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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 21, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2006

Fault Detection and Classification in Transmission Lines Based on Wavelet Transform and ANN
K. M. Silva, Student Member, IEEE, B. A. Souza, Senior Member, IEEE, and N. S. D. Brito
Abstract—This paper proposes a novel method for transmissionline fault detection and classification using oscillographic data. The fault detection and its clearing time are determined based on a set of rules obtained from the current waveform analysis in time and wavelet domains. The method is able to single out faults from other power-quality disturbances, such as voltage sags and oscillatory transients, which are common in power systems operation. An artificial neural network classifies the fault from the voltage and current waveforms pattern recognition in the time domain. The method has been used for fault detection and classification from real oscillographic data of a Brazilian utility company with excellent results. Index Terms—Artificial neural networks (ANNs), fault classification, fault detection, transmission lines, wavelet transforms.

I. INTRODUCTION RANSMISSION-LINE relaying involves three major tasks: detection, classification, and location of the fault. It must be done as fast and accurate as possible to de-energize the faulted line, protecting the system from the harmful effects of the fault. Following the transmission-line relaying, postanalysis of the fault is important to make decisions about the system restoration and to get specific information regarding the operation of the protection system. Thus, the oscillography is vital to the operation of an electric power system. It provides system monitoring and data recording by equipment, such as digital fault recorders (DFRs). The interconnection among this equipment forms a wide-area network (WAN) for data acquisition, termed the oscillographic network. The recorded data are organized into oscillographic records, which can be accessed by different users at the utility company (Fig. 1) [1]. The DFRs must register faults and normal maintenance operations, such as de-energization and energization of the transmission lines. However, this equipment sometimes also registers a large amount of power-quality (PQ) disturbances. It can produce troubles related to data archiving and traffic on the oscillographic network. Thus, it is necessary to detect faults by the oscillographic record analysis, to keep only relevant information for the oscillography’s main purpose. In addition, the fault classification can be obtained as a byproduct.
Manuscript received July 18, 2005; revised January 19, 2006. This work was supported in part by the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq) and in part by the Hydro Electric Company of São Francisco (CHESF). Paper no. TPWRD00419-2005. The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande CEP58.109-970, Brazil (e-mail: kms@ee.ufcg.edu.br; benemar@ee.ufcg.edu.br; nubia@ee.ufcg.edu.br). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2006.876659

Fig. 1. Oscillographic network schedule to gather records.

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Several algorithms have been reported for fault detection in transmission lines [2]–[5]. They are based on either artificial neural networks (ANNs) or wavelet transform (WT). Most of them have been developed for relaying purposes and may only distinguish a fault from the normal steady-state power system operation. Fault classification algorithms based on ANN have been proposed [6], [7]. The WT has also used fault classification [8], [9]. Furthermore, combined techniques have already been used, such as ANN and WT [10]; ANN and fuzzy logic [11]; and WT and fuzzy logic [12]. As with fault detection, most of these algorithms have been developed for relaying purposes. Both fault detection and classification algorithms found in the literature have been developed from simulated data obtained using an Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) programs. In addition, generally these algorithms concern a specific transmission line with a power supply from each side. This paper proposes a novel method for fault detection and classification in transmission lines by the oscillographic record analysis. While previous researchers have distinguished faults only from steady-state operation of the power system, the proposed method is designed to evaluate also normal maintenance operations and PQ disturbance records. The detection step is achieved by means of a set of rules obtained from the current waveform analysis in time and wavelet domains. An ANN classifies the fault by the voltage and current waveform pattern recognition in the time domain. Software based on the proposed method is installed in the oscillographic network of Hydro Electric Company of São Francisco (CHESF), the main utility company of Brazil, and good results have been obtained.

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In addition. Then.: FAULT DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION IN TRANSMISSION LINES 2059 windowing of the samples forms a set of input patterns to the ANN. Generally. it is not a fault. due to the difference in the behavior of the voltage and current waveforms. is the maximum energy of the current wavelet coefHere. . 2). in time domain. Fig. . The fault detection algorithm is summarized by the following rules. it is not a fault. considering a variety of records. 3) If 4) If and . Finally. Current Normalization The current samples are normalized to their waveform peak value at the first cycle in the record. and PQ disturbances. the majority of voltage sags are caused by faults. maintenance operations.and zero-sequence components) in each input pattern. a transmission-line energization induces a large high-frequency component on the voltage and current waveforms. The fault detection is carried out through the analysis of the current wavelet coefficient energy. The current samples are normalized before the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is computed. they can be easily distinguished and it is not necessary to compute the DWT for transmission-line energizations. it is not a fault. the waveforms are resampled for 1200 Hz (20 samples/cycle for a fundamental frequency of 60 Hz). Fault Detection In high and extra-high voltage transmission systems. the samples related to the fault clearing time are identified by means of the analysis of the current wavelet coefficients. However. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) analyzes the input patterns one by one and the final fault classification is carried out by the most identified fault type. during the steady-state operation of the power system. As with voltage sags. PROPOSED ALGORITHM The proposed algorithm involves two modules: detection and classification (Fig. By using this normalization. corresponding to the steadystate operation of the power system. and are. The energy of the current wavelet coefficients for a fault and a voltage sag is shown in Fig. in order to distinguish these disturbances. it is 5) If not a fault. This level contains the highest frequency components. However. In the case of no fault. because only in the case of a fault. and the aforementioned rules have not been 6) If reached. The first step of the detection module is to get the voltage and current samples from the oscillographic record. no data are transferred. The classification module only analyzes the voltage and current samples related to the fault clearing time. a fault produces much harsh transient phenomena than a voltage sag.SILVA et al. B. II. 1) If and . it is necessary to analyze the fault in the frequency and time domain. A . is a threshold (setting) established by the analysis of ficients. it is a fault. It follows the fact that voltage and current waveforms range from 1 to 1. the circuit breakers (CBs) de-energize the line. respectively. the results are reported and the record transfer is allowed. Thus. such as faults. these samples are normalized by the correspondent largest absolute value in the record. some voltage sags induce a large high-frequency component on the voltage and current waveforms. 2. records from transmission lines with different rated voltage can be evaluated without distinction. it is not a fault. which joins five consecutive voltage and current samples (phase. and the maximum of its arguments. 2) If . the peak values on the first and operator delivers the last recording current cycles. III. First. the wavelet coefficient energy. and . DETECTION MODULE A. a fault can be easily distinguished from a voltage sag. Flowchart of the proposed fault detection and classification method. The fault detection rules are established by means of the analysis of the current waveforms in time domain and in the first decomposition level of the DWT. Otherwise. 3.

Besides the phase components. 4) The last faulted wavelet coefficient is the largest one identified by rule 3. . fault. Nevertheless. the zero-sequence component of the currents has also been considered. The first and last samples of the fault clearing time are determined by the upsampling technique. Fig. computed as th where is the number of samples within one cycle of the fundamental frequency of 60 Hz. viz where window and is the th wavelet coefficient within the is the window length. during. and they do not depend on the line on which the fault occurred. a moving data window goes through the current wavelet coefficients shifting one coefficient at a time. 4. Therefore. Real record of a phase C to ground fault. The filtered wavelet coefficients of the currents in Fig. respectively. The fault clearing time is identified by the analysis of the current wavelet coefficients at the first decomposition level. 4 are shown in Fig. The hard wavelet threshold technique is applied to filter the coefficients before the fault clearing time identification. 6) If the wavelet coefficient obtained by rule 4 is larger than that one obtained by rule 5. VOL.2060 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. the beginning and end of the fault clearing time are 30 ms and 85 ms. the th wavelet coefficient at the first decomposition level is associated with the th sample in time domain [13]. CLASSIFICATION MODULE A. OCTOBER 2006 Fig. In this way. and after a transmission-line fault may be significantly different. IV. the last faulted wavelet coefficient becomes that one obtained by rule 5. respectively. both voltage and current samples within the fault clearing time are normalized by their largest values at the record. respectively. the samples normalization is done in the classification module. a fault record should be divided into three intervals: prefault. and postfault (Fig. the inputs of the ANN range from 1 to 1. For a sampling frequency of 15360 Hz. 3) Identify the last wavelet coefficient different from zero for each phase current. Voltage and Current Normalization As with detection module. C. 3. Energy of the current wavelet coefficients: (a) phase-ground fault and (b) voltage sag. the second one to the fault clearing time and the last one (postfault) corresponds to the CBs operating to de-energize the line. 2) The first faulted wavelet coefficient is the largest one identified by rule 1. The first interval (prefault) corresponds to steady-state operation of the power system. the first and last faulted samples are 460 and 1306. 21. 1) Identify the first wavelet coefficient different from zero for each phase current and zero-sequence component of the currents. NO. viz if otherwise where is the th wavelet coefficient and is the largest wavelet coefficient of the currents in absolute value. Fault Clearing Time Identification The voltage and current waveform characteristics before. The algorithm to identify the first and last samples of the fault clearing time is summarized by the following rules. By using the rules aforementioned. 4). because it provides a good exhibition of the ground fault effects. 5. 4. in this case. 5) Identify the last wavelet coefficient different from zero for the zero-sequence component of the currents. In order to compute the energy. 7) The first and last samples of the fault clearing time are associated with the first and last faulted wavelet coefficients. By using this technique.

Harmonic spectrum of an original faulted current and resampled signal. depending of the original sampling frequency value. After the ANN learns. where no fault term indicates that the input pattern is not related to a fault. TABLE I BINARY CODING OF THE ANN’S OUTPUT The frequency spectrum of an original faulted current and the correspondent resampled signal are similar (Fig.SILVA et al. the relevant signal characteristics for fault classification remain. . Thus. a resampling strategy has been applied to voltage and current waveforms within the fault clearing time to convert a high sampling frequency into a smaller one. By using this strategy. and (d) zero-sequence component. the ANN can classify correctly simulated and real faults. In this way. as shown in Table I. binary coding is used for the ANN’s outputs in such a way that a fault is characterized by the presence (1) or absence (0) of one or more phases and of the ground. 5. besides them. The majority of DFRs use currently high sampling frequency such as 15360 Hz. This strategy is based on a procedure of compression. termed the Nyquist theorem: the sampling frequency used to turn the continuous signal into a discrete signal must be twice as large as the highest frequency present in the signal [14]. In addition. chosen as 1200 Hz.: FAULT DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION IN TRANSMISSION LINES 2061 Fig. This is done by using the sampling theorem. C. Detail wavelet coefficients of the currents: (a) phase A. Hence. the fault classification is carried out through the analysis of each window obtained from windowing Fig. (c) phase C. joining five consecutive voltage and current samples (phase and zero sequence components) into a single input pattern. D. Voltage and Current Windowing The input patterns of the ANN are done by windowing the samples within the fault clearing time. 6. However. 6). The moving data window goes through the fault clearing time getting one new sample and discarding the oldest sample at a time. it is indicated in [15] that lower frequency components are more relevant for fault classification than higher frequency components. Voltage and Current Resampling A continuous-time signal can be represented in a discrete form as long as the sampling frequency is chosen properly. a variety of faults is not found with real fault records. (b) phase B. It is performed for each voltage and current waveform. an MLP network is used. in which some samples are simply removed. it is essential to also use simulated fault records to accomplish the ANN’s learning. Fault Classification In order to classify faults. the learning database must contain a great variety of faulted scenarios to improve the ANN’s generalization capability [16]. In the proposed method. Nevertheless. which must be trained before implementing the proposed method. The output of the ANN must indicate which fault type is related to the actual input pattern. B.

because of the binary coding. VOL. oscillatory transients. there are also 40 sensory units in the input layer. TABLE II SIMULATION VARIABLES DATA SET USED IN THE DIGITAL SIMULATION process aforementioned. A. 188 km long. This means that the most identified fault type prevails. but the DFR registered them anyway. The results are summarized in Tables III–V. the fault resistances and incidence angles are different from the ones shown in Table II. OCTOBER 2006 TABLE III 138-kV TRANSMISSION-LINE RESULTS TABLE IV 230-kV TRANSMISSION-LINE RESULTS Fig. The proposed method was implemented using C++ language. Real Records Real fault records used were obtained from the oscillographic database of CHESF. PROPOSED METHOD IMPLEMENTATION A variety of real records obtained from different transmission lines has been used to establish the detection rule threshold . [21]. Moreover. In order to construct the ANN’s learning database. the fault classification will be correct anyway. and maintenance operations. In total. 4. A topology with 30 neurons in the hidden layer showed the best fitness for the problem. faults were simulated in the line 04V4—class 230 kV. even if the ANN makes a mistake for some windows. In this case. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION To verify the performance of the proposed method. The transmission line was modelled using distributed parameters without frequency dependence [19]. because of the windowing process used. . and four neurons in the output layer. belonging to CHESF (Fig. Simplified physical model of a part of the power system of CHESF. NO. In addition. real and simulated oscillographic records were considered. different line geometry and a double-circuit line were also used. The power system was modeled and simulated considering the highest load demand. The records came from transmission lines with different rated voltages. db4 owns a good time resolution providing an accurate detection of the fast transients induced by faults [18]. 7). because it is widely used in electromagnetic transient analysis. In order to achieve good performance for the ANN. Approximately 49 min were spent during the learning process on a 1. The training algorithm used was RPROP [20]. The mother wavelet used was Daubechies 4 (db4) [17]. Besides faults.2062 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. It was necessary to have 426 iterations in order to achieve the minimum root-mean-square (rms) error of 0. By using this strategy. by using the Alternative Transients Program (ATP). 720 faults in the transmission line 04V4 were simulated and 100% success was achieved for fault detection and classification. many network topologies were evaluated.15. there are records in which it is not visually possible to identify the disturbance. Table II presents the variables used for fault simulation in the transmission-line 04V4.83% success for fault classification of the test set patterns. voltage sags.0-GHz PC. 21. 7. becoming an important issue to fault clearing time identification. in which the value is chosen as 0. B. Furthermore.02 for the validation set and 99. VI. Simulated Records Another set of faults was simulated by using the ATP to evaluate the proposed algorithm performance. V.

[2] ——. Campina Grande. IEEE/Power Eng. on Developments in Power System Protection. avoiding an overwhelming amount of recorded data. degrees in electrical engineering from the Federal University of Paraíba. M. IEEE/Power Eng. B. Apr. Campina Grande. D. Int. Federal University of Campina Grande. Eng. B. V. 423–426.-H. 10.. V.. B. N.-H.. She received the B. His research activities are mainly focused on optimization methods applied to power systems. May 2003. 1. “Detect and classify transmission line faults using neural nets. Oct. Dausten and B. power quality. Ricdmillci and H. pp. S.” in Proc. 4. Kim. she is a Professor with the Department of Electrical Engineering. 285–289. 19. degree. S. NJ: Prentice-Hall. 2001. On the other hand. Brazil. 2003. B. PA: SIAM. Daubechies. V. no. Englewood Cliffs. 4.. Ko. pp. Eng. pp. Campina Grande. “Fuzzy art neural network algorithm for classifying the power system faults. for her struggle and support that turned this project into a real application. 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