 6 143 140 140 303 27 344 39 3 1 143 334 3 5 391 5 40.145 77.940 3.650 5 9.289 6.173 26.015 3.857 565 56.301 14.807 15.041 11.980 31.079 26 1. Merzifon : Gümüşhaciköy • Mecitözü Osmancik Ladik Havza Total.805 13.828 937 60.526 25.863 5.323 21.190 18.002 7.934 16.864 14.1'56 8.967 147.907 92.

048 67.371 19.289 629 644 405 440 13. F Foreign Citizens M F Total M Total Population 7.839 1.105 1.297 1.705 15 3 25 1 49 3 21 66 141 36 2 91 67 196 30 TRABZON PROVINCE Trabzon Sancak Trabzon Central Kaza Ordu Giresun Tirebolu Görele Vakfikebir Akçaabat Sürmene Of Total.191 7.877 16.022 1.001 11.362 72.736 108.392 40.070 60.551 60.769 1..059 7.597 41.175 28.006 19.557 11.251 3.600 2.094 454 4.437 177.280 6.814 17.235 40.810 445.156 9.651 308 333 52 20 J 22 22 5 27 152.887 41. Lazistan Sancak Gümüşhane Sancak Gümüşhane Central Kaza Torul Kelkit Şiran Total.187 19.253 19.196 9.187 48.380 17.624 60.795 16.770 26.903 50.766 34.917 24.176 2.958 12.684 21.626 15.507 8.288 29.078 42.702 5.779 10.607 14.801 10.827 729 3.348 13.362 18.730 813 739 1.217 41.440 3.665 4.062 15. Trabzon Sancak Canik (Samsun) Sancak Canik Central Kaza Çarşamba Ünye Fatsa Terme Bafra Total.330 23.913 21.030 33.668 255 296 4 261 9 300 8 29.266 15.964 78 8.487 16.878 19.495 16.286 13.165 4.614 30.441 45.884 27.441 : 196 1.075 19.197 505 2 401 891 6 468 3 337 1.530 40.497 638 55 121 814 22.410 136.091 39.770 7.192 14.955 5.154 16.457 12.053 30.554 17.622 14.370 29.127 16.536 177.318 8.046 63.129 550.897 56.864 20.890 2.413 30.419 55.586 610 232 99 29 1.115 37.014 9.615 36. ISTANBUL SUBURBS F M ' F Greeks M Armenians F M Bulgarians F M Catholics F M Jews1.926 29.085 19.907 17.261 17.375 411.793 8.567 36.791 14. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Monophysites (Syriacs) Non-Muslim Gypsies .267 17.657 30.137 23.246 15.595 17.412 31.657 521.756 10.118 2.A.617 1.181 30.544 19.638 30.728 16.782 293.237 KASTAMONU PROVINCE Kastamonu Central Kaza İnebolu Safranbolu Tosya Taşköprü Daday Araç Cide Total.166 2.772 3.775 8.367 71 10.A.591 107 11.975 355.196 •52.369 709 5.143 271.889 9.914 946 223 11.903 17.048 64.584 9.969 5.074 6.898 11.582 5.038 40.986 20.564 96.652 621 15.350 186 22.667 16.001 11.049 49.538 173.131 38.558 17.497 1.763 356 404 138 139 .833 7.246 3.670 308 385 31.706 35 36 J 21 18 736 B20 12 19 52 32 135 49 6 668 858 Protestants F 'M Latins ffi.468 104.979 35.365 14.004 25.734 140.605 62.358 21.200 9.663 72.376 7. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Muslims Administrative District SUBURBS ADMINISTERED BY ISTANBUL MUNICIPALITY Kuçükçekmece Gebze • Karta! Beykoz Şile Adalar (Islands) TOTAL.937 80.434 5. Canik Sancak Lazistan Sancak Rize Pazar(atina) Hopa Total.742 36.426 25.027 4. Gümüşhane Sancak TOTAL.514 187 193 250.561 5.966 629 281 82 27 1.953 19.107 62.322 44.054 32.659 331 1.714 17.200 101.136 12.281 3.003 30.054 117.670 1.960 14.377 49.523 33.104 10.628 1.044 24.093 604 3.093 16.916 28.106 3.382 2.101 15.480 29.000 163 834 11.710 505.209 4. TRABZON PROVINCE 30 37.068 30.789 588 621 41 146 51 142 55.305 71.214 14.975 19.997 2.305 31.149 514 58 100 672 19.319 29.633 2.624 446 35.596 27. Kastamonu Sancak 28 29 24 16 19 20 15 19 107 678 070 288 564 734 878 437 26.702 37 19.321 15.679 141 892 12.063 73.109 22.640 4.640 33.367 8.666 8.781 86 96 173 756 3.056.8.189 3.348 9.739 9.781 706 205 11.662 354 763 466 8.787 21.332 23.635 15.009 69.305 19.178 3.658 256 300 6 782 758 1.659 41 23 5 25 193 23 224 41 23218 247 31.073 1.1.973 448 878 546 9.502 22.731 20.697 223.253 19.280 10.130 3.947 3.406 41.390 33.513 15.742 20.659 25.696 6.080 19.838 2.847 15.213 377 1.369 2.339 351 30.163 209.505 82.

534 36. continued 3olu Sancak ı Bolu Central Kaza Bartın Ereğli (K.591 8.155 3.292 17.271 811 512 9.223 77.529 85.858 42.997 2.570 1.981 19.131 38. KASTAMONU PROVİNCE 41.377 14.750 36.850 7.399 390 7.936 23.759 1.386 2.385 4. Bolu Sancak Sinop Sancak Sinop Central Kaza Boyabat Ayancik Total.548 9.394 34.442 272.148 28.980 14.545 5.088 26. Total.724 89.418 7.735 22.687 5 78 2 7 72 3 82 9.517 92.416 3.496 483.592 4.826 9.130 7.789 3.829 8.484 27.836 200 363 27 2 22 17 180 372 97 9 58 397 95 7 13 23 13 162 52 192 779 2 2 — — 36 1 614 733 667 22.532 13.429 20.879 8.762 16.018 14.958 7.379 14.887 9.394 465.535 57.267 61.890 948.036 111.423 150.901 21.401 18.486 43.174 8.016 21.632 24.452 43.429 3.150 30.694 12.551 140.015 62 638 2.908 3.615 129.821 6.747 7.684 55.442 4.034 25.981 KOSOVA PROVİNCE' Usküp (Skopje) Sancak Usküp Central Kaza Iştip Karatova Radovişte Kumanova Planka Kaçana Total. Taşlica Sancak Taşlica Central Kaza Prepol Total.609 8. Usküp Sancak Priştine Sancak Priştine Central Kaza Vilçitrin Metroviçe Gilan Preşuva Total.618 17.450 27.492 25.065 11.963 473. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Jews Protestants F M F Latins M Monophysites (Syriacs) F M Non-Muslim Gypsies F M F Foreign Citizens M F Total M T ( | Population 21.668 9.170 42.423 666 43 54 1 45 152 153 764 869 716 153 1.841 20.497 13.815 18.541 13.252 7.442 Greeks Armenians Bulgarians M F Catholics M L 8 .116 3.820 23.131 9. A .517 93.926 20.720 21.015 13.660 13.634 6.555 60.022 368 7.219 11 12 171 34 3.549 14.148 28.489 49.980 41.413 20.353 19.985 197.656 44.573 8.288 7.771 16.241 182.284 15.179 30.168 680 21.333 1.662 55.960 53.132 13.251 23.828 11.449 16.594 554 18.642 39.187 16.935 1.081 16.913 2.026 46.288 1 19.334 8. Priştine Sancak Yenipazar Sancak Senice Yenipazar Akova .659 41.255 3. Çankiri Sancak TOTAL.827 142.163 54.581 70.301 143 1.272 658 2.303 2.302 10.957 20.649 19.629 57.436 24 75 217 49 3.217 3.A.645 12.698 22. Yenipazar Sancak 19.282 19.529 22. Sinop Sancak Çankiri Sancak Çankiri Central Kaza Çerkeş İskilip Total.697 7.398 9.729 2.749 4.985 17.412 9.698 5.026 84 725 .710 140 141 . Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Muslims "Administrative District CASTAMONU PROVİNCE.249 3. Deniz) Gerede Göynük Düzce • Mudurnu (Mud) Hamidiye Total.529 22.8.749 44.039 152 5.029 24.535 17.682 21.168 9.437 2.787 12. i Aşağikolaşin '.309 6.289 20.469 11.823 15.620 21.480 900 1.192 7.871 455.341 21.724 88.713 26.435 18.073 8.586 308 260 416 250 43 54 1 38 7 33. l Yenivaroş .868 37.564 29.629 37.128 13.262 11.519 20.478 7.660 26.999 16.521 50.331 568 24.097 9.168 72.514 11.387 43.715 123 150 30 864 123 150 894 368 390 155 143 971 36 935 21.257 7.801 10.139 5.345 22.010 22.063 7.273 22.601 155 1.386 3.821 7.I.825 19.713 8.799 29.013 10.770 54.539 10.546 15.611 20.033 14.574 28.769 32.231 148.796 2.645 2.947 16.485 9.201 8.341 21.312 _ 85 11.579 16.190 26.389 139.802 119.344 53.145 6.447 3.193 3.048 22 575 2.957 20.476 2 36 894 971 1 41. Taşlica Sancak 6.688 4.193 4.545 24.444 10.974 291.450 8.369 3.805 34.897 70.153 69.949 86.423 12.904 15.458 16.917 27.472 27.

582 806 1.919 10.642 18.390 24.171 9.517 11.319 1.032 94.245 28.128 5.144 5.666 11.277 9.552 7.261 6.071 37.353 1.869 188.214 8. KONYA PROVİNCE • 17.919 10.053 17.212 71.391 4.504 12.916 520 700 18.740 370 192 9 200 10 247 1. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Monophysites Jews M Protestants F M F Latins M (Syriacs) F M Non-Muslim Gypsies Foreign Citizens F Total M Population .042 44 .545 11.424 27.026 17.836 10.265 429 2.625 34.850 760 1.838 11.721 4.715 268.022 130.1.114 9.683 6.079 8.304 19.535 9.720 9.564 'Niğde Sancak .011 44.871 874 874 880 880 409 409 401 401 20.443 8.552 21.348 261 781 1.360 4.755 7.182 201.082 19 ' 17 9 25 10 12 30 12 54 73 19 34 17 47 104 112 24.984 20.476 37.702 18.061 77.447 9.636 12.878 7.A.974 10.621 18.771 92.156 11.914 27.996 8.366 944.481 4.011 29.766 8.261 13.956 17.611 479.866 839 43 47 50 57 64 80 9 3.797 53.601 18.489 19.^ Tefenni .028 4.468 22.132 104 112 18. İpek Sancak 'rizren Sancak Prizren Central Kaza Lume Kalkandelen Total. Teke Sancak Burdur Sancak Burdur Central Kaza .719 16.857 182.267 23.279 5.718 92.716 89.498 1.884 60. Niğde Nevşehir Ürgüp Aksaray Gülşehri (Arapsun) Bor Ulukişla (Hamidiye) Total.485 48.179 2.151 22.073 431.026 .858 2.897 15 30 22 19 21.642 46.259 392 300 319 678 3.731 473 285 7 278 10 261 1.591 27.931 5.993 37.867 10.545 11.203 10.203 9.149 14.435 48.649 9.126 17.380 9.776 13.223 11.663 35.590 19.639 370.637 17.488 98.019 469 631 17.821 8.770 181.107 49.054 25.798 18.290 449.429 9.622 7.111 24.214 8.989 12.333 -12.409 10.770 175.365 4.429 21. Burdur Sancak 37.625 34.678 18.413 5. Hamitabat Sancak Teke (Antalya) Sancak .348 445.129 18.024 11.363 28.412 19.363 27.974 9.487 2.552 9 28 901 43 54 1.369 5.387 2..8.100 6.884 12. ' 8.260 2.206 35. i Total.596 Total. Prizen Sancak TOTAL.260 2.039 12.955 8.575 10.665 3.138 13.128 9.A.646 16.755 464.377 14.489 184.032 94.100 4.699 13.830 16.087 960 KONYA PROVINCE Konya Sancak ] Konya Centrai Kaza Akşehir İlgin Seydişehir Bozkir Hadim Beyşehri Karaman (Larende) Ereğli Karapınar Koçhisar Total.072 439 104 2 2.387 2.846 8.364 960 43.039 35.931 5.943 8.836 10.118 2.030 40.348 21.974 8.595 271.049 8. 66 142 .889 7.924 20.617 1.351 19.000 105.152 39.777 17.cs F M 1.682 8.011 44.351 4.468 19.238 20.454 24.930 157.320 4.797 43.•17.803 62.619 26 23 104 112 118 144 128 151 39.436 39.704 15.650 8.286 37.308 300 319 24.439 21.565 1.367 3.182 95.634 10.896 49.492 7. Konya Cancak Hamitabat (İsparta) Sancak • İsparta Uluborlu Yalvaç Karaağaç Eğridir : 805 46.639 20.494 17.728 9.314 5.093 9.570 11.158 10.822 23.787 57.300 85.386 374 949 _ 10 1.752 ' 8. KOSOVA PROVINCE 140.766 89.348 8.595 721.696 18.552 7.597 12. Antalya Alanya (Alaiye) Akseki Elmali Kaş Total.743 7.024 11.643 F M F Greeks M Armenians F M Bulgarians F M Cathol.150 872 12 46 44 96 60 87 1.107 11.884 18. Niğde Sancak TOTAL. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Muslims •Admınıstratıve Dıstrıct KOSOVA PROVINCE contınued pek Sancak İpek Central Kaza Yakova Tergovışte Berane Gosine Total.424 29.720 9.065 12.636 1.596 18.637 17.990 4.372 657 3.168 24.259 25.541 64.563 11.384 22 19 287 221 316 220 3 2.990 18.987 515 7 105 5 2.551 77.606 620 2.150 6.055 2.504 117.177 21.878 28.640 356 7.8.845 12.481 66.

355 5.637 5.754 6.570 T9 19 5 15 7.533 234.368 60.742 170 228 76 243 340 205 54 692 496 283 543 57 441 157 620 45 134 359 218 59 35 26 121 4.535 171.255 9.212 5.855 27.495 20.426 2.190 22.045 40.652 37.828 6.750 1.988 1.825 74.950 108.743 3.320 5.041 12 14 29.014 1.950 3 34.361 10.489 90.246 14.561 135.073 •41.599 664.601 164.482 191.117 _ 238 46 6 290 296 63 5 364 2.962 34. I.411 1.134 15.957 20.688 10.008 9.466 35.331 117.656 3.574 650 1.809 1.716 11. Serfice Sancak TOTAL.019 55.115 168 4 90 262 184 5 92 281 23.703 44.956 6.144 16.459 2.216 78.678 23.244 33.330 4.566 21.436 14.595 8.841 23.502 2.864 100.945 27.213 3 45 7.272 2.676 407 367 16.697 81.095 2.993 35 49 618 • ELA.8.672 12.503 598 1.437 38.624 12.442 22.194 2.188 27.971 15.1.940 4.718 2.019 11.637 5.330 4.047 23.951 18.325 381.506 14.428 169.990 373 491 391 660 2 1.073 * ' 15.636 2.290 111.676 5.502 7.372 6.401 28.244 55.134 14.894 31.605 5.019 11.979 138.694 9.212 61 38.424 2.389 8.539 7.A.680 11.470 32.535 167 291 3.705 105.849 60.772 17.511 13.295 2.313 6.379 34.499 17. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued^ Muslims Administrative Oistricî KUOUS SPECIAL DiSTRICT Kudüs Central Kaza Yafa Gazze Halilürahman TOTAL.570 227 320 4.370 205.502 7.319 28.535 6.424 97.147 14.950 1 3 17 ' 2.066 29.082 28 ' 102 31.826 248 120 2.943 10.032 70.912 1.148 7.903 16.849 12. ELAZİZ PROVINCE 1 64.051 90.852 94.170 11.454 6.372 6.286 74 2 2 1.229 327.992 27.426 2.746 343 40 504 52 18 172 33 199 3.410 107.114 24.399 28 39 144 .878 312 14 3 3.767 2.191 3.731 15.777 185 98 196 70 864 1.249 1.476 17. MANASTIR PROVINCE 1.955 175.276 11.183 1.301 8.040 7.933 162.330 4.179 16 18 15 8 16 8 Total.792 1. Manastir Sancak Görice Sancak Görice Central Kaza Kesriye Istrova Kolonya i Total.826 379 1 7.801 158.809 6.506 14.174 393 19 56 3.261 316.207 3.528 33.450 2.089 4.422 108.826 12 1 2 2.816 20.408 13.606 6.559 21.072 6.692 15.963 176.810 10.980 49.517 68.770 3.095 2.236 16.544 14.642 35 49 475 143 631 148 779 383 556 190 232 39. Görice Sancak 12 14 3 2.442 22.046 81.841 25.630 7.655 2.281 27.041 137.489 7.344 11. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Armenians Bulgarians F M Catholics F M Jews Protestants M F Latins M Monophysites (Syrıacş) (Synacs) F M Non-Muslim Gypsies F M F Foreign Citizens M F Total M y ( Greeks M F M | F F M Population [ 26.ZIZ (ELAZIĞ) PROVINCE Elaziz Central Kaza Malatya Hozat (Dersim) Mazgirt • TOTAL.8.627 17.556 6.463 14.900 24.018 88.266 1.014 119.610 3.153 19.973 26.346 2 283 266 MUSUL PROVINCE* Musul Central Kaza Dehük Akra Zaku Zibar Sincar Kerkük Salahiye ~:<l Erbil Ranye Köysancak Ravandiz Süleymaniye Gülanber Morge Şehirpazar Bazyan Umadiye .442 22.017 5.111 MANASTIR PROVINCE Manastir Sancak Manastir Central Kaza Pirlepe Ohri Filorina Kirçova 1 15.325 165.977 11.A.593 1 45 2.721 13.840 27.433 1 1 15 5 15 9 24 2.840 12.317 21.736 60.503 32.666 5.409 6.111 31.969 7.156 4.629 15.645 1.078 31.797 1.059 51.381 298 98 2.982 7.043 11.845 976 34.727 407 367 • : Serfice Sancak Serfice Central Kaza Alasonya Kozana Cuma Nasliç Grebene Total.355 5.073 70.636 2.578 2.098 14.694 9.424 14.329 41.834 6.771 1.765 30.881 4.216 21.828 6.116 30.338 348.243 123.505 12.559 10.615 17.352 2. KUDÜS SPECIAL DİSTRICT .544 10.685 43.862 14.551 11.963 176.979 22.040 1.995 15.579 43.327 52.677 5.434 9.938 26.530 31. MUSUL PROVINCE 27.743 3.663 84.072 6.045 15.765 65.506 15.716 11.544 8.940 6.129 5.350 19. ? TOTAL.434 9.307 76.461 31.071 389 14 8.379 12.453 59.527 17.046 19.427 4.089 19.239 6.486 27.179 19 1 19 23 24 66.955 6.

900 37.765 148.053 18.748 2.188 25.209 21.772 3.455 2.458 6.376 5.943 5.870 400 3.336 6.343 4.714 23.477 İSTANBUL CITY AND GREATER İSTANBUL 183.916 156 19.052 1.324 3.149 11.700 39.559 9.783 10.804 7.878 2.311 16.805 2.434 2.001 2.442 6.899 3.664 29.597 11.896 5.460 13.661 1.836 2.469 2.533 7.742 63.618 1.635 22.035 45 45 90 346 154 116 270 652 5.964 2.113 2.529 11.779 2.481 18.210 5.299 1 34.293 2.508 35 48 60 12 72 1.366 3.977 3. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) 8 A .014 440 440 34.082 764 2.193 5.054 2.113 83.571 201.576 1.592 24.408 6.152 619 1.595 8.179 4. .957 626 626 26.675 9.379 2.368 137.575 2.876 214.024 3.095 111.424 3.533 21.755 9. YANYA PROVINCE 2.422 28.972 1.645 113.589 887 785 7.116 8.742 44.339 60.670 105.072 28.288 106 151 5.219 614 413 8.723 6.562 28.864 1. Prevese Sancak TOTAL.642 132 34 4 170 2.915 15.896 119. Yanya Sancak Ergiri Sancak Ergiri Central Kaza Delvine Tepedelen Kurveles Totai.898 516.956 16.233 3.751 508.434 107.577 13.456 5.495 15.402 51.281 2.748 7.954 13.803 20 3 3 12 \ 1.796 9.624 4.033 3.895 86 1.460 4. Hakkari Sancak TOTAL.814 873.160 5.843 7.862 5.683 13.689 19.791 178 2. Ergiri Sancak Berat Sancak Berat Central Kaza Goşince Avlonya Lusne Totai.531 12.380 2.720 83.653 1.681 13.241 24.826 4.075 10.230 7.615 11.1.380 85.635 2.614 5.446 10.132 16.732 2.023 2.493 119. 146 147 .225 9.173 10.930 3.696 2.534 24.963 2.585 7.078 33.687 16.254 4.698 271.354 2.565 /Voies follow Table I.266 3.376 5.991 25.908 15.099 18.344 8.815 29.556 41.408 14.174 9.092 7. A.907 2.582 2.069 11.8.456 38.884 8.843 6.992 754 383 6.976 7.571 3.281 27.876 47.269 10.063 12.295 23.591 7.358 2.558 56.8.391 5.124 1.781 102.464 10.796 5.507 8.570 21.907 53.233 7.645 6.135 2.989 2.595 163 21.828 44.767 2.200 245.637 16.211 5.D.391 30.618 2.956 52.031 80.842 93 5 8 114 5 32 4 3 1.324 7. Van Sancak Hakkari Sancak Mamuretulhamıdiye Totai.083 6. Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893 (continued) Muslims Administrative Dısîrıct VAN PROVINCE" Van Sancak Van Central Kaza Erciş Adiicevaz Kariçkan Gevaş Mekri Muradiye (Bargıri) Çatak (Sitak) Totai.546 85.339 5.903 50.531 18 1.038 10 .810 9.192 5.681 4.549 2.549 31.564 5.821 9.119 3.694 4.276 6.860 YAN YA (JANINA) PROVINCE Yanya Sancak Yanya Central Kaza Aydonat Filat Meçva Leshovik Koniçe Pogon Permedi Totai.388 19. 8.773 6.205 364.478 2.704 92.574 11.450 54.422 7.255 24.782 4. VAN PROVINCE F M F Greeks M Armenians F M Bulgarians F M Catholics F ' M F .727 150 231 35 35 48 48 2 12 14 3 19 22 50.363 1 150 1 230 15.154 3.564 1.804 65.787 10.528 815 540 9.719 156.967 22.950 61.989 66.887 3. Berat Sancak Prevese Sancak Prevese Central Kaza Loros Margiliç Totai.913 4.994 Jews M Protestants F M F Latins M Monophysites (Synacs) F M Non-Muslim Gypsies F M F Foreign Citizens M F Total M Total Population 22.394 331 488 554 528 28.439 7.715 25.965 9.418 1.606 73.728 2.558 14.747 20.937 91.310 5.

741 471.981 1.287 174.Summary: Totals for Principle Administrative Districts (continued) Monophysites (Syriacs) F M Non-Muslim Gypsies F M F 28.593 2.464 118.570 78 49 1.993 1.821 7.622 6 200 21 37 894 805 104 3.671 80.419 8.393 378 1.744 7.478 204.372 847.529 154.224 530 13.820 2.145 44.485 196.168 1.740 8.255 53.130 70 89 133 2.273 399.117 2 4.710.682 421 1.911 349 35 54 55.694.629 265 222 2.966 2.035 230.632 56.142.509 1.940 137.272 24.888 240.008 214 110 Foreign Citizens M 27.731 52.104 16.760 101.791 488 19.056.238 373 37 3 113 33.642 2.993 162.246 411.434 454.109 3 Protestants F 77 137 873 1.452 271.429 34 190 864 97.154 237.701 18.041 559.916 483.804 19.887 99.014 276.409 12.504 65.042 234.797 123.104 19.768 17.110 31.237 345.977 445.988 399.082 1 48 79.367 1.286 2.675 197.893.063 8.485 122.608 3 M 11.341 443.399 10.481 3.455 105.777 962 44 452 28.230 18.130 212 1.009 16.289 1.627 222.777 Jews F 10.069 8 .835 263.734 138.524 10.237 948.860 516.857 22.721 8.972 429.916 366.664 138.507 3.853 568.584 83.959 18.809 198.212 162.736 330 182 F 687.581 779 34 447 23.878 2.746 281 3 119.111 348.793 636 16.018 652 70.031 2 440 54 73 364 2.156 40 858 7 .245 96.904 302.743 105 36 5 901 112 4.980 28.205 851 14 4.401 12.116 1.549 388.672 7.696 211.8.643 431.768 192.506 11.972 1.177 1.145 17.346 176.589 5.073 F 92.893 3.422 7.754 28.291 147.898 455.482 176.037 636 19 104.994 93.209 445.097.644 10.441 505.593 117.854 339.308 43.018 1.432 373.075.990 1.459 108.767 45 49 1.562 65.029 151.077 70 875 108 22.073 175.628 331 16.051 7.870 538.707 9.647 29.804.261 550.408 7.940 1 335 143 963 5 405 43 66 290 2.489 569 3.956 262 107.937 1.T S R.570 63.439 15.D.323 47.932 1.796 1.896 216.710 60.797 479.922 21.040 73.067 1.867 445.497 1.262 67.526 36.270 7 Greeks f.604 5 8 25.709.763 3.083 664.358 3.108 17.231 441.435 444 4.517 522 4.720 463.291 65.g-B.463 104 30 190 88 12.680 125 11.565 17.492.489 94.149 7.197 1.080 20.831 400 372.529 449.207 283 4.697 205.342 149.884 369.955 3.506 141 629 10.601 18.087 944.168 362.335.503 483.115 164.659 18.279 6.239 31.545 55.194 19 4.097 46.965 3.107 3.082 556 38.967 10.382 473.831 13.035 79.587 16.922 16.171 180 1 2.548 482 2 3.366 F 6.751 8. Summary: Totals for Principal Administrative Muslims District Aydın Edirne Erzurum Adana Işkodra Ankara İzmit Special Dıstnct Bağdat Basra Beyrut Bitlis Biga Special District Cezayir-i Bahr-i Sefid Çatalca Special District Halep Hüdavendigar Diyarbekir Zor Sancak Suriye Selanik Sivas İstanbul Suburbs Trabzon Kastamonu Kosova Konya Kudüs Special Oistrict Elaziz Musul Manastir Van Yanya Total İstanbul City and Greater İstanbul GRAND TOTAL 5.746 91.245 111.441 202.255 208.400 417.028 1.209 82.358 Districts Armenians M 103.188 12 26.349 87.029 12.182 1.074 72.388.352 10.064 547.041 43.301 4.743 105.864 316.454 Bulgarians F 138 49.073 108.093 18.814 9.826 6.991 189 3.234.233 66.394 102.487 17.418 6.593 3.723 22.957 119.502 28 39 Noies follow Table 1.507 564.401 138.197 82.243 430.734 201.197 1.380 364.631 671.889 27.020 110.132 195.476 5.576 164.890 7.699 1.804 1.858 140.137 256.844 926.392 39.775 756 224. 1 82 81 2.480 27.755 2.515.410.659 508.957 1.172 862 27 F 464 Latins M 586 4 8 39 76 25 225 81 33 1.546 22.755 4.092 568.970 554 7.770 381.184 18.590 58.339 6.036.058 24.770 188.038 64.473 Total Population 1.108 129.289 18.401 12.053 28 96 75 56.116 176.226 63 M 423 535 3.889 880 1.321 465.039 873.981 721.550 32 45.644 346 35.041 1 367 140 1.131 Total M 723.188 528 10.716 10.834 875 1.081 116.984 Catholics F 452 489 3.019 73 1.853 294.313.469 245.795 136.477 16.720 8.752 32.620 903 1.731 6.705 22.509 1.295 27.366 62.894 128.125 521 M 76 142 1.826 148.181 405.770 55 103 126 60.731 383 34.304 8.546 196 644 36 47 232 1.756 10.067 1.645 3.822 787.869 1.424 836.714 1.115 587 17 135 1.250 400.948 19.508 1.220 21 2 157.990 67.205 171.113 175 13.144 66.853 1.990 45 17 34.493 M 571.399 119.527 1.439 3.908 59.290 464.129 1.391 271.110 750 1.642 266 35 49 618 779 971 235 862 25 820 2 1.190 789 273.504 28.967 81.702 1.261 M 290 52.011 19.309 M 7.998 118.364 117.007 518.595 5.689 375 2.748 989.030 34.025 396. 148 149 .984 39.653 29.117 16.433 35 371.555 178.442 268.014 397.040 127.047 34.777 102 19 273 5 18 220 218 7 1.111 664.

091 120. 'Tribes excluded from census.A. Basra. as were a few tribes. k m 2. and kaza (judicial district). 'Census completed except in Prizren.000 800. and Yenipazar Sancaks Dersim Sansak Estimates of tribes and women not covered by the census Debre and llbasan Sancaks Havran Sancak and tribes of Hama Sancak (partly subject to the census) Hakkari Sancak 100. give the tabulation of males.250.562 3. Diyarbekir. Sancaks are identified as such. 'Dersim Sancak excluded from census. or Autonomous Units Misir (Egypt) Tunis (Tunisia) Eyalet Şarki Rumeli (Eastern Rumelia) Bulgarian Principality Girit (Crete) Bosnia and Herzegovina" Kibris (Cyprus) Cebeliiubnan (Mount Lebanon) Sisam (Samos) Beylik Total 6.000 200. took place as follows: the sancak of Manastir (Bitolia) was elevated to the rank of province by adding to it portions of Kosova (Prizren.000 100. and the columns headed F give their number. Females were excluded. however. I.631 Administrative Districts with Uncompleted Census Erzurum Işkodra Bitlis Bağdat Basra Cezayir-i Bahr-ı Sefıd Halep Zor Sancak Kosova Eiaziz Musul Manastır Suriye Van Total Celalls and other tribes Işkodra Sancak Sason.000 "The following is a breakdown of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Muslims. Adana.000 100.300. Districts in which the census was certified as completed were Aydin. 265. of course.000 Notes to Tables I. 1.D.788. Diakovo.000 100. 306. but only teas. 'Census completed except for the Sporato Islands. 571. in Sdme other areas the census was quite close to completion. and Dibra) and of Selanik (to which it had previously been attached).300. Ankara.000 7.100. This census tabulation is for the most part by vilayet (province).8.091. Final Summary: Counted and Estimated Totals Counted population of all administrative units included in census Estimated population of areas with uncompleted census Estimated population of administrative units not included in census Estimated population of special and autonomous provinces Ottoman citizens in foreign countries TOTAL 17. b c c 200. Some of the listed main units (including some provinces as well as special districts and urban areas) do not have sancafr divisions.8. Source: BA (Y)/(P)/11s 311. reflected in the 1881/82 census. total.8. In 18S0 boundary changes.C.8.000 50.000 250.000 500. Tribes excluded from census (as well as females).306.500. the columns headed M. 1.000 150.091 14.000 Administrative Units Not Included in Census Asir and Yemen Hicas (Hejaz) Trablusgarp (Tripoli in Libya) Bengazi Mutasarriflik Total Spec/a/ Administrative "Census completed except in Havran Sancak.000 7.f ar gnppİPment to 1881/82-1893 Census Results: Population Estimates District or Unit Area and or Group Estimated Population 1.000 100.000 300. Catholics.500.000 I . unlabeled small divisions are irazas. Census completed except for the sancaks of Debre and llbasan.500. Üsküp (Skopje) was detached from Selanik and added to Kosova.336. Notes: Females were counted forthe first time in the 1881/82-1893 census. Ipek.000 3.000 11. 'Census completed except for the Celali tribe. Census completed only for Drac Sancak and dependent kazas and the centrally dependent Akgahisar Kaza. sancak (county/ district). Edirne. and Yenipazar.000 400. 492. 500. Ipek. as indicated by the lettered notes. which was excluded from the census. Kudüs. and I.100. Census completed except in Hakkari Sancak. Census completed except for Lazkiye Sancak. while some districts lagged far behind in their count. from the census count in Bağdat. no.091 150 151 . Konya.978 39. other religious groups. Selanik.000 250. Kastamonu. and some tribes Nomadic tribes and women Nomadic tribes and women Sporato Islands Tribes Tribes and Bedouins Prizren. Biga. Mutki.D. Jews.336. 5.8. with kaza populations being totaled to give the sancak population and sancaks totaled for the province figure. 'Census completed except for tribal population.805.000 200.000 1. 538.000 I I . and Yanya.000 150. however. Orthodox Christians.109.388. totally or largely. and Musul Provinces and Ipek and Prizren Sancaks. 215. İzmit.710.000 200.000 1.000 600.000 500.000. Census far from completion.B.000 3.

798.398 1.367 1.635 221.387 87.505 c 288 8 138 5 29.831 7.529 62.956 262 107.586 1. Beykoz.652 926.439 15.317 43.144 66.984 F 49.702 216. consisting of Istanbul.740 18.014 2.435 444 4.185 1.545 686.224 452 18.286 13.432 67.594 F 8.212 164.664 479.507 564.893 3. and it includes the kazas of Kücükçekmece.812.167 384.770 55 60.391 271.970 22.758 1.047 381.174 789 122.653 29.509 471.489 88 12.487 19.059 8.217.035 22.834 875 1.388 240.9.860 516.787 135.009 Total Oersaadet ve Bilad-i Selase GRAND TOTAL 19.382 126 103 1. 1.387 45.482 1.270 28 006 25 78 8 M Syrians F Non-Muslim M F M 330 182 Foreign Citizens F 214 110 M 430. "The term "Greek" includes also those attached to the Orthodox church whose language is Arabic.218 271.974 1.374 58.209 445.053 28 55.777 22.283 373.546 22.0411.166 35 63.485 56.966 222 1 2.188 63.593 2.885 3.744 2.408. the "Greeks" in Syria and Jerusalem should be m some other category.097 .069 8. Note' This table is based on the 1893 census in which various tribes and the populations of Hejaz and Yemen were not counted.777 54 955 47 452 28.581 32 776 36 447 23.104 19.030 Total F 405.622 1.940 1 963 143 335 5 404 66 43 290 2.149 7.754 28.401 138.644 1.498 1.862 18.822 787.441 505.9.168 141 629 34 190 864 F 489 3.049.293 1.098.756 8.770 9.972 99.994 52.067 1.736 37 113 33.608 3 225 10.839 3.509 70.911 349 35 55. and Üsküdar.205 18 4.156 25 862 1. Gebze. no.116 944.795 123.504 8.141 256.092 568.037 128.834 441.392 373.489 140.731 383 34.549 388.367 105.306 6.020 110.478 8.065 82.130 1.775 756 73.304 8.916 174.197 10.177 14 212 274 5 1.547 111.708 9.019 7 180 2.445 473.304 103.056.888 6.440 28.413 89.507 17.197 82.589 5.395 201.960 6.316 664.826 6.606.689 375 2.459 198.970 38.261 2 Catholics M 535 3.643 266 1.940 137. 1894 (continued) Greeks' F 211.741 36.116 1.478 204.009 129.466 83.570 2.562 65.889 7.282 1.644 1.140 7.452 464.273 399.459 2.366 294.291 19.702 1.459 49 35 779 618 108. Kartal.029 13.439 63 M 7.080 15.145 12.255 53.030.188 12 26. The full title of this tabulation is "List Indicating the Population of the Capital and Its Boroughs and the Subjects Who Were Counted in the Vilayets Subject to Census.027 151.967 8.295 27.108 19.173 Population 836.707 880 1.743 3.870 94.620 903 3.489 16.774 177.037 19 373 1.400 96.758 447.734 138.591 162.040 47.957 119.831 16.485 196.309 Bulgarians M 52.272 24. 1894 Muslims Admınıstratıve Dıstrıct Edirne Erzurum Adana r Ankara ' Aydın : Işkodra (Scutari) İzmit Sancak Bağdat (Baghdad) Basra Bitlis Beyrut Biga Sancak Cezayır-i Batır-i Sefid Çatalca Sancak Halep (Aleppo) Hüdavendigar Oıyarbekir Zor Sancak Sivas Selanik (Salonlca) Suriye (Syria) Şehremaneti Mülhakatı Trabzon Kastamonu Konya Kosova Kudüs-ü Şerif (Jerusalem) Sancak Musul Mamuretüiaziz Manastir Van Yanya 0 1.855 178.485 368.957 1.705 22.463 3. Ottoman Population.246 411.129 11.184 36 5 112 901 4.486 569 104 18.955 3.632 417.972 483.323 224. Beyoğlu.938 202.206 283 894 ' 117.168 65.407 7. Şile.950 460.128 39.763 3.730 429.238 133 2.197 175 1.808.758 125 1.631 671.506 92.904 302.948 164.286 2 2.597 595 17.226 452 1.047 205.482 348.659 197.393 378 1.398 1.526 8.998 568.993 162.366 F 128.632 99.854 339.099 27.767 81 235 49 37 45 21 6 858 7 1 820 2 82 200 40 1.492.127 424 1. Dersaadet ve Bilad-i Selase is the Capital City and the Three Boroughs.420.720 220 189 3.035 79.978 27.073 108.796 1.984 362.601 4.442 445.172 26 F 137 873 1.808 23.647 408.125 77 521 49 636 1.074 72.112 Jews F 6.731 237.896 18.342 149.853 1.504 547.784 81 33 Protestants M 142 1.104 18.980 1.826 148.034.433 97.097 46.737 268.108 16.170 67.622 1.181 537.853 276. 2072 ot R 20 Teşrinisani 1310 (2 December 1894).262 571.525 5.564 990.009 721.972 196 644 36 47 232 7.342 Armenians M 8.750 3 281 119.062 606 373.083 664.352 8.993 4.791 449.414 6.794 10.379 27.775 11.884 68.051 1 48 391.755 17.702 177.884 75 96 1.368 39.164 19 218 7 1.007 44.591 5.281 1.793 558 19.548 482 2 105 18.687 443.203 M 222.521 522 4.869 1.082 1.064 971 104 805 3.755 4.637.990 17 34.239 31.107 3.035.862 105.824 264.820 1.358 70 875 108 2.834 316.913 25.028 1.334 Source: BA(Y) (Sadaret.372 195.965 483.101 18." It was compiled by the premier's office in answer to a direct request by the sultan.093 30 118.629 865 10.469 245.924 3.948 16.321 565.031 140 367 2 440 73 54 364 1.857 1230.240.192 10.811 12.322 621.533 366.073 20.991 851 89 70 M Latins F 4 7 76 586 464 36 3 27.466 16.110 750 3.362 847.736 34.419 18.481 3.058 17.858 431.990 8. Hususi Maruzatı) H 3 C1312.141.154 93.115 76 587 17 135 862 1.216 21 2 157.234 17.853 154.632 273.117 4.055 518.898 555.790.937 722.772 5.995 31.455 105.777 19 4.261 550.014 118.509 170.772 192.197 10.070 43.045 559.772 182.641 59.237 345.713 176.115 117.890 7.113 13 190 11.668 79.732 399.502 1.601 1.182 13.801 62.969 1.1.959 6.397 400.452 12. c 152 153 .434 448.523 ' M 138.507 2. and Adalar.040 2.081 116.082 556 45 38.521 18.932 1.682 421 1.079 ' 32.035 39 652 28 346 35.990 67. Ottoman Population.564 298.748 80.1.714 1.672 7.336.768 11.342 234.498 1. "Şehremaneti Mülhakatı is Greater Istanbul.804 147.351 9.072 175.409 102.171 19.545 55.399 119.

541 54.138 184.826 422 70 2.311 25.715 421 3.000 247.082 753 819 3.000 799.144 30.383 5.790 13.948 42.500 215.208. 2072.178 60.251 874.310 74/150" 408.842 212.072 9 3.915 4.588 6.677 1.913 3.780 3.051 209 37.000 90.037 44.701 810.552 133.586 1.970 2.037 885.364.128 327.431 5.006.575 1.147 366.039 14.000 913.000 21 5 274.150.000 29.010 37.382 322 32 402 2 5.M u s l i m s i n the Ottoman State. 213.552 235.618 993.532 62.948 1.000 419.000 339. 175.017 152.353 876 2.020 104.700.130 18.245 426 43 13. M u s l i m s and N o n .240 153 1.728 152.619 3.000 463.220 3.000 21.000 521.000 572.706.642 101.765 36.Qg2 19.268 155.915 195.262 .000 423.366 559.209 46 1.065 819.442 9.000 1.500 994.109 330.138 32.041 670.000 952.823* 83 116.913 23.024 3.840.232 10.809 41.173 186.397 139.000 952.675 1.755 2.252 Source: BA (Y)/(Sadaret.073.273 36 81 9.390 .273 129 12.000 187.508 349.356 6.648 320.981 1.000 1.721 6 1 415 22.956 966 9.181 505.I 10.000 273. Note: This table.144 2.243 1. 1894 AdmınistFöt've Dıstrıc! Muslims Greeks Armenians Bulgarians Jews Catholics Proteslants Latins Syrians Others Tola! Edirne Erzurum Adana Ankara Aydin Işkodra izmit Bağdat Basra Bitlis Beyrut Biga Cezayir-i Bafır-i Sefid Çatalca Halep Hicaz Hüdavendigar Dersaadet Diyarbekir Zor Sivas Selanik Suriye Şehremaneti Mülhakatı' Trabzon Kastamonu Konya Kosova TK09UF) Girit" Musul Manastir Mamuretülaziz Van Yanya Yemen Total 434.848 7.884 4.936 3.000 3.075 613.304 267.750.000 1.161.000 390.730 1.100 226.220 349 358 101.815 67.507.121 543 286.534 29.734 3.742 62 33.223 2.539 56.500 260.257 199 2.217 419.140 337 1.000 836.448 102.277 66 5 216 1.708 16.782 1.407 57.860 129.971 542 998 709. no.206 6.000 313.994 283 702 12 844 139 97 654 491 15 1.659 752.926 50.262 1.018 94 58 4.358 86 1.517 793.653 6.997 875.807 46.270 5. 16.000 2.500 1.399 35.813 277. compiled by the prime minister's office.000 731.130 2.678 30 10 5.797 133 875 108 4.000 546.350 6.440.000 957.000 392.731 83 899 52.706 8.955 400 3.263 1.108 17 135 1.377 7 223.294 500 2.266 1.683 49 373 831 1.361 1.786 279 1.000 475.590 35.734 50.636 763.869 18.393 .373 9.505.818 144. covers areas the population of which was only partially tabulated in the 1893 census.849 10 150 162 67 4.991 123.000 630.550. Hususi Maruzati)/3 C 1312.813 939 500 7.000 250.741 1.082 3.000 27.069. 34.940 37.110 — .029 939.127 29 73. 155 .498 2.050 115 544 292 371 25 55.967 15.734 1.005.066 467.000 527.000 3 228.

155 10.653 1. ^ con 12.714 3. ÖUO I lö 2.492 117.403 298.826 148.145 12.333 2.653 221.714 3.291 18.300 99.570 2.765 29.822 799.545 59.0 000.659 182 57.333 1. M u s l i m and N o n .617 37 oy 33 270 C.351 66 602 17 135 973 1.502 118 901 4.917 12 28. M u s l i m and N o n .134 239. 30 535 21 476 37 1.906 960 3.280 409.888 6.543 165.567 1.351 44.259 110.210 1 48 73.796 1.358 988.104 20.306 7.411 2.ıı . u s ' U m u m i y y e s r * 2 ? S £ % S t ' * k m e - G e t o - ™- **• «* Notes: The figures do not cover areas (Basra.035 82.819 75 137 1.538 476 107.010 321 1.143 141 684 35 117.462 119.374 58.535 19 1.682 421 1.140 659 21.013 69.543 14.117 I .197 84.545 1.758 447.923 c M n 9 K u 65.443. Ci AG.598 13.486 K7Q o* y 1 4.039 10.040 8.513 19.984 1.958 381.4uu Cin r\ a *\ b2u.803 1.185 1 OC~7 Di c1 1.123 21.827 2. Scutan-l kodra.60 3 1 22 12.246 424.984 Catholics F 489 3.725 32 884 36 447 24.226 640 19.028 1.101 18.483 390 2.302 451.870 39.037 22 1.862 138.798 4.727 8.661 24.864 13.464 61.637 1.HDD.177 14 1.048 3.827 2.990 54 878 47 452 28.902 268.783 30.004 19.234 18.261 M 52.493 3.074 78.732 35.945 577.976 140.879 105.218 18.U.735.292 477.992 224.724 8.169 756 104.478 9.ob/. Heiaz.261 22.599 2.686 68.031.064 118.295 40.304 105.123 22.756 8.983 Snnrrp.142 4.481 918.239 56.498 1.4Ub 721.007 89. 111 105.510 of1 7 R a m a z a n 1 3 1 2 34.950 478.544 175.966 "Administrative District Edirne Erzurum Adana Ankara Aydın Işkodra İzmit Sancak Bağdat Basra Bitlis Beyrut Biga Sancak Cezayir-i Bahr-i Sefid Çatalca Sancak Halep Hüdavendigar (Bursa) Diyarbekir Zor Sivas Selanik Suriye Şehremaneti Mülhakatı" Trabzon Kastamonu Konya Kosova Kudüs Musul Mamuretülaziz (Elazig) Manastir Van Yanya Total İstanbul GRAND TOTAL GRAND TOTAL.y/u 516.957 1.324 7.439 29 M 535 4.349 464.847 3.069 8.399 t o i Q7fï .098 996 3.070 99.168 68.672 8.179 97.367 195 1. 177 D.216 29.434 581.RÛ IV\:ID\:i ili 42.870 128.073 6.079 17.854 343.674 0 156 O.622 116.040 56.093 31.589 6.312 "île 49 1.092 1.586 1.900 409.289 15.377.216 21 1.304 8.093 102.121.826 7.583 1.748 1 63.266 1.142 573.521 522 5.994 61. 1 U/ 1.289 18.704.503 17 36.014 10.299 140 541 2 457 199 54 364 135 3.170 64.240 15.094 571.445 .097 400 73 41.743 3.893 4.876 108.096 3.129 8.182 9.012 230.640 568.148 1.156.963 15.564 173.070 664.M u s l i m Subjects Counted in the Census up to_1895 Muslims Greeks M 222.534 612 137 18.924 108.11.943 RA OU.405 178.291 18. ¿ 9 9 ion non 197.014 137 6 765 131 6 947 862 820 97 5 2.709 F 128.100 22.oc4 387.636 2.768 65.419 373 1.181 553.172 35 F 4 Latins M n Census up to 1895 (continued) Old Syrians F M F M Non-Muslim F M 17 435 28.433 35 373.387 47 551 M 142 1.400 237.645 1 i^RO 2 220 3 in 1 iu 1 OQ CAO My.775 388 37.459 157.121 445.145 1.2% 25 27 27.481 3.096 38.255.267 129.116 1.v4z> dOA OOA Qo4.986 M 138.322 821 1.284 15. ' 168 378 Tin 180 ooe r\A.250 2.853 351.824 821.11.466 76.218 74.M u s l i m Subjects i Jews F 6.204 1.467 V.692 39.065 85.148 396.802 Armenians F 8.834 1.311 489.231 13 479 119.504 9.005 7.ouo 264.970 19.409 196 699 47 229 5.478 235.336 216.1.546 66.729 305 4.041 3.079.991 1.889 8.782 441.706 5.c 39 76 15 379 25.432 70.940 147.949 19.221.806 7. 7no IXJC 1t .107 4.281 1.657 173 43 321 3.113 3 186 12.955 3. BOTH SEXES F 211.883 274.493 3.041 1. etc ) where the census was nol completed in 1893.560 583.602 251.209 445.4yo Qûn >tnn yyu.Û Chaldeans F M Foreign M IV) 214 116 Total Population oàb.735.336 1.097 51.355 2.348 143 530 5 442 4.952 1.009 21. or\r> .952 1.768 11.271 149.489 16.403 126 147 1.154 132.237 348.699 1.541 1.441 36 • • • Protestants F 137 960 1.246 141.258 1.343 1.174 27.m 547 1. fi7flö .115 10.059.406 62.497 3.160 1.073 22.775 12.'~.51i M 7.353 23.896 1.777 394 2.948 16.349 349 35 58.459 108.473 2.675 1 2.594 3. 21.807 9.650 100 .176 606 373.861 3.233 7.414 6.188 Bulgarians F 49.309 288 62.358 23 875 108 3.142 18.936 190.992 29.629 875 309 1 2.750 2.452 16. n 239.242 "e.352 8.872 2.480 228.443 65.035 1.sr W u . OOQ O.916 276.U1 4 U 1.963 15.031 33.211 1 fi" !U y/o 87.377.800 c e tn 7Z s 5 S .TOO jyy 11 ß A RRA fine.342 ¿08.981 412.COO f.205 18 353 7 62 485 89 552 98 2.685 4.948 276. § 156 157 .497 2.705 22.030.922 144.831 15.300 M 8.386 248.853 1.764 19 366 5 212 504 1.938 15 26 267 55 1 156 858 135 q nen «ne yoy.963 1 1 1 .108 220 996 1.017 5. Crete is excluded.326 39 19.821.940 137.159 821 245 45 780 28 346 547 1.367 1.06" 444 707 778 1.820 261 2.414 595 20.114 07n Af\a y/u.

261 9.295 573.996 155.434 61.900 504 98 Foreign Citizens M 686 142 135 3.528 3 225 1.829 925 4.125 143.009.081 37 10.660 615.123 12 7.039 4.432 149.592 51.012 721.443 250.233 314.179 444. Muslims and Non-Muslims i n the Ottoman State.804 186.884 33 30 69.050 22.412 476 66.906 3.729 1.945 56.611 820 37.367 108.663.220 39 27.396 Source: BA (Y)/(P) 1313/1459.569 511.656 271.065 134.416 458 22.861 15.486 805 2.322 69.055 21.441 134 2.615 252.879 446.004 137 57.006 449. Kastamonu Bitlis Konya .336 479.323 177.689 67.105 863 62 940 4.552 19.645 28 28.358 875 108 196 130.346 72.182 6.142.263 465.148 1.534 901 2.870 276.304 595 1.809 21.542 228. Note: This table is based on the 1893 census.270 858 72.062 43.400 789 36.347 7. and Adalar.655 Total Population 1.492 581.921 110.634 200.205 364 17 1.562 160 F 490.441 8.073 41.664 199.080 1.100 7.094 M 21.748 1.541 489.421 294.536 " 49 73 28.ezayir-i Bahr-i Seflö Musul Halep Sığa .889 107.363 10.107 180 875 117.988 274.562 457.628 5.964 66.847 3.190 1.223 111 1.051 145.610 11.997 5.877 969.074 1.296 131.360 449 20.782 11 135.562 449 1.478 9.850 4 116 305 5 1.060 248.088 2.741 Total M 519.764 25 373 135 5 25.519 3.503 29.953 569.299 8 15 457 12 300 20 419 Old Syrians F M Protestants F 165 506 M 164 602 F Latins M F 586 93 97 2.835 221. Kartal.¡.465.183 98 960 1. Greater İstanbul in this case includes Küçükçekmece.195 3.979 3 188 1 1.233 265.862 117.708 273.640 43.328 7.262 1.725 4.856.737 Bulgarians M 121.683 59.948 13 97 56.342 664.705 447.892 150.759 235.889 99.419 693 612 9.142 12.777 36 973 2.795 348.692 a 237.727 9.134 39.876 27.762 269 301 662 2.038 110 7.188 65.680 844.363 293.605 210.611 73.603 1.249 16.030.400 5.999 F 29 19.660 44 8.846 433. M u s l i m s and N o n .016 899.181 536.750 15.671 43.924 577.182 443.386 141 75.083 1.723 M 228.466 22.285.949 23.586 1.190 25.365.100 423.408 176.085.483 46 400 349 35 16.142.4'2 7.043 1.439 2.992 206.367.353 135 4.970 620.239 583.422 529 444 1.676 229 1.682 421 36 89.240 33.387 3.210 1.112.775 12.764 394 54 19 66 541 1.994 298. 158 159 .617 1.281 1.625 27.474 535 476 1 130 146 1.459 97.970 147 62.009 4.472 769 56 580 3.917 29.990 100 1.668 21 451.400 383.157 679.064 14. Şile.965 41.647 1.591 687.284 1.421 79 944 125.336 1.385 463.692 276.269.044 .878 555.344 478.858 132.352 8.412 212.071 17.504 119.079 35.168 12.870: 108.12.333 1.209 7.243.820 195 1.040 157.143.983 23.168 756 18.445 490.558 396.450 20.836 1.271 18.553 16.245 296.827 150.124.862 340.865 3.781 100.517 19.033 112.569 218.947 621.142 387.880 38.769 252.623 244.448 66.419 89.653 110.981 5 31.037 2.862 117.433 1.186 138.599 266.568.207 3.140 1.913 262.260 16.702 18.920 9 147.500 4.029 21 8.411 2.356 449.638 468.355 15.412 512.675 5.016 465.630 140.062 606 386.422 413.150 321 1.433 378 821 821 1.399 1.Diyarbekir Adana Zor Edirne Erzurum Ankara Mamuretülaziz {Elazığ) Hüdavendigar Kosdva •Manasîir Aydin Suriye Sivas Yanya Van Beyrut Kudüs Işkodra Bağdat Basra Şehremaneti Mulhakati* Total ' İstanbul GRAND TOTAL GRAND TOTAL.157 23 Catholics 1.940 102.922 140.246 6.126 261.830 954.045 91.154 22.196 73.161 23.457 290.768 681 2.023 2.144 740.450 19.207 1.788 Greeks M 146.324 918.685 66.170 78.502 12.455 2. Gebze.787 94.035 139.427 300.187 254.290 2.579 3.967 8.216 886 2. BOTH SEXES 222.080 148.274 1.708 10.931 26.186 128.180 J27.783 37 33.396 5.661 17 6.807 6.685 1 1.115 29.908 3.452 20.398 4 30.156.995 49.167 308.381 28.255 725.564 172.535 634.306 7.791 468.300 135.828 85.M u s l i m s i n the Ottoman State (continued) Jews F 20.12._1896 Muslims "dministrative District >lanik zmi! Çatalca "rafczon .367.480 39.179 1.587.966 62.570 12.803 312.544 268.098 3.533 450.635 8.092 9.531 468.756 8.622 105.448.290 4.694 59.481 321 7 4.372 197.765 882 2.145 1.526 8.910 1. it includes estimates for tribes not subject to the census and the annual population figures reported by the province officials (the full original title of the list reters to the estimate of tribes and to results "obtained by cable").613 224.215 408.826 1.733 87.562 1 13.950 477.073 21 7.973 8.410 66.000 13 7.370 4.845 12.130 68.123 5.204 11.888 6.826 108.943 980.329 529.061.600 386.200 1.429 23.751 3.951 13.450 40 388 Armenians M 19 19.013.993 99.535 390 43 19 47 530 1.459 168 1.351 3.742 452.370 101.150 250.861 59.806 37.126 408.311 479 69.313 30.853 80.860 18.913 4.415 7.735 7.633 16.673 293.853 44.812 2.453 2 21.483 23 770 2.972 196.752 15.633 34 24.134 72.127 29 1.471 142.197 1.162 1.568 907.148 975 4.234 19.010 49 2.317 1.650 3.000 196.966 203.547 316.042 402 706 44.758 457.048 16.263 105.104 408.

629 .776 605.927 501.030 Arme nians F 68.281 149.301 290.188 197 28.153 12 5 9.13.244 156 31 161 60.217 5.485 183 553 1." 160 161 .859 473.154 3.340.393 3 1 11.569 479 13 145.526 26.800 24.603 9.833 448 2.687 6.050 591.499 238.564 287 27.203 41 1.913 18.504 1.189 Total 2. Foreign Citizens i n the Ottoman State.403 1.249 79.639 968.643 2.012 2.962 1.769 148.467 398 14 38.126 25.370 21.500 Increase 4.614 340.278 1 3.963 4.681 19.916 721.785 19 1.987 31. but it was based on the original statistical list (compiled eighteen years earlier).581 10.062 74 26.299.435 1.196 30.939 Total F 381.919 117.478 464 5.670 71.839 24.170 596 526 4.644 624 1.670 7.874 2.365 42.319 406.742 33.948 446 2.001 819.205 22.138 467.018 307.810 296.635 118.329 32.424 637. 1897 (continued) Protestants M 1.460 712.116 105.309 1.038.958 7.526 134 38 938 129 5.330 310 4.454 7.259 Total 126.905 2.689 179.399 44.868 355.674 23 26 245 64.434 21.916 97.861 1.434 82 3.361 2.165 1.13.182 723 152.073 99 66 1.383 10.831 45.829 4.284 220.628 255.199 464. 1897 Muslims Administrative District Dersaadet .933 239.270 559 157 330 142 F 27.550 250.898 508.147 154.298 8.044 8.423 300.248 63.672 5.863 1 21.515 502.426 454.271 201.326 40.981 1.358 Foreign Citizens F 511 1.247 132.238 1.630 217.220 11.332 8 82 3.282 13.316 14.449 258.904 286.861 34 44.757 176.384 Total Population 903.545 258.663 3.343 60.051 125.590 2.116 516.833 22.024 14.198 1.309 16.455 745. Ottoman Population.775 356.1.124 8.249 572.186 1 196 414 1.874 25.993 80. Note: This tabulation of foreigners was compiled by the Statistical Directorate of the Trade and Construction Ministry in 1915.440 440 1.790 38 9.468 20.121 3. M 298.973 551.553.443 3.643 165.846 120.790 15.377 13.931 8.558 191 29 1 59 1.018.441 3.700 254.202 1 9.743 13.429 138.750 55 56.562 3.154 4.025 297 1.946.371 119 30 947 129 6.079 10.466 2.15.228.Edirne Aydın Erzurum Adana •Işkodra i Ankara İzmit Beyrut Bitlis Bağdat Basra Biga Cezayir-i Bahr-i Sefid Çatalca Halep Hüdavendigar Oiyarbekir Zor . Suriye Sivas Şehremaneti Mülhakatı Trabzon Kosova Kastamonu Konya Kudüs : Manastir Namuretülaziz .084 134.325 1.205 82 1.107 3.242 877 M 1.475 148.011 16.488 261.712 198. 1290-1310) Year 1290 1300 1310 Population 19.431 532.046 92.302 3. 1874/75-1894/95 (R.466 958 •498 4. Ottoman Population G r o w t h .805 6.067 4.706 3.636 479 124.344 449.405 179.355 362 13 15 21 216 372 7 8 1.801 1.338 481.049 111. — — 95 252 93 Source: IUKTY 9184.177 9 682 67 860 135 5 2.846 M 89.413 458 341 Catholics F 3.265 106 1.719 490.902 19.022.531 25.120 427 8 36.627 • -172 M 3.196 8.608 10 583 39 868 97 5 2.555 16.011 130.565 724 21.816 112.077 2.912 54.228 117.174 230 43 1.322 732.568 22.198 194.14.377 45 26 28 4.573 440.810.995 83.547 ' v -M Source: IUKTY 9075.067 74.728 232 10 5.148 294 2.119 8.304 8.941 59 21 1.643 1.122 1.048 1.127 51.030 6.780 108.865 250 697 98.478 1 705 15 10 615 1 1.499.944 23.682 412.969 25.281 25.147 M 99.764 87.163.217 459.670 122.777 3 1.443 620.401 40.956 698 2 141.500 755.568 354 100 4.619 478.675.192 745 141.509 16.457 56 • 59 593 236. Note: This accounting of population growth over a twenty-year period compiled by Ottoman officials is evidence of the changing attitude of the Ottoman government toward census and population statistics.663 164 740 1 35 215 Bulgarians M 5.866 1.980 13.285 Greeks F 62.657 51.272 17 157.144 504.475 48.099 120.483 33.649 640 1.204 1.421 9.596 2.235 22.452 357.206 36.609 2 496 4 Maronites M F Chaldeans M F Old Syrians M F Non-Muslim Gypsies M F M 522.398 132.767 1.270 559 252 582 235 Administrative District Halep Hüdavendigar Oiyarbekir Selanik Sivas Şehremaneti Mülhakatı Trabzon Konya Kudüs Manastir Mamuretülaziz Yanya Total M 1.055 15.306 1 380.525 222.680 9.436 1.924 3 Jews F 22.029 1.805 307 55 1 86 2.479 109 22.813 F 221.933 1.262 17.054 1.586 38. 1315) Foreign Citizens Administrative District İstanbul Edirne Aydin Erzurum Işkodra Ankara İzmit Beyrut Bağdat Basra Biga Cezayir-i Bahr-i Sefid Çatalca M 99.973 1.306 273.206 1.662 109.243 376 F 606 59.299 1.876 88.142 28.138 227.597 21.834 20.081 143.482 985.158 761 1.869 460.978 394.555 539 5.769 192.685 355.745 145 1.425 312.241 1.456 413.260 1.454.313 517 155 1.385 80.085 546. Selanik .745 40 9.950 27.149 13 58.247 13 226 2 1.572 17.586 139.181 9.129 6. Ottoman Population.250 181.612.435 5.515 613.920 478.371 3 959 26 1.277 274.201 71.478.239 469.280 10.626 228.903 65.241 805 16 1.040 477.543 1.602 516.500 16.644 10. Musul Van Yanya Total Source: IUKTY 9184.294 111.191 1.965 58.053 1 4.083 514.958 209 23 175 62.323 3 60 2 60 339 99 4.684 179.783 33 33 348 172.007 88 789 64 673 2.397 12.392 14 69.529 1.986 137. 1899 (R.950 8.965 1 932 7 460 25.865.512 214 744 898 50 254 93.290 177.398 33.228 73.294 414.532 29.542 34.817 83.752 484 55.758 62.918 3.891 18.014 151.255 598.673 37.829 506.070 621.103.476 14.739 1.898 7.320 2 548 53 207 436 18 3.015 398.674 256 58 1.648 1. 224.744 197.060 785 1.507 " 732.588 70.376 8.955 1.139 875 1.945 114.515 19.757 318 3.994 189. "The General Statistics of the Ottoman State in R.345 180 37 2.953 473.136 32.156 13.355 1.839 1.065 7.227 1 1.285 3.839 9.966 1 496.225 M 23.013 132.763 338.247 116 26 27 1.050.828 657 2 22. 1313 11897].958 4.494 18.182 1.868 1.372 949 29 43 F 595 101 47 965 1.567 2.550 1.322 126.930 88.621 255 33 910 3 469 28.204 31.581 278.150 2.775 3 862 Latins F 1.134 980.642 187.888 265.386 5 554 44 178 349 16 3.736 61.988 2.779 205.

857 70 1.904 1.864 149.485 63.735 22.038 81 459 43.404 633 12.383 50.497 244 138 198.623 27.303 1.409 6.820 6.727 19 52Z 174.909 208.340 453 8 331 9.266 3.086 1.636 3. 1906/7 (continued) Süryani Latins M F Maronıtes M F (Syriac) M F M Chaldeans F M Jacobites F M Jews F M Samarıîans F M Yezıdıs F Gypsies M F Foreigners M F M Tolal F T o t a Wailacnians M F Catholics M f t 57.804 87.502 89.700 72.371 45.089 704 118 621 113 289 195 183.342 26.805 11.092 196 21.962 11.117 632 192 177 11 13 13 .124 407.956 19.943 134.571 4.135 900 326 1.584 362.237 13.196 5.245 39.056 65.621 55.054 7.A.834 126.118 23. 33.597 212.265 93.867 2 025 4.619 1.481 1.188 13.576 59.956 82.360 1.797 2.727.219 83.126 630.884 7.270 390 42.645 40.259 598 4.088 1.466 16.565 12.267 1.307 187.273 93.048 26 18 25 1.963 12.937 192.901 117.288 260.710 123.451 160.281 32.228 609 138 22 155 924 295 208 179 1 45 189 35 155 27 52 96 1 5 181 1 40 49 79 1 169 648 63 2 34 t 748 21 24 493 71 27 591 10 25 209 61 1 1 227 6 1 7 150 11 3 633 5 34 2 3 7 164 10 2 12 4 51 6 632 5 36 1 2 3 47 4 10 45 55 14 28 42 114 50 104 10 47 3 192 177 27 32 701 701 2 2 7 8 136 17 49 18 17 11 330 4 32 342 8 42 98 100 162 87 701 701 2 1 1 7 8 12.892 199.093 29.551 542 138 386 171 8 899 17 10 91 28 2.534 299.925 48.555 64.536 6.037 3.802 13.115 92 67 2.899 71.548 248.646 8.756 69.661 280 276 1.157 180.618 11.935 6.810 191.914 189 857 41.723 42.171 100.492 3.331 30 19 24 1.849 19. Adana 4.279 108.809 65 75 2 138 2.491 1.582 297.832 10 7 2.042 330.000 1.465 28.338 54.Vicinityof İstanbul 1 Aydın (İzmir) Manisa Aydin Menteşe (Muğla) Denizli Totaî.414 540 19.043 1.656 77.257 5.711 357.195 3.354 1.469 95.602 863.598 827.344 189.595 45.691.284 7.517 345 101.697 61 078 37. A.266 37.709 7.070 188.961 12.468 3 335 5.830 33.194 7 32 110 10 1 1 154 1 7 27 98 4 4.313 46.650 125.575 43.452 2.327 1.144 85.012 4 838 474 7.764 21.541 486.042 887 23.248 1.807 129.054 46.526 160.226 6.162 44.815 32.916 466 279 626 857 2.980 82.047 16.698 7.263 103.227 141 117 3.162 380 3.646 141.516 23.272 730.301 842.335 23.817 47.183 25 196 35 2.560 219.323 49 1 399 940 87 2.729 2 194 383 6 299 8.183 5.366 86.746 I h e V ı c i n ı t y of İstanbul Beykoz Sile Gebze Kuçukçekmece Kartal Total. İstanbul 14 168 16 149 232 4.233 79 12.065 359 321 189 249 361 481 936 83 55 1.305 93.600 98.785 504.639 92.813 178 40.599 152.643 3.321 42. Summary of Census of Ottoman Population.594 785 1.281 6.209 22.217 36.236 791 2.861 13 19 22 18 1 2.120 12.959 21.895 1.466 1.635 73.510 41.966 197 89.425 700 413 782 782 804 804 30.013 60 1.393 39.520 3.552 158 857 1. 1906/7 Greek Ajmınıstralıve M s'anbui 151 dıstnct 2d dıstncı 3ö d strıc! 4!h dıstnct ı 5thı distr.884 625 352 2.658 2.821 34.789 1. Erzurum 5.274 85.343 3.739 254.242 61.422 1.263 91 142 516 5.676 5.449 97.004 3.708 38.536 12 9 37 245 4.260 33.406 666 11 16.441 364 223 869 4 682 3 1.209 202.773 2.566 173.144 202.911 130.181 30.975 2.544 2.148 108.033 ' 46 129 45 136 80 88 3 3 2.908 91.412 6 168 1.089 31.838 125.590 1.601 1.946 69.405 1.838 81.975 12.034 93.700 90.837 674.182 12.350 15.342 13 5 1 37 3 1 27 1 38 30 1 1 3 2.656 31.960 12.611 4.402 4.935 20.544 2.098 16 179 30 2.976 19.0. 129 4 6 36.671 32.829 18.102 105.680 7. atfı dıstrıct : Armenian Calhol'CS M F Protestants M F F Muş ıms f Cossacxs M Greeks M F Armenians M.279 174.784 17.258 231.341 3.184 16 53 5 1.475 46 1.259 72.180 20 071 133.086 6.532 4.578 11.506 102.265 240.821 312.663 30 672 5.354 2 828 1 590 2.645 244 28.688 30.541 170.782 53.562 96 152 1 220 190 13 3 81 44 300 102 152 2 32 162 10 77 33 570 Population 26 35 6 1 1.451 657.628 39.861 3.860 28.336 7 731 2 198 426 546 1.770 8 384 14 134 291 108 2.141 102.544 2.627 313 210 32.023 5.ct Sin dıstnct 7tîı dıstnct .060 3.298 1.784 49.789 2.669 754 4 252 2.469 81.396 430.733 51.143 11.705 10.726 11 8 67 360 118 291 108 9tfı disînct 10th dıstfict " Totai.007 2.335 281.190 10.459 3.941 1.048 7.293 33.392 196.023 2 569 39.156 4.908 70.670 65.060 28.390 8.246 518 307 707 973 2.607 11.700 10.239 45.673 41.764 5.715 21.654 1.176 2 5 20 4 28 22 549 275 213 5 23.391 1.761 108.580 207 21. F Bulgarians M F I.771 9.576 39.478 58.400 47.019 1.767 78.660 3 309 2.157 131 123.652 127. Erzurum Erzincan Bayazid Hınıs Totai.805 39.697 1.420 48.498 58.951 107.549 4.717 474 7 206 381 204 4.307 3.769 10.494 33.700 8.494 17.306 1.257 524.435 Çorum Total.027 18 39 18 2 77 54 19 17 18 4 133.571 42.293 147 2.980 17.326 9.015 6.256 2.130 1.898 212.992 158.349 22.584 175.881 1.604 176.890 15.541 23.395 100 140 2 055 845 24.601 399.269 469.060 4.036 29.199 14.402 3.169 52.695 104..355 17.786 9.399 5.439 2.200 1.590 9.211 887 828 430 1.043 7.146 4.085 126.316 109.16.210 187.437 64.816 165.868 28. Summary of Census of Ottoman Population.134 397 233 475 1 48 1.836 32.687 7.503 785 16.225 618 9.742 601.305 861 69 2.660 2 3. Ankara 3 Adana Mersin Cebelibereket (Payas) Kozan İçel Total.655 1.064 468 328 130 847 1.478 16 2 569 5.395 208.215 297.742 265.679 16.414 128. Ankara Yozgat Kayseri ' Kırşehir : 2.809 22.011 179.472 601 21.144 1.710 34.919 62.561 452 153 67 17 7 11 7 366 3. Bitlis Muş Surt Genç Total.527 47.402 223.079 98. Hudavendigar .739 1.106 92.475 24.771 181.213 57.283 81.248 254.090 782.731 8.581 372.922 127.151 32.831 134.053 884.127 1.258 124.565 4.709 3.403 356 403 4 10 34.358 400 510 510 2 5.154 204 321 114 2 22 663 228 279 96 7 26 636 1. Cezayir-i Bahr-i Selid 7.995 9.410 5.898 91 981 1.197 13.058 2.835 5.967 1.625 7.646 89.031 19.829 17. Bitlis 6 Cezayir-ı Bahr-i Sefid Midilli Sakız Lımnı Total.280 7.285 6.697 6.405 147 2 358 72 12.232 207.187 64.093 14.951 74 76 5 142 2.533 136.855 170.277 822 734 289 195 162 163 .144 164.971 2.727 80.196 14 848 6 392 3.B84 84.880 130.407 19B.986 14.044 359 216 3 727 2.211 675 855 72.469 428.978 12.505 706 124 20 215 1.630 882 4.867 37.874 13.257 36.452 338 279 448 1 68 1.155 1 4 2.009 856 949 330 2.076 401 304 132 683 1. Aydin 2.109 28.881 27.787 57.609 37 432 5.003 2.813 164.364 123.046 8.L16.281 45.308 6.071 6.259 16.412 5.402 175 25.149 60.680 25.290 99 29 84 50 1 240 14 12 28 22 579 11 2 13 3 46 158 12 491 27 31 153 12 ' 515 12 3.330 29.779 7.415 25.837 7. Hudavendigar (Bursa) Ertuğrul (Bilecik) Kütahya Karahısar (Afyon) karesi (Balıkesir) Total.531 2.257 1.859 555.433 2.

426 175. Beyrut 15.775 246.0B2 263 325 1.322 6.156 4.988 53.349 1.386 192.178 7.531 174.316 8.A.740 594 28.101 114.432 2.301 12.247 23.798 45.032 99. Mamuretiılaziz Malatya Dersim Total.053 21.218 2.142 30.379 42.749 167.066 29 59 969 9 2 1.607 103.731 7.567 119.360 25 62 26 1 43 30 1 582. 842 3.831 196 12.392 69.259 313 7.760 5.194.06.507 392.503 127.080 38.298 108 786 2.685 2.477 59.528 10.082 4.464 58788 10.416 180.969 217 186 2 7.650 26.073 4.453 152.229 F 2.625 385 132 791 755 538 23 1.116 1.618 5.907 10.039 238.523 369.979 161.136 87.091 211.507 62.905 132.933 533 155 13.024 2 11.268 7.260 169. Sivas 10 Trabzon Canık [Samsun) Lazıstan (Rize) Gümüşhane Total.262 303.934 32.529 2.246 9.272 119 125 57.311 5.657 191.253 142.280 26.498 2.017 63.631 278.471 12.750 938 19.299 122.939 4.16.311 296 3. 8ağdat 16.190 272.730 967 2.625 42.943 111.524 82.270 547.568 29. Summary of Census of Ottoman Population.622 111.261 40.949 247.146 25.191 499 5. Summary of Census of Ottoman Population.273 3.079 182.102 69 327 89 5.324 122.966 155.419 171.451 124 1.539 4.938 373 6.074 70 22 2 94 95 95 71 71 487 89 582 89 2 4 841 3.308 Tola! F 70.645 4. Basra Amara Münteíik Need Total.451 11.315 435 5.671 102.422 86.034 12.320 10.525 649 5.289 691 4. Basra 17.345 1.041 13.914 50.621 266 174 2.292 10 649 10.062 31.903 114.446 1.181 9.667 53.174 7 4.497 78.902 691.343 1 3 3 20 17 Bulgarians M F Waiiachians M Catbo-cs M F Armenian Catholics .118 29 819 3.000 867.003 207.063 55.819 2.346 750 6.003 34.376 159.316 39 199.160 617 613 F 866 324 533 1.368 142.185 47.343 247.296 36.600 179.209 123. Beyrut Akka Trablusşam Lazkiye Nabius Total.221 1. Trablusgarb Humus Cebeiigarbı Fizan Rıngazı Total.662 78.413 4 6 1 1 3 10 736 751 1.366 299.665 62.470 Total Population 156 989 112.372 627.388 576.964 155.697 59.348 28.529 3.777 562.623 165 . Bağdat Divaniye Kerbela Totai.275 58.350 522.391 85.460 1.927 142.798 173.055 55 339 106 729 5 184 1.294 43.194 655 2.383 506.A.886 130.219 84 255 25 1 1 2 1 2 4 2 4 256.607 190. Suriye 19.183 35.700 114.795 69.167 618 110 323.006 !4 1.248 102 3.690 97.344 4.270 279.293 72.607 13 7.651 57.114 70 37 164 6.375 90 18 Suriye Hama Kerk Havran Total.663 23.342 1.072 43.267 98.I.614 1.097 12.165 205.039 31 43 254 1 2 300 29 31 Laims M F Maronites M F 1.362 30.271 37.177 235.598 10.073 451.047 38.276 1.973 1.962 208 262 107.516 4.790 117.396 149.185 20.174 44. Trablusgarb 152.768 4.460 239.393 111.831 70 2 196 43 164 17 7.075 61.725 99.368 5.333 532 3.773 3.804 43.404 42.878 109.V.861 6.296 473.844 81.254 47.732 64.596 4 604 1.120 149 108 1.064 30.761 40.630 590 118 Protestants M 953 387 508 1.495 76.462 14 371 2 4 105 101 105 101 Cossacks M F M 256 307 563 3.866 177.724 356.659 60.380 41.694 271.628 49.284 564 3. 67. Trabzon 11.294 337.021 126.448 38.054 7.575 69.423 37. 1906/7 (continued) Greek Muslims OıStr.770 9.202 155.696 63.219 32.017 29 720 20.912 62.374 5.718 6.688 74.104 229.269 61.981 157.910 506.172 192 200 392 24 163 205 368 24 440 5.857 26.618 2.230 126 311 28 1.288 340 211 2.103 385 57 40 13 9 237.670 624 1 96 F 785 3.827 24 24 4.785 2.000 F 53.468 696 20.210 247.705 487.247 2.339 68 5 14.807 232.651 3.739 10.045 1.749 124.099 14 F 12.517 73.149 81.278 4.321 290.744 15.217 80.048 265.354 93.063 178.215 288 4.498 292 270 6 8.218 6.595 723 558 751 1.953 7.081 41.357 236.898 255.058 999 278 353 1.700 213.Ct 8 Diyarbakır Mardin Ergan. madeni Total.989 659 5.302 50.793 4.945 154.754 1.677 57.087 5.740 251.284 1.668 5.033 Chaldeans M F Jacobites M F M 187 235 150 572 Jews F 202 239 152 593 Samaritans M F Yezidis M F Gypsies M F Foreigners M F M 86.515 624 189 35 2 146 996 331 82 737 8 228 1.527 164 4.949 56.024 76.597 755 2.000 18. Mamuretülaziz 14.622 130.261 36.319 12.727 833 218 2.784 64.055 3.874 43.614 41 4.449 75.927 2.609 121.729 10 4.263 42.526 167.398 4.042 12 4.040 233 4.829 5.498 6 292 37 235.209 15 2.413 37 385 478.666 3.617 122.329 621 4.027 197.236 60. Kastamonu 13.112 241.035 383.188 1. Konya 12.798 561 460 254 7.960 9 419 22.848 940 905 55 260 2.130 595 408 270 8.219 56.826 268.216 12.778 f 9.341 77.915 21 231 37 024 12 882 9. Dıyarbekır 9 Sivas Amasya Karahısar-t Şarkı Tokat Total.927 2.673 564.015 338 5.421 144.491 113 502 582.332 636.477 165.666 121.015 562 719 126.682 208.761 2.121 516 211.909 122.723 942 864 45 242 2 093 591 628 1 3 3 20 17 1 2 150 1 2 150 149 149 577 169 427 1.555 1.851 10 3.734 70.33S 123.839 649 204 101 3 175 1.792 10.943 344 228 3.497 90 102 517 2 715 518 14 1.249.876 233.132 40 3 2.923 449.490 73 72 43 17 13 15 430 4.192 77.124 17 1.679 362.218 143.022 2.814 373 723 165 169 55 2 327 40 338 8.173 531 139 396 1.787 6.123 100.422 612.928 10.111 87. Kastamonu Bolu Çankiri Sinop Total.332 158.129 7.806 6 2.633 73.101 60.787 224.970 2.386 4.138 4.926 258. Haleb Maraş Urta M 67 555 50.704 136.341 9.16.151 10.392 52. 1906/7 (continued) Süryani (Synac) M 3.643 611 46 4.476 463 23.868 162 100 539.811 69 927 416.107 338 Greeks ç 197 • 365 562 2.887 111.943 9.460 2.688 35.733 549.605 100.517 29.863 1.342.101 185.302 98 096 72 206 651.777 335.964 1.161 116.649 10.499 523.484 78.984 32.877 93.311 530 3.765 466.585 13.763 2.086 225.581 805 204 2.185 29 27 31 264 67 258 81 345 142 452 130 2 4 1 1 1 1 33 9 42 20 5 157 139 5 5 49 31 27 21 465 3 6 7 4 2 1 8 2 3 364 3 1 1 3 2 139 143 119 119 50 212 264 127 30 40 191 235 116 23 30 30 21 27 14 22 20 1 1 48 1 31 720 3 24 708 3 18 1.564 59.954 313 Armenians M 12.904 305 334 2.353 52 _ 52 44 _ 44 158 158 108 108 130 9 130 • 10.382 50.642 69. konya Niğde Burdur İsparta Antalya Total.

334 142.600 7.421 70.944 7.456 21.744 44.328 72.626 8.064 38 150 10.111 10.614 35.957 89.303 865 2.851 29 570 38.903 828 828 265 _V02 102 75 75 120.336 93.606 11.281 923 102 280 164 2 273 439 13 46 6 98 2 256 356 8 26 7 136 46 223 296.227 7 271 423 264 288 16 22 15 423.062 40.212 7.086 252.642 1.681 94.588 4.162 29.072 103.994 25.956 73.84B 89.166 42 071 73. Summary of Census of Ottoman Population.727 8.013 26.262 34.174 F Cossacks M F M 'Greeks F 1 2 Arr-'emans M ' 45 F Bulgarians M F Wailacbians M F I.656 165.303 2 312 199 74 12.021 1.778 401 18.637 40.244 458.248 36.603 3.342 671.331 59.510 18.359 316 .319 921.646 27.810 85. Summary of Census of Ottoman Population.082 8.611 15.281 149.081 417 1.266 24.656 127.182 96.841 35.175 64.135 157. Selanik 1 3 45 33.589 6.630 41.849 18.466 21.456 7.086 20.462 20.465 2.782 21.981 1 1 4 4 17 445 2.243 7.082 7. Yanya Ergiri Preveze Berat Total.836 568 152 83 948 1.937 47.241 24.011 19.289 1.657 44.836 311 9 3 543 217 220 3.749 13.597 7 1.321 161.487 4.522 136.120 181.361 38.011 21.691 37.839 7.753 90.332 803 2.758 336 4.245 9.104 45.200 73.524 82 156 38.A.905 62.425 652 408 14 3 18 443 76 41 346 404 8 10 422 69 43 271.012 15.824 56. Van Total.301 72.692 87.093 23.610 80 788 37.822 1.243 43.026 83.326 366.053 137.968 41.063 17.847 21.827 133. 1906/7 (continued) Greek lAdmiivslrabve : r Armena.020 Total.657 4.236 1.829 14 170 22 2.671 11.794 49 49 3 376 t 380 353 2 1 1 102 1 82 2 3 1 4 3 5 5 2 93 171 8 214 188 3 350 1.298 2.768 669 60.782 10.206 68.522 23.138 583 10.278 92.744 Total Population 54.192 9.502 93.454 43.081 194.898 156.555 818 5.640 33.183 7.061 144.642 108.382 1.646 35.848 0's.250 141.394 76 63 117 1.866 16.814 107.140 28 2 5 2 3 9.368 60.024 13.018 78.685 15.967 2.939 8.508 118.328 10.205 110.106 97.589 97.007 121.725 41.314 7.752 14.562 50.883 7.615 3.006 37.125 31 1 615 285 202 3 13 1.939 29.192 4.089 106 9 106 4 52 25 23 76 70 1 34 24 26 8 24 101 13 64 178 20 10 91 16 44 151 24 3 16 13 149 144 144 23 23 28 28 63.402 50.943 40.765 650 878 159 1.748 63.836 50 9.837 65.081 38.985 3.249 42.429 89.508 40.799 68.945 13.929 14.636 2.006 37.797 9.493 262 91 215 11.570 824.556 245.391 1 169 72.743 50.242 1.849 3. Çatalca Total.466 2.256 441.459 46 703 19 386 22 670 19.797 — 4 5.438 1.886 118.969 8.290 20.204 59.118 10.374 329.994 33.298 172.717 148.603 1.980 938 938 3.997 21.063 40 532 290 517 41 062 2 430 17 362 1 17 9 214 151 186 82 927 899 1 170 3 120 2 114 20 699 150.196 820 17.784 88.095 7.302 50.529 78 529 166 Kotes lonox labte I 16 B 167 .270 19.625 2.265 136. Çatalca 30.528 : 3.698 83.929 148.717 2. İzmit 30.154 8.120 149 1.630 109 278 36 899 36 699 229 812 76. Yanya 28.493 61.796 268.328 569 19.156 3.252 23.986 16.16.775 67.526 30.826 2.009 8.342 » 516.393 248.284 40.873 16.347 596.739 31.084 5 1.286 49.198 875 18.147 272 26.670 54.051 380 9 5.16.324 33. 22. Kudüs 32.071 1.726 74 40.475 537.257 95.441 13.632 29.095 29.546 127.200 18.760 28.876 550 15.101 94.665 1.215 9.003 630 153 83 1.964 89. Biga Ezine Biga and Lapseki Ayvacık Bayramiç Total.293 4.174 25.743 7.702 85.344 88.890 89.828 164.340 142.110 10.317 200.Van .658 47. Zor Resülayn Aşara Ebukemal 344 277 26 23 106 119 97 54 1 605 1.438 40.330 37.250 23.769 10.631 29.408 13.968 3 3 269 22 132 423 2.446 267.013 60 854 78 496 50.299 65. Edirne Gümülcıne Kirkkılise / Oedeağaç Tekfurdağı Gelibolu Total.111 31.724 3.204 89.556 21 719 186 455 65.896 1.rc! :20 Musul ı Kerkük Suieymanıye Total.766 24.624 356 941 296 773 235 235 119 54 419 2.760 3.630 2.982 27.388 25.755 34.036 471 2 455 990 99 293 387 795 993 493 2.031 32.864 3.361 3.058 1 058 1.508 28.037 3.946 19.708 19.020 5.388 4.581 289.038 46.400 54.064 75 10.408 29. Kosova 26.744 2.297 36.690 31.502 12. Işkodra Oraç Total.435 2 32 514 311 6 32 500 317 89 76 1 134 1.653 358.269 741 1.525 162 216 3.104 14 4 12 1 24.146 26.931 34.994 2.798 3.321 161.769 1.626 10.615 292.180 6.060 105.391 25.549 7 72 14 1.986 43.384 69. Biga 29.I.978 805 58.180 8.138 53.365 1.210 1 1 2 1 17.065 25.535 115.474 83.820 377 — 32 322 45 — 28 300 39 1 17 18 199 9 12 172 151 82 230 46 209 35 1 31.547 52.966 96.111 441 993 38 151 231 270 15 106 150 90 31.014 1.869 1.828 21.722 21. Işkodra • 23 Selanik Sereı Orama Tolal.291 3.919 12.716 46.769 640 821 167 1.617 340 4.408 25.819 2.163 26.145 37.133.266 1.765 21.807 86.447 10. Manastır 27.291 99. Musul 21.580 565.650 125 44 119.175 9.281 28.487 1 3 3 155 9 50 214 2.352 23 678 26 235 19.642 40.604 164 8 101 3 68 1.425 40.534 41.035 260 25.095 11.750 96.735 111 57 2 35 35 8 30 26 1.760 149. Zor 31 Kudüs Yafa Gazze Halilürrahman Blrulsebi and Nasıra Total.794 3.260 176.360 12 .330 218.368 19.605 4 38.A.370 35.033 159.218 11.562 44.063 480.384 190.406 231 58 241 7.874 183.364 44.050 9.039 18.313 31 365 164.677 75.643 3.011 367 505 505 393 339 491 491 3.344 34.035 431 2.405 12.066 11.357 18.985 3. Edirne 25 Kosova Priştme İpek Senice Prezrin Tolal.523 18.692 41.421 70.717 1.699 76.230 72.222 32.402 45.702 70.284 3. Manastir Sertice Debre llbasan Gorice Total.964 113.507 36.577 18.759 14.826 .458 36.476 217 184 276 244 11 2.114 33.520 201.535 38.990 126. İzmit Adapazari Karamürsel and Yalova Geyve Kandıra Total.962 85. 1906/7 (continued) Süryani (Synac) Gypsies F 2.603 3.165 54.120 1. 105.314 23.913 37.406 12.446 24.702 47.908 46.261 9 645 336 220 5 12 1.139 27.807 2.626 43.520 679 1.393 183.002 95.777 18 109 10 .833 140 051 20 048 1.251 11.729 193.635 21.902 2.239 176.546 104.n Cat hOliCS M 3 882 788 56 F Protestants M 74 F Catholics M F Muslims M 43.130 50.717 1.748 113.250 9.

466 31.042 32 50 Foreign Citizens F 28.058 1.396 13.038 M 469 420 45.470 612.841 102 141.748 113.024 p 570 249 1. 884 810 601.475 289 29 1.970 3.I.97! : 730. Census teams (secretaries) visited each village to record the population and compile a census list.657 3 1.157.219 364 3 3.226 9 676 47.039 30 62 27 2.154 4.066 235 139 2.525 517 74 1.129 9.831 72 34. it can be deduced.673 15.460 383.719 178.471 23.597 3.826 18.857 2 832 17 2.937 194. deaths. that this summary was compiled in 1906 or 1907 and that certainly it summarizes data obtained in the countrywide census oi 1905 6.826 72.A and 1.980 938 137.194.104 480.258 362.630 55.585 26.146 35.209 15 F 29.342 20.413 143.117 632 47 4 Samaritans M F Yezidis M F M 129 11 192 55 Gypsies F M 136 13 177 42 101.916 2 228 924 682 3 636 1.B.982 103.876 199.110 691.766 186.621 440 6.770 366 4.562 392 4.697 1.311 4.270 52 44 57 2.408 40.140 28 339 491 484.261 9 7.266 1 13 2 1.768 12.679 478.413 4 19 2.332 208 700 207.677 157.615 3.603 343. Source: iUKTY 947.290 30.268 10.039 562.560 5 1 3.298 596.895 6.393 458 610 271.534 189.796 671.455 1.714.135 152.013 2.086 17.074 94 5.250 23.778 1.546 248.991 41.18t 14.665 1.188 5.292 95 71 591 35 1. from comparison with other statistics and factors such as the arrangement of the provinces in the list.218 26.107 338 28.339 73 3 4.898 618.260 366.B.700 161.230 465 6 2.452 1.598 10.396 675.109 563 32.003.919 12.726 1. the capital is listed first.231 69.589 68.299 137.380 224.211 2 34.455 290.412 1.064 1.604 344 235 3.748 63 402 45.049 26.735 171 3 3.899 9.814 356.076 1.375 90 4.884.353 4.156 9.250 423.529 20.423 13.248 102 6.608 14.749 564.176 27 114 23.777 1.580 218.027 81.887 40 49 284 6.033 16.517 60.170.828 516.344 297.291 136.782 223.379 74. However. Summary of Ottoman Population 1906/7 (continued) Latins (Roman Catholics) ~~M 1.366 827.273 2.740 522.003 148.188 27.551 510 8.630 700.526 29.192 380 1 72.708 104.945 119.771 555.16.723 2. Districts 28-32 are sancaks.16.516 8.086 21.985 418.964 89.293 9.535 49 2 1 17 217 3.823 5 3.566 211.138 15.061 537.663 32.120 1.807 127. In order to keep the population records up to date.173 264 157 734 1.691.653 824. Population 762.949 582.975 21.138 313.782 10.896 353 10.581 1.089 593 149 17 119 25 822 1.807 37. Notes The register (59 pages long) containing these summary figures does not give information about the year to which they pertain.344 107.658 133.979 539.861 7.607 13 3.678 693 1.606 105.502 8.660 364.827 392 24 719 149 144 368 24 1.775 449. Final Summary of Ottoman Population.093 1.562 44.519 439 83.138 176.270 29. the accuracy of which was attested by the kaza general committee and by village leaders including the muhtar (elected elder).744 441.798 19.165 4.645 164.596 6.769 1.820 i 19.743 164.645 41.388 3 214 10.111 140.155 1 9.121.964 523. "Memalik-i Osmaniyyede Dehil-t Tahrir Otan Nufusun Icmaii" [The summary oi Ottoman population included in the census].349 4.404 633 51 6 Jews F 24.125 32 367 505 547.611 42.033 2 3 3 2 2.281 1.968 136.323 2.475 108.085 171.749 174.702 148.055 55 339 1.798 11.878 159.293 185.017 887 3. Introduction.229.316 41 34 26 24 23 178 106 119 1 151 97 54 4 18 1 2.200 58.288 16.429 329.262 651.340 38 652 443 120 356 223 15 346 422 114 1.099 14 373 36 4.246 2 505 1 065 669 4 663 ! 848 2.0O9 2.089 277 F 4..024 2 11.132 40 6. and the community council.034 13.343.829 105 101 44.018 245.555 260.533 Total F 312.576 244.490 25.604 674.462 Armenians M 30.603 Notes to Tables 1.058 1.359 1.033 2.939 6.763 967 2.848 921.003 865 2.071 21 830 51 960 39.406 90.807 576.184 701 F 1.539 7.884 10.746 16.107 3.299 229.344 150.102 3 1 1 487 89 327 562 89 2 4 4.138 8.709 25.360 96.479.204 252.861 54 37.515 996 181 1 38 169 748 45 30 1.134 4.655 1 10.345 1 5 6 49 11 31 3 1.342 18 1. 1919).035 1.883 9.904 12.058 3 669 164 815 85.048 549.106 136 019 19.890 22.314 905 1.846 2.182 4.358 77 39.830 23 28 40 158 108 241 13 70 130 9 37 451.400 126. That census was carried out for each kaza under the direction of a general committee consisting of the kaza population officials plus one member each from the provincial executive committee and the municipal council.630 708 21 3.16.342 3.212 11.277 392.831 196 43 45 33.261 195 31 300 43 31 I.650 170 2.011 1.178 10. 129 4 Armenian Catholics M 4.097 T o l a .570 109.600 237.210 133.544 Bulgarians M 2.739 18.794 2.839 1.248 572 150 20 143 42 2.618 2.082 7 806 Protestants M 800 198 2.229 1 1 1 1 331 1.487 1 5 1.476 0.021 2.162 29.595 723 334 5.B.798 582 393 247.131 504.079 241. Muslim and non-Musltm.816 657.925 25.194 2.793 10.857 863.342.432 842.080 103.123 225 659 271.024 2 94 1 51 5 3 35 8 214 9 184 151 188 82 32 927 276 32 899 244 1.516 473.16.711 180. the capital is listed first in each case.923 50.126 174.051 29.630 5. two reserve officers.541 486 784 212.279.372 1.836 803 2.534 41.962 75 26.642 1.404 235.290 153 F 579 67 Wallachians M F Catholics M 168 17 7 154 1 F 149 11 7 .133.854 229.266 147 115 2.773 2.962 506.623 161.799 115.272 213.294 111.259 562 35.151 33.141 47.665 290. and representatives of the local communi- ties.308 636.503 235.066 96.259 Greeks F 65.626 7. the imams and priests of the religious communities.794 18.705 1.217 782 804 Cossacks M F M 91.629 35 265 7.510 60.520 4.812 78.249.111 2.217 57.736 F 158.278 36.635 21. Districts 1-27 are vilayets.160 1.391 93.855 297.223 1.607 466.670 720 27 10 3. the officials were required to report each quarter on birtns.227 82.350 50.174 40 642 201. 1906/7 Greek Muslims Adnmıstratıve Dstnct istanbul The Vıcınıty ot İstanbul Aydın Ankaıa Adana Erzurum Bitus Cezayır-ı Banr-ı Sefıd Hudavendıgar Dıyarbekır Sivas Trabzon Konya Kastamonu Mamuretulaziz Beyrut Bağdat Basra Halep Suriye Trablusgarb Musul Van Işkodra Selanik Edirne Kosova Manasür Yanya Biga İzmit Zor Kudüs Çatalca Total M 212.303 2 4 26.527 164 17 25.247 58 1.844 205.498 4.451 254 031 89.881 5.011 524.954 313 23.054 7.903 828 116.478 701 2 M Maronites F Suryani (Synac) M 384 2 F 134 Chaldeans M 291 7 227 7 F 108 8 164 12 Jacobites M F M 23.17! 149. followed by the other sancaks in the province.605 4 8.270 867.994 3 423 15.465 17.474 89. followed by the other kazas in the sancak.910 416.617 993 439 .175 289.435 1 727. and emigration See Memalik-i Osmaniyyenin 1330 Senesi Nüfus Istatistikı (istanbul.169 3.118 25.439 2.626 149.183 12.284 120. immigration.281 • 9. 168 169 .324 562.

337 815.762 18.348 18.368 19.289 40.078 19.092 13 10 2.964 28.509 10.755 23.720 2.081 1 909.711 14.515 10 221 5 48 1.777 66.202 904 1.792 23.303 16.221 8.892 46.025 2.918 1.270 2.403 64.597 2.308 115 483 1 34 716 5.266 25.154 3.015 36.022 14.202 42.190 51 1.566 1.292 224.209 325 72.285 988 450 147 54 14 144 1.536 1 174 81 64 32 46 5 273 31 520 220 56 8.967 1.023 10.903 29.046 12.467 196 261.213 2.466 20.862 3.115 26.339 _ 225 349 1.749 10.990 8.180 13.914 16.876 234 21 1.089 5.725 32.17.575 5.220 8.942 40.007 11.371 7.684 33.594 13.889 568 10 986 232 987 434 48 Greek Armenian Catholics Catholics Protestants Latins Süryani (Syriac) Old Syrians 1. European Shore) .572 28.659 89 18 5 5 511 23 Chaldeans Jacobites Maronites Samaritans Nestorians Yezidis Gypsies Druzes Cossacks Bulgarians Serbians 1.235 1.257 14. Bosphorus.375 36.287 11. Kirk Kilise (Kırklareli) Lüleburgaz Baba-yi Atik Vize Demirköy Pinarhisar B.391 360.030 28.266 17. Edirne 2.657 3 22.393 29 18 10 5 8.195 4.836 21 13 292 52.168 560.972 14.857 4.126 13.649 4.971 19.971 2.110 26.133 14.976 19.308 11.576 1 48 115 40 5 19.148 349 37 2 275 1.559 8.858 24.102 34.267 70.896 11.1.978 109.142 673. 1330) Admintstraîîve Oısîrict İstanbul (Capital and Vicınity) İstanbul (Oıd City) Makrikoy (Bakırköy) Adalar (Islands) Beyoğlu (former Pera-Galata and .447 26.214 24. Bayazid Eleşgird Diyadin Tutak Karakilise Total.618 3.459 1.865 45.920 7.296 5.109 9.992 20. Tekfurdaği (Tekirdağ) Çorlu Malkara Hayrabolu Saray C.523 7.734 596 22.297 4.137 15.241 1 88 391 126 ~ 3 5Î7 24 170 171 . Gelibolu Keşan İpsala Şarköy Mürefte Inos Eceabad Tdtal.181 29. Erzincan Pülümür Refahiye Kuruçay Kemah B.462 42.543 42.751 10.621 556 7.126 4.434 53.905 562 476 1.080 6. Erzurum Muslims 279.401 507 908 13.256 41.678 2.603 52 21 Wallachians Total 386.859 Greeks 64.725 75.123 30.643 32.296 47 3.092 1. İstanbul 1.730 5.857 19.432 221 6 6 739 ' 240 139 8 2. Edirne Mustafa Paşa Seymenli Lala Paşa Dimetoka Uzunköprü A.153 28.670 24.043 23.483 22.777 16.856 38.009 14.320 36.840 15.A.449 77.962 4. Erzurum Pasinler Bayburt İspir Tercan Tortum Keskin Kiğı Narman Hinis A. 1914 (R. Üsküdar \ Gebze / Kartal > m Asıa Beykoz \ Şile ) Total.525 53.441 364 79 31.712 631.144 18.856 6.094 118.518 12.484 13.035 16.742 20.952 23.832 5.708 8.604 2.222 6.924 20.056 28.110 3. Ottoman Population.17.462 • 653 7 1 387 45 ^ 280 478 648 9.394 560 2 Armenians Jews 13.A.177 125.417 83.779 16.913 205.613 16.134 4.415 14.599 9.943 25.211 176 4 2.658 193 1 1.523 3.992 14.125 2.466 14.935 43.586 117.221 11.731 11.144 511 1.502 9.987 20.640 23.549 18.070 3.400 18.447 13.873 22.122 35.644 18.146 3.070 56.020 4. Ottoman Populat ion.220 15.095 111.898 11.087 280 1 ' 3.352 50.093 1.619 4.754 70. 1914 (continued) ' 27.878 24.

990 285 68 313 5.952 31.931 34.927 14.150 55.274 24. 8 953.499 93. K3rais3Ü Vı ırnı ırtalik TU M IUı inli r\ 367 650 26 2 93.068 27.023 84. 1 64 73 167 1 188 113 699 .830 30.081 43.729 1.845 11.581 54.791 7.511 6.665 24.281 7.972 13.694 20.957 83.892 745 20.537 3.006 36 Latins 71 5 Suryam (Syrıaci 441 9 IL 1.546 23.763 16.957 34.108 675 6.170 16. 1914 (continued) l .A.273 774 8.381 425 _ 1.810 27.942 35.370 877.499 77. MJidll Hsçin Fsks Kars o rphpühprpkpi Dörtyol İslahiye Bağçe.643 48.uıııaıı ı w p AO İTİ'î i'bil alı V C Uı Jll lı_l Muslims' 71.434 65.17.956 299 20 520 3.134 71.986 31.217 16.327 48 26 180 4 2 555 15 816 50 834 412 3.285 Greeks 3.139 3.929 50.193 15.301 172 173 .039 35 5 66 1.969 84.989 18.538 27.036 915 — 467 3 _33 406 281 _I14 1.064 16.308 1.066 24.683 44.312 14. Çorum İskilip Sungurlu Osmancik Mecitözü B.026 1 73 281 437 269 42 122 2. Kirşehir Mucur Keskin Mecidiye Avanos C.617 16.859 11.026 14 7.349 21.495 10.647 8.691 770 790 2. Ottoman Population.104 110 • 60 Armenians 14.793 8.069 2. Ankara 3 62 1.824 34.187 37.352 44.045 169 1 _97 302 13 40 15 7 8 .341 11 91 830 1.HUülıö Artana 0.231 43 1.701 411.501 31.437 48.459 21.752 54.088 9 1.934 10.453 25. r V .903 69.863 68 318 1.989 13.785.427 18.17. Bulanık Hassa C Marcln U. 4 2.771 6.902 44.643 53. Ottoman Population.212 13. l / . Adana 4 Ankara Ayaş Bala Beypazari Haymana Kalecik Nallihan Yabanabad A. v_/ı.817 contnuwd I'll ioHoirin^ pti^c A.936 55.883 52 13.042 2. 1914 (continued) Chaldeans Jacobites Maronites Samaritans IMestorians Yezidis Gypsies Druzes Cossacks Bulgarians Serbians Wallachians Total 1 .759 59.226 20 213 49 768 1.453 73.401 25.844 60.337 31.879 16 16 272 3 8 4 3 146 1.643 8.613 23.986 31. Yozgat Akdağmadeni Boğazliyan Total.525 17.507 Jews 20 3 Greek Armenian Catholics Catholics 71 888 13 Protestants 1.672 500 3.969 22.894 17.A.016 40.187 43.3 r 1.I.405 • 632 99 80 366 600 -| 11 3 1 86 174 23 7 33 2.10.ı.947 341. ivicisin Tarsus Total.736 3.

811 23.A.929 14. Ottoman Population.361 4.271 52.I.225 1.475 38.096 .990 114.649 22.865 41.395 18.475 42.938 28. Armenians 10.670 9. Ottoman Population.776 1.367 16.719 36.676 16.570 31.640 3.781 72 .069 19.413 22.844 35.058 24. Bitlis Muslims 100.076 37.796 169 412 775 714 1.110 2.949 22.094 6.A.585 30.438 1.104 4.693 3.070 12.736 26.467 11.641 3.552 12 2.479 Süryani ISynac) OldSyrians I.777 30.151 50.858 18.409 177 24 1.742 58.462 27.087 14.026 18.603 734 3.825 66.898 16.934 22. Manisa Kasaba Salihli Alaşehir Kula Eşme Demirci Gördes Karaağaç Soma Akhisar B.539 7.541 24.359 3.699 530 2.067 38.433 9.538 43.17.358 9. 1914 (continued) i .911 21.235 9.ct 5 Aydın (İzmir) Bergama Menemen Urla Çeşme Foçtin (Foça! Kuşadası Seferihisar Tire Bayindir Ödemiş Nif Karaburun A.785 Chaldeans Jacobites Maronites Samaritans Neslorians Yezıdıs Gypsies Dtuzes Cossacks Bulgarians Serbians Wallachians Total 211.326 1.737 24.427 11.467 32.190 11.113 34.999 Greeks 73.298 20.069 698 425 423 199 83 157 4 1.220 2.356 56.359 82.976 33.17.662 6.146 983 242 Greek Armenian Catholics Catholics 813 Protestants 253 Latins .841 8.181 14.023 4.495 54.022 23.529 '437.086 44.360 31.561 18.702 97.501 5.044 1.252 30.163 50.068 50.677 6. Genç Çapakçur Kulp C.292 15.992 4.522 17.254 16.872 10 12 15 2.228 33 141 988 3.788 1.959 35.650 9.622 71.514 22.862 36.711 39. Aydin 6.454 30.356 174 175 .699 406 18.041 34 299.565 32.929 10.989 26.455 34.440 36.505 4.549 954 1.076 20.180 20.539 309.701 10.816 37. 107 2.560 463 3 95 30 35 59 2.388 2.812 21.041 892 479 384 207 1.061 968 146 42 jews 24. 1914 (continued) Aomımstratıve Dıstr.059 19.720 651 221 2.772 114.647 16.561 78.227 3.941 30. Denizli Tavas Çal Buldan Sarayköy Garbikaraağaç Total.376 18.590 37.780 57.372 7.624 12.471 3.573 33.028 32.034 13.766 30 5 35.572 32. Bitlis Ahlat Hizan Mutki A.459 19. 12 51 114 14 24 274 1.836 33.890 1.788 57.249.250 23.810 1.454 33.704 30 11 471 2.573 1.174 19.630 447 91 17 19 226 9 919 10 514 245 543 11 133 2 548 4 14 14 37 19.876 9.415 15. Siirt Eruh Prevari Şirvan Garzan B.603 26.415 34.702 2. Aydin Nazilli Bozdoğan Söke Çine Karacasu C.719 33.218 1.793 2 350 2.331 30.655 6.073 15.275 52.013 75.846 22.169 4.838 86. Muş Bulanik Sasun Malazgird Varto Total.109 1.658 8.438 7.

009 13.356 17. Beyru! Sur Sayda Merıuyun A Trablus Şam (Tripoli) Safita Akkar Hasniülekrad B Akka Haıfa Tabariya Safed Nasireh C.446 3.704 29.820 468 932 165 1.569 53.022 42.272 2.062 20.193 3.455 784 521 8.185 3.189 12.054 25. Nablus Beni Saab Cenin Total.599 47.858 140 451 80 861 2.780 648.010 4.410 22.182 44 53 184 52 106 4.756 415 3.274 3. Halep (Aleppo) İskenderun Idlib Antakya Bab Beylan Çisrişuğur Harem A.116 17.644 144 4.004 32.I.352 .920 16.687 7 11 393 376 37 5.488 13 27 46 14 7 67 434 13.126 520 113 20 530 183 136 225 992 1.800 23.190 77.194 4.758 40.369 4 268 67 5 2.967 25.994 2.822 2.927 343 507 14.408 474.348 22.188 3.794 35.769 78.224 55.767 37.931 5.016 6 7.231 17.315 Samaritans Nestonans Yezıdıs Gypsies Diuzes Cossacks Bulgarians Serbians Wallachians Total 89.956 8.772 213 179 8 2 1 277 3.144 39.244 1. Siverek Çermik Viranşehir C.751 616.269 576.027 357 226 3.540 1.660 58. 1914 (continued) Chaideans 19 Jacofailes Maromtes 13.653 46.843 35.816 35.469 28.730 667.369 37.416 41.413 105 1.151 12.739 691 36 13 4.376 3.929 40.359 10.734 4.089 28. Ottoman Population.960 2 958 1.278 1.519 4.814 30.227 3.301 16.677 56.477 31.227 75.485 3.439 3.635 390 108 8.676 18.956 365 309 316 316 96 159 1.228 508 327 277 917 90 1.320 111.763 7.766 638 772 296 1.626 74.048 8.470 1.643 278 121 49 610 3 1.772 24.210 7.691 32.538 58.17.049 1. Ertuğrul (Bilecik) Şögüt İnegöl Yenişehir Total.027 30.333 775 67 187 1.573 12.433 3.035 18 765 87.254 19.063 31.330 21.239 59.296 50.921 17.541 492.655 83.500 34.596 67.969 24.133 891 82 233 1.114 52.401 12.493 37.586 30.006 54.435 19.271 12.723 164 1.339 1.138 20.104 6.140 51.133 69 137 391 177 332 54 5 26 367 85 Latins 250 19 Î03 23 Süryani (Synac) 491 Old Synans I.085 45.197 28. 5. Ottoman Population.743 76. Mardin Cizre Midyat Savur Nusaybin B.562 31.150 47 15.959 939 150 326 4.790 147.138 20.248 50.481 11.726 987 100 1.561 20.777 42.974 234 96 1.238 26.316 2.768 89.773 31 1.696 4.018 550 130 Armenians 123 Jews 3.743 22.777 28.285 23.810 84.956 126.466 3. Beyrut 8.823 385 33 84 736 232 2.189 11. Diyarbekir Muslims 45.722 41.718 4.223 56.052 9.338 6.762 78.952 65 72 2 314 517 3.101 2.101 1.888 29. Diyarbekir Lice Silvan Derik Beşiri A. Hüdavendigar (Bursa) Gemlik Orhangazi Karacabey Mudanya Kirmasti Orhaneli A.294 25.245 104 2.777 46.A.375 619.506 26.537 1.976 4.373 845 7.842 50.101 Greeks 22.612 671 268 250 24 3 1.299 2.163 63.314 93.316 2.059 3.921 13.430 1.568 9.800 110.057 29.226 15.17. Maden Palu Total.044 25.032 398 368 1.269 12 436 58 6.753 73 75 204 96 37.009 136 184 2 126 528 473 113 9.180 47. Lazkiye Merkeb Ceble Sahyun D.776 2.A.435 29. Hüdavendigar 10.068 71.905 29.973 129 53 357 18 1 24.934 878 35.869 479 52 1.770 7. Protestants 314 206 110 1.393 9.strat've Dtstnct 7.389 1.603 1.970 4.890 1 860 775 26 12.477 71.381 44 9.777 10.022 724 314 ' 1.185 166 ' 7.976 14.825 176 177 .683 74.903 244 2.852 30.901 8.607 39.431 859 278 72 Greek Catholics 3.951 41.396 579 8.373 11.140 ' 59.982 34 1.367 606 70 491 2.877 1.015 51.289 34.874 78 4 19 262 102 144 153 10 488 2 1 2 160 4 40.508 55.595 26.744 91. Cebelisemaan Maaratainaman Münbiç B Ayintab (Antep) Kilis Rumkale Total.873 1.774 7.537 25.818 824.671 175 Armenian Catholics 270 2 .820 24 481 580 29 370 47 1. 66 4 106 2.385 931 272 37 53 1.106 30. 1914 (continued) Admın.873 65.928 12.668 16.875 52.472 22.417 8.173 2. Haleb 9.884 25.

406 344 3.113 14.833 3.079 351 5.534 35.A.830 141 6 4 6 1.800 57.342 83 180 58 317 2.344 29.980 7.240 37 143.802 22.693 10.443 • 6 4 4.363 178 179 .370 15.076 26.690 72.978 728 21 413 23.380 38.967 20. Karahisarişarki Alucra Mesudiye Suşehri Koyulhisar Total.868 40.17.140 Armenians 413 Jews 10.853 24.735 Greeks 6.577 141 155 6.454 32.212 47.710 29.459 32.895 69.094 1.156 18.528 13 943 336 156 Samaritans Nestotıans Yezıdıs 20 Gypsies Druzes Cossacks Bulgarians Serbians Wallachians \n A.528 5.225 24.630 50.881 90.549 8.812 12.203 15. Suriye 12.508 10.598 335 1.700 61.545 41.922 154 4. 1914 (continued) Total 222.788 1.328 22.997 7.327 27.475 41. Sivas Muslims 197.097 29.755 3.969 11.324 414 121 1 7 406 339 4 764 217 282 707 370 165 268 24 330 3 17 97 4.187 65. Amasya Havza Küprü Gümüşbaciköy Merzifon Ladik B.562 51.038 3.550 7.819 40.089 1. Tokat Erbaa Zile Niksar Reşadiye C.671 3.471 51. Ottoman Population.409 81.604 8.046 3.354 1.063 5.339 16.991 774 3.196 7.587 791.169.160 115 430 88 751 2.385 8 6.865 26.757 26.660 1.536 2.477 30 664 11.496 6.667 19.958 3.843 25.473 29.125 50.485 23.358 46.569 1.012 73.510 22.297 3.246 60.669 39. Ottoman Population.344 27. Sivas Tonus Halik Darende Divriği Aziziye Kangal Koçgiri Gürün Yildizeli A.264 2.323 59.371 24.984 51.995 6.487 19.665 33.572 13.376 2.869 4.040 858 75.355 24.507 18.403 1.859 67.160 343 12.067 4.859 86.623 54.755 241 595 239 3.329 13. Kerek Tefile Salt Maan C.407 33.379 9. Havran Izra Mismiye Busra Suweyda Aclun B.183 8.438 36.129 1 Greek Catholics 6.I.873 434 584 58 60 76 703 260 320 173 1.655 4 3.522 7.250 32.756 62.575 3 2.274 28.096 900 4.582 54.871 21.019 16.624 25.629 34.920 3.032 3.112 569 2.838 19.679 7.111 5.749 1.733 501 1.123 17.383 692 5.660 26.957 25.124 107.199 939.393 748 1.111 20 7. 1914 (continued) Admmısuatıve D'strict 11 Süriye (Syria) Baalbek Buka Zebdani Wadi el Acem Hasbiya Raşiya Kuneytra Duma Nebk A.798 8.282 3.916 38.662 247 1.998 25.586 31.144 3.254 9.518 30.328 26.756 594 Armenian Catholics 237 10 Sun/am Protestants 131 10 34 82 56 351 62 142 108 Latins 122 10 (Synac) 739 6 7 370 175 12 495 Old Syrians ••jldeans 63 Jacobites 112 Maronites 300 1.274 2.873 21.379 30.464 5.239 53.337 1.713 4 251 153 34 591 173 320 1.248 22.298 15.139 27.339 36.960 783 181 379 332 1.847 195 781 2.598 918.679 48. Hama İmraniye Selimiye Homs Total.350 40.012 64.640 39.815 811 16.448 2.671 30.737 26.

324 42.859 34.427 39.349 3.781 54.547 3.074 3 491 8.575 1.278 2. İsparta Uluborlu Eğridir Karaağaç Yalvaç Total.979 54.869 66.091 63.153 167 1.595 194 1.468 3.705 30.055 50.574 2.938 789. Kastamonu inebolu Safranbolu Taşköprü Daday Cide Araç Tosya A.179 30. Burdur Tefenni B.138 1.385 63.650 30.367 27.108 20. Gümüşhane Torul Şiran Kelkit Total.648 13 19.101 32.401 48.642 29.312 33.632 33.139 27.122.234 41.A.496 38. .830 77 1 212 200 767.932 55.236 41.740 55.020 25.128 67.726 111.698 92.302 101.639 29. Kastamonu 15.946 31.947 72.671 46.603 41.858 143.938 64.235 4.283 96. Trabzon Ordu Of Akçeabat Tirebolu Sürmene Giresun Görele Vakfikebır Maçka A.397 67.387 57.783 123. Ottoman Population.297 38.536 41.266 122 26 705 272 567 565 209 1 2.561 10. 1914 (continued) Aömlnistrat've Dıstnc! 13.050 56.338 Jews a Greek Armenian Catnoi.301 42.467 80.556 30.275 312 51 258 5 28 2 1.698 19.640 35.211 Chaldeans Jacobites Maronites Samaritans Nestonans Yezidis Gypsies Druzes Cossacks Bulgarians Serbians lA'ailachians Tot£ 104.712 Greeks 23.846 12.257 25.887 63.549 2. Konya Akşehir Beyşehir Şeydişehir İlgin Bozkir Karaman Ereğli Sultaniye Koçhisar Ermenak Saiteli A.155 614 161.245 887 14 2 4 1.818 65 46 388 53 680 1.592 44.751 23.491 76.421 75.477 310 3 10 114 472 10 675 3.892 42.115 55.568 62.530 9.350 1.032 27.714 44.983 58.971 4 79 254 212 180 181 .567 50.263 47.548 37.721 47.484 17.684 52.890 33 129 103 1.880 57.102 20.489 94.596 22.817 24 392 482 37.561 20.290 59.783 86 6.542 2.507 171 44 9.866 50.505 1.A.958 6.806 18.959 3.237 29.345 5 Süryani Protestants 127 1.156 29.517 868 323 2.289 3.424 39.202 40.917 2.227 111.762 24.465 20.982 10 9 25.130 921.479 60. Konya Muslims 64.231 737.476 32.400 29.226 1. 8 8 3 2 1 53 10 12.635 60.783 118.648 1.919 750. Ottoman Population.es Catholics 1.17.999 57. Çankiri (Kengiri) Çerkeş B.308 Old K17.823 28.686 22. 1914 (continued) .431 •59.088 83. Sinop Boyabat Ayancik Gerze Total.071 Armenians 14.819 6.271 24 1.950 122.177 29.I.743 29.234 103 4.640 35.845 41. Lazıstan (Rize) Atina Hopa B.519 28.753 29.049 30.119 5 8 1.783 28.002 25. Trabzon 14.

I.17.A. Ottoman Population, 1914 (continued)
Admınıstratıve Dısîrict Mamureîulazlz Harput Eğin Arapkir Kebanmadeni Potürge A. Malatya Behisni Hasanmansur Kahta Akçadağ B Oersim Çemişkezek Çarsancak Ovacik Nazimiye Mazgirt Total, Mamuretüiaziz 17. Van Erciş Çatak Adilcevaz Gevaş A. Hakkari Çölemerik Mahmudiye Şemdinli Güvar Hoşab Total, Van 18. Eskişehir Sivrihisar Mihaliççik Total, Eskişehir 19, Antalya Elmali • Alanya Akseki Kaş Manavgat Korkuteli Finike Total, Antalya 20 Urfa Birecik Rakah Suruç Harran Total. Urfa 16 Muslims 56,365 22.541 32.610 24.194 23.944 34.165 57.726 42.282 34.154 16.434 35,987 11,874 16,181 12,157 4.165 7.276 14,323 446,379 45,119 27,323 8,132 10,820 18,123 21,848 7,450 10,230 9,873 12,771 7,691 179,380 83,883 33,328 23,367 140,578 70,165 25,081 32,390 34,384 19,210 19,411 23,534 . 11,587 235,762 69,526 27,085 14,638 26,824 11,311 149,384 Greeks 23 _ 636 1 37 Armenians 23.725 7.519 9.373 9.204 320 679 7.060 1.550 2,189 743 341 1,151 3.772 6.862 10 89 1.483 76.070 33,789 8,083 4.292 4,849 10.520 3,461 296 528 959 1,015 1 2,613 67,792 3,979 4,185 112 8,276 141 484 Jews Greek Armenian Catholics Catholics 1.323 125 12 221 Protestants 4,000 1.528 503 666 57390 441 Latins 374 167 Süryani (Synac) 344 639 rjld

1 7 . A . Ottoman Population, 1914 (continued)
I^ Jacobites Maronites Samaritans Nestorıans Yezıdıs Gypsies Druzes Cossacks Bulgarians Serb.ans Waliachians Total 86.162 32.519 43.170 34,286 24,358 35.622 66.143 44.252 37,949 17,238 36,453 13,025 20,435 19.262 4.175 7.372 15.806 538,227 79.736 35,406 12,717 15,669 28,643 27,680 9,004 12,959 11,740 16,881 8,706 1,366 259.141 9ÎÎ00 37.719 23,807 152,726 78.317 26.226 34,314 34.449 20.243 19.467 23.534 13.136 249.686 89.386 28.720 14.652 26.919 11,311 170.988

36 777 18 402 54

; ;

764 420 754 7 125

174

267

215 243

7 971

3.751

8.043

715

2,234 56

'

293 836 1,534 1,258 835 1,366 1,593 2,878 8,091

1

274 273 1,383 194 206 328 728 173 33 316 215

1,128

2,613 7,837 325 1,877 65 1,028 56 1,197 12,385

316

215

336 14

5 '

44 630 13,995 1.071 12 83 15,161 250 817 48 1,084 461 12 865 1.557 1.652 39 2,328 1,597 55 39 2,328 271_ 621 37 38

2

2

182

183

I.17.A. Ottoman Population, 1914 (continued)
Admımsîratıve Oıstrıcî 21. İçel Anamur Gülnar Mut Total, İçel 22. İzmit Adapazarı Karamürsel Kandıra Geyve Yalova İznik Total. İzmit 23 Bolu Ereğli Bartin Gerede Göynük Oüzce Devrek Mudurnu Zonguldak Total, Bolu 24. Canik (Samsun) Ünye Bafra Fatsa Çarşamba Terme Total, Canik 25. Çatalca Büyük Çekmece Silivri Total, Çatalca 26. Zor Ftasülayn Aşara Total, Zor 27. Kuddüs-i Şerif (Jerusalem) Yafa (Jaffa) Gazze Halil ür-Rahman Total, Kudüs-i Şerif 28. Ah/on Karahisar-i Sahip Dinar Bolvadin Sandikli Aziziye Çivril Total, Karahisar-i Sahip ' Mdslıms 34.628 31.768 20.668 14.970 102.034 40.403 76.864 14.850 40,495 32.508 7,954 13,785 226,859 53,594 42,059 64,395 50,423 19,075 58,041 ı 53.336 29,818 28,540 399,281 44,992 58.351 48,944 35,678 54,353 23,632 265,950 13,034 3,255 3,759 20,048 43,645 2,667 19,458 65,770 70,270 62,758 77,296 55,720 266,044 97,547 37,496 39,618 37,165 44,097 21,736 277.659 Greeks 1.210 725 457 108 2.500 5,226 7.957 6,047 1.804 7,108 10,274 1,632 40,048 14 1,389 1,104 45 2 1,013 404 1,175 5,146 54,709 5,251 30.838 3,026 3,948 967 98,739 16,984 9,511 10,302 36,797 18 Armenians 334 9 7 1 341 23.873 16,461 2.635 641 8,363 3,304 126 55,403 1.220 401 19 392 670 259 2,961 4,791 5.861 1,735 1,250 10,820 2,601 27,058 44 17 781 842 67 2 18 19,717 5,312 1,006 26,035 59 327 3 7 151 85 632 67 1,173 137 2 18,190 2,105 243 721 21,259 7 27 533 553 215 1 1,473 249 11 1,733 2 9 9,062 774 41 3 9,880 17 20 18 9 5 5 2 9 261 263 3 to 307 113 4 4 6 1 7 448 1 1.078 655 3 7 204 3 Jews Greek Armenian Catholics Catholics Protestants Latins Süryani (Syria Old

1.17.A. Ottoman Population, 1914 (continued)
Gypsies Druzes Cossacks Bulgarians Serbians Wallachians Total 36,172 32,502 21,212 15,308 105,194 71,349 102,051 23,547 42,944 48,187 21,532 15,543 325,153 54,835 43,448 65,903 50,487 19,176 60,199 54,410 30,182 30,008 408,648 105,044 69,472 81,517 40,339 69,730 27,200 393,302 10 143 98 40 195 103 338 30,165 13,121 16,470 59,756 44,165 2,671 19,458 51 11 270 106 7 66,294 120.921 72,206 78,597 56,444 328,168 104,787 37,962 . 39,629 37,205 44,371 21.866 285,820

74 228 302

8

428

449 7

1.937

10

3 8

99 753 364 6 1,216 6

385 609 27 53 1,427 1,480 27 215 1 261 1.257

251

1,310 7,163 65 8 33 123 45 7,437

1,086

270

113

74

7

2

9 74

184
185

1

I.17.A. Ottoman Population, 1914 (continued)
Admımstratıve Dısîrıct 29- Karesi (Balıkesir) Edremit Erdek Ayvalık Balya Bandırma Burhaniye Sindirgi Gönen Total, Karesi 30. Kale-i Sultaniye (Çanakkale) Ezine Ayvacik Bayramiç Biga Lapseki Total, Kale-i Sultaniye 31. Kayseri Develi İncesu Bünyanihamid Total, Kayseri 32, Kütahya Gediz Uşak Simav Total, Kütahya 33. Maraş Pazarcik Elbistan - Zeytun-Süleymanli Göksün Total, Maraş 34. Menteşe (Muğla) Maramaris Köyceğiz Fethiye Bodrum Milas Total, Menteşe 35, Niğde Nevşehir Ürgüp Aksaray Bor Ulukişla Arapsun Total. Niğde Muslims 156,092 30,846 15,232 454 33,680 41,146 20,280 27,095 34,979 359,804 13,596 15,801 17,089 20,614 65,242 17,561 149,903 101,924 30,948 : 14,559 36,861 184,292 136,164 38,256 88,626 40,302 303,348 50,356 23,868 47,595 8,069 22,757 152,645 61,576 15,040 23,716 36,734 15,468 36,382 188,916 52,754 38,146 26,671 59,010 22,924 11,807 15,788 227,100 Greeks 2.655 9,699 31,035 31,440 3,266 11,507 4,514 1,130 2,251 97,497 4,358 486 290 2,243 1,164 8,541 19,662 2,085 3,773 1,070 26,590 5,587 2,957 211 8,755 11 Armenians 2.963 41 1,094 298 4.032 43 20 53 8,544 1.269 700 5 48 409 43 2,474 30,105 15,689 2,865 48.659 2,811 1,099 3,910 13,260 37 1,200 10,050 3,295 27,842 4 5 3 12 1,149 1,050 30 .1,758 777 114 12 4,890 251 23 638 3,808 372 182 118 251 1 69 120 217 203 1.005 1,615 137 106 166 333 26 1 769 400 23 4,480 4,972 445 486 208 6,111 1,189 1,189 243 3 1,515 638 243 2,018 Jews Greek Armenian Catholics Catholics 3 40 303 Protestants Latins 1 Suryam (Syriaci Old Syrians

I.17.A. Ottoman Population, 1914 (continued)
Chaldeans Jacobites Maron.les Samaritans Nestorıans Yezıdıs Gypsies 30 Diuzes Cossacks Bulgarians Serb.ans Wallachians Total 161,744 40,626 47,666 31,894 792 3,650 1,787 1 339 369 794 5,438
4 0 8 g ¡ )

;

4 14 1 362 2,961 256 1 269 103 52 3,642 9

' 106

51 1

59.425 24,851 28,247 37,623 472,970 22,252 17,325 17,095 21,230 67,997 19,916 165,815 154,818 49,128 18,332 40,796 263,074 145,443 38,256 92,682 40,513 316,894 73,873 23,905 49,612 18,787 26,378 192,555 63,589 17,195 24,972 44,345 19,716 41,057 210,874 80,196 50,283 34.820 65,652 25,169 14.397 20.600 ' 291.117

109

51 59

2

8

82

9 1,513 2

67 1,614 404

1.096
1

'

0 9 7

82

11 2,008 2,082 727 7,394 4,042 3,670 19,923 26.156 10,935 7,953 4,551 1,442 2,475 4,800 58,312

4 396

46

46

Notes follow Table I.17.B.

186 187

770 266.070 67.052 12.723 309 164 316 2.468 67.645 188.640 3.379 179.302 750.978 75.17.903 877.908 82 11.244 13.1.141 152.. 115 2.363 159 1.058 842 67 1.960 247 3.437 8.297 560.A and I.A.104 58.950 20. followed by the towns in the central kaza.820 472.086 1 9.762 149.932 47.890 1.146 98.890 413 143.043 215 1. 1914 (continued) Chaldeans 13 476 406 11 4..776 Süryani ld jSynaclSyrians 0 [ 17.339 Serbians Wallachians Total 631. followed by other kazas in the sancak.432 909.608.474 48.128 737.17.384 102.720 9. Source: Ministry of the Interior.659 359. Directorate General of the Administration of Population Registers.859 ' 205.434 341. Bağdat.417 673.822 60.385 2 2.497 8.406 164 8.662 Armenian Catholics 48 8. 1 2.016 562 467 2 3.844 24. Musul.729.044 277.756 66.044.139 44.937 2 1.796 40. Districts 18-35 are independent sancalcs (müstakil sancaki).091 6.555 210.544 2.988 105. t 188 189 .582 939.541 26.927 1.310 7.615 187.169 Jews 22.045 302 1.823 8.742 437.356 19 365 4.838 census (these included Hicaz.085 10..970 165.034 226.. In Table 1.726 249.383 728 250 865 10 428 20 27 1.036 2. followed by other towns in the kaza.376 1.350 Protestants .976 3.693 1.739 36.500 40.035 632 97.918 2.153 4138.189 243 3 400 13.962 50.227 619.111 769 65.091 1.161.100 15.B.324 161.712 446.971 76.880 2 141 427 251 51 11 270 113 74 369 794 5.991 5.549 8.294 328. 1914 Administratıve District Edirne Erzurum İstanbul Adana Ankara Aydın Bitlis Beyrut Halep Hüdavendigar Diyarbekir Suriye Sivas Trabzon Kastamonu Konya Mamuretülaziz Van Eskişehir Antalya Urfa İçil İzmit Bolu Canik Çatalca Zor Kudüs-i Şerif Karahisar-i Sahip Karesi Kale-i Sultaniye Kayseri Kütahya Maraş Menteşe Niğde Total Muslims 360.375 20 2.739 1.276 630 15.348 152.956 37.312 1. The central kaza is listed first.772 74. Serbia.375 8.515 10 52.520.873 667.210 8.480 2 21. Yemen.074 316.406 37.140 344 8 8 4 1.825 918.188 35.961 27. Basra.999 648. 2.026 35.978 411.101 791.380 140. Median.17.738 Armenians 19.278 9.257 1 1.642 Greek Catholics 221 5 387 437 14 1 24.161 341 55.733 9 51 67 2.873 4.804 149.575 1.301 2.704 1. and areas o1 European Turkey incorporated into Greece.725 125.216 6 338 38 27 1. The lettered districts are the capitals of other teas in the vilayet.366 621 302 1.079 3 ! • .613 12.515 633 4.385 14.126 66 1.994 351 Jacobites Maronites Samaritans Nestorians Yezidis 517 1. Summary of Ottoman Population.958 25.071 971 1 2.790 616. Summary of Ottoman Population.459 4.590 8. Estimates of current population were made for tribes In eastern Anatolia.114 492.507 19.395 114. districts 1-17 are vilayets.502 3.338 254 8.921 55.574 20.842 12 4.788 277 5.815 263.182 113 27. Cebililübnan.511 7.018 6..910 27.17.168 285.903 184. and for areas not subject to the 62.133 5.751 316 1.367 1.133 39 10 1 2.792 8.657 72.314 576.923 58.126 2. Asir.169 Notes to Tables 1.213 5.023 953.122.041 15.846 Greeks 224.403 2.659 3.234 4 8 1.381" 479 1. such as the nomadic Nestorians.285 1.302 59.537 20. 1919).193 4.793 3.094 815.B.048 5.916 227.067 309..869 7.735 921.957 7.992 491 2.320 474.128 212 56 B.092 24 280 Druzes Cossacks Bulgarians 2.947 767.249.817 1.211 6.409 1 169.241 1.194 325.111 79 3.259 7 362 3.874 291.648 393.797 18 26.959 12.577 6.226 299.859 399. these statistics were prepared by using the figures from the 1905'6 census and adding births and subtracting deaths registered during the intervening years.292 303.443 1.438 1. and Albania).686 170.117 18.385 1 1.643 992 7.578 235. Notes: According to the official introduction.096 87.956 8 169 Gypsies 1.281 265.750 4.073 23 1.308 538.048 65.905 174 1.652 1. Listed first is the vilayet capital.B.480 45 1 715 2. Memalik-i Osmaniyyenin 1330 Senesi NOtus Istatistiki [Population statistics of the Ottoman state In the year 1914] (Istanbul.097 82 251 1.894 192.069 ' 892 2.755 11 19..845 54.557 7 5 449 9 261 215 2 109 9 1.227 789.328 3 1 Latins .479 824.227 259.

218 1.858 87.796 675.087 944.679 1.904 286.396 89.800 108.349 87.009.18.178 10.116 721.454.409 1.615 59.848 Administrative District Aydin Edirne Erzurum Adana Işkodra Ankara İzmit .328 620. the 1914 column in this summary table required some adjustment. Eskişehir.626 228.387 836:045 559.830 620.702 1.671 80.535 634.372 347.812 473.853 568.111 328.485) 267.702 1.633 19.640 139.068.853 615.835 263.393 23.770 381.998 118.998 118.495 80. Kütahya.854 478. Biga.565 17.477 1894 1.884 368.175. and Karesi with Hüdavendigar.342 944.756 1.748 989.015 398.131. as the total net gain figure for 1906 is 3.050.529 1.012 401.363) 160.884 368.756 8.681 59. 1893-1914 1893' 1. The total figure for Istanbul and its suburbs in the 1914 list is placed opposite Dersaadet ve Bilad-i Selase in the summary.981 755.660 186.406 308.429 (5.372 918.070 251.234 18.227 259.207 899.399 988.970 38.824 264.085.421 87.333 2.081 620.367.778 1.467 1896 1.822 799.702 1.155 384 362 37.705 60.660 511.294 414.260 551. is counted in with Hüdavendigar in the adjusted total.121. therefore no net gain/loss figures at all are included for these two areas.035 1.293 1.825 66.943 1.460 459.735 (4.859 631.396 903.620 100.324 294.078.978 (14.335.657 51.482 19.884.496.454.013 712.707 79.828 113.223 78.602 571.479 61.375 197.978 18.535 (49.860 516.432 ' 516.030.964 34.333.873 437.822 787.410.042 234.009 234.031.691.270 562. this must distort the totals in many cases.363 969.187 1.324 387.018.324 161.735.157 497. Menteşe with Aydin. The population figures for newly created provinces have been added to the figures for the larger areas from which they were detached Thus Icel is included with Adana.848 1.662 67.653 1.141 873.049.131 290.385 80.056.250 400.169.520.022.616.529 867.637.001 819.876 88.421 132.478. Bağdat Basra Beyrut Bitlis Biga Cezayır-i Bahr-ı Sefid Çatalca Halep (Aleppo) Hüdavendigar Diyarbekir Zor Suriye (Syria) Selanik Sivas Şehremaneti Mülhakati (Greater İstanbul) Trabzon Kastamonu Kosova Konya Kudüs Elaziz Musul Manastir (Bitolla) Van Yanya (Janına) Dersaadet ve Bilad-i Selase (Istanbul and the Three Boroughs) Total STATISTICAL APPENDICES SECTION" II TABULATIONS OFNATIONAL AND RELIGIOUS GROUP POPULATIONS IN VARIOUS PROVINCES 824. The grand total for 1914 shows a net gain of 1.853 568.449 258.217 1.465.774 381.399 262.249 1.976 836.756 10. Karahisar-i Sahip.132 195.443 (5.014 351.733 569.962 637.038.249.756 8.953 206.030.030.157. 190 .116 516.714 1.430) 305.182 290.779 205.457 465.517 178.958) 91.775 921.015 (91.156.822 787.568 139.844 926.4« 187.943 990.397 926.055 396.299 1.465.669 197.694 197.111 664.014 276.277 392.516 671. for example.741 26.564 80.346 176.701 1.014 276.194.153 Net Gain (Loss) 1893-1906 317.756 8.342 970.973 980.424 985.346 177.652 400.134 1.855 504.399 119.496.965 355.191 1.374 58. Note that the column showing net gain or loss compares 1893 with 1906 rather than with 1914.399 119.227 20. Niğde and Antalya with Konya.913 1897 1.342 907. as each new administrative division usually included parts of more than one former province.590 58.234 17.970 516.763 336.237 948.853 568.399 132.056.733 286.748 252.581 1.896) 289 1.508 264.094 815.970 954.748 990. this reflects the loss of territory and population in Europe.372 82.114 721.068 Notes: Because the 1914 census list reflected major changes in the territorial boundaries and administrative division of the Ottoman state.642 143.860 516.719 297.399 161.367.372 847.748 824.1.047 664.047 309. Of course.777 229.877 293.630 909. and Kale-i Sultaniye.374 58.163. Bolu with Kastamonu.604 78.452 619.012 443.117 203.336.142.999 94. the administrative alignment having been so drastically altered by the latter date that a province-by-province comparison was not in order.482 195.569 80.702 1.435 1.338) 3.359 1.455 364.294 918.500 968.875 1.041 559.339.342.388.238 1. Canlk with Trabzon.755 116. The counts for Basra and Bağdat never approached completion.400 959.766 1914 1.168 538.639 1.408.659 197.234 19.295) 20.477 1895 1.372 918.045 634.764 87.727.323 782. The figure for Basra given in the 1897 column is much higher than that for other years because that figure is from the Statistical Office.027 (68.541 172.992 980.981 721.818.714 1.424 836.763 1906 1. Summary of Ottoman Census Reports.010. Maraş and Urla with Halep.094 664.263 721. Kayseri with Ankara.891 325.964 516.016 664. The Statistical Office was less conservative than the Population Directorate and would publish figures gathered by other means than actual count.562 1.217 132. which was added to the new Karesi province.

000 Tchetchens. 1863 (2) Mr Consul Taylor.130.000 Kmchors or gypsies "including Gregorians. Vilayet of Aleppo Authority (18) Patriarch to Ambassaddr (19) Mr.080 33 Syrians " 6 Greeks'' 6. and Billis 'excluding S e n Armenians Gregorian.500 13.000° 76.000 125.476 387.064 821. No.000 320 000 80. I believe that this document had already been printed at the Foreign Office. the figures in No. "Report of Maior Henry Trotter.000 363 1.000 Arabs Yezidis Non-Moslems 207. 1 Including Gregorians. Kurmandji 391. I think.800 Circassians.000 328.067 1.500 100. and the number of Syrians generally appears to be vastly over-estimated. 1879.208.627 20.788 130. 1869 (15) Patriarch to Ambassador (16) Official figures (17) Private Armenians 1 Syrians Sc " Turks Greeks* Jews Zinganis &c " 140. Source.400 1700. "Including the Yezidis. with a trifling deduction for Jews. 'including the Yezidis amongst the Moslems. Zaza Yezidis 11 Totals Non-Moslems 289. 1878 1880 (5) Patriarch to Ambassador 1880 (6) Vahan Vartabed. or Devii-worshippers.174 Kurds. 45. Turkey.790 Moslems 270. (16) Vide note 8.2. Consul Skene. which were supplied to General Baker by telegram. is not included in this estimate. Taylor was for several years Counsul of Erzeroum and Oiarbekir. 1860." 192 193 .758 724.000 88.204 5.000 Alivis and 15 000 Kizilbash Alivis and Kizilbash are.000 67.000 Turks and 15. and 20. (5) Patriarch to Ambassador. and Chaldeans c 110. in point of fact. (17) Vide note 13 (18) Vide note 5. '30.000' 5.778 s 4. as they are so included in the official lists for purposes of conscription "includes 20 Copts c m (continued) Zinganis and kmchors Turks and Circassians &c Kurds Kurmandıı Kurds. Jacobites or Old Syrians.144 654 Reference to Authorities: (1) Sir Robert Dalyell.584 Turks.500 67.000 306 370 432 Called by Patriarch Arab-Kurds. pp.000 Turks and 15.000 70. or Old Syrians.000 539. Counsul Taylor.000 Yezidis 8. 27 and 31. 1863.000 567.788 Authority (14) Mr. (3) are extracted from a pamphlet.000" Kurmandji 40. and Protestants "Including Nestonans. all derive from the Armenian Patriarchate and do not support the figures submitted by the Patriarch to the Berlin conference of 1878.000 273. 1879. (4). Catholics. and Ausairis.000 148. they have been multiplied by two. Oeuses.092 Moslems' 574.000 14.463 478.000' 158.000 170. i .309 Moslems 609.000' 2. They are reproduced here almost exactly as submitted by Major Trotter The spellings oi names ot the provinces and ethnic-religious groups are Major Trotter's.000 14. Catholics.000 &c.369 140.702 Moslems 135. (4) and (5i. and had travelled much in the frontier vilayets. The figures are abstracted from my own notes.000 5.—This gentleman was at one time Her Majesty's Counsul at Erzeroum. and 100 Persians.200 3.000 5.500 440.000 Zaza Kurds.000 223.700 1 172. 80.000 so-called Armenian Greeks. I have submitted a copy of this pamphlet to his Excellency the Ambassador (4) Official to Sir C. (9) Mr. (10) Patriarch to Ambassador.476 'including Gregorians.000' Totals Non-Moslems 130.000 Details not given 290. Zaza and Kizilbash 30.—These figures are derived from detailed statistics ot population published in Oiarbekir Sal-nama.000 Turks anrj 10. one and the same thing.000 337.220.050 B Viiay t of D'arbekir (including Saert.500 5. Chaldeans. Authority (1) Sir Robert Dalyell.000 53.500 1 150.000" Kurds.000 Alivis. 108. The population of the province must in the aggregate be slightly under 500. who was specially employed far several years in visiting the Armenian provinces and collecting statistics thereoi.000 Zmganls Turks &c.—Vide note 2. 6 6 ee 19. 1880 (12) Sal-nama. f think the number of Christians is under estimated.702 106.000 (4) Official to Sir Charles dike' •40.000 35. 2. 1879 (7) Vice-Consul Clayton.000" 244. being a confidential communication made to Sir Charles Oike m June 1880. 1860 (20) Official figures (21) Vahan Vartabed (22) Private Armenians 90.792 2. recently transferred from Oiarbekir to Bitlis.000 Christians 155.000 Afshars. 1880. but.000 84.500° 55. these figures agree with the latest official statistics collected independently by myself during my recent tour in those provinces. Mr.000' 55.—These figures are abstracted from statistics officially supplied by the Armenian Patriarch during the current year to Her Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary." pp 125-29 Note These tables of estimated populalion for the frontier provinces of Turkey were compiled by (Vajor Trotter on 7 September 1880 and transmitted from Ambassador George J Goschen in Istanbul to Earl Granville in the Foreign Office in London.1.000 91.000 13 000 3. being undoubtedly Mussulmans (Shiahs).650 7. Jacobites.—!s abstracted from a document furnished me by Her Maiesty's Ambassador Extraordinary. Zaza and Kiziibash 1 Totals Arabs 118. claimed as Armenians by the Patriarch.000 3. 2. " Including 50. Counsul Skene writes. and Protestants. or Siirt) a 821. which were extracted at Erzeroum from an old volume of Consular Reports {No. As far as the Provinces of Erzeroum and Van are concerned.000 337. I have no good check on these estimates.575 280. amongst the Moslems. (2) Mr. as far as is known. Catnolic Protestant Nestonans Greeks Jews 11.095 40. and it is therefore unnecessary to supply a copy here. Catholics.634 82. and the Mahommedan tour-fifths. Various Estimates of Population i n Certain Provinces Notes to Table 11.000 Non-Moslems 109. 1878.000 Approximately 539.000 Syrian Catholics There are. 10. 1879 (13) Private Armenians* Syrians' Greeks Jews 1. includes 3.000» 2.700 400. The number of Syrians (Jacobites) in the Mardin Sandjak have also. and (5) all derive originally irom the Armenian Patriarch.000 563. for 1297 (1879) (13) These figures are obtained from an approximative record ot the number oi houses of Syrian and Chaldean communities obtained by me from a non-official source last winter at Oiarbekir. Oalyell's own estimate of the population ot the two former districts.200 C Viiayet of Kharpul Kurds.500 316. Armenian-speaking gypsies.540 218. (12) Sal-nama.382 378 5.000° 328. "Including 3. Chaldeans. t have allowed six inhabitants to each house. and Syrian Catholics including Orthodox and^ Catholic * Including Turks and Circassians. no Nestonans permanently resident in the Oiarbekir Vilayet. the numbered notes headed "Reference to Authorities" are his source notes with comments Note that the figures m (3!. To reduce to present limits I have subtracted Sir R. is included in this estimate E 6. As the Turkish official figures give the number of males only.000 Turks. (7) Vice-Counsul Clayton.700 528.000 Circassians Called by Patriarch Arab-Kurds 'The Patriarch claims 40.000.000 Nestonans and 15.1.000 D. or Official Almanack.995 85. 60.000 400. Kurmandji 100. Taylor. (6) Vahan Vartabed—These figures were supplied to me at Erzeroum in 1879 by Vahan Vartabed.520 4. Called Bedouins in original document e Authority (9) Mr Taylor.000 95. 1880 —These figures were received by me from Captain Clayton whilst these Tables were being prepared They are the result of careful personal inquiries during a recent tour through the Nestorian country (8) Official figures. and Syrian Catholics Including Orthodox and Catholics c c Christians. 1880. " I should calculate the Christian population to be about one-fifth of the whole.908 129." 1878 I was given to understand that this document had been submitted unofficially to the Plenipotentaries at Berlin.—Vide note 5 (11) Vide note 8—The Province of Saert which has very recently been taken from Oiarbekir lo form a part of the newly-formed Vilayet of Bitlis. 1880 —These figures are abstracted !rom Table 1 They are the official figures that have been collected by his Excellency Baker Pasha on his recent tour of inspection.484' 80.000™ 30.778 'This includes 10.420 5.750 Jews Zinganis 5. or Kizilbash. entitled "Projet de Reglement Qrgamque pour Armenia Turque.HCAP 100 44 (1881). 1869 (10) Patriarch to Ambassador (11) Official figures.958 : 10. Including Zaza or Kizilbash Kurds anrj Kizilbash Turks.000 2 l t is not clear in original whether or not this estimate includes Zaza Kurds Probably Kizilbash Turks Brand Total 899. recently transferred from Oiarbekir to Bitlis. I have serious misgiving as to the accuracy of the figures for Saert. an Agent of the Patriarchate. It is stated therein that the figures are taken from statistics of the Armenian provinces prepared by the Armenian Patriarch. which I obtained last year at Erzeroum. has been {for convenience of comparison) included in the estimate ot the Oiarbekir Vilayet. Comparative Table S h o w i n g Various Estimates of the Population of Certain Provinces of the Ottoman Empire (Report of Major Henry Trotter) A V'layets o Erzeroum Van.000 88.000 1. to give an approximation to the totai population. (3) . but {here are a number of Jacobites.000 Turkomans. Jacobites. (19) Extracted from page 50 of Reports received from Her Majesty's Consuls relating to condition ot Christians in Turkey.000 Aiivis.174 562.000 Lazes.038 758.940 61. of volume unknown).II.685 373. Taylor. and excluded Erzinjan. and Syrian Catholics. The original estimate included the Sandiaks of Kars and Tchildry.000 55.800 87. (14) Vide note 2. 10. The arrangement of the tables and the notation system has been adjusted somewhat but all the following notes are Maior Trotier's. 'Including Nestonans. 1869 13| Berlin Protect.702 Kizilbash 15.212 s 12. Dike.000 Syrian Catholics In point of fact there are no Nestonans. The Province of Saert.444 s The Patriarch apparently claims 40.000* Kurds.500 145. they counted as such. c The population of the Saert Sandjak.000 Circassians 'Including 30. 1880 (8) Official figures .000™ 5. and 15 000 Kizilbash y aa bb 1. "This includes 3.000 652. (15) Vide note 5.000 405. printed m Armenian and French. claimed by Patriarch as Armenians.000 Pochas. 16 (1877). been very much under estimated. and have added the present official estimate of population of Erzinjan. and Protestants lnciuding Nestorians Chaldeans. Mr.000 826 1.000 1. 1869 —Figures abstracted from Blue Book. 4 0 000 Nestorians and 66.800 55.

196 100 482 499 1. 1878-1880 (continued) — Syrians Jacobites and Zinganis or Gypsies Total Non-Mahommedan 12.788 23.176 6.863 75 215 290 68.658 2.227 759 416 524 940 2.460 23.495 Source: HCAP 100/44 (1881).322 5.198 28. Note: This table oi Ottoman official statistics was supplied to the Foreign Office along with the comparative estimates tables reproduced in 11. p.851 75.856 3.023 168.983 9. terminology.349 4.754 11.851 34.921 257.463 58. Sivas.167 57.773 353 3. V a n .199 16.307 11.II.488 13.2.481 66.775 49.939 375 471 JO 876 37 120 33 29.2.653 198.164 214.690 70.693 3.346 41. and Trebizond (ca.272 85. ca.640 71.797 1.767 35.759 1.916 11.772 103 103 265 B66 251 211 251 202 413 189 189 114 487 845 193 2.009 Grand Total 61.150 67. 125. and arrangement of the table are basically as they appear in the source.100 85. Official Statistics S h o w i n g the Male Population of the Vilayets of Erzeroum. Kharput.833 41.839 80.210 39.253 216.377 118.959 17.532 434.549 145.894 109.350 459 120 3.565 53. Official Statistics of Male Population.664 49.283 156.775 55. Bitlis.702 110.669 41.227 302 761 759 3.818 46.115 24.538 173.570 8.077 12.001 1.916 49.146 39.563 70.369 269.148 _ 490 37 194 195 . 545 1.737 Mahommedan 48.135 31.789 143.181 28.013 10.165 1.388 225.024 172.480 418 3.074 121. 1878-1880) Name of Vilayet Erzeroum Name of Sandjak Erzinjan Erzeroum ffaıburt Bayazıd ' Bitlis Bitlis Saert Total Van Van and Hekkiari Oiarbekir Malada Mardin Total Aleppo Aleppo Marastı Orta Total Kharput Kharput Argfıana Maaden Total Sivas Sivas Amasia Kara Hisar Tokat Total Trebizond Trebizond Lazistan Djanlk Gumush Kbana Total Tota! •— Gregorians 11.671 15.899 50.977 5. Aleppo.502 437 1.204 32.1.155 Nestorians Chaldeans Syrian Catholics Jews 722 1.923 700 120 820 902 94 384 1.390 8.354 91 127 3.811 189.805 6.861 1.728 283. As in that table.216 4.111 86.176 30.692 46.933 84.640 23 7.229 7.599 66.127 277 32.408 140.661 2.312 26.396 Greeks Catholics II.960 254 25.343 30.146 202.496 Armenians Catholics Protestants Orthodox 995 .356 73.538 2.052 77.792 42.572 77 53 197 327 69.551 317.141 45.895 33.063 5.519 1.787 9.380 490 709 235 221 1.980 13.421 349.702 4.625 104.444 11.865 31.674 9.738 7.649 27.109 114. Diarbekir.732 11.043 177. 87.380 362 362 324 173 497 1.464 399 1.064 73.570 8.179 29.941 4.871 93.297 66.767 6.182 47.870 278 33 3.556 53.368 354.616 32.903 630 18.760 12.778 Diarbekir 4. the spellings.226 775 2.595 65.931 15.731 1.025 142 74 216 3.

53 85 56 75.47 48.366 80.147 92.665 89.930 203.911 187.59 21.69 17.69 1.48 88.348 477.824 113..117 342.223 237.712 745 210 323.817 3.774 20.564 15.364 9.025 18.207 955 1.76 5.208 107.319 120.94 11.25 5.773 2.392 173.584 34.15 78.987 25.359 5.739 15.509.188 60.40 2.647 7.948 790.52 13.179.80 1.792 141.937 111 1.40 2.730 431.348 477.239 26.91 41. no.17 41.00 38. 218.424 959.054 47.773 93.66 2.364 320.108 2.77 63.269 26.95 1.18 81.37 83.895 16.78 3.401 5.12 81.741 12.048 47.80 86.28 4.911 187.68 82.691 77.879 138.486 47.048 3.679 628 1.78 79.000 2.53 5.972 1.00 1.366 110.679 25.640 262.69 Erzurum Sivas Elaziz Diyarbekir Bitlis Van TOTAL.757 1.546 18. 1897 ( ^ 1 3 1 3 ) Armenians Armenians Orthodox Catholic Protestant Latin Catholics Chaldean Old Syn.222 79.760 118.310 391 5.171 12.41 1.648 32 2.054 364 3.759 190.884 68.680 80.539 78.048 32.267 717 314 471 157 1.931 15.646 104.63 2.037 6.920 19.51 123.291 1.3 M u s l i m and N o n .48 19.07 15.26 8 09 7.179.03 911 54.38 78.953 449 917 25.037 24.004 3.037 1.422 199.33 80.12 12.712 64.153 172.94 3.147 962 37 1.751 1.45 29 48 23 57 16.38 12.642 19.393 7.759 «».167 24. 1459.78 12.137 1.700 1.07 12.624 SUMMARY 26.636 2.66 11.968 103.373 8.467 45.900 3.11 2.054 364 1.711 41.239 59.M u s l i m Population. " Muslims Greeks - II.78 4.21 78.605 3.623 84.647 296 65 3 25. It appears to be based on the 1895 census results 196 197 .960 67.45 62.039 751 322 228 68 6 323.037 24.25 2.26 86.823 .586 22.509. 1897 (continued) Gypsies Nestorians Foreigners Jews Total Muslims Total Non-Muslims Percentages Grand Total Muslims Armenians Others ERZURUM Erzurum Erzincan Bayazıt SİVAS Sivas Toka! Amasya Karahisar-i Şarki ELAZIZ Harput Malatya Dersim DIYARBEKIR Dıyarbekir Ergani Mardin BİTLİS Bitlis Muş Siirt Genç VAN Wi Total 342.509.176 114.500 8.458 - 80.624 91.490 124.932 1. SIX PROVINCES 509.445 Source: BA (Y)/(P)/1313.364 320. • M u s l i m and N o n ^ i m r ^ p j ^ iViUSiii 1 1 • Q Î V Fastern Provinces.646 104.912 31." Note: This tabulation of the population in the six eastern provinces only was compiled by the Ottomans because of the political controversy over that area.495 569.37 80.38 6.884 68.14 2.953 37.579 10.323 99.529 68.01 16.392 173.900 670.153 172.323 99.660 3.449 3.075 1.31 ' 18.554 21. "Sicill Nufus ldare-i Umumiyyesi Mudiriyeti.680 138 2.91 17.000 2.232 127.773 93.097 628 48.049 814 488 449 362 2.652 60 20 56.893 98.845 41.076 4.384 81.900 3.076 76.318 143.399 351.665 22.097 628 1.298 4.65 .486 13.605 6 247 1 1.331 3 1 187.476 169.13 7.382 399.948 790.01 10.994 74.887 670.98 86.318 6.048 124.28 8.433 2.223 237.398 112.748 401.972 30.445 80.51 66.26 17.52 93.350 292 736 40 25 247 187.784 449 305 537 123.08 .248 88.282 251.874 57.769 76.79 2.208 107.366 56.318 634.112 2.715 61.23 18.893 98.185 17.900 509.691 77.54 16.802 9.293 1.845 41.95 11.500 521.146 25.263 10.773 2.37 82.641 5.447 14.09 7.546 18.224 1.624 32 1.395 79.69 11.933 521.960 67.509.816 161.624 91.

II.4. Population of M u s l i m and N o n - M u s l i m Millets, 1884-1897 (R. 1300-1313)
Musüm Year 1884 1835 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 M 6.694.146 6.752,791 6.811.434 6.870,077 61928.720 6,987.363 7045.416 7,104,059 7.149.862 7.208,505 7,267,148 7,325,791 7.391,355 7,499,798 F 5.896.206 5.954.847 6.013.490 6.072.133 6.130.779 6.189.419 6.248.652 6.307.295 6.261,499 6,437,428 6,378,785 6,437,428 6,499,555 6.612.147 Total 12,590.352 12.707.638 12.824.924 12.942.210 13.059.499 13.176.782 13.294,068 13.411,354 13.411,361 13,645.933 13.645.933 13,763,219 13,890.910 14,111.945 M 2.440.292 2.454.244 2.468.196 2.482.148 2.496,137 2.511,089 2.524.242 2.538.193 2.508,561 2.522.513 2.540.452 2.554.404 2.561.435 2.604.224 Non-Musiım Miilets F 2.113.215 2.124.530 2.134.845 2.155.160 ' 2.165.442 2.174.753 2.185.868 2.196.183 2.254.820 2.254.224 2.264,188 2.278.139 2,287.414 2.334,138 Total 4.553.507 4,578.774 . 4.603.041 4.637.308 4.661.579 4.685.842 4.710.110 4.734.376 4,763.381 4.776.737 4.S04.640 4.832.543 4,848,849 4,938.362 Grand Tota! 17,143.859 17.286.412 17.427.965 17.579.518 17.721.078 17.862.624 18.004,178 18.145.730 18,174,742 18.422.670 18.450.573 18.595.762 18.739.759 19.050.307

II.7. of Dobruca, IO/O II.7. Population Populan on or u o p r u i d , 1878
Romsnians Bulgarians 4.240 595 Turks
8

District Tulça Town Villages

Çerkeş

Tatars

Russians (inc. Old Believers)

Germans

Greeks 2,500

Others (Jews. Armenians) 3.000

Total 27.953

4,730 4,264

1,500 940

320

3.560 1.820

484 27.129

Twh
Villages Köstenje
T o w n

385 ".868

605 1,900

2,95 8,922 120 _

350 134

150

31,265

_
7

_

1,046

Villages Sulina (Sunne)" Town Villages Babadağ
v

~
-

_
4 1

°

'
3 6 0

, ,c
R
2 8

'

'

1.910 00

3 6 7

5

Q

3

5

0

Source- IUKTY 9184. Notes: Some of the totals in this table have been corrected in accordance with general statistics reproduced elsewhere: the differences between the corrected totals and the originals are slight. These statistics are higher than those given in Table 1.18 as they were compiled by

the statistical office and include estimates of populations uncounted or unregistered. The population office, from which the Table I 18 figures derive, was more conservative, accepting only actual counts. Immigrants and the population of the Arabic-speaking provinces were excluded from this tabulation, thus making the Muslim total rather low

50

-

_150

^

2

56.257 ^ 3.568 16'.302 ^^ 17'.694 „„, 2 233
4

_ 6.466 300 3.642 650

_ 480

400

°; "
a

9 e s

28,213

II.5. Population of Religious Communities, 1897 (R. 1313)
Population Community Muslim Greek Armenian Bulgarian Catholic Jewish Protestant Latin Maronite Chaldean Old Syrian Non-Muslim Gypsy Total Source: IUKTY 9184. M 7.499.798 1,341,049 546,030 449,286 65,912 117.767 22.963 12.280 15,262 3,866 19.500 10.309 F 6,612.147 1.228,863 496.344 380,903 54,567 97,658 21,397 10,055 17,154 1,902 16,054 9,241 Total 14,111.945 2,569.912 1,042.374 830,189 120,479 215.425 44.360 22.335 32.416 5.768 35,554 19.550 Percentage 74.07 13.49 5.47 4.36 0.64 1.13 0.24 0.12 0.17 0.03 • 0.18 0.10

II.6. Estimates of the Population of Six Provinces i n Eastern Anatolia i n 1896
Turkish Official Estimate, 1890 Erzeroum Mussulman Non-Mussulman Van Mussulman Non-Mussulman Bitlis Mussulman Non-Mussulman Diarbekir Mussulman Non-Mussulman Kharpout Mussulman Non-Mussulman Sivas Mussulman Non-Mussulman 441.671 113,488 Consul C, Lloyd's Estimate. 1890 441,671 113.488 Commission of Control, 1895 545,782 123,935

Mejdiye Town ru Villages Hirşova (Harsova) •? " Villages
T 0 W

_ 17 051 ~~ -

_ — 31.977 _ ' 9,546 50 — 2,130 50

.° -

0 0

4

'

6 6 4

265

c

Bin ™ 6.074

80 -

2 127 on 80 „ 2,071

22.386

— 600

Isakçe Town Villages Cernavoda (Boğazköy)' Town
l o w n

3-000 n nsn 3,080

250 _ —

208

50

837

282.582 135,912

115,000 155,988

207,028 101.264

650

Villages 167,054 109.914 166,794 121.082 352.713 126.874 Mahmudia Town Villages Kiliya (Kill) T-n " ' ' ^ 300,194 81,158 205,353 88,155 494,881 91,422

_

150

600 _ „„„ 1.020 230 „„

680

7,289 1.088 2.714 45 _ 2,192 2.023 240.574 71,870 304,584 87,584 378,253 83,752
o


10.104.022


8,946,285

_ _ ^ 3.480 _ 225_692_

19,050,307

100.00

1.070 76İÖ7

30.177 48.783 6.994
s

71.146

12.748

1.134

Ü f 6

735.489 156,712

-

801,630 170,351

Source: F0 424186, p. 263 (Curry to Salisbury, 19 March 1896). Note: This summap/ table is enclosure no 3 in the dispatch, which includes two other large tables. It is reproduced here with only minor editorial changes.

The Turks, Tatars, and Çerkeş were all Muslims: they totaled 126.924. or 60 Source: Correspondance Politique des Consuls. Turguie (Tulqa). 1 (1878). 280-82. percent of the population. Notes: These statistics were compiled by the Romanian delegate after it became "A later correction gives for Sulina a total of 4.020, consisting of 60 Romanians. 800 apparent that the Russians would give them northern Oobruca in a kind of exchange for Buloarians, 3,086 Russians, and 80 Greeks. those provinces in Southern Bessarabia which were incorporated into Russia—an arrangement sanctioned by the Treaty of Berlin in July 1878. The total for Cernavoda was later corrected to 3,645. including 2.135 Romanians. These statistics include the population up to the Val of Traian (middle of Dobruja); 150 Bulgarians, and 1,280 Muslims the population south of the Val of Traian on the Kostenıe-Cernavoda (Boğazköy) railroad line was overwhelmingly Muslim.
c

198

199

STATISTIC Al

APPENDICES

S E C T I O N III THE POPULATION OF ISTANBUL IN THE NINETEENTH AND EARLY T W E N T I E T H CENTURIES

I I I . l . Population of Istanbul and the Three Boroughs, 1830 (H. 1246)
A. Census of Muslims Marned Principal District* 1 2. 3. 4 5. 6 7 8. 9. 10 11. 12. Çarşı (32) Cebealı (56) Balat (62) Kumkapi (58} Yedikuie (33) Topkapi (47) Havas-I Refia (45) Kasimpaşa (28) Galata (11) Tophane (34) Beşiktaş (32) Üsküdar(57)
6

Adult 3.242 5 213 6.722 6.419 3 536 3.572 2.704 3.550 1.150 4,678 2.754 6,909 Adult 1,366

Small 880 1.713 2.112 1.858 1.171 1.134 940 1.408 473 1.607 886 2.382 Small 8

To*al Married 4.122 6.926 8.834 8.277 4.707 4.706 3.644 4.958 1,623 6,285 3.620 9,291 Total 1.374

Single Strong 2.218 1.840 877 1.488 295 224 1,116 1,254 949 826 1,392 1,906 Strong Infants 12 21 7 17 4 2 18 10 12 7 9 9 Infants Old 783 659 402 590 142 70 448 455 530 440 507 699 Old 197 1,602

I I I . 2 . Population of Istanbul
Single
Tntai 1 Uldl

Grand Total 7.135 9.446 10.120 10.372 5.148 5,002 5.226 6.677 3,114 7.558 5.528 11.905 Grand Total 1,374 826 4,997 1,536 552 561 Population Group

-

'

=
;

3.013 2.520. 1.286 2.095 441 296 1.582 1.719 1.491 1,273 1.908 2.614 Total 826 4.997 1.536

Native Male Inhabitants

Bachelors from Provinces

Families

Total

A. Population in 1844 (R. 1260) Palace personnel Muslim subjects Greek subjects Armenian subjects Catholic subjects Total Jewish subjects Karalm (non-rabbinical Jews) Gypsy subjects Total GRAND TOTAL 67,418 24,338 29,349 4,047 125,152 12.080 112 601 12,793 137,945 63 75,748 1,548 32,966 21,442 18,650 1,079 75,685 63 30,613 6,939 7,471 1,088 46,111 598 24 198 820 46,931 1,548 100,384 45,780 47,999 5,126 200,837 12,143 112 601 12,856 213,693

Special Groups

Students Mill & bakery workers Inn dwellers Palace Servants (Agavat) Other servants Gypsies

627 3,375 548 373 4 188 552 561 B Census of Non-Muslims

2 20

c

B. Population in 1857 (R. 1273)

The City
Palace personnel Muslim subjects Greek subjects Armenian subjects Catholic subjects Total Jewish subjects Karaim (non-rabbinical Jews) Protestant subjects Latin (European Catholic) subjects Gypsies Total 68,796 27,115 27,133 4,317 127,361 12,947 132 231 591 715 141,977 3,005 39,646 31,401 17,907 1,093 93,052 143 29,242 8,261 7,406 1,511 46,420 1,633 36 153 200 251 48,693 3,005 108,442 58,516 45,040 5,410 220,413 13,090 132 329 1,417 715 236,096

Religious Group Greeks Married Single Total Armenians Married Single Total Jews Married Single Total Catholics Married Single Total Total Married Total Single GRAND TOTAL

3

Good

Average

Poor

Children

Incapacitated

Exempt

Total

4.589 5.610 10,199

7,765 15,037 22,802

2.701 3.156 5.857

8,548 681 9,229

536 164 700

391 145 536

24,530 24.793 49.323

5,949 2,474 8,423

9,376 13,632 23,008

4.072 2.509 6.581

9,167 233 9,400

886 160 1.046

162 246 408

29,612 19,254 48,866

98 826 94,119

1,630 14 1,644

4,150 22 4,172

1.466 7 1.473

4,426 1 4,427

266 2 268

48
=

11,986 46 12,032

48

The Islands'
Greek subjects Armenian subjects Catholic subjects Protestant subjects Latin subjects Total GRAND TOTAL 1,944 97 72 1 24 2,138 144,115 94,119 48,693 1,944 97 72 1 24 2,138 238,234

1,080 40 1.120. 13,248 8.138 21,386

1,317 618 1,935 22,608 29,309 51.917

429 155 584 8.663 5.827 14.495

1.176 5 1,181 23,317 920 24.237

44 5 49 1,732 331 2,063

43 73 116 644 464 1,108
e

4,089 896 4,985 70,217 44,989 115,206

Source: BA, Ibnulemin.(D)/3087 (probable date 1830 [H. 1246]). Notes: The heading of this census tabulation in the original document is as follows: "Dersaadet ve Bilad-i Selasede sakin ve mutemekkin nufüs-u zükür ehl-i Islam ve reayanin memurin marifetleriyle tahrirleri hususu saye-i muvaffakiyetvaye-i cenab-i Mülukanede reside-i hüsn-ü hitam bulmuş ve iktiza eden müfredat tahrir defatiri bu defa canib-l Cerideye takdim kilinmiş ve ber-mucib-i defatır-i mutekaddime usul-u cerideye tevfikan tefrik ve tadat olunarak miktar ve kemiyetini mubeyyin hulasa veçhile pusulasldir." As the census of Muslims was conducted simply in order to determine the number liable for military service, only males were counted, and the categories into which they were divided reflected their military potential Hence the males who were members of families (i.e.. "married") were classified merely as "adult" {kebir) or "small" {sagir— too young to be registered for the military). The single males were classified as "strong" [tuvana—suitable for military service, generally 18-50 years ol age), "Infant" {sabi—presumably orphans), and " o l d " (musin). The census of the non-Muslims sought to determine the number of persons subject to the cizlye, the head tax paid in lieu of military service, and the categories employed reflected this intent: persons classified as "good." "average," or "poor" {ala. evsat.

or edna) paid the head tax but at different rates; "children" {sabij and the "incapacitated" {amel-i-mande) as well as certain exempt persons were not liable for the tax. "The census of Muslims was carried out according to principal district (kol) and neighborhood {mahalle). There were twelve kol in Istanbul in 1830. The numbers in parentheses following the kol names are the numbers of neighborhoods in each district. "In addition to the population figures for each of these special groups of persons not attached to neighborhoods (non-natives of the city, presumably), the census reports the numbers of the various establishments to which these persons are attached: the students {talebe-i ulum) were attending a total of 161 medreses: there were 174 mills and bakeries and 214 inns: and the gypsies lived in 7 neighborhoods. The "servants" other than those in the palace were attached to the military command, the Porte, the Finance Ministry, the School of Medicine, and the like. 'The palace servants were classified simply as "singles." "The non-Muslims were counted according to their respective religious communities (mllleli). The number of Greek (R'urni) .churches is-given as 54; Armenian (Ermeni) neighborhoods and churches, 43; Jewish (Yehud) neighborhoods, 18; Catholic (Kato¬ lik) neighborhoods. 13 ' This figure, as it appeared in the list, was higher by 50 than the total of married exempt persons listed for the various millets. It has been corrected here.

Source: BA (l)/(D)/24402. Notes: These figures for population of Istanbul In 1844 and 1857 (both sets based on the 1844 census) were submitted directly to the sultan by Mustafa Resit, the prime minister, and were accompanied by a short summary of the population increase between 1844 and 1857. Receipt of the figures was acknowledged by the sultan in a note dated 19 February 1857 (24 Cemaziyelahlr 1273). Note that the native inhabitants of the city were tabulated separately from the "Bachelors from the Provinces" who, it was noted, were living in the city "for trading purposes." 'This population included persons living on four small Islands in the sea of Marmara.

202

203

777 7.590 251 2.055 409 22.344 22.711 440 81.620 25.271 1.902 1.052 13 8.102 28.738 23.940 3.523 57 12.802 710 2.535 26 212 277 332 2 124 148 1.927 932 194 1.448 1.817 418 4.150 14.097 713 14 292 29 309 40 175 189 14 10 1 218 2.243 Place of Habitation Muslims M F M Greeks F Armenians M F M Catholics F III.034 12 14 709 11 155 580 322 5.775 414 95 5.310 38 1.102 15.981 279 3.518 5 11.773 3.120 4.094 7.317 5.457 1.042 527 34.552 6.276 6.835 197. Cerrahpaşa Homes Testes Immigrants Medreses Shops Inns .131 4.050 45.240 87 3.938 67 922 3.196 " 8.800 657 2.852 23 5.385 426 4.582 31.462 194 406 1.277 2.337 13 4.292 3 8 93 18 25.858 6.773 544 18 2.028 182 2.705 130 787 6.090 2.736 4.906 1.066 31.534 67 14 1.398 74.820 27 20.084 11.268 127.814 109 21.166 3.3.983 4.359 4.239 17 195 5.935 1.097 278 309 14 885 4.460 905 212 355 658 1.136 23.802 3.018 30.491 GALATA (PERA) 4.HI.621 122 4.621.382 153 1.029 204 iontnibrti o n following 205 .099 750 59.120 5 14 5 4 4 549 128 677 27 _ 0 16 7 13 4 15 125 68 2 55 13 13 4. Beyoğlu Homes Tekkes Immigrants Medreses Shops Inns Total 7.912 1.162 0 15 4.522 14.Total 12.590 3.989 11 15.451 13.472 1.394 1.276 6.019 1.366 47.121 59 2.485 13.644 .636 4. Population of Istanbul and Its Boroughs.224 681 20.852 33 5.244 1.357 244 2.958 4. 1882 (continued) Bulgarians M F Latins Protestants Jews Total District Totals Summary 19 19.858 15.888 5 3.381 713 5.733 87 3.155 47 4.126 2.840 1.700 2.162 332 1.067 11 5.902 4.557 36 381 674 8.848 3.854 17 195 7 32.602 16.3.605 697 8.085 1. 1882 (R^J1298)_ District OLD CITY 1.858 15.867 3.067 11 15.181 220 1.004 1.708 3.288 67 922 11.577 2.450 1.759 55 22. Beşiktaş Homes TeWtes Immigrants Medreses Shops Inns Total 5.923 13.392 13 15. 3. 9 4 5 4.906 148 0 12 1 695 3 580 67 5.646 2. Population of Istanbul and Its Boroughs.151 279 3.055 1. Fatih Homes TeWtes Immigrants Medreses Shops Inns Total 3.112 54 4 96 476 503 6 16 6 13 15 32 26.271 182 2.910 3.749 244 2.700 2.858 8.408 41 1. Beyazit Homes Tekkes' Immigrants" Medreses" Shops' Inns Total 2. Büyükdere Homes Tekkes Immigrants Medreses Shops Inns Total 3.858 3.457 38 3.535 433 313 1.042 63.182 4.615 1.610 393 10.221 3.396 4 70 68 19.992 2.454 418 4.321 38 3.284 3.773 4.196 4.036 205 7.858 6.129 774 5.273 1.803 16.201 3.657 2.470 3 3.099 732 33.108 9.384 278 404 4 5.135 41 1.268 3.129 774 2.703 19 186 674 4.989 313 2.303 118 3.985 2 31 2.004 2.893 153 1.299 57 4.763 18 1.339 93 96 721 727 6 159 29.763 3 3.429 23. Yeniköy Homes TeWres Immigrants Medreses Shops Inns Total 6.358 48.841 966 19 186 314 1.398 118 3.065 2.186 40 2.713 18 1.031 774 5.711 433 49.577 42.648 63.843 1.523 11 1.

373 135.322 1 264 1.350 17.997 8. "Merchants and craftsmen living at their places of business.556 1.869 64 24.198 17 551 1.259 15.679 36.680 5.701 242 1.128 30.568 105 5 28 3 1. 14.957 3 551 1.795 242 1. presumably not included among other categories wherever they lived.727 1. Population of Istanbul and Its Boroughs.879 6.233 25.170 16.676 21 3. "These were persons from abroad. "Students inhabiting the religious schools.323 2.968 128 3. 1882 (continued) Muslims Dıstrıct ÜSKÜDAR (ASIAN COAST) 8. Inns Total 9.854 2.169 869 14.519 442 3.500 9.498 1.617 5.675 3.225 869 15.244 7.804 48 829 671 180 Source: IUKTY 8949 The feWres were religious fraternities.531 80.224 308 333 15 26 3 810 1. 3 .009 1.329 7.487 380.907 3.950 1.583 21 3.684 2.983 2.301 72 GRAND TOTAL 20 60 335 13 133 13.934 3.819 1.923 651 622 65 3.267 Habitation M F M Greeks F Armenians M F M Catholics F I I I .186 40 1.271 219.560 24.236 333 3.635 2 287 151 141 96.532 2.891 32.782 4 1 3.267 4.766 10.515 24.560 52.903 2.952 2. Population of Istanbul and Its Boroughs. Kanlıca Homes Tekkes Immigrants > Medreses : Shops .3.986 2.224 1.IIİ. Kadıköy Homes Tekkes Immigrants Medreses Shops Inns Total 2.063 216 161.986 28 0 55 37 0 0 110 139 3.069 23 614 623 3.560 52.165 1.213 12.247 48 809 671 120 133 12. Üsküdar Homes Tekkes Immigrants Medreses Shops Inns Total 10.923 787 3.610 756 1 259 482 1.404 23 614 1.722 619 1.171 651 202 989 842 3 13 55 65 0 3 16 1 12 0 50 0 65 0 1.794 961 2 279 2.498 24.345 15 26 0 89 750 22 12.752 126 11.925 2.782 17 551 7.431 145.818 200 1.972 1.239 11 24.130 213 39.997 8.545 5.674 21 1.908 4. a 206 207 .748 449 5 3. M F M Jews F M Total F District Totals Summary 19.185 43.991 25.259 15.565 2 1 1.923 67 375 3.261 118.500 5.869 2.541 .345 842 0 3 0 13 12 37 5 89 0 16 52 552 1. 1882 (continued) Bulgarians —_2 M F M Latins F Protestants —.786 131 8 0 1.373 280.733 56.197 SUMMARY Total Total Total Total Total Total in in of in in In Homes Tekkes Immigrants Medreses Shops Inns 67.691 200 1.130 213 19.793 72 12.

41 2 Foreigners—1 29.096 219.565 Source' BA (I) (0)-75538.6.126 5.115 25.692 236.162 118.255 13.133 25. Native Male Inhabitants ol Ottoman Citizenship and Residents 29.752 47.591 1.207 F 318 322 396 362 307 246 249 273 149 232 279 271 3. Deaths in Istanbul and the Three Boroughs from 1 December 1875 to 30 November 1876 Muslims Month December January February March April May June July August September October November Total M 258 352 366 345 273 249 204 266 233 213 184 264 3.235 24. see BA.579 45. 1260 (1844) R.928 F 667 627 526 564 398 378 314 322 313 340 374 4. 1273(1857) R.823 Christians M 221 358 189 236 191 149 125 152 130 161 167 2.212 213.317 2.910 Non-Muslims—359.421 Jews M 16 16 17 17 15 15 6 5 6 8 9 132 F 19 13 10 9 14 8 2 7 12 8 12 109 Total 1.404 Non-Muslim M " 191 209 202 242 198 186 183 219 158 161 188 212 2. Population of Istanbul: Comparative Figures Census Year Muslims Greeks Armenians Cathol'cs Protestants Bulgarians Latins Jews Total A. p.428 III. SECTION IV SOME DEMOGRAPHIC.532 112. 1273(1857) R. SOCIAL.780 58.243 Total—873. 5 .945 141. 208 . 1886).019 69. AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OTTOMAN POPULATION IN T H E LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY B.683 M 25 38 30 27 28 32 32 29 43 53 57 46 440 Jews F 16 18 29 33 28 22 18 28 39 32 34 48 345 Total 972 1081 1167 1151 971 871 815 983 754 793 881 989 11.410 3_J23 12.716 1. Source: Salname of 1294 (1878).945 STATISTICAL APPENDICES 329 180 3.511 69.792 137.247 1.349 F 164 142 144 142 137 136 129 168 132 102 139 148 1.535 [ R 1260 (1844) R.442 1. Notes: The instruction for the 1882 census is contained in a letter irom the prime minister's office: see BA (l). 1298 (1882) 68.222 13. 1301 (1885) Muslims—384.516 43.869 12.867 5.492 Source: Salname of 1297 (1881). Deaths in Istanbul from 1 December 1878 to 31 October 1879 Muslims Month December January February March April May June July August September October Total M 515 540 435 467 342 273 270 233 272 287 299 3.999 45.126 944 816 840 832 905 966 12.977 136.417 829 . R.349 27. 1298 (1882) 102.047 4.040 36.192 13. Total Male Inhabitants Belonging to Various Nations R.4.'(Q) 65848 of 14 Tesrlniewal 1296 (26 October 1880) For the detailed list of figures for 1885.III.079 12. 422.314 1.338 27.979 231 120 62 591 809 C General Population Figures. I I I . "lrade-l Senlyye-i Cenab-I Padişahı İcra Olunan Tahrir-i Sabik Yoklamasi Mucibince Dersaadet ve Bılad-i Selasede Mevcud Nüfusun İstatistik Cedvelldir" (Istanbul.079 F 158 160 137 149 166 121 99 127 99 101 110 1.513 4.

66 6.09 10.136 73.07 51 42 45.000 443. The overall density figure (inducted in the ongma' bul no! ol very greal significance in view ol the wide variations in density) has been recalculated from the corrected figures.70 2.000 123.000 1.44 12. villages were not official administrative units but their number was regarded as an important statistic and therefore was included.33 2 Rank 16 22 26 25 6 17 11 33 36 24 4 13 2 10 19 34 14 30 9 23 21 1 31 12 5 18 28 35 7 20 32 3 8 29 15 27 Total Population 1.000 .253 .80 9. R. 20.28 2.000 390.318 100.350.136 136. Eastern Rumelia.030.000 187.000 14.248 91.77 47.000 247.368 14.000 731.34 51.000 33.000 190. compiled by the Ministry ol Trade and Construction.000 1.000 420.000 212.10 46. Zor.040.10 47.Villages 13 6.096 99.000 97. were not included In this list.061.200.85 51.000 1.079 564.000 200.800 46.90 53.236 3.050.312 11.632 4. Notes: These population figures.000 200.120 139.522 448.64 4.000 468. although under Ottoman suzerainty.738 297 1.89 6.59 50.229.00 50 00 52.65 50. 25.86 51.234 986.05 3.000 152. 5. Çatalca. 1.736 73.28 47.890 1.76 16.072 3. 7.50 49 00 50 00 47.339 210 47 3.000 90.97 45.211 1.000.78 51. 19.54 52. 30.88 74.900 391. The totals of sancaks.000 1.02 51.B84 144. Tunisia. 210 211 .000 13. 2 . and nahiyes.000 • 164.73 17 46 13.000 527.034 800.11 21.000 875.33 47. — — 33 23 23 15 8 22 3 4 4 4 5 2 8 568 — — — 4 4 1 4 1 5 6 5 3 5 3 2 4 4 127 — 149 938 498 95 931 65.000 470.000 110.77 53.944 44.712 98.005.500 1.00 14.808 47.29 32 22 8.67 52.21 12. while Şehremaneti Mülhakatı (Greater Istanbul). and Marmara Islands. and Kale-i Sultaniye were special sancaks.60 52.000 278.500 105.33 16.50 24.97 52.23 47.500 488. 1899 (R.000 F 415. Total Source: IUKTY 9075.000 58.93 10.440.354 775.000 31.176 260.42 47 98 48. 23.000 1.520 158. 8.042 3.500 465.51 6.18 15 Nahıyes 3 54 29 34 22 54 13 43 22 49 32 19 50 21 27 227 57 30 79 70 9 24 18 117 16 16 10 10 24 2 9 4 10 8 1 40 1.000 525.003 328 I V .77 15 32 8. Kudüs. 6 3 1 2 5 5 5 4 4 3 1 5 4 1 1 3 3 5 3 1 4 3 4 33 17 4 7 15 21 35 13 9 17 4 16 14 9 2 4 21 24 14 4 18 23 21 6 16 18 3 17 5 25 21 19 13 22 15 13 15 27 580 117 68 10 10 21 18 50 30 34 34 9 34 19 40 1 3 45 48 58 4 13 16 227 3 23 24 2 27 8 32 16 50 70 34 25 103 10 75 1.10 47.000 138. include both counted and estimated numbers.505 387.860 3. 10.46 47. 21.12 15.92 18.000 910. 1894/95 (R. 14.880 3.74 15.500 215. Males 45.458.000 119. Gebze.854 Density per k m 2 1.844 954.000 44.72 52.765 2.504 122.000 670.331 3.14 46.000 800 000 320.411 ' Number of Divisions Sancaks Kazas Nahiyes Land Area (km ) 2 I V . 'Şile.90 26.500. 690. 1310) 2 Administrative District Edirne Erzurum Adana Ankara Aydin Işkodra İzmit Bağdat Basra Bitlis Beyrut Biga Cezayir-i Bahr-i Sefid Çatalca Halep Hicaz Hudavendigar Dersaadet Diyarbekir Zor Sivas Selanik Suriye Şehremaneti Mülhakatı Trabzon Kastamonu Konya Kosova Kudüs Girit Musul Manastir Mamuretülaziz Van Yanya Yemen 3 Population M 435.000 560.550.274 5.000 1.47 23.000 405.000 144.78 21. and Population Density. Percentage of Males and Females in the Ottoman State. Population Distribution.000 61.000 393. 1315) Administrative District Dersaadet Edime Erzurum İzmit Işkodra Adana Ankara Aydın Bitlis Basra Bağdat Bingazi Beyrut Cezayir-i Bahr-ı Selld Cebel-i Lübnan Çatalca Hicaz Halep Hudavendigar Diyarbekir Zor Suriye Selanik Sivas Şehremaneti Mülhakatı Trablusgarp Trabzon Kudüs Kastamonu Kale-i Sultaniye Konya Kosova Girit Mamuretülaziz Manastir Musul Van Yanya Yemen Total Source: IUKTY 9184. Bingazi.000 690.52 25.000 220.000 65.752 6.027.000 2.85 I V . 4 . 1894/95 (R.000 293.58 52.412 64.000 312.90 52.000 921. Population Density per k m .057 3.56 10. Hicaz Yemen Basra Bağdat Musul Halep Suriye Beyrut Trablusgarp Hudavendigar Konya Ankara Aydın Adana Kastamonu Sivas Diyarbekir Bitlis Erzurum Mamuretülaziz Van Trabzon Cezayir-i Bahr-i Sefid Girit Edime Selanik Kosova Yanya Işkodra Manastır Kudüs Bingazi Zor İzmit Kale-i Sultaniye Çatalca Cebel-i Lübnan Total Number of Divisions Kazas 5 27 10 17 15 21 18 16 17 26 25 21 35 15 18 21 14 13 20 14 13 • .450 1. although a traditionally recognized census area.000 190. 1316) Principal Administrative Districts 1.84 3.000 42.50 46 32 52. Bosnia.000 489.070.38 33.00 45.982 90.007 517.696 27.000 300.894 15.000 370.164.78 47. Kartal.62 12 31 24.500 268.597 476 2.107 2.827 264.200 37.000 1.28 2.000 1.555 500.160 71.272.28 50.656 1.000 550.19 25 19 60.000 32.00 51. Some small errors in the original have been corrected.40 47. and Density Rank.000 250.476 1. 4. 15.317 968.000 278.55 15 45 16.00 54.750. Cebel-ı L ü b n a n .000 452.372 4.328 64. 26. 27.045 3.63 61.36 5 14 2.22 48 35 49. 22.23 7 02 21.21 24.000 482.14 22 75 7.276. 6.000 301.446 687.000 675.500 Density per km 21 15 15.03 48.000 168.202. 24. The principal administrative districts listed were mamly vilayets. 13.500 130. 3.80 25.15 48.67 Females 54 43 55.000 220.000 573.787 1.53 4. 9.00 48 56 46.727 1.74 5. have been included here.000 ' 957.260 701.500 118. 2.000 62. 3 4.132 3.000 395.000 89.634 270.960 227. Beykoz.939 2. İzmit.57 44. 2.23 52.000 952.000 566.000 339. 67.92 27.000 • 445. Notes: The principal districts are mainly vilayets.81 24.995 1. 1 . 28.000 48.022.50 53.03 54.000 1.534. 29.66 •48. Bulgaria. Administrative Units.000 175.696 1.365.62 47.073.688 87.41 49.600 98.000 613.356 80.000 467.00 42.000 430.I V .177 2.594 2.65 50.000 255.000 3. kazas. Egypt.000 131.617 1.000 29.07 26. the last seven listed are special sancaks.93 7 85 15.000 273.83 45.416 89.000 475. and Samos.37 38.300 330.192 12.018.66 21.68 47.322 228.500 Total 850.95 10.58 11.44 53.43 16.700.642 380 630 720.000 203.345 1.53 19. 1310) Administrative District Edirne Erzurum Adana • Ankara Aydın Işkodra İzmit Bağdat Basra Bitlis Beyrut Biga Cezayir-i Bahr-ı Sefid' Çatalca Halep Hicaz Hudavendigar Dersaadet Diyarbekir Zor Sivas Selanik Suriye Şehremaneti Mülhakati Trabzon Kastamonu Konya Kosova Kudüs Girit Musul Manastir Mamuretülaziz Van Yanya Yemen Source: IUKTY 9075.72 49.300 24.00 58.529 337 584 398 764 1.35 17.59 19 22 9 86 . did not have its own administrative set up.000 298. 5.95 8 75 1.90 52.000 275.157 1.218 980. 1318.35 49.000 2.93 48 58 54. not provided in the original.42 30.288 202.229 488.784 20.38 52.40 11.000 623.000 565. 3 . 12.50 51. 18.720 117.10 17.75 3.500 129.000 510.46 46.000 27. 17. 'Greater İstanbul: K ü ç ü k ç e k m e c e .000 505. Administrative D i v i s i o n of the Ottoman State.500 508. 1900 ( H .706 Source: Salname of 1318.000 129.000 482.000 249.671 151.000 455.000 750. 11.000 953. 16.134 1.007.

300 19.760 65.300 29.960 14.150 51.612 30.390 9.851 2.870 7.760 32.900 65.143 22.400 98.350 78.500 8.700 249.700 44.989 61.264 9.130 11.200 1.400 29.990 39.360 8.600 92.574.480 17.680 41.821 14.450 16.365 18.850 19.154 24.009 8.950 35.600 1.700 122.480 62.600 2.700 7.03 M 303 270 143 306 342 113 95 274 99 172 205 74 114 65 312 445 420 293 163 82 326 329 176 75 385 296 246 310 100 85 116 442 153 134 168 485 8.360 26.103 5.490 22.345 68.349 F 61.300 18.650 39.870 6.300 22.749 61.769 43.860 7.870 46.415 39.400 44.500 39.300 2.465 3.289 3.260 38.860 14.400 382.100 21.558 51.820 184.230 55.475 M 72.180 18.985 25.120 9.750 17.100 37.700 49.120 5.660 .079 '1.702 10.165 94.935 5.410 3.500 79.950 69.600 23.249 1. by Age.800 2.800 51.890 12.120 1.350 30.220 27.800 66.780 10.250 '2.100 4.800 13.585 1.320 7.200 71.035 53.850 90.860 24.280 1.500 10.160 76.161 1.196 13.680 39.265 4.470.950 5.400 40.150 13.130 28.600 24.824 29.600 60.171 39.990 20.969 10.600 46.950 60.001 3.940 15.300 45.430 36.785 24.450 79.760 42.750 2.900 32.280 44.280 57.810 38.970 41.100 7.260 16.450 2.420 19.300 37.660 35.490 41.605 10-20 M 73.250 36.800 38.810 67.700 32.930 23.800 77.720 2.980 11.750 68.650 13.800 9.840 .350 32.265 7.100 92.720 2.650 21.860 2.700 4.200 3.820 21.608 8.470 3.760 30.933 89.970 69.890 6.100 14.100 7.700 2.210 19.670 610 392 861 4.970 77.700 34.050 89.857 32.900 5.960 74.620 39.200 2.387 722 325 1.300 13.160 23.135 248.669 F 64.910 1.507 485 240 935 1.258 .990 34.100 6.940 77.630 21.180 25.865 32.050 1. 5 .600 25.000 24.060 3.462 F 66.800 3.961 60-70 M 33.700 108.710 2.670 2.880 1.950 32.385 83.000 31.180 950 537 1.133 28.870 28.200 77.800 16.960 46.760 780 221 1.600 1.800 16.110 3.100 69.I V .994 1.800 67.240 46.800 67.245 4.250 701 26.210 87.700 27.655 5.870 15.900 33.C5Û 23.985 55.300 2.960 78.330 47.910 90.500 39.900 18.200 96.000 4.100 41.160 88.234 30-40 M 83.100 26.750 F 1.200 89.221 7.600 69.010 1.724.850 8.230 53.400 224.095 465 820 2.770 10.600 21.890 131.706 4.960 51.780 90.720 20.670 17.578 1 465 70-80 M 12.750 7.300 67.043 4.200 42.195 14.980 18.150 6.917 69.400 85.700 54.445 23.200 186.500 36.895 11.385 71.355 35.135.615 24.850 17.190 22.285 25.965 25.283 19.650 29.620 91.865 1.937 3.800 56.325 51.120 12.500 94.920 49.260 13.770 61.415 2.979 31.803 5.750 • 44.610 17.850 13.480 10.810 79.900 13.700 24.730 4.360 1.960 24j00 9.881 13. 1894 (continued) 40-50 F 59.690 60.680 12.300 9.172 51.100 4.890 3.090 10.630 4.850 13.993 2.700 56.820 12.910 67.800 5.890 41.295 86.600 18.710 60.176 F 42.960 56.860 10.950 1.750 46.300 3.960 31.660 17.375 2.100 314.870 93.789 27.429 246.060 990 10.125 6.560 51.800 83.900 65.450 20.660 36.223 42. 1894 0-1 •Afimm-strjsve District -Edirne Erzurum Adana Ankara Aydin Işkcdra İzmit Bağdat Basra Bitlis Beyrut -3ıga "leyzaylr-i Batır-i Sefid Çatalca Halep Hicaz Hüdavendigar Oersaadet Diyarbekir Zor Sivas Selanik Suriye Şehremaneti Mülhakati Trabzon Kastamonu Konya Kosova Kudüs Girit Musul Manastir Mamuretülaziz Van Yanya Yemen Total Percentage Source: IUKTY 9075 F r 3C4 2.700 22.700 67.861 I V . 5 .260 43.750 33.800 70.850 3.610 57.350 1.530 46.400 1.260 33.660 34.665 35.720 75.860 87.820 186.690.730 210 338 960 3.830 13.700 226.300 2.300 40.760 11.400 88.734 50-60 M 49.300 111.085 65.300 16.100 61.430 47.279 9.300 39.861 52.530 27.860 27.400 947.300 30.975 75.423 702 1.780 17.320 1.921 49.130 24.700 7.820 92.629 F 8.100 37.120 97.160 23.750 4.860 4.050 26.669 2.920 579 1.670 78.900 83.985 77.703 4.989 15.300 2.650 68.400 41.100 7.400 19.680 37.721 47.860 7.690 11.760 60.300 81.790 87.965 73.235.300 83.406. 55.960 15.200 76.600 101.190 45.700 47.400 62.130 29.150 3.510 32.318 7.961 4.950 1.600 15.210 960 2.334 55.399 8.960 29.100 15.800 58.012 81.700 128.990 886 760 1.600 37.700 59.300 772.881 21.436 64.100 65.960 56.700 68.210 1.165 51.300 8.650 79.300 •0.750 80.830 668 865 2.410 51.775 29.300 28.600 79.478 3.002.860 79.460 67.899 12.2155 90 and older F 400 304 154 398 514 136 115 328 113 124 147 63 138 73 405 52 327 205 131 80 408 305 204 81 321 320 298 304 103 76 83 326 102 158 105 439 7.610 19.134.329 66.618 • F 36.150 28.200 130.550 36.260 58.960 112.185 40.500 25.622 20-30 M 80.300 194.700 26.200 J9.600 2.250 14.280 1.960 8.900 24.625 38.700 85.085 25.119 28.180 17.750 26.500 12.986 20.760 4.661 4.110.200 21.725 33.300 32.450 34.200 30.137 29.820 36.980 18.991 22.600 33.260 160 261 680 2.500 10.160 175.760 99.712 74.900 58.120 32.880 62.852 20.100 70.600 2.810 89.253 1-10 M 37.600 65.761 3.200 58.160 159.160 4.861 944.800 49.789 16.060 80.085 ' 521 12.800 7.890 36.900 94.810 970 280 3.865 1.075 40.500 53.310 70.100 4.100 42.835 69.270 9.855 15.960 20.500 25.991 14.180 16.327 39.300 18.960 11. Number and Percentage of Males and Females in the Ottoman State.116 031 100% ' 212 213 .200 97.210 193.700 7.820 4.700 10.422 8.875 41.260 45.860 456.110 1.490 29.347 34. by Age.915 21.100 22.821 8.000 40.100 31.760 71.100 43.120 55.980 25.165 5.680 38.002 61.050 29.620 87.280 6.180 83.330 31.400 175.250 15.500 7.570 10.100 13.600 11.860 2.695 51.275 3.300 9.180 450 21.260 65.120 48.120 33.860 11.100 30.680 27.530 334 8.850 26.875 31.780 26.720 5.100 12.969 25.995 63.318 60.900 13.400 26.550 38.558 6.860 13.260 21.389 F 25.165 37.875 4.315 695 435 1.350 8.165 64.860 2.210 18.110 6.913 412 311 1.811 166.322 M 30.300 2.400 867.980 2.989.760 49.586 1478 80-90 M 2.250 20.861 32.930 32.600 25.106 7.300 80.300 33.135 184.100 5.760 17.980 13.850 47.865 266.890 14.780 49.431 74.630 1.200 31.310 47.800 46.480 32.600 765 1.750 47.991 3.073 37.960 4.258 18.140 53.785 44.960 7.250 310 820 950 197 372 199 844 3.320 36.700 82. Males and Females i n the Ottoman State.320 45.200 29.600 27.660 41.550 30.370 11.940 61.200 88.880 34.82ü 8.300 1.943 965 26.387 3.620 3.670 26.360 37.810 39.300 75.065 18.600 88.800 17.920 33.300 37.600 37.851 15.780 2.993 49.426 6.961 17.000 81.890 13.920 58.330 223 511 211 1.495 99.149.390 43.780 19.180 68.600 37.860 14.780 163.300 55.400 39.750 23.185 6.360 5.720 2.730 7.

000 130.66 35.85 51 16 46.300 276.300 55. 8 . Number and Percentage of Persons in Occupations Other T h a n Trade and Agriculture.500 74.350 1.000 225.000 106.200 19.500 31.000 139.700 263.62 43.000 785.000 84.000 855. 1894/95 (R.and soapmakers (123.700 30.37 54.300 225.000 1.300 17.65 13.400 240. menial jobs in businesses and factory work.000 830.700 77.000 440. of these.83 13.67 21.800 152.00 12.350 44. Therefore.75 14.000).30 18.500 577.00 61.000 560. 1310) Administrative District Edirne Erzurum Adana Ankara Aydın Işkodra İzmit Bağdat 8asra Bitlis Beyrut Biga Cezayiribahrisefit Çatalca Halep Hicaz Hüdavendigar Dersaadet Diyarbekir Zor Sivas Selanik Suriye Şehremaneti Mülhakati Trabzon Kastamonu Konya Kosova Kudüs Girit Musul Manastir Mamuretülaziz Van Yanya Yemen Number Employed 286.53 10.000 288.17 42 53 42. Note: The source title fot this table indicates that it gives data about "professionals"—i.00 56.500 117.33 18. 1310) Administrative District Edirne Erzurum Adana Ankara Aydin Işkodra İzmit Bağdat Basra Bitlis Beyrut Biga Cezayir-i Banr-i Setid Çatalca Halep Hicaz Hüdavendıgar Dersaadet Diyarbekir Zor Sivas Selanik Suriye Şehremaneti Mülhakatı Trabzon Kastamonu Konya Kosova Kudüs Girit Musul Manastır Mamuretülazlz Van Yanya Yemen Source: IUKTY 9075 Number 435. a phrase that translates as "arts and sciences.42 13.26 30.000). 1894/95 (R.04 25.60 50.200 124. Number and Percentage of Persons Employed in Trade and Industry (Crafts) 1894/95 (R.40 19.760).39 23.100 43.000 110.60 24.400 76.700 256.00 40.900 97.95 46.100 95.55 46.12 29. the grocers were the most numerous (237.000 368.29 43.000 65.09 28 84 21 18 Rank 10 32 33 14 11 13 23 24 19 35 17 9 28 16 12 6 8 4 30 21 27 3 26 5 1 18 25 20 15 29 7 2 39 31 22 36 I V .000 70. Source: IUKTY 9075.000 210.78 29 19 31.000 325.100 60.000 850. 6 .000 94.65 61.76 12.29 86.27 50.000 437.61 43. as well as intellectual work.800 285.000 167.000 Rank 15 16 27 19 3 22 33 10 26 25 18 34 28 36 9 2 4 1 24 32 14 5 17 35 8 12 13 23 30 31 21 7 20 29 11 6 Percentage 11.70 42.000 279.800 38.16 25.79 38. coffee shop operators (175.53 14. 7 .000 169.71 27.600 209.26 70." In fact.49 27.100 167.040 68.000 Rank 11.000 869.00 52.000 441.300).49 44.00 43.36 14.51 53 40 50 90 62.56 30.73 08.700 83.950 295.000 33.66 15.02 77.000 119.25 41 49 50.86 09.000 285.800 151.500 99.910. Source: IUKTY 9075. Number and Percentage of Persons above the Age of T e n Engaged in G a i n f u l Employment.100) and lottery ticket selling (2.000 414.00 Rank 17 33 34 28 9 7 18 27 12 35 21 4 20 13 14 19 5 1 23 16 32 3 25 6 8 26 31 30 11 22 10 2 29 24 15 36 I V .525.61 15.07 26.500 198.000 286.77 30.21 10.750 65.42 81.800 410.000 398.000 486.61 44.99 33 11 40.170 89.46 56.960 10.47 19.250 35.500 213.05 35 34 26. and candle.45 47.008.48 45 49 61.49 25 38 28.230" 278.80 14 03 09 29 19.75 19.500 61. a more accurately descriptive title has been substituted.65 24 99 23 44 31 65 33. persons involved in ulum ve lunun.200 264.000 Rank 11 19 27 14 5 23 32 15 26 24 17 34 29 36 9 1 6 7 25 33 • 13 8 18 35 3 10 12 16 28 31 21 4 22 30 20 2 Percentage .000 195.600 9.32 35.000 180.54 53.000 110.000 78.20 22.800 96.300 • 91.01 27.000 97.000 135.900 79.100 172.200 43. The lowest numbers of workers were In meat and fruit wholesaling (2.650 71.210 33.12 12.93 18. 19 27 12 6 23 32 15 26 24 17 34 29 36 9 1 5 8 25 33 14 7 18 35 2 .40 50.600 42.I V .10 13 16 28 31 21 3 22 30 20 4 Employment Percentage 33.61 53.28 18.26 10.26 18.58 12.000 98.47 32 54 28 51 28.000 197.000 269. followed by millers and mill workers (199.600 86.87 61.100 70.000 1.790).95 52.200 301.000 287. 214 215 .000 875.800 486.000 258. 1310) Administrative District Edirne Erzurum Adana Ankara Aydin Işkodra İzmit Bağdat Basra Bitlis Beyrut Biga Cezayir-i Bahr-i Sefld Çatalca Halep Hicaz Hüdavendigar Dersaadet Diyarbekir Zor Sivas Selanik Suriye Şehremaneti Mülhakati Trabzon Kastamonu Konya Kosova Kudüs Girit Musul Manastir Mamuretülaziz Van Yanya Yemen Number 94.000 482.31 Rank 29 25 20 35 8 4 18 23 10 27 17 3 26 16 22 36 5 1 13 28 32 2 21 7 11 30 31 33 24 19 12 6 15 14 9 34 - .000 550.e .09 09.000 67.990 53.46 61. Note: Attached to this table is a list ot 117 occupations.42 13.05 14. the phrase was used to describe a variety of occupations including. 51.

respectively. 418-20. repairer or seller ol watches Sabuncu: maker and seller of soap Sahat dealer in second-hand books Sahtiyan perdahçı Morocco leather polisher Sahtiyan tüccarı: Morocco leather merchant Saka: water carrier Samancı: straw (fodder?) seller Sandalya yapicisi maker and seller of chairs Sandikqi: maker and seller of boxes. pp. tinker Kaldlrimci: paver of sidewalks Kalemkar gold or silver engraver. or garbage collector Çorapçı: maker and seller of stockings Çörekçi ve simitçi maker and seller of buns and simit (ring-shaped bread rolls) Çuhaci: draper Çuval meremetcisi. but it came to apply to elected guild chiefs when the guild system was reformed in the nineteenth century During the reign of Abdulhamid. 1878 (continued) (urabiyeci: maker and seller of cakes iiirekçi: maker and seller of oars or shovels íiirkqü: furrier (urşuncu: (1) maker of bullets. as the kethuda were guild chiefs who served as intermediaries between the guild members and the government. Occupations i n Istanbul. hardware dealer tialqaci. (2) handkerchief maker or seller Yoğurtçu: maker and seller of yogurt Yorganci: quilt maker Zahireci: keeper of a store of grain or provisions Zeytin yağcisi: olive oil seller. (2) (Aktar):Verbalist. fruit and vegetable seller Itanifaturaci: cloth seller Marangoz: carpenter Hesf dikici: shoemaker Keykedeci: tavern keeper Kidillici: one who rents ponies Uisir tuccari: (corn) merchant Disk yağci: musk-oil maker and seller Moloz ve keresteci: seller of construction materials (earth and lumber) fluceilit: bookbinder Kuhalebld: make! and seller of milk dishes Mumcu: candlemaker Mürekkepqi: maker and seller of ink Muytap: maker of hair rope and bags Nakkaş: cam!. etc Boncuk hurdacisi: dealer in secondhand beads Boyaci: (1) dyer.I V . etc Saraç: saddler. ayarcisi: silver appraiser Hattat' maker of simple shoes (and other unpretentious things) Hakkak: engraver Hallaç: cotton Buffer Hamal (beygir): carrier with a packhorse Hamal (sırt): porter Hamam yapici: bath builder Hamamci: public bath keeper Hand: innkeeper Hasir iskemlecisi: maker and seller of wicker chairs Haşir supürgeci: broom maker Hasirci: maker and seller of mats Havyarci: caviar seller Hayalbaz: shadow (karogoz) theater player Helvacı: maker and seller of halva Hokkabaz: clown Horasanci: mortar maker İğneci: maker and seller of needles Imameci: maker and seller of amber mouthpieces for pipes İp bükücüsü: thread spinner Ip kavafi' string maker İşkembe qorbacisi: maker of tripe soup Kadayitçi: maker and seller of kadayif (shredded dough used in sweets) Katesqi: (1) maker and seller of cages or latticework Kağitcj: paper dealer Kahve değirmencisi: coffee mill maker . some kethuda were high officials appointed to these posts (The post was abolished in 1912 under the "Young Turks" government and re-established in 1915 under the name katib-i mesul— "responsible secretary"—for the purpose of giving the government control over the crafts and trades and providing patronage jobs). sack mender Debbağ: tanner De/la/ komisyoncu: auctioneer. woman peddler of female garments. of millet and of the root of salep.<an/e dovucü: grinder of coffee Kalayci: tinsmith. mirrors Ayvaz' footman Bağci' grape grower Baqcivan: gardener Bakır kavafı: maker of (ordinary) copper utensils Bakır kazancı: coppersmith Bakkat grocer Balikaği iplikcjsi: maker and selier of fishnets Balmumcu: maker and seller of wax (beeswax products) Basmacı: maker and seller of calico Basmacı ressamı: calico designer Bastirmaci: maker and seller of pastırma (pressed meat cured with garlic and other spices—pastrami) Bat pazarcı (bit pazarcı): dealer In secondhand goods Berber: barber Bezir yağci: maker and seller of linseed oil Biqak yapicisi: knifemaker Biçakçl: knife seller Biçki talasçsl: sawdust seller Bohçaçi. (1) druggist. depending upon whether the term has a modern equivalent .maker Nişastaci. List of Occupations in the Istanbul City and the Three Boroughs in 1878 (R. (2) cartwright Arpacı: barley seller Arzuhalci: petition and letter writer Asci ve kebapcr cook and seller of roast meat Astarci' maker and seller of linings for clothing At mihqisi: blacksmith Attar. painter. day laborer (tarm hand) /tended: maker and seller of graters Saatqi: watchmaker. broker Derzi (Terzi): tailor Destereci: : handsaw maker Destgah yapicisi: loom maker Devatqi: maker and seller of pen cases Doğramaci: carpenter Dugmeci: button maker and seller Düharçi: tobacconist Dulbentci: muslin maker Duvarcı: stonemason Eğeni: saddlemaker Ekmekçi: bread seller Ekser kesicisi: spike maker Elekçi: sieve maker 216 217 Entiyeci: maker or selier of snuff Eskici kavaf: seller of second-hand shoes Fenerci: lamplighter or maker of lamps fes ve püskülcü: maker of fezes and tassels Fiçici: copper Findik kestane kebapcisr nut and chestnut seller Fırça yapici: brush maker Fodlacı baker of bread distributed in the soup-kitchens Girit lüccari: merchants from Crete or sellers of Cretan goods Gümüş.lumber seller Keserci: idle maker Kileci: maker of bushel measures Kilim lüccari: dealer in kilims (flat-weave rugs. a type of orchid) Buğday doğücü: wheat cracker Burgucu: maker and seller of screws Bürümcek bükücüsü: spinner of silk Qadirci: tentmaker Qalgici: musician Qali süpürgecisi: maker and seller of besoms (brooms) Çamaşirci: washer of clothes and linens Cambaz' acrobat Camci: glazier • Çerçi: peddler Çilingir: locksmith Çiriş. linens. leather worker Sarikçi: maker and seller of turbans Sebilci: man who distributes free water Sebzeci: vegetable seller Şekerci: candy seller Semerci packsaddle maker S.9. artist Halbant: blacksmith llalbur. (2) dealer in lead (uru yemişçi: seller of nuts and dried fruits tutu yapici: box maker tuyumcu: jeweler Hğimci: sewerman lihur şalci: dealer in Lahore shawls leblebici: maker and seller ol roasted chickpeas ijmoncu: lemon seller lüleci: maker and seller of pipe bowls ilahfazaci: jewelry case maker and seller Hanav. painter of designs on muslin Kalemtiraşçi: maker and seller of penknives Kalkana: maker and seller of shields Kamiş sandal yapicisi: maker of bamboo rowboats Kantar yapici: maker and seller of steelyards (balances for weighing) Kasap: butcher Kasjkçi ve larakçi: maker of spoons and combs Kayik yapici: boat-builder Kayik yedekçisi: tower of boats Kayikqi: boatman Kazaz: silk manufacturer Keçe lüccari: felt merchant Kepekçi: bran seller Keresteci. 9 . leech seller Taşcj: stonemason. quarryman Tavukçu: raiser or seller ol chickens Taze balikçi: fresh fish peddler Tekne hamurcu: dough kneader Tekne yapicisi: maker of troughs Terazi kolu yapicisi: maker of arms of balances Terlikqi._1294) Abaci maker and seller of coarse woolen cloth or garments Atyoncu: opium seller Anin varakası: maker of gold leaf Arabacr (') carrier with a cart. maker and seller of starch Hohutqu: chickpea seller Örücü: weaver/mender Otcu: herb (hay) seller Oymaci: engraver Oyuncakqi: maker and seller ol toys Pabuq dikici: cobbler Paçacı: seller of tripe Paqavra toplayidsi: rag gatherer Pekmezci: seller of grape molasses Penbe iplik kolancisi: maker and seller of cotton belts Penbezar qulhaci: maker and seller of looms for weaving cotton Peştahtaci: maker and seller of small shop counters Peştemalci: bath towel maker and seller Pirinqqi: brass maker Henqber. Notes: This list is specifically of trades. chests. woven matting) Kirec yakici: lime burner Kirişçi: maker or seller of catgut Kirmizi kuşak tuccari: red belt merchant Kirmizi sahtiyan hatfafi: dealer in secondhand red Morocco leather Kltapçi: bookseller Koltukqu: maker and seller of armchairs Konak aşçisi: cook in mansions Köselci: stout-leather seller Kumaş tuccari: dealer in cloth Kundura boyacisi: shoe polishers Kundura ve yemenici: shoemaker (usually of men's shoes) |V. The original list follows the order ol the Arabic alphabet I have rearranged it in Latin alphabetical order The English translations are more or less free. maker and seller of iron tips for boots ttalinci: clog. dealer . tüccarı: powdered-asphodel-root merchant Çizmeci: bootmaker Çömlekçi: potter Çöpçü: scavenger. sweeper. crafts. (2) dealer in paints Bozaci ve salepci: maker and seller of öoza and salep (hot drinks made. thus they are occupations that had official recognition. The term originally applied to individuals who performed administrative tasks for high government officials or wealthy citizens. maker and seller of slippers Tig biqakci: maker and seller of bodkins Timurcu: ironmonger Tüccar komisyoncusu: agent of a merchant Tuğlacı: maker and seller of bricks Tuhafqi: seller of clothing accessories Tulumba yapici: pump maker Tuzqu: salt seller Usturaci: razor seller Ütücü: inner (maker of irons) Yağ tüccar!: oil merchant Yağli boyaci: oil paint seller Yaglikqi: handkerchief seller Yapagci: wool merchant Yaymaci: azaar peddler (seller of goods laid out on the ground) Yazmaci: maker of or dealer in hand-painted kerchiefs Yemenici: (1) maker or seller of peasant shoes. and other occupations headed by kethuda. engraver. Source: Salname of 1294.n small wares Aynaci: maker and seller of locking glasses.emsiyeci: maker and seller of umbrellas Sepetçi: maker and seller of baskets Seyis: groom Simkeş: drawer of gold or silver wire Simsar broker Sirma işlemecisi embroiderer in gold or silver Sivaci: plasterer Sot Wccari: mohair merchant Soğanci: onion seller Sucu: water seller Sülükcü: leech fisher.

19 2 98 Rank 8 3 22 5 16 24 11 6 25 7 18 14 15 27 19 36 19 1 13 31 32 17 2 28 21 33 29 20 26 12 30 10 4 34 23 35 Amele' Hükümet Memurları" .420 1.380 3.200 10. by Number of Practitioners.650 8.700 87.670 3.750 12. were actually at the elementary level.200 1.360 .97 7. as the Ottoman educational system came to consist ol only three levels' elementary.000 55. a c e refers to individuals performing menial tasks who are paid from a budget or employed by an institution (the term is still in use). Gırls 3.300 9.970 2.94 4. and katib.83 5. Lokanta ve Mağaza Katipleri Kimyagerler Mühendisler Cerrahlar Litografcilar Ressamlar Madenciler Kapici ve Hademeler Demiryollarinda Müstahdem Katipler Umumi Ahir İsletenler Sigorta Kumpanyalarinin Katipleri Muzikaci ve Muallimler Tellallar Aktör ve Akterisler Müellifler ve Muharrirler Makinistler Bilardo Salonu İşletenler Kitap ve Harita Neşredenler Hokkabazlar Meddahlar ve Hayalcilar.900 42. callers to prayer.450 ' 39.23 2 59 5.300 8. Professions in the Ottoman State.600 5.200 135. intermediate.40 7.800 91. however.00 7.400 89.800 12.150 1.200 3.000 38.630 7. and shops Chemists Engineers Surgeons Lithographers Painters Miners Doorkeepers and servants Railroad officials (secretaries) General stable keepers Secretaries of insurance companies Musicians and teachers Auctioneers Actors and actresses Authors and writers Machinists Billiards parlor operators Book and map publishers Magicians Storytellers.500 57.120 950 5.500 2.000 2.150 34.000 4.960 8.12.900 8.500 41.000 " 353. mid-upper (/dad/).980 schools of all types.79 3 00 5.915 550 300 240 420 600 172 130 310 220 245 265 121 175 95 440 250 540 850 228 115 310 445 320 112 413 331 330 360 170 145 285 390 278 155 225 380 10. the Education Ministry was in charge of the state elementary schools and probably also of all the other types except the foreign schools.250 3.39 7.300 2.780 12.520 6.590 8. 'These were teachers in modern schools.800 9.500 17. Muallimler ve Ulum Erbabı' Nakkaşlar Ev Hizmetkarlar! Berberler Mezarciler ve Kuyucular Otel ve likanla isçileri Banka Katipleri Hastahane Hizmet-kariari Kilim ve seccade vapanlar Reji Katipleri Avcilar Tabipler Taş ve saire Üzerine Oyma yapanlar Otelciler ve Hancılar Kitapcilar ve Hatizi Kütüplet* Fabrika Katipleri Hükümet Daireleri Hademeleri Avukatlar Kilise Hademeleri Banka Memurlari Kethüdalar Baytarlar Camasircilar Posta ve Telgraf Müvezzileri Seyisler 1 Muhbir ve muhabirler Köprü Memurlari ile İskelelerde Para Alanlar Gazeteciler Source: IUKTY 9075 The ulema were the top rank of the religious professions. mid-level [rusdi).900 10.100 1. "Particularly noted as dealing In religious books as well as other types.800 5.IV. Kargözculer Fotoğrafçılar Dişçiler Gazete ve Mecumua satanlar 1 English Translations Pharmacists Corporation secretaries and cashiers Midwives • Secretaries of hotels.200 59. The Ottoman educational system consisted prior to 1908 of four levels: beginning iptidai).850 5.915 1.04 7.859 644 41 9 7 3 2 10.000 13.800 38.320 2.000 49. magicians.980 8.310 12. Mimarlar • Cami Hademeler' .000 31.700 9.60 5 04 7.78 9. Source: IUKTY 9075. Thus there had been an increase of 2. Pupils Attending Schools. and puppeteers Photographers Dentists Newspaper and magazine sellers Newspaper correspondents Toll collectors at bridges and ports Journalists Number of Practitione 7.600 9. and superior.200 15.000 93. 'These were mainly employees of European corporations.200 14.120 3.577.160 Boys 63.14 5.200 67.95 6 59 6.200 2.900 30. "These were Muslim religious clerks.47 5.840 1.500 5.150 7. By Administrative District Number Edirne Erzurum Adana Ankara Aydin Işkodra İzmit Bağdat Basra Bitlis Beyrut Biga Cezayir-1 Bahr-1 Sefid Çatalca Halep Hicaz Hüdavendigar Dersaadet Dlyarbekir Zor Sivas Selanik Suriye Şehremaneti Mülhakati Trabzon •Kastamonu Konya Kosova Kudüs Girit Musul Manastir Manuretülaziz Van Yanya Yemen Total B.200 30.300 5.200 80.100 65.000 Rank 9 13 18 7 3 22 26 11 25 23 17 32 24 36 8 2 4 1 28 33 20 10 14 35 12 21 16 19 31 30 29 5 15 34 27 6 Percentage 7.410 16. The current term for factory worker is isci "These were probably lower ranking officials.750 33.160 2.300 11.82 6.400 19. Notes: Community schools were those administered by private citizens.700 4.865 2. 1894/95 (R.500 60.860 5.955 10.850 97.700 23.400 950 760 750 550 310 260 IV.11.250 42.000 186. a secretary who had only limited authority. These were the cleaners of the mosques Hademe.100 43.800 3.700 39.000 66. 1894/95 (R.150 98.935 in 10 years.050 1.500 4.000 2.600 73. 1310) A.000 28.100 1. 1310) Pro'essional Pîies Ulema ve Talebeler Hükümet Katipleri Imams.900 2.100 970 1.760 9. 1310) Number Adminlstrative District Edirne Erzurum Adana Ankara Aydin Işkodra İzmit Bağdat Basra Bitlis Beyrut Biga Cezayir-i Bahr-i Sefid Çatalca Halep Hicaz Hüdavendigar Dersaadet Dlyarbekir Zor Sivas Selanik Suriye Şehremaneti Mülhakat! Trabzon Kastamonu Konya Kosova Kudüs Girit Musul Manastir Mamuretülaziz Van Yanya Yemen Total Source: IUKTY 9075. 219 .155 3.650 9.600 1. The Ottoman bureaucracy made a distinction between memur.48 5 45 5 00 7 00 4.670 950 7. "The original also refers specifically to grave diggers.875 5. Müezzıns ve Hafif 3 English Translations Religious scholars Government secretaries Prayer leaders.100 37.200 70.860 520 4.850 3.915 Rank 3 17 23 7 2 28 32 16 26 22 20 33 27 36 6 21 4 1 24 34 15 5 14 35 8 12 13 11 29 31 18 9 19 30 25 10 IV.600 3.050 Professional Tities Eczacilar Şirket Katip ve Muhasipleri' Ebeler Otel.100 3. the msd/ye became the equivalent of high schools. Included in the source along with the statistics about numbers and types ol schools in 1894 95 is the information that the total in 1884 (1300) had been only 7.40 4 06 4. for the tiaditional 218 elementary schools (sibyan) were of such inferior quality that the material had to be retaught at the supposedly higher level Later on.100 1.200 5.000 138.10. restaurants.600 18. and superior (all) The msbi schools established In 1838.000 17. Koran reciters Factory workers Government officials Architects Service personnel in mosques Teachers and scientists Interior decorators Maids Barbers Cemetery personnel Hotel and restaurant workers Bank secretaries Hospital workers Rug and carpet makers Concession secretaries Hunters Doctors Stone carvers Hotel and inn keepers Book dealers and library guards Factory administrators Service personnel in government offices Lawyers Service personnel in churches Bank officials Guild heads Veterinarles Launderers Mail and telegram deliverers Horse caretakers Number of Practitioners 395.09 7..750 27. By Type of School Number Community schools (elementary) State schools (elementary) Ruçdiye (high schools) Foreign schools Mldlevel schools Science schools Higher-level Institutions Industrial schools Schools for the blind and deaf Total Schools for girls Schools for boys Total 3.96 4 16 4.200 6.600 4. i.210 6.e.000 52. Distribution of Schools in the Ottoman State. the term used in the source. 820 7. 1894/95 (R.250 860 9.860 1.19 7 22 7.97 5.17 6 08 5.200 3.000 185. 'These were the traditional entertainers. an official in charge.42 5.130 48.

500 384.600 383.312 713 2.000 198.30 32.090 B.000 333. 275.896 300 2.14.660 95. Note: The incapacities are expressed per 1.90 36.000 187.057.795 686 987 629 493 270 240 121 269 151 4. Edirne Erzurum Adana Ankara Aydin Işkodra İzmit Bağdat Basra Bitlis Beyrut Biga Cezayir-ı Bahr-i Sefld Çatalca Halep Hicaz Hüdavendlgar Dersaadet Diyarbekir Zor Sivas Selanik Suriye Şehremaneti Mülhakati Trabzon Kastamonu Konya Kosova Kudüs Girit Musul Manastir Mamuretülaziz Van Yanya Yemen Deaf 6 4 6 3 34 6 37 5 4 4 5 27 4 6 3 4 24 37 6 9 2 30 4 5 34 4 3 3 4 11 15 30 16 3 20 9 Born Insane 4 4 7 2 25 20 24 2 25 18 2 24 3 5 4 13 10 39 21 43 2 54 12 3 10 3 10 13 17 4 39 18 39 16 17 4 Mentally Incapacitated 5 9 9 5 31 4 30 4 3 2 3 43 7 3 6 22 23 4 6 6 4 15 15 5 20 3 2 3 35 4 10 25 6 17 25 4 Imprisoned 10 12 12 8 41 12 13 10 8 9 9 9 18 11 39 10 33 14 12 18 5 35 27 6 39 6 15 15 19 7 29 16 7 8 11 27 Girls 861 331 258 28 561 141 893 434 113 127 457 100 40 32 90 86 292 162 111 107 16 440 78 150 84 60 78 150 174 30 30 66 270 458 87 Boys 1.389 — — — 53 — — 496 2.600 22.000 402.05 10. 1310) Administratlve District .08 31.09 41.000 168.000 18.600 27.55 36.700 105.000 79.510 30 1.200 22.088 1.04 37. Source: Tuna Vilayet Salname of 1291 220 221 .29 39.502.152 must be counted as among the Illiterate.980 19. The t