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Key Reforms in Revitalising Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Malaysia Dr. Pang Chau Leong
Director-General Department of Skills Development Ministry of Human Resources, Malaysia
Current TVET Landscape
New Demands on TVET
Re-vitalising the TVET System in Malaysia
CURRENT LANDSCAPE OF TVET IN MALAYSIA .
3 . community or society at large for further education. retraining.Pillar: Malaysian Skills Certification System (5-tiered skills qualification based on the National Occupational Skills Standards) 3rd. and accredited by the Malaysian Accreditation Agency) 5th.Pillar: Private higher education institutions (Under the purview of the Private Higher Education Institutions Act 1996.Pillar: Continuing education and training (Caters to the demands of employers.Pillar: Public higher education institutions (Includes polytechnics and community colleges under the Ministry of Higher Education) 2nd.Pillar: Company-based training (Comes under the Human Resource Development Fund established in 1993 to promote the training of employees) 4th. 2005) 1st. skills upgrading.5 pillars of education & training in Malaysia (World Bank. career advancement and enrichment).
2. qualification & curricula create confusion for students and employers TVET delivery system (overview) Certificates offered BEng Tech Adv Dip Tech Diploma Technology 4 1 MOHR MOYS MORRD Universiti Kuala Lumpur 1 MOE MOHE MOA MOD Public Works States JMTI1 1 9 KKTM6 1 DLKM DKM Polytechnic diploma ADTEC2 Private Accredited Center IKTBN4 GMI7 1 Initiatives under 10th Plan to harmonize accreditation across ministries • Full recognition of SKM (Malaysian Skills Certificate) • Board of Technologists to provide professional pathway Further improvements planned within TVET system and with the industry • Central application system to be implemented 2011 • Cooperation with industry through Technical Advisory Committees • Active participation of industrial players through Industry Lead Bodies (ILBs) in training and assessments CAM 28 Polytechnics 12 Sijil Teknologi SKM 1.3 + Sijil Teknologi SKM 1 & 2 22 IKM6 ILP3 1 15 7110 6 Private Accredited Center 500-600 IKBN5 202 GiatMARA9 MOA Community 88 Institutes tbc College Technical Perhebat and Institutes Vocational School Agensi Nuklear 6 31 CIDB States institutes ~1000 TVET institutions in total .Multiple providers.
Issue . BCG analysis ..Governance ‘Skills’ and ‘Vocational & Technical’ are separate sectors with distinct accreditation Different sectors in the Malaysian Qualification Framework . Bachelor degree Graduate certificate MQF L6 Separate governance of Skills and Vocational and Technical sector • Limited coordination and duplication of responsibilities in calibrating learning outcomes • Limited sharing of best practices Distinct accreditation (DSD and MQA) raises confusion • Students and employers unclear of value/ differentiation among certificates • Exacerbates unclear pathway for further education L5 L4 L3 L2 L1 Advanced Diploma Diploma Skills Cert 3 Skills Cert 2 Skills Cert 1 DSD-accredited (MOHR) • Accreditation process undertaken by DSD. based on NOSS Advanced diploma Diploma Vocational and Technical Certificate MQA-accredited (MOHE) • Internal quality assurance process. Skills sector L8 L7 Vocational and Technical Higher education Doctoral degree Masters degree Postgraduate dip.. followed by MQA accreditation Advanced diploma Diploma Certificate Accreditation Separate agencies accredit programs within TVET Source: MQA.
No single authority over TVET landscape in Malaysia No single body to provide oversight of TVET landscape Benchmark: Australia – Single coordinating authority Australian Qualifications Framework Report to Report to Report to MOHR MOHE MORRD Report to Report to MOYS Report to Public Works • More than 20 government agencies reporting to own ministries • Lack of coordination between ministries result in lack of overall understanding of TVET landscape • Each state skills training department reports to a single federal ministry • Provides clear overview of TVET landscape • Increases efficiency .
MOE.200 Level 4 & 5 (Diplomas) GMI 2.000 700 ~60.000 in Private MOHR MOYS MORRD MOE MOHE MOA MOD Public Works States Private 2.000 at MOE Technical Sec.000 at Public & States Inst.000 JMTI ADTEC IKTBN KTBN 10.000 20. + 60.200 8.000 students enrolled in TVET system (in 2010). MOHR.270.000 25.000 IKM Level 1 to 3 (Certificate) ILP 19.000 17. 70% in government institutions Total enrolment 2010: ~270. School + 185.800 Polytechnic KKTM States Private 10.700 88.000 students 25.000 Institutes MOA 805 Institutes Institutes GiatMARA Commu -nity Technical Colleges Secondary School 72% Perhebat Institutes Institutes CIDB 7% xx # students enrolled in institutions 21% Source: EPU. MORRD. MOYS. MOA. MOHE .000 3.
Source : NKEA Education Lab . with multiple ministries and industry issuing different certifications Students have a poor perception of skills training and view it as an option of last resort ▪ Students/ Parents ▪ Students (and their parents) lack funding or are unwilling to pay for skills training There exists a mismatch between the types of training provided and market needs ▪ Providers ▪ ▪ ▪ Private skills training providers face regulatory constraints and long waiting process when setting up institutes There is a shortage of funding for skills training Public service has limited access to Malaysian Skills Certificate holders.Issues faced by main stakeholders Stakeholders Issues Employers ▪ ▪ Employers may not be aware of the capabilities of graduates Many employers do not recognise the certifications due to the highly fragmented landscape today.
NEW DEMANDS ON TVET IN MALAYSIA .
4 Major Thrusts to Transform the Malaysian Economy .
3 Mn (~41%) of NKEA jobs to be filled by TVET.3 million TVET jobs Persons in '000 600 595 553 536 497 49 Non-TEVT TEVT 400 386 350 435 275 246 449 229 192 200 181 49 157 114 209 203 101 132 46 53 75 52 0 43 23 52 25 27 43 23 CCI 42 20 20 21 Retail Incremental 2020 GNI in RM Bn Greater Education1 Tourism KL dev. administrative staff and production line leader Source: PEMANDU. Gas Services Services Eng. service and technical staff & lower management positions 2.Economic Transformation Programme: 8 National Key Economic Areas (NKEA) require 1. and Energy 121 59 35 53 29 131 Palm Oil NKEA sectors 108 36 125 1. top 5 sectors make up 82% of TVET jobs 1. Refers to clerical. ~71% of jobs are production supervisor. 392 34 67 Financial Business Healthcare2 Electrical Agriculture Oil. BCG analysis .
000 0% 40.000 13. 4 & 5 Note: Numbers represent SKMs conferred by both public institutions and JPK accredited private institutions Source: JKMPMI.000 Sharp increase in 2003 due to the establishment of PTPK in 2001 CAGR ('05-'09) 42.500 35. it will be challenging for skills training to meet the requirements for a high income economy No.000 -5% 1. Feb 2010 / bcq Inception Report .000 -3% 10th MP target of 50% highly skilled workforce by 2020 and ETP target of 1. of certificates 60.3Mn new TVET related jobs unlikely to be met 20.Based on historical trends.500 0 0% 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 SKM 1 SKM 2 SKM 3 SKM 4 and 5 • Issuance of skills certificates has experienced little growth over the past 5 years despite various policy recommendations aimed at increasing its attractiveness • The number of certificates awarded for SKM1 and SKM2 has declined and leveled off over the last 5 years • Challenge is to now increase enrolment in SKM 3.
REVITALISING TVET IN MALAYSIA .
Major initiatives being undertaken 1 Re-branding of the TVET sector to mainstream and improve perception of TVET 3 Scaling up private TVET training provision 2 Rationalising TVET provisioning to meet economic & employment needs .
SkillsMalaysia rebranding announced by Prime Minister of Malaysia.” . Efforts to standardise the quality of training curriculum through rigorous participation of industries. overcome the duplication of training and certification activities. and intensify promotion of skills training will be undertaken to uplift the current competency level of the workforce to a higher level of performance and SkillsMalaysia 2011 Campaign productivity. 11 Jan 2011 “SkillsMalaysia aspires to raise public awareness and perception on the significance of skills training as a means to enhance the quality of the Malaysian workforce.
5 May 2011 .Launch of SkillsMalaysia promotion campaign by the Dep. Prime Minister.
Rationalising TVET offerings will require harmonising courses across multiple qualifications systems Issues identified a Key next steps / way forward Rationalize qualification systems Clearly articulate skills and vocational / technical qualification system Multiple qualification systems • Institutions not taking into account offerings in the broader system Supply weighted towards b lower-level courses • Inappropriate for future requirements of the Malaysian economy Overlapping courses and c institutions • Delivery capabilities lack scale • Prevailing system confusing to navigate and regulate Rationalize course offerings Review levels of course offering to target industry needs • Build coherent approach for certificates and diplomas to match job levels required by employers Rationalise delivery of course offering and reduce duplication • Between ministries • Between institutions .
and private skills ▪ training providers by expanding JPK’s role as the single accreditation body Establish Board of Technologists to regulate.Scaling-up private skills training provision (EPP5. monitor and accredit all TVET programs Increase availability ▪ Increase demand side funding (PTPK) to increase access to skills 3 of demand-side training ▪ Increase availability of HRDF funds for up-skilling of workforce funding Students 4 Conduct awareness ▪ Roll out “SkillsMalaysia” branding for all initiatives to promote skills training campaign Articulate professional pathway of qualified instructors ▪ ▪ 5 Articulate professional pathway for TVET by allowing Malaysian Skills Certificate holders to progress to selected degree programs Review the SKM evaluation system to enable ease of pathway articulation Allow academically qualified and experienced industry personnel to fasttrack to become TVET instructors Market SkillsMalaysia internationally to attract foreign students to enrol skills training programmes Buying places from private skills training providers to utilise excess capacity 6 Increase the number ▪ ▪ Providers 7 Assist providers in into Malaysian TVET systems attracting students ▪ Review and simplify regulation to allow international students to enter ▪ . NKEA Education) Key Initiatives 1 Promoting closer links with industry Harmonise skill training by regulatory reform ▪ Appoint Industry Lead Body (ILB) for each skills sector to guide development of TVET in Malaysia Employers 2 ▪ Harmonise accreditation across Ministries. industries.
. ▪ A new CIAST to be established to add a further training capacity of 800 instructors each year Streamlining Delivery of TVET ▪ The current funding approach of TVET will be reviewed to provide financial assistance to students to study at SKM Level 3 ▪ The performance rating of TVET institutions will be utilized when making decisions for buying places in private TVET institutions ▪ RM150 million to train 20.000 more semi-skilled workers (SOURCE: 10th Malaysia Plan) .10th Malaysia Plan: TVET is critical Target 40%2 skilled workforce1 by 2020 1.000 school dropouts using the NDTS approach 1.434.031. ▪ Part-time working arrangements will be expanded ▪ Centre for Instructor and Advanced Skills Training (CIAST) will be expanded.000 more skilled workers 482.000 more managers & professionals Policy Guidelines from the 10th Malaysian Plan Improving the Perception of TVET and Attracting More Trainees ▪ A national media campaign to be developed and rolled-out… ▪ Transformation of vocational schools system Upgrading &Harmonising TVET Curriculum Quality in Line with Industry Requirements ▪ Standardize TVET curriculum ▪ Recognizing SKM as single TVET certification ▪ A Board of Technologists Malaysia will be established ▪ Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology will be established Developing Highly Effective Instructors ▪ Highly experienced industry personnel to become instructors ..
A skilled workforce is critical to achieving this goal. of which 1. demand is expected to outgrow supply. By 2020. With the introduction of ETP.3 Mn jobs will be created. Issues faced by key stakeholders need to be addressed: – Students: TVET is currently not a mainstream education option and typically not a viable alternative to entering the workforce as it does not provide clear educational and professional pathways – TVET providers: Highly fragmented landscape with numerous providers from various ministries resulting in multiple qualifications systems and non-uniform curricula standards – Employers: Lack of recognition for TVET qualifications from employers / industry players A comprehensive set of initiatives is being developed to fill these shortfalls: – Rebranding TVET to mainstream & improve perception of TVET – Rationalize & streamline the TVET sector including provision.3 Mn will be TVET qualified.Conclusions • Malaysia aspires to move up the value chain to become a high income economy. operating model and funding structure – Scale up private skills training provision • • . it is important to increase the enrolment in TVET and raise the overall quality. additional 3. Consequently.
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