Automation is the use of control systems (such as numerical control, programmable logic control, and other industrial control
systems), in concert with other applications of information technology, to control industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human intervention. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. hereas mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them with the muscular re!uirements of wor", automation greatly reduces the need for human sensory and mental re!uirements as well. #rocesses and systems can also be automated. $utomation plays an increasingly important role in the global economy and in daily e%perience. &ngineers strive to combine automated devices with mathematical and organizational tools to create comple% systems for a rapidly e%panding range of applications and human activities. 'any roles for humans in industrial processes presently lie beyond the scope of automation. (uman)level pattern recognition, language recognition, and language production ability are well beyond the capabilities of modern mechanical and computer systems. *as"s re!uiring sub+ective assessment or synthesis of comple% sensory data, such as scents and sounds, as well as high) level tas"s such as strategic planning, currently re!uire human e%pertise. In many cases, the use of humans is more cost)effective than mechanical approaches even where automation of industrial tas"s is possible. ,pecialised hardened computers, referred to as programmable logic controllers (#-.s), are fre!uently used to synchronize the flow of inputs from (physical) sensors and events with the flow of outputs to actuators and events. *his leads to precisely controlled actions that permit a tight control of almost any industrial process. (uman)machine interfaces (('I) or computer human interfaces (.(I), formerly "nown as manmachine interfaces, are usually employed to communicate with #-.s and other computers, such as entering and monitoring temperatures or pressures for further automated control or emergency response. ,ervice personnel who monitor and control these interfaces are often referred to as stationary engineers.[/]
$utomation has had a notable impact in a wide range of highly visible industries beyond manufacturing. 0nce)ubi!uitous telephone operators have been replaced largely by automated
It was thought that the displacement of human operators by computerized systems would lead to severe unemployment. among them its impact on employment. nuclear facilities. $t first glance.
$?= =I. :nder this point of view. fire.$=>$?*$@&. *oday automation of the wor"force is !uite advanced. when a social movement of &nglish te%tile machine operators in the early 1422s "nown as the -uddites protested against 5ac!uard6s automated weaving looms 8 often by destroying such te%tile machines8 that they felt threatened their +obs. and continues to advance increasingly more rapidly throughout the world and is encroaching on ever more s"illed +obs. automation has been responsible for the shift in the world economy from agrarian to industrial in the 11th century and from industrial to services in the /2th century. the freeing up of the labour force has allowed more people to enter higher s"illed managerial as well as specialised consultant.tates during the early 1112s was offset by a one)time massive increase in I* +obs at the same time.ome authors argue that the opposite has often been true. yet during the same period the general well)being and !uality of life of most people in the world (where political factors have not muddied the picture) have improved dramatically. because fewer people are available to fill such +obs. which are typically higher paying. and tissues are carried out at much greater speed and accuracy by automated systems. 'edical processes such as primary screening in electrocardiography or radiography and laboratory analysis of human genes. as the fact that many manufacturing +obs left the :nited . (istorical concerns about the effects of automation date bac" to the beginning of the industrial revolution. 0ne author made the following case.
$=>$?*$@&. Beplacing humans in tas"s that should be done in dangerous environments (i. space. . etc) 'a"ing tas"s that are beyond the human capabilities such as handling too heavy loads. cells. hen automation was first introduced.e. volcanoes.  *he widespread impact of industrial automation raises social issues. the overall effect of this on the wor"force as a whole remains unclear.contractor +obs (li"e cryptographers).telephone switchboards and answering machines. under the water. it caused widespread fear.
*he main advantage of automation areA • • • Beplacing human operators in tedious tas"s. $utomated teller machines have reduced the need for ban" visits to obtain cash and carry out transactions. sera. and that automation has led to higher employment. In general. 0ne odd side effect of this shift is that <uns"illed labour< is in higher demand in many first)world nations.
. too hot or too cold substances or the re!uirement to ma"e things too fast or too slow. automation might appear to devalue labor through its replacement with less) e%pensive machines9 however.ritics of automation contend that increased industrial automation causes increased unemployment9 this was a pressing concern during the 1142s. hat role automation has played in these changes has not been well studied. too large ob+ects. . 0ne argument claims that this has happened invisibly in recent years.
although the cost of automation is spread in many product batches. &nvironment. *he automation of a plant re!uired a great initial investment too.ontrol . It is commonly thought that automation implies unemployment due to the fact that the wor" of a human being is replaced in part or completely by a machine. although this cost is spread in the products to be produced. $utomation does not imply unemployment when it ma"es tas"s unimaginable without automation such as e%ploring mars with the . Initial costs are relatively high.0?*B0>&B. In the future there is a possibility that the $rtificial intelligence could replace and improve a human brain and the robots would become not only fully automated but fully autonomous from the human beings (*echnological singularity)
*00-.ince the general economical policies of most of the industrial plants are to dismiss people. when an enterprise that has invested in automation technology recovers its investment9 when a state or country increases its income due to automation li"e @ermany or 5apan in the /2th .
&conomy improvement.o+ourner or when the economy is fully adapted to an automated technology as with the *elephone switchboard.entury or when the human"ind can use the internet which in turn use satellites and other automated engines.
. ?owadays technology is not able to automate all the desired tas"s. society or most of human"ind. *he automation of a new product re!uired a huge initial investment in comparison with the unit cost of the product. .
*he main disadvantages of automation areA • • *echnology limits. In different scenarios without wor"ers. *here are automated engines that consume more energy resources from the &arth in comparison with previous engines and those that do the opposite too. ?evertheless. product or engine automated. ) =istributed . the unemployment is caused by the economical politics of the administration li"e dismissing the wor"ers instead of changing their tas"s.
=ifferent types of automation tools e%istA • • • $?? ) $rtificial neural networ" =.ometimes and some "inds of automation implies improves in economy of enterprises. Cor e%ample. nowadays automation implies unemployment.. *he costs of automation to the environment are different depending on the technology. automation implies more free time instead of unemployment li"e the case with the automatic washing machine at home.ystem ('I ) (uman 'achine Interface
. (uman being replacement.I$•
) #rogrammable $utomation . ) #rogrammable -ogic .ontroller #$.$=$ ) ..*:BI?@
$utomated manufacturing refers to the application of automation to produce things in the factory way.ontrol Bobotics ) Bobotics
.ontrol ) 'otion .• • • • • •
. improve wor" flow and increase the moral of wor"ers when a good implementation of the automation is made.ontrol and =ata $c!uisition #-. *he main advantage of the automated manufacturing areA more !uality. simplification of production.upervisory .ontroller Instrumentation ) Instrumentation 'otion . reduce handling. reduce the lead times. 'ost of the advantages of the automation technology has its influence in the manufacture processes.