# CHAPTER 3

3.1 INTRODUCTION

THEORIES AND CALCULATIONS

This chapter presents the theories and standards that were used to design a sewage and drainage system in general. In Section 3.2, the wastewater flow sewer and drainage being designed is described. The Colebrook- hite e!uation for the "elocity of flow in a sewer is presented in Section 3.3. The design limitations of the sewerage system such as depth of flow, pipe gradients, pipe depths, pipe si#es and manholes are gi"en in Section 3.\$. %inally, Section 3.& sets out the detailed sewerage design process, from the decision to adopt a sewerage system to the de"elopment of the o"erall sewerage layout whiles ample of calculations for the detailed design for sewers is represented in Section 3.'.

3.2 WASTEWATER FLOW
This pro(ect in"ol"es two systems, a sewage system and drainage systems. The sewer system is designed to con"ey the wastewater from workshops, commercial establishments and industries, while the drainage system discharges the e)cess surface water from streets and roofs of buildings.

3.2.1 Sewage Wastewater Flow
The flow rate of the wastewater flow used for the design of the main trunk sewer was based on the water consumption and the population according to the *bu-+habi +esign ,anual, 2---. This can be estimated as follows.

2 Pop lat!o" S r#e\$ . an alternati"e method of estimating peak flows should be used. 2---.% × /opulation × ater Consumption 13.2.23 here. 3.23 The */% is used to pro(ect ma)imum sewage flows from a tributary area. */%1*bu − +habi /eaking %actor3 = \$././.anual. The peaking factor was applied to all sewage flows to identify re!uired pipe and pump station si#es.2& ×   population   2--- −2'   13. The tributary area should include a contributing population e!ual to or greater than &-persons. %or tributary populations with fewer than &-. In this pro(ect.0 = A. The formulation for *bu-+habi is.persons.15pcd3 was used for the year 2-2based on *bu-+habi +esign . The *bu-+habi peaking factor 1*/%3 is a "ariation of the 8abbit formula. 0 4 wastewater flow 156day3 *.% 4 *bu-+habi /eaking %actor. a water consumption figure of 27.

0 = 2\$. The number of floors also increases the population intensity. The /opulation sur"ey was determined through se"eral site "isits to obser"e the population at a certain factory or block.33 here. This can be estimated as follows. :ach area was multiplied by that factor to obtain the population for different blocks. 3. the design should use reasonable data relating to e)isting or e)pected population in the future.c<hee. The sur"ey is a collection of building types because the population intensity differs from one type to another. 2=>=3. Then a suitable factor was obtained according to the population per s!uare meter.2. 0 4 peak runoff rate 1m36day3 C 4 runoff coefficient 1dimensionless3 I 4 a"erage rainfall intensity 1mm6hr3 * 4 drainage area 1ha3 .3 Dra!"age Wastewater Flow The actual amount of runoff flow can be determined by using the .ational method 1Steel and .* population sur"ey is essential for sewer design. in order to come up with a sufficient peaking factor for acceptable design in real life9 also to achie"e the purpose of sewerage system.× C × I × * 13.

>> '\$.&' 3'.2& .?ear >& ?ear \$.unoff coefficients to be used with design storms to estimate storm water runoff "olumes.&= 2\$.72 33.&3 7.-r.\$2 \$'.>-.2.?ear 2-.-& @ -.?ear 2.-2 27.3& mm6hr of rainfall intensity.\$7 &.?ear & ?ear 2 ?ear -.&2 ' 2-.>& \$\$.>.& 2-3.\$3 2\$.72 3. 2---3.-2 2'. 2---3.\$7 23.2\$ 2'.&32.>7 32. In this pro(ect.\$7 2.'3 3&.7= 2'.22 23.32 2-.72 &2.The rainfall intensities for different durations and return period storms for *bu-+habi are presented in Table 3.>& 2>.>3 37. the return period is & years will be adapted and the storm duration is 2 hr.@ -.\$\$ 73.'\$ 2.2 1*bu-+habi +esign .22 \$=.>7 2\$.'' 23. typical runoff coefficients for areas of "arious characteristics are gi"en 1*bu-+habi +esign .@ -.\$3 22.== 3-. %\$ D rat!o" *-r.2 T\$p!(al R "o&& Coe&&!(!e"ts Area Des(r!pt!o" Categor!es %\$ s r&a(e 8rick Concrete and *sphalt Sandy Soil Categor!es %\$ se Cemeteries.>.&2 2'.=\$ 2\$ >.=27.>> 2-.>2 '. .32. In this pro(ect.-7 7.'2 3.2-.& &2.\$2&. These coefficients are established on a sit-specific basis to reflect actual catchment characteristics.2.22 &. the runoff coefficient used in designing the storm water is -.'2 2. 2.=> 3.?ear 2-.&' Ta%le 3. gi"ing 2'.== &>.'.'& I"te"s!t\$ *++.'2 '.=& -.>7 >&.-3 &&.&3 2>. Ta%le 3.2' 2.22 \$.7& -.&' 37.=' 23.& 3\$.\$3.33 23.@ -.anual.3>2. /arks and /laygrounds Coe&&!(!e"t -.anual.3& 2-.\$\$2.7> 2=.1 Ra!"&all I"te"s!t\$ D rat!o" Fre' e"(\$ Ret r" Per!o) 2--.?ear 2. whereas in Table 3.'3 3>.\$' 2=.=3 22.

8usiness districts -.@ -. 1mm6mm3 1In"ert slope for full pipes.&2C  Ds  E = − 2g+S × log + × 2g+S  3. E 4 "elocity of flow at d6+ 1m6s3 g 4 gra"itational acceleration 1m6s23 + 4 pipe diameter 1mm3 S 4 hydraulic gradient. water surface slopes for open channels.>+ +   13.@ -.=Bote that for preliminary calculation of runoff. 2. either for sewer flows or drainage flow.7Aea"y -.&. 3.=& Res!)e"t!al *partments -.1 Cole%roo12W-!te E' at!o" Throughout this pro(ect.@ -.3. the Colebrook.hite e!uation will be used to determine the "elocity of the calculated flows presented pre"iously in section 3. these coefficients are consistent with those used with the .>.>I") str!al 5ight -.3 /ELOCIT0 OF FLOW 3.ational method for estimating runoff. 2m62---m3 ks 4 linear measure of effecti"e roughness 1mm3 C 4 kinematics "iscosity of fluid 1m26s3 .@ -. This can be estimated as follows.2.&.'. \$3 here.

6oo) Nor+al Poor -.-= -.& -.2& -. . 2---3.' -.' 2.' 2.\$ and 3.anual.2 3!"!+ + a") 3a7!+ + Flow /elo(!t!es +esign flow "elocities should be within the limits presented in Tables 3.3 -. Ta%le 3.& -. therefore.3 -.The roughness coefficient is a measure of the "ariation and magnitude of protuberances on the interior surface of the pipe.' 2.3 -.& 1*bu-+habi +esign . .3 1*bu-+habi +esign .3 -. age and condition. The roughness. 2---3.anual. is a function of the pipe material. Bote that poor sewer pipe conditions are to be assumed for *bu-+habi system designs 1Fs42. Typical coefficients for the "arious pipe materials are gi"en in Table 3.2& -.& -.' -.' P!pe 3ater!al G/EC <.' -./ Coated Cast Iron Gncoated Cast Iron +uctile Iron *sbestos cement Eitrified Clay Concrete 3.3.&3 where drainage design should be based on 1Fs4-.2& -.3 -.3 -.3 -.2& -.2& -.inimum "elocities are based on pro"iding selfcleansing "elocities and pre"enting solids sedimentation in the sewer and drainage pipes.3 -.'3 assuming asbestoscement pipes.3 T\$p!(al Ro g-"ess Coe&&!(!e"ts For P!pes Cole%roo12W-!te4 5s *++.

& 3. 3.s.2 P!pes Dept-s .3a7!+ + *+.: 3a7!+ + P!pe Per(e"tages F ll !" Sewer P!pes.D Trunk sewer lines -. -.& 3.>& -.anual. -.>& 2.& Ta%le 3. -.>& 2.7& -.' 1*bu+habi +esign ..o& Flow The design criteria for depth of flow in sewer lines are presented in Table 3.s. -.s.&. P!pe Des(r!pt!o" <ra"ity line /ressure 5ine 3!"!+ + *+. 2---3. P!pe Des(r!pt!o" 3a7!+ + ). Ta%le 3.s.8.8 3a7!+ + a") 3!"!+ + /elo(!t!es !" Sewers.s. P!pe Des(r!pt!o" <ra"ity line /ressure 5ine 3!"!+ + *+.>& 2. Ta%le 3.D 3!"!+ + ).ain and lateral sewer lines -. 2.8.&d6+ is ratio of flow depth to 1d3 nominal pipe diameter 1+3.' 2.3a7!+ + *+. 2.8 DESI6N LI3ITATIONS OF THE SEWERA6E S0STE3 3.1 Dept.s.Des!g" *+.- 3.a)imum "elocities are set to pre"ent manhole corrosion and minimi#e sewer gases in the sewer system and minimi#e the negati"e effects of abrasion on the drainage pipes and manholes. Sanitary sewers should be checked for percentage full at all times.9 3a7!+ + a") 3!"!+ + /elo(!t!es !" Dra!"age.Des!g" *+.

3 P!pes 6ra)!e"ts /ipe gradients. The ma)imum depth to in"ert is based on maintaining a cost-effecti"e and safe design..s. 2-2&32& \$-&-'->-7-=-2--22-.m.\$2.-3. In this case. The recommended ma)imum co"er for *bu-+habi sewer and drainage pipes is appro)imately 2. 3!"!+ + Sewer L!"e 6ra)!e"ts. the engineer should determine whether or not any additional pro"isions are re!uired to protect the pipe from soil loads. If circumstances re!uire installation of a pipe with a depth of less than 2.++.. pipes should be designed by obser"ing the minimum gradients in Table 3.-2.7& -.2 m abo"e the crown.>-.7-. 3.--.3& .The minimum depth for sewer and drainage pipes in *bu-+habi is 2. Ta%le 3. &.2 m to the crown of the sewer pipe. This is to pro"ide pipe protection from e)ternal loads.'-. In order to achie"e the re!uired minimum "elocity in sewer lines. Sewer D!a+eter *++.>& 2.&2.32. 3!"!+ + 6ra)!e"t *++. +epth with co"er greater than this should be in"estigated with pipe manufacturers to identify any special re!uirements that may be necessary.>2.&/elo(!t\$ <.: *+.&& -. often the same as the hydraulic gradient.'& -.8.\$-. directly influence sewer pipe capacity.and larger /elo(!t\$ <. 3.22.>.\$& -.s.22. then concrete protection is re!uired.9 *+.>2.--.

mm or 2'..mm. Hne e)ception is pipe used for land drains.mm. ser"ing as both land and carrier drain. . Bote that this pro(ect was not deal with designing manholes or studying the manholes criteria.anholes should be of sufficient si#e to permit access for maintenance acti"ities. their design and material should be such to guarantee ma)imum performance for an e)tended ser"ice life.inimum gradients based on the Colebrook.hite formula 3. This is only one part of the o"erall design process.8. The land drain minimum is 2'.8 P!pes S!=es The current standard for the minimum si#e of sewer mains is 2-. +etailed design re!uires a combination of hydraulic calculations and the application of standard designs. 3. The minimum pipe si#e permissible on drainage pro(ects is 2&.mm. must meet the 2&.9 3a"-oles . In addition. procedures and details.9 DETAILED DESI6N PROCESS The theories introduced pre"iously allow a sewer system to be analy#ed in order that sewer and drainage flows and "elocities can be determined.mm outside diameter. 3.mm minimum.8. slotted carrier pipes. Aowe"er. The minimum pipe si#e recommended for house connections is 2&. It was (ust indication of their locations in the system.

5 = <. 5abel each manhole based on the flow direction. 3. the detailed design procedure is as follows.2 1\$. to con"ey the designed peak discharge and to transport solids so that deposits are kept to a minimum.23 .2 and so on. C. Therefore.5 can be estimated as follows. +etermine the co"er le"el 1C.2 in *ppendi) *.A2 refers to drainage manhole Bo.A2 refers to sewer manhole Bo.* sanitary sewer has two main functions.A2 and +. C. that the sanitary sewers ha"e sufficient capacity for the peak flow and that it function at minimum flows without e)cessi"e maintenance and generation of odors as well as sufficient "elocity of that flow to transport the solids. 2. 8ased on the criteria and the design limitation stated pre"iously throughout this chapter.A2 are an e)ample of manholes labels where S.5 of future pa"ements or construction in the unpa"ed areas. *dditional depth 4 -. 2.5 + -.2 m is added to the C.2 as well as +. It is essential9 therefore.53 in m for each manhole from the contours le"els shown in %igure 2. S.

\$. . >. Bote that increment population is an accumulati"e summation between the (unction population and the number of person ser"ed for each manhole. +etermine the (unction population. :!uation 13.52 =  × 5 − I. 2---. where the second I. +etermine the first manhole in"ert le"el 1I.523 in m from the sur"ey study of the location which will be designed. lengths and gradients according to the design limitation based on the *bu-+habi +esign .5 1\$. Calculate the depth to in"ert for each manhole 1+. 7. S 4 pipe gradient 1I3 5 4 pipe 5ength 1m3 &. +etermine the pipes diameters 1proposed3.33 '.52 × ( −2) 2-- 1\$.23. Calculate the pecking factor 1/.  S  I.anual.23 here.I3 as follows.I = C.52 will be calculated as follows. +. the number of persons ser"ed for each manhole and the increment population.5 − I.%3 using the 8abbit formula.

Calculate the full flow "elocity in m6s using Colebrook.anual. Calculate the total flow in 56s using :!uation 13.atio = /artial 0%ull 1\$. The "alues of E6Ef and d6+ are represented in Table 3. 0 = E ×* 1\$. +etermine the ratio between the actual "elocity and the full "elocity of the pipe 1E6Ef3 and the actual ratio between the flow depth and the pipe diameter 1d6+3 based on the partial flow to full flow ratio calculated in the pre"ious step. 2---3. :!uation 13.7 in *ppendi) 8 1*bu-+habi +esign .\$3 22. 0 .\$3.23. 2-. Calculate the flow full in 56s based on the "elocity calculated in the pre"ious step and the area of the pipe as follows.hite formula.=. . 22. Calculate the ratio between the partial flow 1total flow of the pipe3 and the full flow of the pipe as follows.&3 23.

3. Calculate the runoff flow in m36s using . 3.ational method. Bote that in step 23 you must use Table 3. =. 2-.' to be sure that the design is acceptable. 7.2\$.: SA3PLES OF CALCULATIONS . the total area and the cumulati"e catchment areas.2. %ind the "alue of the actual "elocity based on the E6Ef. Bote that total area is the total of the catchments areas and the (unction area for each pipe. Steps from 2 to ' are same as sewer design where the remaining steps are as follows. The remaining steps from 22 to 2\$ are the same as for sewer design. +etermine the rainfall intensity using Table 3. whereas the following steps are re!uired for designing drainage pipes. Then calculate the accumulati"e runoff flow.\$ and Table 3. +etermine the catchments area.= in *ppendi) 8 instead of Table 3. >.7 for determining the "alues of E6Ef and actual d6+ for drainage pipes.33. *ll the pre"ious steps are followed in designing sewer pipes. Then compare the actual "elocity and the actual d6+ with design limits represented in Table 3. :!uation 13. the (unction area for each pipe. +etermine the runoff coefficient using Table 3.

A226763* = 2-3.A226763 = 2-3.-3 m S.T-e &ollow!"g ass +pt!o"s w!ll %e se) !" %ot.− 2-2.5 = <.2.?.2.8.& mm2 1the width of street 4 & m and the length 4 >.2.=> m 2--  +.m S.− 2-2.= + -.3A as s-ow" !" Ta%le 9.3 to S3H12.5 + -.?.− 2-2.=> = 2.A226763* =  ×2-.A2267637 = 2-\$.-> = 2.sewer a") )ra!"age s\$ste+s> • • • + 4 \$-.A226763 = 2-\$.2 = 2-\$.52 × ( −2)  2--  2  S.= + -.52 =  × 5 − I.2.5 S. C.I = C.mm S42I * 4 3>.2 S.m  S  I.23 m .& m3  Sa+ple 1> Sewer )es!g" (al( lat!o" &ro+ S3H12.5 − I.=>  × ( − 2) = 2-2.2 = 2-\$.

& log + × 2 ×=.2& 0 = *.>> 56s 3'-2\$ × 2--- 2.\$ ×-.&  2. */%1*bu − +habi /eaking %actor3 = \$.% × /opulation × ater Consumption 0 = \$.*/%1*bu − +habi /eaking %actor3 = \$.7-> ×-.\$2& m6s 1+ownward3 0 %G55 = E × * .>+  \$-2 E = − 2 ×=.&2C  Ds  E = − 2g+S × log + × 2g+S  +  3./.2& ×   2--.\$   = -.2\$2 ×2.7-> ×1 3 ×1 3 2--2-- 2. −2' = \$.> ×-.persons.&2 ×2.\$  -.2& ×   population   2--  −2' *ssuming population intensity is 2--.2& ×2 × 27= 23.--2   3.   2--.

So.& This means that the design is not acceptable.3' m6s d = -. . either the pipe diameters or the pipe gradients.? !" Appe")!7 @> E Ef = -.' m6s. the pipe dimensions must be changed.3' m6s K Emin 4 -.\$2& = -. we found the following.\$32 = &3.7\$3 × -.\$ and Table 3.\$2& ×2--.3& + Comparing the actual "elocity and the actual d6+ with the design limits presented in Table 3.2' &3 .'.7\$3 E = -.0 %G55 = -.>> .atio = /artial = = -.× J 1-. • E 4 -.\$2 56s \$ 0 23.3& K d6+ min 4 -. • d6+ 4 -. \$2 0%ull Fro+ Ta%le 3.

>.52 × ( −2)  2--  2  S.A'6276>63 = 2-3.1?.>. Sa+ple 2> Dra!"age )es!g" (al( lat!o" &ro+ D3H:.A'6276>6 3 = 2-3.2 = 2-3.52 =  × 5 − I.>..& 56s 3'-- ..2 = 2-3.3& ) 3>.A2 =  ×2-.A'6276>6\$ = 2-3.−2-2.× -.I = C.9.1?..−2-2.' × 2'.>.3 m 0 = 2\$.A'6276>6 \$ = 2-3.& = 2.8 to D3H:.m  S  I.m S.5 +.2 S.& + -.5 + -.& = 2\$.5 = <.\$ = 2..\$ m 2--  +.− 2-2.3 as s-ow" !" Ta%le 9.5 − I.&  × ( −2) = 2-2. C.×C × I × * 0 = 2\$.2 m +.& + -.

'  2.× J 1-.--2   3. .\$  -.=72& E = -.A !" Appe")!7 @> E Ef = -.2.>+ +   \$-2 E = − 2 ×=.\$7 + Comparing the actual "elocity and the actual d6+ with the design limits presented in Table 3.\$   = -.\$2 m6s d = -.&2 ×2. \$2 0%ull Fro+ Ta%le 3.=72& × -.\$2& = -.7-> ×-.\$2& ×2--.\$2& m6s 1+ownward3 0 %G55 = E × * 0 %G55 = -.> ×-.7-> ×1 3 ×1 3 2--2-- -.& and Table 3.\$32 = &3.&2C  Ds  E = − 2g+S × log + × 2g+S  3.& .\$ ×-.atio = /artial = = -. we found the following.\$' &3 .\$2 56s \$ 0 2\$.& log + × 2 ×=.'.2\$2 ×2.

& This means that the design is not acceptable. • d6+ 4 -. So. either the pipe diameters or the pipe gradients. .\$2 m6s K Emin 4 -. the pipe dimensions must be changed.• E 4 -.\$7 K d6+ min 4 -.>& m6s.

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